Notes

Chapter 1: “This World Is Small”

1. L. Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. 5 (St. Louis, B. Herder, 1898), 371.

2. F. Fernández-Armesto, So You Think Yoúre Human? (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004), 111.

3. Mark 13:12–26; Matt. 24; Luke 21.

4. Rev. 15:17.

5. Bachiller Palma, Divina retribución sobre la caida de España, ed. J. M. Escudero de la Peña (Madrid: n.p., 1879), 91.

6. C. Varela, ed., Cristobal Colón: textos y documentos completos (Madrid: Alianza, 1984), 36.

7. G. Ledyard, in The History of Cartography, vol. 2, bk. 2, Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies, ed. J. B. Harley and D. Woodward (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994), 244–49.

8. Quoted in C. G. Gillespie, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 16 vols. (New York: Scribner, 1970–80), 11:351.

9. P. Freedman, Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2008), 3–4.

10. G. J. Samuel, Studies in Tamil Poetry (Madras: Mani Pathippakam, 1978), 62–72.

11. F. B. Pegolotti, La pratica della mercatura, ed. A. Evans (Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1936).

12. E. G. Ravenstein, Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe (London: G. Philip & Son, 1908), 39.

13. Ravenstein, Martin Behaim, His Life and His Globe, 39.

14. D. L. Molinari, “La empresa colombina y el descubrimiento,” in R. Levee, ed., Historia de la nación argentina, vol. 2 (Buenos Aires: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1939), 320–27.

15. Quran 2:189.

16. G. L. Burr, The Witch Persecutions (Philadelpia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1902), 7–10; M. Summers, The Geography of Witchcraft (Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger Publishing, 2003), 533–36.

Chapter 2: “To Constitute Spain to the Service of God”

1. A. de Santa Cruz, Crónica de los Reyes Católicos, ed. J. de M. Carriazo (1951), vol. 1, 41–43.

2. J. Goñi Gaztambide, “La Santa Sede y la reconquista de Granada,” in Hispania Sacra, vol. 4 (1951), 28–34.

3. L. Suárez Fernández and J. de Mata Carriazo Arroquia, Historia de España, vol. 17, pt. 1 (Madrid: Editorial Espasa Calpe, 1969), 409–52.

4. “Historia de los hechos de Don Rodrigo Ponce de León, marqués de Cádiz,” in Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de España, vol. 116 (Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 1893), 143–317, at p. 198.

5. El tumbo de los Reyes Católicos del Concejo de Sevilla, ed. R. Carande and J. de Mata Carriazo Arroquia, 5 vols, (Seville: Universidad Hispalense, 1968), vol. 3, 193; L. Suárez Fernández and J. de Mata Carriazo Arroquia, Historia de España, vol. 17, 433.

6. D. de Valera, Epistle XXXIV, in M. Penna, ed., Prosistas castellanos del siglo XV, vol. 1 (Madrid: Atlas, 1959), 31.

7. M. A. Ladero Quesada, Las guerra de Granada en el siglo XV (Madrid: Ariel, 2002), 49.

8. Suárez and Mata, Historia de España, vol. 17, 888.

9. F. Fernández-Armesto, Ferdinand and Isabella (London: Weidenfeld, 1974), 89.

10. The Diary of John Burchard, ed. A. H. Mathew, 2 vols. (London: Francis Griffiths, 1910), 1:317–19.

11. Fernández-Armesto, Ferdinand and Isabella, 95.

12. L. P. Harvey, The Muslims in Spain, 1500–1614 (Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press, 2005), 33.

13. Harvey, Muslims in Spain, 47.

14. D. de Valera, “Doctrinal de Príncipes,” in M. Penna, ed., Prosistas, 173.

15. See B. F. Weissberger, Isabel Rules: Constructing Queenship, Wielding Power (Minneapolois: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2004), 135.

16. H. de Pulgar, “Crónica de los Reyes de Castilla Don Fernando e Doña Isabel,” in C. Rosell, ed., Crónicas de los Reyes de Castilla, vol. 3 (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, 1878), 255–57.

