Post-classical history

NOTES

Introduction

1   Bailey, Mark, The English Manor, c.1200–1500, Manchester University Press, 2002, p.216.

2   Ibid., pp.220–1.

Chapter 1

1   Wood, Michael, Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, BBC Publications, 1986, pp.149–50.

2   Hodges, Richard, The Anglo-Saxon Achievement, Duckworth, 1989, p.150.

3   Coin News, Jan. 2003, p.43.

4   Leahy, K., ‘Detecting the Vikings in Lincolnshire’, Current Archaeology, no.190, vol.XVI, no.10, Feb. 2004, pp.462–8.

5   Mays, Simon, ‘Wharram Percy: The Skeletons’, Current Archaeology, no.193, Aug./Sept. 2004, pp.45–9.

6   Richards, J., Viking Age England, Batsford, 1991.

7   Smith, L. (ed.), The Making of Britain: The Dark Ages, Macmillan, 1984.

8   Barnes, M., ‘The Scandinavian languages in the British Isles: The Runic Evidence’, in: Adams, J. & Holman, K. (eds), Scandinavia and Europe, 800–1350: Contact, Conflict and Coexistence, Brepols, 2004.

9   Redmond, Angela, Viking Burial in the North of England, BAR British Series, 429, 2007, p.28.

10   Hadley, D.M., The Vikings in England: Settlement, Society and Culture, Manchester University Press, 2006, p.70.

11   Ibid., p.128.

12   Ibid., p.130.

13   Carver, Martin, ‘Why that? Why there? Why then? The politics of early medieval monumentality’, in: Hamerow, H. & MacGregor, A., Image and Power in the Archaeology of Early Medieval Britain, Oxford University Press, 2001.

14   Turner, S., ‘Converting the British Landscape’, British Archaeology, no.84, Sept.–Oct. 2005.

15   Blair, John, The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society, Oxford University Press, 2005, p.228.

16   Ibid., p.498.

17   McNeill, Tom, Faith, Pride and Works: Medieval Church Building, Tempus, 2006, p.25.

18   Ibid., pp.30–3.

19   Ibid., pp.37–9.

20   Jesch, Judith, ‘Scandinavians and “Cultural Paganism” in Late Anglo-Saxon England’, in: Cavill, P. (ed.), The Christian Tradition in Anglo-Saxon England, D.S. Brewer, 2004.

21   Fowler, P., ‘Farming in early Medieval England: some fields for thought’, in: Hines, J. (ed.), The Anglo-Saxons From The Migration Period to the Eighth Century. An Ethnographic Perspective, Boydell Press, 1997.

22   Hooke, D., The Landscape of Anglo-Saxon England, Leicester University Press, 1998.

23   Fyfe, Ralph; Rippon, Stephen & Brown, Tony, ‘Pollen, farming and history in Greater Exmoor’, Current Archaeology, no.192, vol.XVI, no.12, June 2004, pp.564–7.

24   Hey, G., Yarnton: Saxon and Medieval Settlement and Landscape, Thames Valley Landscapes Monograph, 2004.

25   Fellows-Jensen, G., ‘Scandinavian Settlement in the British Isles and Normandy: What the Place-Names Reveal’, in: Adams, J. & Holman, K. (eds), Scandinavia and Europe, 800–1350: Contact, Conflict and Coexistence, Brepols, 2004.

26   Hadley, D., The Northern Danelaw. Its Social Structure, c.800–1100, Leicester University Press, 2000.

27   Selkirk, Andrew, ‘The Saxons’, Current Archaeology, no.200, Nov. 2005, pp.416–23.

28   Miles, David, The Tribes of Britain, Phoenix, 2006, p.251.

29   Oosthuizen, Susan, Landscapes Decoded: The Origins and Development of Cambridge’s Medieval Fields, University of Herts Press, 2006.

30   Pestell, T. & Ulmschneider, K. (eds), Markets in Early Medieval Europe: Trading and ‘Productive’ Sites, 650–850, Windgather Press, 2003.

31   Scull, C., ‘Urban centres in pre-Viking England?’ in: Hines, J. (ed.), The Anglo-Saxons From The Migration Period to the Eighth Century. An Ethnographic Perspective, Boydell Press, 1997.

32   Wickham, C., Framing the Early Middle Ages. Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800, Oxford University Press, 2005.

