BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. Bibligraphy for Chapters 1–5 inclusive

Dreyer, Edward L. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 14051433. London: Pearson Longman, 2006.

Mote, Frederick, and Denis C. Twitchett, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 7, The Ming Dynasty, 13681644. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry. Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

Twitchett, Denis C., ed. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 3, Sui and T’ang China, 589906 AD. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Dreyer, Edward L. Early Ming History: A Political History, 13551435. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1982.

———. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 14051433. London: Pearson Longman, 2006.

J. J. L. Duyvendak. “The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century.” T’oung Pou (Leiden), no. 34 (1938).

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. 7 vols. 30 sections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956–.

Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 14501680. Vol. 2, Expansion and Crisis. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.

Tai Peng Wang. Research papers available on www.gavinmenzies.net.

———. “Foreigners in Zheng He’s Fleets,” Apr. 2006.

———. “A Tale of Globalisation in Ancient Asia,” Dec. 3, 2006.

———. “The Real Discoverer of the World,” ed. Lin Gang—Zheng He,” giving explanations relating to Zheng He 1418 map.

———. “The Most Startling Discovery from Zheng He’s Treasure Shipyards by Prof. Pan Biao and My Response.”

———. “What Was the Route Taken by the Chinese Delegation to Florence in 1433.”

———. “Zheng He and His Envoys’ Visits to Cairo in 1414 and 1433.”

Temple, Robert. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery & Invention. London: Prion, 1998.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Vols. 27 and 30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956–.

Paul Lunde. The Navigator Ahmed Ibn Majid. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Saudi Aramco, 2004.

“A history of the Oversees Chinese in Africa.” African Studies Review, vol. 44, no. 1, April 2001.

Gang Den. “Yuan marine merchants and overseas voyages.” In Minzu Shi Yanju, Beijing 2005.

Hall, Richard. Empires of the Monsoon: A History of the Indian Ocean and Its Invaders. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

Ibn Battuta. The Travels of Ibn Battuta, AD 13251354, Vol. 4. London: Hakluyt Society, 1994.

Poole, Stanley Lane. A History of Egypt in the Middle Ages. Frank Cass London 1894. Yingzong Shi-lu.

Tai Peng Wang research papers, available on www.gavinmenzies.net.

———. “A Tale of Globalisation in Ancient Asia”

In this paper Tai Peng Wang argues that global trade from the Mediterranean to Australia existed in the Tang dynasty, during which massive quantities of export ceramics were fired in Chinese kilns and carried by Arab dhows and Chinese junks. Quanzhou was the principal port from Tang dynasty onward. Quanzhou became the hub of this trading web (Research paper in full on 1434 website)

-Liu Yu Kun, “Quanzhou Zai Nanhai Jiaotongshi Shang de diwei” (The significance of Quanzhou in the history of Nanhai trade). In Xuesha Quanzhou (Quanzhou studies), by Cai Yao Ping, Zhang Ming, and Wu Yuan Peng. Central Historical Text Publisher, 2003, pp. 144–45.

-Wang Gungwu, The Nanhai Trade: Early Chinese Trade in the South China Sea. Eastern Universities Press, 2003.

-Edward Schaefer. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A study of Tang Exotics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.

Tai Peng Wang research from papers:

“What was the route taken by the Chinese delegation to Florence in 1433 and what might that be?” and “Zheng He and his Envoys visits to Cairo in 1414 and 1433”

Tai Peng Wang’s Main Points Relevant to Chapters 2, 3, 5:

· 1. Hong Bao was instructed by Zheng He on November 18, 1432, to lead his fleets to Calicut.

· 2. On arrival Hong Bao learned Calicut was about to send its own fleet to Mecca. Hong Bao immediately sent seven interpreter officials to join the Calicut fleet. Zheng He’s fleets arrived in Hormuz on January 16, 1433, and set sail for China on April 9, 1433.

· 3. Zheng He had been ordered to announce the imperial edict of the Xuan De emperor to Maijia (Mecca), Qianlida (Baghdad), Wusili (Egypt), Mulanpi (Morocco), and Lumi (Florence).