17. E. Pardo Canalís, Iconografía del rey católico (Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico, 1951).

18. Translation of the Latin version in A. Alvar Ezquerra, Isabel la católica, una reina vencedora, una mujer derrotada (Madrid: Temas de Hoy, 2002), 316.

19. D. Clemencía, Elogio de la Reina Católica Doña Isabel (Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 1820), 355–57.

20. P. K. Liss, Isabel the Queen (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992), 24.

21. F. de Pulgar, Letras, ed. J. Domínguez Bordona (Madrid: Editorial Espasa Calpe, 1949), 151.

Chapter 3: “I Can See the Horsemen”

1. N. Davis, Trickster Travels: In Search of Leo Africanus (London: Faber and Faber, 2007), 145–47.

2. H. A. R. Gibb and C. Beckingham, eds., The Travels of Ibn Battuta, vol. 4 (Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society, 2001), 317–23.

3. Gibb and Beckingham, The Travels of Ibn Battuta, 323.

4. J. Matas i Tort and E. Pognon, eds., L’atlas català (Barcelona: Diàfora, 1975), 4.

5. Gibb and Beckingham, The Travels of Ibn Battuta, 335.

6. Leo Africanus, The History and Description of Africa, ed. R. Brown, 3 vols. (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1896), 3:827.

7. N. Levtzion and J. F. P. Hopkins, eds., Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2000), 82.

8. Levtzion and Hopkins, Early Arabic Sources, 76–85, 107–12.

9. Levtzion and Hopkins, Early Arabic Sources, 119.

10. T. Insoll, The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003).

11. Leo Africanus, History, 3:824.

12. Leo Africanus, History, 3:825.

13. Leo Africanus, History, 1:156.

14. L. Kaba, Sonni Ali-Ber (Paris: ABC, 1977), 77.

15. Kaba, Sonni Ali-Ber, 79.

16. E. N. Saad, Social History of Timbuktu (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983), 42.

17. S. M. Cissoko, Tomboctou et l’empire songhay (Dakar: Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, 1975), 55.

18. Cissoko, Tomboctou, 57.

19. Saad, Social History of Timbuktu, 45.

20. I. B. Kake, and G. Comte, Askia Mohamed (Paris: ABC, 1976), 58.

21. Kake and Comte, Askia Mohamed, 60.

22. Kake and Comte, Askia Mohamed, 68.

23. Leo Africanus, History, 3:833–34.

24. F. Fernández-Armesto, Before Columbus (London: Folio Society, 1986), 194.

25. Fernández-Armesto, Before Columbus, 195.

26. J. Thornton, “The Development of an African Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1491–1750,” Journal of African History 25:2 (1984), 147–67.

27. S. Axelson, Culture and Confrontation in Lower Congo (Stockholm: Gummesson, 1970), 66.

28. A. Brásio, Monumenta missionaria africana, vol. 1 (Lisbon: Agença Geral do Ultramar, 1952), 266–73.

29. Brásio, Monumenta, 294–323, 470–87.

30. F. Alvares, The Prester John of the Indies, ed. C. Beckingham and G. Huntingford (Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society, 1961), 303–4, 320–21.

Chapter 4: “No Sight More Pitiable”

1. A. Bernáldez, Historia de los Reyes Católicos (Madrid: Atlas, 1953), 617–53.

2. A. Bernáldez, Memorias del reinado de los Reyes Católicos, ed. M. Gómez Moreno and J. de Mata Carriazo (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1962), 96–101.

3. F. Fita, “El martirio del santo niño,” Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia 11 (1887): 12–13.

4. Libro de Alborayque, quoted in J. Pérez, History of a Tragedy: The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2007), 69.

5. Y. Baer, History of the Jews in Christian Spain, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1966), 2:527.

6. Perez, History of a Tragedy, 79.

7. Perez, History of a Tragedy, 90.

8. R. Conde y Delgado de Molina, La expulsión de los judíos de la Corona de Aragón: Documentos para su estudio (Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico, 1991), 95–96.

9. P. León Tello, Los judíos de ávila (ávila: Institución Gran Duque de Alba, 1963), 91–92; L. Suárez Fernández, Documentos acerca de la expulsión de los judíos (Valladolid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1964), 391–95.