33   Blair, op. cit., p.290.

34   Ibid., p.282.

35   Hinton, D., Gold and Gilt, Pots and Pins. Possessions and People in Medieval Britain, Oxford University Press, 2005, p.170.

36   Kopke, N. & Baten, J., ‘The Biological Standard of Living in Europe During the Last Two Millennia’, European Review of Economic History, vol.9, no.1, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

37   Payne, Sebastian, ‘Ancestral Myth’, British Archaeology, Sept. 2005, p.51.

38   Fell, Christine, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, British Museum Publications, 1984, p.57.

39   Laing, Lloyd & Jennifer, Anglo-Saxon England, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979, pp.167–179; Early English Art and Architecture, Sutton, 1996, pp.169–91.

40   Laing, 1996, op. cit., p.203.

Chapter 2

1   Rigby, S.H., English Society in the Later Middle Ages: Class, Status and Gender, Macmillan, 1995, p.28.

2   Meager, David, ‘Slavery in Europe from the End of the Roman Empire’, Cross†Way, Winter 2007, no.103.

3   Dyer, Christopher, The Origins of the Medieval Economy, c.850–c.1100, Yale University Press, 2002, pp.92–4.

4   Rigby, op. cit., p.22.

5   Jones, E.D., ‘The Medieval Leyrwite: A Historical Note on Female Fornication’, The English Historical Review, vol.107, no.425 (Oct. 1992), pp.945–53.

6   Dyer, Christopher, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages, Social Change in England c.1200–1520, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp.110–40.

7   Rigby, op. cit., pp.105–7.

8   Ibid., p.24.

9   Wood, Michael, Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, BBC Publications, 1986, pp.191–2.

10   Miller, E. & Hatcher, J., Medieval England: rural society and economic change 1086–1348, Longman, 1985 edn, pp.28–9.

11   Jones, Richard & Page, Mark, Medieval Villages in an English Landscape: Beginnings and Ends, Windgather Press, 2006, p.137, Fig.50.

12   Bathe, Graham & Greenaway, Dick, ‘A Lye Pit in Savernake’, Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol.100, 2007, pp.207–10.

13   Knight, David & Vyner, Blaise, ‘Quarry harvest,’ British Archaeology, May–June 2007, no.94, pp.16–19.

14   Dix, J., Bull, J. & Lenham J., ‘Saxon Fish Weirs in the Blackwater Estuary, Essex’, www.arch.soton.ac.uk/Research/justin/saxon%20fisheries.html, 1999.

15   Parfitt, Keith & Corke, Barry, ‘Excavating Dover’s Medieval Seafarers’, British Archaeology, May–June 2007, no.94, pp.32–7.

16   Jones, Richard & Page, Mark, op. cit, pp.192–3.

17   Ibid., p.183.

18   Ibid., p.204.

19   Rigby, op. cit., p.115.

20   Dobson, R.B., The Peasants revolt of 1381, Pitman, 1970, pp.373–5.

21   More, Thomas, Utopia, translated by Turner, Paul, Penguin Books, 1965, p.46.

Chapter 3

1   Dyer, Christopher, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850–1520, Yale University Press, 2002, pp.192–3.

2   Ibid., p.194.

3   www.bristol.ac.uk/researchreview/2002/1112697846.

4   Dyer, op. cit., p.207.

5   Ibid., p.212.

6   Calendar of Fine Rolls, vol.V, 1337–1347, HMSO 1915.

7   Rigby, S.H., English Society in the Later Middle Ages: Class, Status and Gender, Macmillan,1995, p.151.

8   ‘Cambridge historic city centre revealed’, Current Archaeology 208, vol.XVIII, no.4, Mar./Apr. 2007, pp.22–31.

9   Rigby, op cit, p.148.

10   Shaw, Mike; Chapman, Andy & Soden, Iain, ‘Northampton’, Current Archaeology, no.155, vol.XIII, no.11, Dec. 1997, pp.408–15.

11   Longcroft, Adam, ‘The avant-garde architects of late medieval Norfolk’, Current Archaeology, 211, vol.XVIII, no.7, Sept. 2007, pp.40–3.