· 4. Egypt and Morocco had already received the imperial edict but had failed to send tribute to Ming China. See Yan Congjian’s firsthand account of the visit to “Fulin” kingdom—the Papal Court.

· 5. The Chinese were trading within the system created in the Yuan dynasty more than a century earlier.

· 6. Tianfang is the Mamluk empire—Egypt, Syria, Yemen, Arabia, Libya, and Cyprus.

· 7. The Chinese used Arabic pilots in the Gulf area: Irena Knehtl, “The Fleet of the Dragon in Yemeni Waters.” The Yemen Times 874, vol. 13 (5 Sept. 7–Sept. 2005).

· 8. Frankincense was the most valuable product purchased by the Chinese: ibid.

· 9. Zheng He visits Aihdab. Yuanshi Luncong. “The Relation Between Sudan and China Between the Tang and the End of the Yuan. In Essays on Yuan History, vol. 7, pp. 200–6.

· 10. Karimi in Quanzhou: Zhu Fan Zhi Zhu Pu. In Zhao Ruqua, Profiles of Foreign Barbarian Countries (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Center of Asian Studies, 2000), p. 175.

· 11. Karimi merchants 'margin-right:75.25pt;margin-left:117.4pt;text-indent: -18.0pt;line-height:normal'>· 12. Arabic monsoon calendar: First composed in 1271 by Rasulid rulers of Yemen. See Paul Lunde, “The Navigator Ahmad Ibn Majid.”

· 13. Egypt the target of Zheng He visits: Anatole Andro (Chao C. Chien), The 1421 Heresy: An Investigation into the Ming Chinese Maritime Survey of the World (Pasadena, Calif.:, 2005), p. 32.

      R. Stephen Humphreys, “Egypt in the World System of the Late Middle Ages” Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. 1 Islamic Egypt 6401517 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

· 14. Egypt visited but has not returned tribute to China: Mosili is Fustat. Misr is Cairo. Jientou is Alexandra. Li Anshan, Feizhou Huqqiaohuaren Shi: A History of Overseas Chinese in Africa (Beijing: in “African studies review,” vol 44, April 2001, 2000).

· 15. Misr is Cairo: Janet L. Abu-Lughod, Cairo: 1001 Years of the City Victorius (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 197), pp. 1–30.

· 16. Cairo in the Yuan Dynasty: Shang Yan Bing, Yuan Marine Merchants and Overseas Voyages in Ninzu Shi Yanju (Beijing: Minju Shi Yanj 2002), p. 190.

· 17. Reciprocal visits between China and Egypt: Teobaldi Filesi, China and Africa in the Middle Age,” trans. D. Morison (London; Fran Cass, 1972), p. 89, and “Merchants As Diplomatic Relations,” Eternal Egypt website.

· 18. Yuan adopt Islamic astronomy: Yan Congjian, Shuyu Zhouzi Lu.

· 19. Interpreting between Egyptian, Persian, and Chinese: Professor Liu Ying Sheng, A Compendium of Yuan History, vol. 10 (Beijing: China Radio and TV Publishing House, 2005), p. 30.

———. “What was the Route Taken by the Chinese Delegation to Florence in 1433”

———. “Zheng He and His Envoys’ Visit, to Cario in 1414 and 1433”

———. “Zheng He’s Delegation to Papal Court of Florence”

B. Bibliography for Chapter 6

Aldridge, James. Cairo: Biography of a City. London: Macmillan, 1969.

Braudel, Fernand. A History of Civilisations. Translated by Richard Mayne. London: Penguin Books, 1993.

Payne, Robert. The Canal Builders. New York: Macmillan, 1959.

Poole, Stanley Lane. A History of Egypt in the Middle Ages. London: Frank Cass, 1894.

Origo, Iris. The Merchant of Pratoo: Daily Life in a Medieval Italian City. London: Penguin Books, 1992.

Redmount, Carol A. “The Wadi Tumilat and the Canal of the Pharaohs.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, no. 54 (1995).

Al Makrizi, Ahmad Ibn Ali, “Histoire d’Egypt.” Translated by Edgard Blocher. Paris, 1908.