10. Perez, History of a Tragedy, 86.

11. Fernández-Armesto, Before Columbus, 201.

12. Bernáldez, Memorias, 113.

13. Leo Africanus, History, 2:419.

14. Leo Africanus, History, 2:424, 443, 447–48.

15. Abraham ben Solomon, quoted in D. Raphael, ed., The Expulsion 1492 Chronicles (North Hollywood: Carmi House Press, 1992), 175.

16. Leo Africanus, History, 2:453, 461.

17. Leo Africanus, History, 2:477.

18. Raphael, Expulsion 1492 Chronicles, 87.

19. Davis, Trickster Tales, 137.

20. V. J. Cornell, “Socioeconomic Dimensions of Reconquista and Jihad in Morocco: Portuguese Dukkala and the Sadid Sus, 1450–1557,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 22, no. 4 (November 1990): 379–418.

21. Quoted in Davis, Trickster Tales, 32.

22. Raphael, Expulsion 1492 Chronicles, 23, 115.

23. H. Beinart, The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (Oxford: Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2002), 279.

24. Bernáldez, Memorias, 113.

25. Konstantin Mihailovc, Memoirs of a Janissary, quoted in H. W. Lowry, The Nature of the Early Ottoman State (Albany: SUNY Press, 2003), 47.

26. G. Necipoğlu, Architecture, Ceremonial, and Power: The Topkapi Palace in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (New York: Architectural History Foundation; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991), 8.

27. S. Shaw, The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic (London: Macmillan, 1991), 30, 32.

28. Lowry, Early Ottoman State, 48.

29. Shaw, Jews of the Ottoman Empire, 33.

Chapter 5: “Is God Angry with Us?”

1. E. Armstrong, Lorenzo de’ Medici (London and New York: Putnam, 1897), 308–9.

2. Armstrong, Lorenzo de’ Medici, 314.

3. J. Burchard, At the Court of the Borgia, ed. G. Parker (London: Folio Society, 1963), 412.

4. Lorenzo de’ Medici, Lettere, vol. 6, ed. M. Mallett (Florence: Barbèra, 1990), 100.

5. L. Martines, April Blood (Oxford; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006), 214–20.

6. Martines, April Blood, 221–23.

7. E. B. Fryde, “Lorenzo de’ Medici’s Finances and Their Influence on His Patronage of Art,” in Humanism and Renaissance Historiography (London: Hambledon Press, 1983), 145–57.

8. Lorenzo de Medici: Selected Poems and Prose, ed. J. Thiem et al. (University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1991), 67 (translation modified).

9. L. Polizzotto, “Lorenzo il Magnifico, Savonarola and Medicean Dynasticism,” in B. Toscani, ed., Lorenzo de’ Medici: New Perspectives (New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 1993), 331–55.

10. F. W. Kent, Lorenzo de’ Medici and the Art of Magnificence (Baltimore: John Hopkins Univ. Press, 2004), esp. 91; J. Beck, “Lorenzo il Magnifico and His Cultural Possessions,” in Toscani, ed., Lorenzo, 138.

11. L. Martines, Scourge and Fire: Savonarola and Renaissance Italy (London: Jonathan Cape Ltd., 2006), 12–14 (translation modified).

12. D. Beebe et al., eds., Selected Writings of Girolamo Savonarola: Religion and Politics, 1490–1498 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 2006), 27.

13. Beebe et al., Writings of Girolamo Savonarola, 72.

14. Beebe et al., Writings of Girolamo Savonarola, 68–69.

15. Beebe et al., Writings of Girolamo Savonarola, 73.

16. G. Savonarola, “Prediche ai Fiorentini,” in. C. Varese, ed. La letteratura italiana, vol. 14 (Milan: Garzanti, 1955): 90.

17. S. Meltzoff, Botticelli, Signorelli and Savonarola: Theology and Painting from Boccaccio to Poliziano (Florence: L. S. Olschki, 1987), 53.