Chapter 4

1   The Holy Bible, New International Version, Hodder and Stoughton, 1979.

2   Moorman, J.H., Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, 1945, pp.4–5, 52–6, 67, 410–13.

3   Lawrence, C.H, Medieval Monasticism, Longman, 1989, p.254.

4   Mittuch, Sally, ‘The Norwich Book of the Dead’, British Archaeology, no.92, Jan./Feb. 2007, pp.46–9.

5   McNeill, Tom, Faith, Pride and Works: Medieval Church Building, Tempus, 2006, p.14.

6   Ibid., p. 227.

7   Calendar of Patent Rolls, Henry V, 1413–1416, HMSO 1910.

8   Williams, Howard, Death and Memory in Early Medieval Britain, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.103.

9   Boddington, Andy, Raunds Furnells: The Anglo-Saxon Church and Churchyard, English Heritage Archaeological Report 7, 1996.

10   Carver, Martin, ‘Burial as Poetry: The Context of Treasure in Anglo-Saxon Graves’, in: Tyler, E. (ed.), Treasure in the Medieval West, York Medieval Press, 2000, p.37.

11   Goldberg, P.J.P., Medieval England: A Social History, 1250–1550, Hodder Headline, 2004, p.281.

12   Gilchrist, Roberta & Sloane, Barney, Requiem: The Medieval Monastic Cemetery in Britain, Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2005, pp.214–30.

13   Ariès, Philippe, The Hour of Our Death, translated by Helen Weaver, Alfred A. Knopf, 1981; Binski, Paul, Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation, Cornell University Press,1996.

14   Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward III, 1330–1333, HMSO 1898.

15   Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, 1370–1374, HMSO 1914.

16   Bellerby, Rachel, ‘Society and Solitude: The Reaction against Monasticism’, Medieval History, Issue 11, July 2004, pp.26–31.

17   Watson-Brown, Martha, ‘Marks of Faith: Pilgrims at the Shrine of Saint Richard of Chichester’, Medieval History, Issue 12, Aug. 2004, pp.48–55.

18   Council for British Archaeology Wessex News, Apr. 2007, p.24.

19   Weaver, F.W., ‘Keynsham Abbey, Part 2’, Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, vol.53, 1907, pp.15–63.

Chapter 5

1   Ziegler, Philip, The Black Death, Penguin Books,1982, pp.158–9.

2   Goldberg, P.J.P., Medieval England, A Social History, 1250–1550, Hodder Headline, 2004, pp.71–5.

3   Patrick, P., ‘In search of Friar Tuck’, Current Archaeology, 198, July/Aug. 2005, pp.306–7.

4   Gilchrist, Roberta & Sloane, Barney, Requiem: The Medieval Monastic Cemetery in Britain, Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2005, p.307.

5   Ibid., p.212.

6   Ameen, S., Staub, L., Ulrich, S., Vock, P., Ballmer, F. & Anderson, S.E., ‘Harris lines of the tibia across centuries: a comparison of two populations, medieval and contemporary in Central Europe’, Skeletal Radiology, vol.34, no.5, May 2005.

7   Roberts, Charlotte & Cox, Margaret, Health and Disease in Britain: from prehistory to the present day, Alan Sutton, 2003, pp.244–6.

8   Dyer, Christopher, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, The People of Britain 850–1520, Yale University Press, 2002, p.357.

9   Mays, Simon, ‘Wharram Percy: the Skeletons’, Current Archaeology, 193, Aug./Sept. 2004, pp.45–9.

10   Wilson, R.L., Soap Through The Ages (4th edn), London: Unilever Ltd, 1955.

11   Somerville, J., Christopher Thomas – Soapmaker of Bristol, Redcliffe Press, 1991. This information on soap is from: Hunt, John A., PhD, FRPharmS, ‘A short history of soap’, The Pharmaceutical Journal, vol.263, no.7076, Dec. 18/25 1999, pp.985–9.

12   http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/im/london2.html.

13   Ibid.

14   Ibid.

15   Dimbleby, David, BBC History Magazine, vol.8, no.6, June 2007, p.69.

16   Ziegler, Philip, The Black Death, Penguin Books, 1982, p.128.

17   www.stmarysashwell.org.uk/church/graffiti/decode.htm.

18   Quoted in Fryde, E.B., Later Medieval England, Alan Sutton, 1996, p.2.

19   Hatcher, John, ‘Mortality in the fifteenth century: some new evidence’, Economic History Review, 39, 1986, pp.19–38.

20   http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33639, ‘Introduction’, Calendar of letter-books of the city of London: L: Edward IV-Henry VII (1912), pp.I–XLIV.