K. N. Chandhuri. “A Note on Ibn Taghri Birdi-Description of Chinese ships in Aden and Jedda.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1989) SJ 447.

C. Bibliography for Chapter 7

I have been travelling to Venice for fifty years and in total have spent months exploring her canals and museums. As may be expected, I have read a lot of books in that time. Four of these, in my view, give brilliant popular descriptions of this wonderful Byzantine city, half European, half Asian. These are Norwich’s Venice: the Greatness and Fall and Venice: the Rise to Empire; Hibbert’s Venice: Biography of a City; Lorenzetti’s Venice and Its Lagoon, the bible of Venice; and Venice: the Masque of Italy by Brion. These four know Venice like the back of their hand, and it would be impertinent of me to attempt to improve on their rich descriptions. I have quoted extensively from them.

Alazard, Jean. La Venise de la Renaissance. Paris: Hachette, 1956.

Braudel, Fernand. The Mediterranean in the Time of Philip II. Translated by Sian Reynolds. London: Fontana, 1966.

———. The Wheels of Commerce. London: Penguin Books, 1993. Translated by Richard Mayne.

Brion, Marcel. Venice: The Masque of Italy. Translated by Neil Mann. London: Elek Books, 1962.

Hall, Richard. Empires of the Monsoon: A History of the Indian Ocean and Its Invaders. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

Hibbert, Christopher. Venice: Biography of a City.

Hutton, Edward. Venice and Venetia. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1989. London: Hollis and Carter 1954.

Lorenzetti, Giulio. Venice and Its Lagoon. Rome: Instituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, 1956.

Morris, Jan. The Venetian Empire. London: Penguin Books, 1990.

Norwich, John Julius. Venice: The Greatness and Fall. London: Allen Lane, 1981.

———. Venice: The Rise to Empire. London: Random House, 1989.

Olschki, Leonardo. “Asiatic Exotioism in Italian Art of the Early Renaissance.” Art Bulletin 26, no. 2 (June 1994).

Origo, Iris. “The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century.” Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies 30, no. 3 (July 1955).

Riviere-Sestier, M. “Venice and the Islands.” London: George G. Harrap & Company 1956.

Thompson, Guinnar PhD. “The Friars MAP of Ancient America 1360 AD.” WA: Pub Laura Lee Productions, 1996.

D. Bibliography for Chapters 8 and 9

Beck, James. “Leon Battista Alberti and the Night Sky at San Lorenzo.” Artibus et Historiae 10, no. 19 (1989): 9–35.

Brown, Patricia Fortini. “Laetentur Caeli: The Council of Florence and the Astronomical Fresco in the Old Sacristy.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute 44 (1981): 176 ff.

Bruckner, Gene A. Renaissance Florence. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969.

Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and Poor in Renaissance Florence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Hibbert, Christopher. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall 14201440. London: Penguin Books, 1974.

Hollingsworth, Mary. Patronage in Renaissance Italy. London: John Murray, 1994.

Jardine, Lisa. Worldly Goods: A New History of the Renaissance. London: Macmillan, 1996.

Olschki, Leonardo. “Asiatic Exoticism in Italian Art of the Early Renaissance.” Art Bulletin 26, no. 2 (June 1994).

Origo, Iris. The Merchant of Prato: Daily Life in a Medieval Italian City. London: Penguin Books, 1963.

Plumb, J. H. The Horizon Book of the Renaissance. London: Collins, 1961.

Tai Peng Wang. “Zheng He’s Delegation to the Papal Court of Florence.” This research paper was the stimulus for this book. It is available, with an extensive bibliography, on our website. The main points are as follows:

1.     Few know of Toscanelli’s letters to the king of Portugal and Christopher Columbus, letters that report Toscanelli meeting the Chinese ambassador. C. R. Markham, trans., The Journals of Christopher Columbus Vignaud Henri Hakluyt Society O. viii). Also Vignaud “Toscanelli and Columbus”

2.     In the 1430s, China described Florence (seat of the papacy 1434–38) as Fulin or Farang. Yu Lizi, “Fulin Ji Aishi Shengdi Diwang Bianzheng” (The correct locations of Fulin countries and the birthplace of Ai Shi during Yuan China), Haijioshi Yanjiu (Maritime historical studies) Quanzhou: (1990–1992): 51.