18. Beebe et al., Writings of Girolamo Savonarola, 72.

19. Burchard, Court of the Borgia, 1:372–73.

20. Y. Labande-Mailfert, Charles VIII: Le vouloir et la destinée (Paris: Fayard, 1986), 27–28.

21. J. d’Arras, Mélusine, ed. C. Brunet (Paris: Brunet, 1854), 121.

22. Historia de la linda Melosina, ed. I. A. Corfis (Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1986), chap. 23, p. 54.

23. Labande-Mailfert, Charles VIII, 17.

24. Labande-Mailfert, Charles VIII, 101; A. Denis, Charles VIII et les italiens: histoire et mythe (Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1979), 23.

25. Labande-Mailfert, Charles VIII, 110–16.

26. P. Martyr Anglerius, Opus Epistolarum (1670), 67–68.

27. Pastor, History of the Popes, 366.

28. Pastor, History of the Popes, 469–70.

29. Meltzoff, Botticelli, Signorelli and Savonarola, 80.

30. P. Schaff, History of the Christian Church (New York: Scribner, 1910), 6:68.

31. Beebe et al., Writings of Girolamo Savonarola, 137.

32. S. dell’Aglio, Il tempo di Savonarola (Tavarnuzze: Galluzzo, 2006), 204.

Chapter 6: Toward “the Land of Darkness”

1. G. Bezzola, Die Mongolen in abendländisches Sicht (Bern and Munich: Francke, 1972).

2. J. J. Saunders, “Matthew Paris and the Mongols,” in T. A. Sandquist and M. R. Powicke, eds., Essays in Medieval History Presented to Bertie Wilkinson (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1969), 116–32.

3. F. Fernández-Armesto, “Medieval Ethnography,” in Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford (1982), xiii.

4. J. Fennell, The Crisis of Medieval Russia (London; New York: Longman, 1983), 88.

5. R. C. Howes, The Testaments of the Grand Princes of Moscow (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1967), 295.

6. D. Ostrowski, Muscovy and the Mongols (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998), 144–55.

7. R. Mitchell and N. Forbes, eds., The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 (Hattiesburg, Miss.: Academic International, 1970), 9–15.

8. R. Cormack and D. Glaser, eds., The Art of Holy Russia (London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1998), 180.

9. Y. Slezkine, Arctic Mirrors (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1991), 33–34.

10. J. L. B. Martin, Medieval Russia (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995), 288.

11. M. Isoaho, The Image of Aleksandr Nevskiy in Medieval Russia (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2006), 173.

12. J. Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow (London: Macmillan, 1963), 41.

13. Fennell, Ivan the Great, 43.

14. Fennell, Ivan the Great, 46, 55.

15. Fennell, Ivan the Great, 59.

16. G. Alef, Rulers and Nobles in Fifteenth-Century Muscovy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1983), item 5, p. 54.

17. F. Fernández-Armesto, Millennium (London: Bantam, 1995), 124.

18. D. Obolensky, Byzantium and the Slavs (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1994), 185.

19. Alef, Rulers and Nobles, item 9, p. 8.

20. Fennell, Ivan the Great, 121.

21. Alef, Rulers and Nobles, item 9, p. 7.

22. Alef, Rulers and Nobles, item 5, p. 25; Ostrowski, Muscovy and the Mongols, 226.

23. Isoaho, Aleksandr Nevskiy, 292.

24. R. Feuer-Toth, Art and Humanism in Hungary in the Age of Mathias Corvinus (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1990), 97.

25. Howes, Grand Princes of Moscow, 267–98.

Chapter 7: “That Sea of Blood”

1. F. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus (London: Duckworth Publishers, 1996), 2.

2. Don Quixote, 2:16.

3. C. Varela, Cristóbal Colón: Textos y documentos completos (Madrid: Alianza, 1984), 15–16.

4. F. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus on Himself (London: Folio Society, 1992), 43.

5. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus on Himself, 16.

6. B. de Las Casas, Historia de las Indias, 2 vols. (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1951), 1:189.

7. Varela, Cristobal Colón, 23–24.

8. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus on Himself, 56; Varela, Cristobal Colón, 22–24.

9. Varela, Cristobal Colón, 27–30.

10. F. Fernández-Armesto, “Colón y los libros de caballería,” in Colón, ed. C. Martínez Shaw (Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León, 2006).