21   Dormandy, Thomas, The White Death: A History of Tuberculosis, Hambledon Press, 1999.

22   Travis, John, reporting in Science News, June 3, 1995, vol.147, no.22, p.346, on www.sciencenews.org.

23   Knighton, Henry, Knighton’s Chronicle, 1337–1396, edited and translated by G. Martin, Clarendon Press, 1995.

24   Brothwell, Don, ‘Studies on Skeletal and Dental Variation: a View Across Two Centuries’, in: Cox, Margaret & Mays, Simon (eds), Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science, Greenwich Medical Media Ltd, 2000, p.5.

25   ‘London’s Monasteries’, Current Archaeology, no.162, vol.XIV, no.6, Apr./May 1999, pp.204–14.

26   Waldron, Tony, St Peter’s, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire. A Parish Church & its Community: Vol 2, the Human Remains, Oxbow, 2007.

Chapter 6

1   Whittock, Martyn (ed.), The Pastons in Medieval Britain, Heinemann, 1993, p.25.

2   Bailey, Mark, The English Manor, c.1200–1500, Manchester University Press, 2002, p.213.

3   Ibid., pp.202, 211.

4   Ibid., p.233.

5   Karras, Ruth Mazo, Sexuality in Medieval Europe: Doing Unto Others, University of Minnesota, New York: Routledge, 2005.

6   Salih, Sarah, Versions of Virginity in Late Medieval England, Boydell & Brewer, 2001.

7   Bernau, Anke; Salih, Sarah & Evans, Ruth (eds), Medieval Virginities, Toronto University Press, 2003.

8   Gilchrist, Roberta, Gender and Material Culture: the Archaeology of Religious Women, Routledge, 1994.

9   Razi, Zvi, ‘The Myth of the Immutable English Family’, Past and Present, 140, 1993, pp.3–44.

10   Goldberg, P.J.P., Medieval England, A Social History, 1250–1550, Hodder Headline, 2004, pp.17–18.

11   Ariès, Philippe, Centuries of Childhood: a Social History of Family Life, Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.

12   Ibid., p.33.

13   Classen, Albrecht (ed.), Childhood in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: The Results of a Paradigm Shift in the History of Mentality, Walter de Gruyter, 2005.

14   Peters Auslander, Diane, ‘Victims or Martyrs: Children, Anti-Judaism and the Stress of Change in Medieval England’, in: Classen, Albrecht (ed.), Childhood in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: The Results of a Paradigm Shift in the History of Mentality, Walter de Gruyter, 2005, p.108.

15   William Langland, Piers the Ploughman, translated by Goodridge, J.F., Penguin Books, 1966, p.62.

16   Aston, Margaret, ‘Segregation in Church’, in: Sheils, W.J. & Wood, D. (eds), ‘Women in the Church’, Studies in Church History, 27, 1990, pp.237–94.

17   Goldberg, op. cit., p.57.

18   Ibid., p.284.

19   Watt, Diane, Medieval Women’s Writing: Works by and for Women in England, 1100–1500, Polity, 2007.

20   Childs, Jessie, ‘The Monstrous Regiment’, BBC History Magazine, vol.8, no.1, Jan. 2007, pp.33–5.

Chapter 7

1   Bailey, Mark, The English Manor, c.1200–1500, Manchester University Press, 2002, pp.223–6.

2   Ibid., pp.203, 211.

3   Hamilton, Derek; Pitts, Mike & Reynolds, Andrew, ‘A revised date for the early medieval execution at Stonehenge’, Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol.100, 2007, p.202.

4   Williams, Howard, Death and Memory in Early Medieval Britain, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp.89–90.

5   Ibid., p.186. The reinterpretation of ‘heathen burials’ was made by Andrew Reynolds, ‘Beheadings, burials and boundaries: the landscape of execution in Anglo-Saxon Wiltshire’, Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society lecture, March 2008.

6   Gilchrist, Roberta & Sloane, Barney, Requiem: The Medieval Monastic Cemetery in Britain, Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2005, pp.73–4.

7   Hanawalt, Barbara, Crime and Conflict in English Communities, 1300–1348, London & Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1979, pp.261–73.

8   Campbell, Bruce M.S., ‘The Land’, in: Horrox, Rosemary & Ormrod, W. Mark (eds), A Social History of England, 1200–1500, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.227.