3.     Diplomatic exchanges between the papacy and Ming China had started with Hong Wu in 1371. See Zhang Xing Lang: Zhougxi Jiaotong Shiliao Huibian (Collected historical sources of the history of contacts between China and the West), vol. 1 pp. 315.

4.     There are many Chinese descriptions of the papacy in Hong Wu and Zhu Di’s reign. See Zhang Xing Lang, p. 331, and Yan Congjian Shuyu Zhouzi Lu, at vol. 2. Also Mingshi Waigua Zhuan (Profiles of foreign countries in the Ming history).

5.     The papacy paid tribute to China during Zhu Di’s reign. Ming Shi Waigua Zhuan, vol. 5, p. 47.

6.     Lumi was Rome in early Ming descriptions. The name originated in the Song dynasty, (in with Zhao Chinese) Ruqua, who used the name Lumei in his book Zhufan Zhi: Descriptions of Various Barbarians (Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press, 2000), pp. 231–32. Also see (for cloth) John Rigby Hall, Renaissance (New York; 1965), p. 78.

7.     The pope sent numerous delegations to China during the early Ming. For William of Prato, see Fang Hao, Zhongxi Jiatong Shi (A history of contacts between China and Europe), vol. 3 (Taipei: 1953), pp. 211–17. Following William of Prato, ten cardinals were appointed, one as late 1426. Zhang Guogang and Wu Liwei, Mengyuan Shidai Xifang Zai Hua Zong Jiao Xiuhui (The church in Yuan China), in Haijiao Shi Yanjiu (Maritime history studies) (Quanzhou: 2003): 62.

8.     Wang Tai Peng, “Zheng He, Wang Dayvan and Zheng Yijun: Some Insights.” Asian Culture, (Singapore, June 2004): pp. 54–62. See also W. Scott Morton and Charlton M. Lewis, China, Its History and Culture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005), p. 128.

      In his paper, Tai Peng Wang produces evidence that Yuan navigators had mastered astronavigation sufficiently to cross oceans. See Gong Zhen, Xiyang Banguo Zhi (Notes on barbarian countries in the western seas), Beijing: Zhounghua bookshop. See also Xi Fei Long, Yang Xi, Tang Xiren, eds., Zhongguo Jishu Shi, Jiaotong Ch’uan (The history of Chinese science and technology), vol. on transportation (Beijing: Science Publisher, 2004), pp. 395–96.

9.     It would have been natural for the Chinese ambassador to issue the Datong Li calendar to the papal court. The Datong Li cotains astronomical information the same as that in the Shoushi.

10. Joseph Needham has pointed out that the Shoushi and other Chinese astronomical calendars were astronomical treatises. Joseph Needham, Zhougguo Gudai Kexue (Science in traditional China) (Shanghai: Shanghai Bookshop, 2000), pp. 146–47.

11. Nicholas of Cusa had predated Copernicus in some respects. Jasper Hopkins, “Nicholas of Cusa” in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Joseph R. Strayer (New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1987), pp. 122–25. See also Paul Robert Walker, The Italian Renaissance (New York: Facts on File, 1995), p. 96.

12. See also Tai Peng Wang, The Origin of Chinese Kongsi (Kuala Lumpur: Perland UK Publications, 1994).

Vignaud, Henri. Toscanelli and Columbus. London: Sands, 1902.

Slaves in Florence

White, Lynn, J. “Tibet, India and Malaya as Sources of Medieval Technology.” American Historical Review 65, no. 3 (April 1960): 515–26. Viewable at JSTOR.

Origo, Iris. “The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century.” Speculum 30 (1955): 321–66.

Vincenzo Lazzari. “Del Traffico e della Condizioni degli Schiavi.” In Venezia Nei Tempi de Mezzo Miscellanea di Storia Italiana 2 (1862).

Romano, Denis. “The Regulation of Domestic Service in Renaissance Florence.” Sixteenth Century Journal 22, no. 4 (1991).

Man, R. Livi. “La Sciavitu Domestica” (20 Sept. 1920): 139–43. Viewable at JSTOR.

