Part X

Concluding Remarks

The main difficulty in comprehending the nature of the Abbasid palace library, at times referred to as “Khizanat al-Hikma” (Repository of Wisdom) and at others as “Bayt al-Hikma” (House of Wisdom) is how to situate this library within the overall framework of the multifaceted cultural activities in the era of both of the Caliphs Harun al-Rashid and al-Ma’mun. What is certain about these activities is that they were, in the main, held under the caliphal patronage. Indeed, the poets, the literary figures, religious scholars, physicians, astronomers, and astrologers who belonged to different religions and hailed from varied origins, exercised their activities under the patronage of the caliph and with his financial support. Naturally, there was a larger scope of patronage based at the court. Among the patrons were the caliph’s men, wealthy scholars, and the rich people who were interested in various elements of cultural activities.

It is obvious that Bayt al-Hikma was administered by a director called “sahib Bayt al-Hikma”. Al-Nadim confirms this and gives the names of Salam in Harun al-Rashid and Sahl bin Harun who undertook this post during al-Ma’mun’s reign. From al-Nadim’s Fihrist and other biographical sources, it could easily be maintained that the functions of the director (sahib) were more than a librarian, and his functions were not limited to collecting, copying, and preserving the books, but included translating and supervising the translation of books to Arabic.

Again, it is al-Nadim who says that there were scholars working at this institution during the reigns of these two caliphs. He reports that Abu Sahl Ibn Nawbakht was one of the functionaries at Harun al-Rashid’s Khizanat al-Hikma and made translations from Persian. Al-Qifti also says that al-Fadl Ibn Nawbakht was entrusted with the administration of the Khizanat. According to al-Nadim, the famous mathematician, astronomer, and geographer Muhammad b. Musa al-Khawarazmi, who dedicated some of his works to al-Ma’mun, devoted himself and his time to “Khizanat al-Hikma of al- Ma’mun”. The term “munqati” used here by al-Nadim and other examples indicate the different types of association of the scholars with the Bayt al-Hikma. Again, we are also informed that the gifted three sons of astronomer Musa bin Shakir were placed under the supervision of Yahya Ibn Mansur at Bayt al-Hikma. This report demonstrates that there were scholars who were permanently working at Bayt al-Hikma and some sort of private education was pursued.

Notwithstanding all these, the attempt to reconstruct or draw a complete picture of Bayt al-Hikma is a rather difficult task due to the unavailability of any detailed historical accounts related to this institution. The speculation made by early scholars who wrote on the subject, as well as the carelessness of some of them have created an unrealistic, anachronistic, and inflamed image of Bayt al-Hikma. Nevertheless, the historical reality should not be prevaricated, and different notions related to this institution should not be ignored.

Meanwhile, as much as taking a modern “maximalist” approach to the subject by construing this institution as a full-fledged “academy” and drawing an exaggerated picture that is contradictory to the historical facts is wrong; the “minimalist” approach thinking of this institution solely as a library where exclusively translations from Persian were made, would be also ignoring the historical records completely. According to the information given by al-Asma’i, al-Jahiz, and al-Nadim, Bayt al-Hikma was an institution where compilations and translations from Persian and Greek were made.

This study showed that generations of scholars addressing the history of the House of Wisdom overlooked historical context and they were reading about modern institutions in classical texts, idealizing their structure, and functioning in a way that reflected their own ambitions.

As a matter of fact, the concept of an academy structured around the European model or modern university as referred to in Part II of this book is anachronistic and inadmissible, and any discussion to that end would be meaningless.

This study has dismissed many claims and propositions that were generated and continued by generations of scholars, and which became a priori self-evident propositions. It also showed that elitist institutions in the absence of proper funding would lose their sustainability if they did not care for the sensitivities of the public and if they harbored the heterodox interests.

There are, to all evidence, certain specific figures as mentioned in the primary sources who were attached to the palace library and who did work there officially. They are quite limited in numbers, but they stand as a proof to the existence of some mode of institutional, organized work within the palace library that goes beyond the mere collection and preservation of books and encompasses other activities such as authoring, translating, and copying books.

As for depicting al-Nadim’s book al-Fihrist, which offers real chronicles of the cultural activities and constitutes a record of what al-Nadim witnessed in terms of authorship and translation activities in the first Abbasid era, as a catalogue of the House of Wisdom or claiming that all the scholars, literary figures, translators, astronomers, astrologers, and physicians who lived and practiced during that era used to write or translate books as official employees at this sort of “academy” that would have had well-defined programs and specific budgets similar to what we have today, it simply does not coincide with the available historical narratives and is certainly anachronistic.

The myths surrounding the House of Wisdom can no longer stand in the face of reality.


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