9   Dyer, Christopher, Everyday Life in Medieval England, Hambledon, 2000, p.9.

10   Campbell, op. cit., p.228.

11   Prestwich, Michael, ‘The enterprise of war’, in: Horrox, Rosemary & Ormrod, W. Mark (eds), A Social History of England, 1200–1500, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.89. Note also: warfare gave increased status to the members of the professional armies of the fifteenth century and the term ‘esquire’ became interchangeable with ‘man-at-arms’; the term ‘yeoman’ with ‘archer’: Bell, Adrian; Chapman, Adam; Curry, Anne; King, Andy & Simpkin, David, ‘What did you do in the Hundred Years’ War, Daddy?’ The Historian, no.96, Winter 2007–2008, p.8.

12   Harvey, B.F., ‘Introduction: the ‘crisis’ of the early fourteenth century’, in: Campbell, B.M.S., Before the Black Death: studies in the ‘crisis’ of the early fourteenth century, Manchester, 1991, p.15.

13   Hanawalt, Barbara, ‘The female felon in fourteenth century England’, in: Stuard, S.M., (ed.), Women in Medieval Society, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

14   Bellamy, J.G., ‘The Coterel Gang: An Anatomy of a Band of Fourteenth-Century Criminals’, The English Historical Review, vol.79, no.313 (Oct. 1964), pp.698–717.

15   Hanawalt, Barbara, ‘The Peasant Family and Crime in Fourteenth-Century England’, The Journal of British Studies, vol.13, no.2 (May 1974), pp.1–18.

16   Bailey, op. cit., pp.231–5.

17   Whittock, Martyn (ed.), The Pastons in Medieval Britain, Heinemann, 1995, pp.14–15.

18   Post, John, ‘The King’s Peace’, in: Smith, Lesley (ed.), The Making of Britain: The Middle Ages, Channel Four/Macmillan, 1985, pp.153–4.

19   Bailey, op. cit., p.228.

20   Carpenter, David, ‘Working the Land’, in: Smith, Lesley (ed.), The Making of Britain: The Middle Ages, Channel Four/Macmillan, 1985, p.99.

21   www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/translation/mc_trans.html.

22   Reported in The Week, 31 Mar. 2007, Issue 607, p.46.

23   www.robinhoodministries.org.

24   Holt, James, Robin Hood, Thames and Hudson, 1989.

25   Ibid., pp.187–8.

26   Ibid., p.190.

27   Ibid., p.16.

28   Ibid., p.40. This reference also applies to the Andrew de Wyntoun rhyme in the previous lines.

29   Ibid., p.69.

Chapter 8

1   McLaren, Mary-Rose, The London Chronicles of the Fifteenth Century. A Revolution in English Writing. With an annotated edition of Bradford, West Yorkshire Archives MS 32D86/42, Boydell & Brewer, 2002.

2   Miles, David, The Tribes of Britain, Phoenix, 2006, p.238.

3   Orme, Nicholas, Medieval Children, Yale University Press, 2001. Niles, Philip, ‘Baptism and the Naming of Children in Late Medieval England’, Medieval Prosography, 3, 1982, pp.95–107.

4   Reaney, P.H., A Dictionary of English Surnames, revised 3rd edn, with corrections and additions by R.M. Wilson, Oxford University Press, 1997, p.xxiii.

5   Harrison, Julian, ‘Whatever happened to our medieval manuscripts?’, Medieval History, vol.2, no.4, Issue 16, Dec. 2004, pp.40–7.

6   Ibid., p.43.

7   Cherry, John, ‘Images of power: medieval seals’, Medieval History, Issue 8, Apr. 2004, pp.34–41.

8   Black, Maggie, Medieval Cookery: Recipes and History, English Heritage, 2003;‘Knowing Your Place. Table etiquette in medieval society’, Medieval History, Issue 12, Aug. 2004, pp.56–9.

9   Blackbourne, Matthew, ‘Mystery Plays’, Medieval History, Issue 11, July 2004, pp.22–5.

10   Northall, Philip, ‘Worts and Ale: Ale, Inns, Taverns and Alehouses in Merrie England’, Medieval History, Issue 14, Oct. 2004, pp.48–55. This reference also applies to the lines from the John Skelton poem of 1517 (The Tunning of Elynour Rummyng) and from Andrew Boorde’s The Fyrste Boke of the Introduction of Knowlegde, in the previous paragraphs.