Leonard Olschki: “Asiatic Exoticism in Italian Art of the Renaissance.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 24 (June, 1944), pp. 95–106.

Tai Peng Wang, “1433 Zheng He’s Delegation to the Papal Court of Florence”

(2) Toscanelli’s observations of comets—Patricia Fortini Brown

(3) “Laetentur Caeli” Patricia Fortini Brown

Johnson, Paul. The Papacy. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1997.

Lorenzetti, Giulio. Venice and Its Lagoon. Rome: instituto Poligra Fico Dellostato, 1961. (Trs. J. Guthrie)

Markham, C. R., trans. The Journal of Christopher Columbus. London: Hakluyt Society, 1892.

Vignaud, Henri. Toscanelli and Columbus. London: Sands, 1902.

Zinner, Ernst. Regiomontanus: His Life and Work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Leiden: Elsevier, 1990.

E. Bibliography for Chapters 9–12

Bedini, Silvio A. The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. 2 vols. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Bergreen, Lawrence. Over the Edge of the World: Megellan’s Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. New York: HarperPerennial, 2004.

Davies, Arthur. “Behaim. Martellus and Columbus.” Geographical Journal 143.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipé. Columbus. London: G. Duckworth, 1996.

Galvão, Antonio. Tratado dos diversos e desayados caminhos. Lisbon: 1563.

Guillemard, F. H. H. The Life of Ferdinand Magellan. London: G. Philip & Son, 1890.

Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered America. New York: William Morrow, 2002.

Orejon, Antonio Muro, et al., eds. Pleitos Columbinos. 8 vols. Seville: The History Co-operative, 1964–1984.

Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan’s Voyage. Translated by R. A. Skelton. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1969.

———. Magellan’s Voyage. A Narrative Account of the First Voyage. Translated and edited by R. A. Skelton. London: Folio Society, 1975.

Pigafetta, Antonio, Cdr. A. W. Millar. The Straits of Magellan. Portsmouth: UK Griffin, 1884.

Schoenrich, Otto. The Legacy of Columbus: The Historic Litigation Involving His Discoveries, His Will, His Family and His Descendants. (Jun) 2 vols. Glendale, Calif.: Pub Arthur H Clark, 1949.

Vignaud, Henry. Toscanelli and Columbus. London: Sands, 1902.

Zinner, Ernst. Regiomontanus: His Life and Work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Leiden: Elsevier, 1990.

Martin Waldseemüller

Far and away the most knowledgeable writer on Waldseemüller and his maps is Dr. Albert Ronsin, conservator of the Biliothèque et Musée de Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. His best-known works relating to Waldseemüller’s 1507 map are:

———. “Le baptême du quatrième continene, Amérique.” Historia 544 (April 1992).

———. “La cartographe à Saint-Dié au debut du XVI siècle.” In Patrimonie et culture en Lorraine. Metz Serpenoise, 1980.

———. “La contribution alsacienne au baptême de l’Amérique.” Bulletin de la Société Indus-trielle de Mulhouse 2 (1985).

———. “Découverte et baptême de l’Amérique.” Edited by Georges le Pape. Jarville, editions de l’est 1992.

———. “La Fortune d’un nom”: America. In Le baptême de nouveau monde à Saint-Diédes-Vosges. Grenoble: G. Millon, 1991.

———. “L’imprimerie humaniste à Saint-Dié au XVIe siècle.” In “Mélanges Kolb.” Wiesbaden: G. Pressler, 1969.

Fischer, Joseph, and R. von Weiser. The Oldest Map with the Name America of the Year 1507 and the Carta Marina of the Year 1516 by M. Waldseemüller. London: H. Stevens 1903. Fischer found the map.

Harris, Elizabeth. “The Waldseemüller World Map: A Typographic Appraisal.” Imago Mundi 37 (1985).

Hébert, John R. The Map That Named America: Martin Waldseemüller 1507 World Map. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.

John Hessler: “Warping Waldseemueller: A Phenomenological and Computational study of the 1507 World map.” Cartographia 41 (2006): pp. 101–113.

Karrow, Robert W. Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps. Chicago: Orbis Press, 1992.