11. Varela, Cristobal Colón, 83–84.

12. Varela, Cristobal Colón, 97–101.

13. S. E. Morison, Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (New York: Heritage Press, 1963), 216–19.

14. Las Casas, Historia, vol. 1, 313.

15. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus, 95.

Chapter 8: “Among the Singing Willows”

1. J. Cahill, Parting at the Shore: Chinese Painting of the Early and Middle Ming Dynasty (New York: Weatherhill, 1978).

2. G. Uzielli, La vita e i tempi di Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, Raccolta Colombiana 5 (Rome: Reale Commissione Colombiana, 1894), 571–72.

3. J. Meskill, ed., Ch’oe Pu’s Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea (Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press, 1965), 22.

4. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 50.

5. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 52.

6. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 53.

7. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 65.

8. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 63, 93–94.

9. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 65.

10. D. Twitchet and F. W. Mote, eds., The Cambridge History of China, vol. 8, pt. 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press), 699.

11. I. A. Sim, “The Merchant Wang Zhen, 1424–1495,” in The Human Tradition in Premodern China, ed. K. J. Hammond (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2002), 157–64.

12. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 107.

13. Twitchet and Mote, Cambridge History of China, 920.

14. Twitchet and Mote, Cambridge History of China, 878.

15. Cahill, Parting at the Shore, 90.

16. Cahill, Parting at the Shore, 90.

17. Cahill, Parting at the Shore, 89.

18. J. Duyvendak, “The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century,” T’oung Pao 34 (1938): 399–412.

19. R. Finlay, “The Treasure Ships of Zheng He,” Terrae Incognitae 23 (1991):1–12.

20. Duyvendak, “Chinese Maritime Expeditions,” 410.

21. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 8, 146.

22. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 57.

23. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 65.

24. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 93.

25. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Korean Branch, 2 (1902), 36 (translation modified).

26. Transactions, 37.

27. Transactions, 36, 39–40.

28. Transactions, 38.

29. Meskill, Ch’oe Pu’s Diary, 65.

30. E. Ramirez-Christensen, Heart’s Flower: The Life and Poetry of Shinkei (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1994), 20.

31. D. Keene, Yoshimasa and the Silver Pavilion: The Creation of the Soul of Japan (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 2003), 70.

32. Keene, Yoshimasa, 5.

33. Ramirez-Christensen, Heart’s Flower, 20–24.

34. D. Keene, ed., Travelers of a Hundred Ages (New York: Holt, 1989), 211.

35. Ramirez-Christensen, Heart’s Flower, 20.

36. K. A. Grossberg, Japan’s Renaissance: The Politics of the Muromachi Bakufu (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 2001).

37. Keene, Yoshimasa, 69.

38. Keene, Yoshimasa, 117.

39. Keene, Yoshimasa, 88.

40. Grossberg, Japan’s Renaissance, 62.

41. Q. E. Phillips, The Practices of Painting in Japan, 1475–1500 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 2000), 148.

42. Keene, Yoshimasa, 164.

43. Keene, Yoshimasa, 107.

44. Phillips, Practices of Painting, 3.

45. Ramirez-Christensen, Heart’s Flower, 155.

46. Ramirez-Christensen, Heart’s Flower, 152.

47. D. Carter, The Road to Komatsubara: A Classical Reading of the Renga Hyakuin (Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard Univ., 1987), 117, 143.

Chapter 9: “The Seas of Milk and Butter”

1. R. H. Major, ed., India in the Fifteenth Century (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1857), 7–13.

2. S.-S. H. Tsai, Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 2001), 178–208.

3. J. Duyvendak, “Chinese Maritime Expeditions,” 399–412; T. Filesi and D. Morison, eds., China and Africa in the Middle Ages (London: Frank Cass, 1972), 57–61.

4. Duyvendak, “Chinese Maritime Expeditions,” 399–406.

5. L. Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas (New York: Scribner, 1994).

6. Ma Huan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores, ed. J. R.V. Mills (Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society, 1970), 69, 70, 179.