11   Jackson, Sophie, ‘The Ancient History of Backgammon’, Medieval History, Issue 11, July 2004, pp.40–9. See also Bell, R.C., Board and Table Games from Many Civilisations, Dover Publications, New York, 1979.

12   Bailey, Mark, The English Manor, c.1200–1500, Manchester University Press, 2002, p.1.

13   Holland, William, ‘The Medieval Menagerie’, BBC History Magazine, vol.8, no.1, Jan. 2007, pp.30–1.

Chapter 9

1   ‘The Milk Street Mikveh’, Current Archaeology, 190, vol.XVI, no.10, Feb. 2004, pp.456–61.

2   Karras, Ruth Mazo, Sexuality in Medieval Europe: Doing Unto Others, University of Minnesota, New York: Routledge, 2005.

3   Manchester, K., ‘Medieval Leprosy: The Disease and its Management’, in: Deegan, M. & Scragg, D.G. (eds), Medicine in Early Medieval England, Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, 1987, pp.27–32.

4   Gilchrist, Roberta & Sloane, Barney, Requiem: The Medieval Monastic Cemetery in Britain, Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2005, pp.205–7.

5   Moore, R.I., The Formation of a Persecuting Society. Authority and Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250, Blackwell Publishing, 2006 (2nd revised edn).

6   Ibid.

7   Cohn, Norman, The Great Witch-Hunt, Chatto-Heinemann, 1975. Provides a detailed analysis of both the origins and the course of the Great Witch Hunts.

Chapter 10

1   The Holy Bible, New International Version, op cit.

Primary sources

The quotations in this chapter taken from medieval chronicles are from these following excellent modern translations. In each case the name of the chronicler and his principal work is followed by details of the modern edition.

Adam Usk. The Chronicle of Adam Usk, 1377–1421

The Chronicle of Adam Usk, 1377–1421. Edited and translated by C. Given-Wilson, Clarendon Press, 1997.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by G. Garmonsway, Everyman’s University Library, 1972.

Bestiary MS Bodley 764

Bestiary MS Bodley 764, translated by R. Barber, The Boydell Press, 1999.

Geoffrey of Burton. Life and Miracles of St Modwenna

Geoffrey of Burton. Life and Miracles of St Modwenna. Translated and edited by Robert Bartlett, Clarendon Press, 2002.

Gerald of Wales. The Journey Through Wales and The Description of Wales

Gerald of Wales. The Journey Through Wales/The Description of Wales, Translated and introduced by Lewis Thorpe, Penguin Books, 1978.

Gervase of Tilbury. Recreation for An Emperor

Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia, Recreation for an Emperor, edited and translated by S. Banks & J. Binns, Clarendon Press, 2002.

Henry of Huntingdon. The History of the English People

Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon. Historia Anglorum. The History of the English People. Edited and translated by Diana Greenway, Clarendon Press, 1996.

Henry Knighton. Chronicle (sometimes called Chronica de Eventibus Anglia)

Knighton’s Chronicle, 1337–1396, Edited and translated by G. Martin, Clarendon Press, 1995.

John of Worcester. The Chronicle of John of Worcester

The Chronicle of John of Worcester. Volume II, The Annals from 450 to 1066, edited by R. Darlington & P. McGurk, translated by J. Bray & P. McGurk, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995. And Volume III, The Annals from 1067 to 1140 with The Gloucester Interpolations and The Continuation to 1141, edited and translated by P. McGurk, Clarendon Press, 1998.

Matthew Paris. Chronica majora (the ‘Major Chronicles’)

The Illustrated Chronicles of Matthew Paris, Observations of Thirteenth Century Life, translated, edited and introduced by Richard Vaughan, Allan Sutton, 1993. This anthology covers the period 1247–50. And Matthew Paris’s English History From the Year 1235 to 1273, translated by Rev. J. Giles, London, 1852, volume I (years 1235–44). Published in three volumes.

Ralph of Coggeshall. Chronicon Anglicanum (‘English Chronicle’)

The translation of the Orford Merman is from: www.castles-abbeys.co.uk/Orford-Castle.html, and at http://norfolkcoast.co.uk/myths/ml_orfordmerman.htm.

Ranulf Higden. The Universal Chronicle

The Universal Chronicle of Ranulf Higden, by John Taylor, Clarendon Press, 1966.

