Post-classical history

APPENDIX

RULERS DURING THE VIKING AGE

Kings of Norway

Harald Fairhair

?–930s (SW Norway)

Erik Bloodaxe

?–c.948 (SW Norway)

Hakon the Good

c.940–c.960 (S Norway)

Harald II Greycloak

c.960–c.968 (S Norway)

Olaf ‘Crowbone’ Tryggvason

995–999

Olaf II the Stout (St Olaf)

1015–28

Svein Alfivason (regent for Denmark)

1030–34

Magnus the Good (see Denmark)

1035–46

Harald III the Ruthless

1045–66

Magnus II

1066–69

Olaf III the Peaceful

1067–93

Hakon Magnusson

1093–95

Magnus III Barelegs

1093–1103

Kings of Denmark

Gorm the Old

c.936–58

Harald Bluetooth

958–87

Svein Forkbeard

987–1014

Harald II

1014–18?

Canute the Great (K. of England)

1019–35

Harthacanute (K. of England)

1035–42

Magnus the Good (K. of Norway)

1042–46

Svein Estridsen

1046–c.1075

Harald III

c.1074–80

Canute the Holy

1080–86

Olaf Hunger

1086–95

Erik the Evergood

1095–1103

Kings of Sweden

Erik the Victorious

980–95

Olaf Skötkonung

995–c.1018

Onund Jacob

c.1018–c.1050

Emund the Old

1050–60

Stenkil Ragnvaldsson

1060–66

Halsten

1066–70

Law-Speakers of Iceland

Hrafn Haengsson

c.930–49

Thorarin Oleifsson

c.950–69

Thorkel Moon Thorsteinsson

970–84

Thorgeir Thorkelsson

985–1001

Grim Svertingsson

1002–3

Skrafti Thoroddsson

1004–30

Stein Thorgestsson

1031–3

Thorkel Tjorvason

1034–53

Gellir Bolverksson

1054–62

Gunnar the Wise Thorgrimsson

1063–5

Kolbein Flosason

1066–71

(post survives until 1271, when Iceland is annexed to Norway)

Princes of the Rus

Rurik

c.862–79 (legendary)

Oleg

c.879–913 (legendary)

Igor (Ingvar)

c.913–45

Svyatoslav I

945–72

Jaropolk

972–c.980

Vladimir the Great (Valdemar)

c.980–1015

Jaroslav the Wise

1019–54

Svyatopolk II

1093–1113

Rulers of Normandy

Hrolf the Walker

911–c.925

William Longsword

c.925–42

Richard the Fearless

942–96

Richard the Good

996–1026

Richard III

1026–7

Robert the Devil/Magnificent

1027–35

William the Bastard

1035–87

(King of England, ‘the Conqueror’ 1066)

Kings of Wessex and the English

Aethelred I, King of Wessex

866–71

Alfred the Great (Wessex)

871–99

Edward the Elder (Wessex)

899–924

Athelstan (England)

924–39

Edmund I

939–46

Eadred

946–55

Eadwig

955–59

Edgar

959–75

Edward the Martyr

975–79

Aethelred II Unraed (‘Unready’)

979–1016

Svein Forkbeard

1013–14 (5 weeks)

Canute the Great

1016–35

Harold I

1037–40

Harthacanute

1040–42

Edward the Confessor

1042–66

Harold II Godwinson

1066

William I ‘the Conqueror’

1066–87

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