7. E. L. Dreyer, Early Ming China (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1982), 120.

8. Kuei-Sheng Chang, “The Ming Maritime Enterprise and China’s Knowledge of Africa Prior to the Age of Great Discoveries,” Terra Incognita 3 (1971): 33–44.

9. Major, India, 10.

10. Major, India, 6.

11. Major, India, 8.

12. Major, India, 9.

13. Major, India, 30.

14. Major, India, 23.

15. Major, India, 11.

16. N. M. Penzer, ed., The Most Noble and Famous Travels (London: The Argonaut Press, 1929), 169.

17. C. E. B. Asher and C. Talbot, India Before Europe (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006), 107.

18. Asher and Talbot, India Before Europe, 77.

19. Major, India, 18.

20. H. Khan Sherwani, The Bahmanis of the Deccan (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1985), 238.

21. A. Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic Worlds, vol. 3 (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2004), 136.

22. A. Halim, History of the Lodi Sultans of Delhi and Agra (Delhi: Idarah-I-Adabiyat-I-Delli, 1974), 108–13.

23. See, however, K. S. Lal, Twilight of the Sultanate (Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1963), 191–94.

24. M. N. Pearson, “The East African Coast in 1498: A Synchronic Study,” in Vasco da Gama and the Linking of Europe and Asia, ed. A. Disney and E. Booth (Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000), 116–30.

25. M. L. Dames, ed., The Book of Duarte Barbosa, 2 vols. (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1918, 1921), vol. 1, 29.

26. Pearson, “East African Coast,” 119.

27. N. Tarling, ed., The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1 (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), 483.

28. The Lusiads in Sri Richard Fanshawe’s Translation, ed. G. Bullough (London: Centaur, 1963), 329.

29. R. Winstedt, The Malays: A Cultural History (London: Routledge, 1958), 33–44.

30. Tarling, Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 409.

31. E. J. Jurji, Illumination in Islamic Mysticism (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1938), 37.

32. Jurji, Illumination, 30.

33. Jurji, Illumination, 33.

34. Jurji, Illumination, 110.

35. Jurji, Illumination, 63.

36. W. C. Chittick, trans., “Gleams,” in Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light, by S. Murata (Albany: SUNY Press, 2000), 144.

37. Chittick, “Gleams,” 192.

38. Chittick, “Gleams,” 180.

39. Chittick, “Gleams,” 140.

40. Chittick, “Gleams,” 148.

41. Joseph and Zuleika by Jami, ed. C. F. Horne (Ames, Iowa: Lipscombe, 1917), 17.

42. Joseph and Zuleika, 18–19.

Chapter 10: “The Fourth World”

1. J. López de Toru, “La conquista de Gran Canaria en la cuarta década del cronista Alonso de Palencia,” Anuario de estudios atlánticos 16 (1970):325–94.

2. M. R. Alonso Rodríguez, “Las endechas a la muerte de Guillén Peraza,” Anuario de estudios atlánticos 2 (1956): 457–71.

3. M. Ruíz Benitez de Lugo-Mármot, Documentos para la historia de Canarias (Las Palmas: Gobierno de Canarias, 2000), 35.

4. J. Alvarez Delgado, “Primera conquista y colonización de la Gomera,” Anuario de estudios atlánticos 6 (1960): 445–92.

5. J. Viera y Clavijo, Historia de Canarias, 3 vols. (Madrid: n.p., 1771–75; vol. 2, 1773), 2:151–55.

6. F. Solis, Gloria y fama mexica (Mexico City: Smurfit, 1991), 98–112.

7. R. A. Covey, How the Incas Built Their Heartland (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2006), 52.

8. Covey, Heartland, 227.

9. Covey, Heartland, 219.

10. T. N. D’Altroy, The Incas (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002), 104.

11. Covey, Heartland, 151.

12. D’Altroy, Incas, 95, 173.

13. D’Altroy, Incas, 97.

Epilogue: The World We’re In

1. Summary in D. Nirenberg, “Figures of Thought and Figures of Flesh: ‘Jews’ and ‘Judaism’ in Late-Medieval Spanish Poetry and Politics,” Speculum 81 (2006): 425.

2. S. Subrahmanyam, The Career and the Legend of Vasco da Gama (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997), 111.

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