Lestringant, Frank. Mapping the Renaissance World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: 1942. (Describes Columbus believing he had met Chinese.)

Rae, John. “On the Naming of America.” American Speech 39, no. 1 (Feb. 1964). Viewable on JSTOR. (This article argues that “America” was not the name given by Waldseemüller but was given by Native Americans who lived in Nicaragua. They used “Amerrique Mountains,” which Columbus misheard.

Randles, W. G. L. “South-East Africa as Shown on Selected Printed Maps of the Sixteenth Century.” Imago Mundi 13 (1956). Viewable on JSTOR.

Ravenstein E. G., “Waldseemüller’s Globe of 1507.” Geographical Journal 20, no. 4. Viewable on JSTOR.

Shirley, Rodney W. The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps 14721700. London: Holland Press, 1983.

Soulsby, Basil H. “The First Map Containing the Name America.” Geographical Journal 19 (1902). Viewable on JSTOR.

Stevenson, E. L. “Martin Waldseemüller and the Early Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World.” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 36.

Waldseemüller, Martin. Cosmographiae introductio.

Amerigo Vespucci

Levillier, Roberto. “New Light on Vespucci’s Third Voyage.” Imago Mundi 11 (1954). Viewable on JSTOR.

Markham, C., ed., Vespucci: The Letters and Other Documents Illustrative of His Career.

Sarnow, E. and Frubenbach, K. “Mundus Novus,” Strasbourg, 1903, subtitle “Ein Bericht Amerigo Vespucci an Lorenzo de Medici Über Seine Reise Nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1501 / 1502.”

Thacher, J. Boyd. The Continent of America: Its Discovery; It’s Baptism. New York: William Evarts Benjamin, 1896.

Part 2—Schoener Johannes Schöner

Cooke, Charles H., ed. Johan Schoner. London: Henry Stevens, 1888.

Correr, Ambassador Francesco. Letter to Signoria of Venice. July 16, 1508. In Raccolta Columbiana, p. 115. The letter followed Correr’s interview with Vespucci; Vespucci had not found the strait leading from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Nordenskiöld, A. E. “Remarkable Global Map of the Sixteenth Century.” Journal of the American Geography Society 16 (1884).

Nunn, George E. “The Lost Globe Gores of Johann Schöner, 1523–1524: A Review.” Geographical Review 17, no. 3 (July 1927). Viewable on JSTOR.

Ronsin, Albert. “Découverte et baptême de l’Amérique.” Edited by Georges le Pope. Montreal: Editions Georges Le Pape, 1979.

———. Schöner, Johannes. Luculentissima Quoeda¯ Terra Totius Descriptio. Nuremberg, 1515. Describes the Strait of Magellan.

Settlement of Santa Fe. [Agreement between Catholic Monarchs and Christopher Columbus.] April 17, 1492. Held at Dirección General de Archivos y Bibliotecas. Capitulaciones del Almirante Don Cristóbal Colon y Salvo Conductos Para El Descubrimento de Nuevo Mundo. Madrid, 1970.

Gadol, Joan. Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Wang, Tai Peng.

———. “Zheng He’s Delegation to the Papal Court of Florence, 1433.” Research paper. Available on 1434 website.

———. “Zheng He, Wang Dayuan and Zheng Yijun: Some Insights.” Asian Culture. Singapore, June 2004: 54–62.

Zinner, Ernst. Regiomontanus: His Life and Work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Leiden: Elsevier, 1990.

Bedini, Silvio A., ed. The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. 2 vols. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Davies, Arthur. “Behain, Martellus and Columbus.” RGS. Geographical Journal, vol. 143.

Lambert, William. “Abstract of the Calculations to Ascertain the Longitude of the Capitol in the City of Washington from Greenwich Observatory, in England.” Transactions of the American Historical Society. New series. Vol. 1. Viewable on JSTOR.

Libbrecht, Ulrich. Chinese Mathematics in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1973.

Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered America. New York: William Morrow, 2002.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Vols. 30 Section. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950.

Zinner, Ernst. Regiomontanus: His Life and Work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Leiden: Elsevier, 1990.