Thomas Walsingham. The St Albans Chronicle, 1376–1394

The St Albans Chronicle, The Chronica maiora of Thomas Walsingham, I, 1376–1394, edited and translated by J. Taylor, W. Childs & L. Watkiss, Clarendon Press, 2003.

Walter Map. Courtiers’ Trifles

Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, Courtiers’ Trifles, edited and translated by M. James, revised by C. Brooke & R. Mynors, Clarendon Press, 1983.

Westminster Chronicle, 1381–1394

The Westminster Chronicle, 1381–1394. Edited and translated by L. Hector and B. Harvey, Clarendon Press, 1982.

William of Malmesbury. The History of the English Kings

William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, The History of the English Kings, volume I. Edited and translated by R. Mynors, completed by R. Thomson & M. Winterbottom, Clarendon Press, 1998.

William of Newburgh. The History

The History of William of Newburgh, translated from the Latin by Joseph Stevenson (1856 edn), based on Herne’s text of 1719. Facsimile reprint by Llanerch Publishers, 1996.

Secondary Sources

The following secondary sources also provide excerpts from medieval chronicles and thought-provoking commentaries.

•   Prestwich, Michael, ‘The “Wonderful Life” of the Thirteenth Century’, in: Thirteenth Century England VII, Proceedings of the Durham Conference, 1997, Woodbridge, 1999. This very useful essay explores a number of signs and marvels, including ones quoted by John of Oxenedes, Ralph of Coggeshall and Friar Roger Bacon, and those found in the Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II.

•   Salisbury, J., The Beast Within. Animals in the Middle Ages, Routledge, 1994.

•   Wilson, D., Signs and Portents, Monstrous births from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, Routledge, 1993.

Chapter 11

1   Phythian-Adams, Charles, Local History and Folklore, Bedford Square Press, 1975, pp.23–4.

2   Hutton, Ronald, The Rise and Fall of Merry England, The Ritual Year 1400–1700, Oxford University Press, 1994 and The Stations of the Sun, Oxford University Press, 1996.

3   Hutton, 1996, op cit, pp.90–1.

4   Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, translated by Tolkien, J.R.R., George Allen & Unwin Limited, 1975, p.26.

5   Luke 2: 30–32, The Holy Bible, New International Version, op cit.

6   Holt, Professor James, Robin Hood, Thames and Hudson, 1989, p.160.

7   Hutton, 1996, op. cit., pp.262–8.

8   Bossy, John, Christianity in the West, 1400–1700, Oxford University Press, 1985, pp.57–75.

9   Aston, M., ‘Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: heresy and the Peasants’ Revolt’, Past and Present, 143 (1994), pp.3–47.

10   Duffy, Eamon, ‘Religious belief’, in: Horrox, Rosemary & Ormrod, W. Mark (eds), A Social History of England, 1200–1500, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.306.

11   James, Mervyn, ‘Ritual, Drama and Social Body in the Medieval English Town’, in: Society, Politics and Culture, Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp.17–41.

12   Hazlitt, W.C., Tenures of Land and Customs of Manors, 1874, p.54, referred to in Phythian-Adams, Charles, ‘Ritual reconstructions of society’, in: Horrox, Rosemary & Ormrod, W. Mark (eds), A Social History of England, 1200–1500, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.369.

13   Phythian-Adams, 2006, op. cit., pp.376–7.

14   Duffy, op. cit., p.332.

15   Hutton, 1994, op. cit.

Chapter 12

1   Goldberg, P.J.P., Medieval England, A Social History, 1250–1550, Hodder Headline, 2004, p.239.

2   Ibid, p.240.

3   MacCulloch, Diarmaid, Tudor Church Militant: Edward VI and the Protestant Reformation, Allen Lane, 1999.

4   Brigden, Susan, London and the Reformation, Oxford, 1989.

5   McNeill, Tom, Faith, Pride and Works: Medieval Church Building, Tempus, 2006, pp.236, 242.

6   Lovegrove, Roger, Silent Fields. The long decline of a nation’s wildlife, Oxford University Press, 2007.

7   Blomley, Nicholas, ‘Making Private Property: Enclosure, Common Right and the Work of Hedges’, Rural History: Economy, Society, Culture, vol.18, no.1, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

8   Dyer, Christopher, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, The People of Britain 850–1520, Yale University Press, 2002, p.364.

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