F. Bibliography for Chapters 13–14

Selected Works of Leon Battista Alberti:

De pictura, 1435

Della pittura, 1436

De re aedificatoria, 1452

De statua, ca. 1446

Descriptio urbis Romae, 1447

Ludi matematici, ca. 1450

De componendris cifris, 1467

Gadol, Joan. Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. There are many excellent books on Alberti. Joan Gadol’s is written for people who are neither mathematicians nor knowledgeable about the use of perspective or cryptanalysis. She writes in a beautiful, clear style, and I have used her book extensively.

Grayson, Cecil. “ed Bari Laterza” 1973 “Opere Volgari, Vol Terzo: Trattati D’arte, Ludi Rerum Mathematicarum, Grammatica della Lingua Toscana, Opuscol, Amatori, Lettere.”

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. 30 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.

Zinner, Ernst: Regiomontanus: His Life and Work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Leiden: Elsevier, 1990.

G. Bibliography for Chapters 15–16

Paolo Galluzzi. The Art of Invention: Leonardo and the Renaissance Engineers (London: Giunti, 1996). This has become the bible for the 1421 team. Galluzzi’s book is lavishly illustrated, making it very simple to compare Taccola and Francesco’s machines and see the evolution from Taccola to Francesco to Leonardo. We have studied Galluzzi’s books with great care, then compared the drawings with Chinese books existing before 1430.

Clark, Kenneth. Leonardo da Vinci. Rev. ed. Introduction by Martin Kemp. London: Penguin Books, 1993.

Cianchi, Marco. Leonardo’s Machines. Florence: Becocci Editore, 1984. This is a very clear and concise summary produced using the Leonardian Library of Vinci.

“Sur les pas de Léonard de Vinci.” Gonzague Saint Bris—Presses de la Renaissance. Gonzague’s family the Saint Bris owned the château of Clos-Lucé for three centuries.

Cooper, Margaret Rice. The Inventions of Leonardo da Vinci. New York: Macmillan, 1965.

Deng Yinke. Ancient Chinese Inventions. Hong Kong: China Intercontinental Press, 2005.

Galdi G. P., Leonardo’s Helicopter and Archimedes’ Screw: The Principle of Action and Reaction. Florence: Accademia Leonardo da Vinci, 1991.

Galluzzi, Paolo. Leonardo, Engineer and Architect. Montreal, 1987.

Hart, Ivor B. The World of Leonardo da Vinci, Man of Science, Engineer and Dreamer of Flight. London: Macdonald, 1961.

Heydenreich, Ludwig, Bern Dibner, and Ladislao Reti. Leonardo the Inventor. London: Hutchinson, 1980.

“Parc Leonardo da Vinci—Château du Clos-Lucé—Amboise”—Beaux Arts (Leonardo’s home 1516 to 1519, the last 3 years of his life)

Kemp, Martin. Leonardo da Vinci: Experience, Experiment and Design. London: V&A Publishing, 2006. This is lavishly illustrated and very readable.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. 7 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956–.

Pedretti Carlo, and Augusto Marinoni. Codex Atlanticus. Milan: Giunti, 2000.

Pedretti, Carlo. “L’elicottero.” In Studi Vinciani. Geneva, Studi Vinciani: 1957.

Peers, Chris. Warlords of China 700 BC to AD 1662.

Reti, Ladislao. “Helicopters and Whirligigs.” Raccolta Vinciana 20 (1964): 331–38.

Rosheim, Mark Elling. Leonardo’s Lost Robots. Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.

Saint Bris-Clos-Lucé, Jean. “Leonardo da Vinci’s Fabulous Machines at Clos-Lucé in Amboise,” Beaux Arts, 1995.

Taddei, Mario, and Edoardo Zanon, eds. Leonardo’s Machines: Da Vinci’s Inventions Revealed. Text by Domenico Laurenza. Cincinnati: David and Charles, 2006. This provides a very clear array of illustrations from pp. 18–25.

Temple, Robert. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery & Invention. London: Prion, 1998.

Wray, William. Leonardo da Vinci in His Own Words. New York: Gramercy Books, 2005.

Zollner, Frank, and Johannes Nathan. Leonardo da Vinci. Comprehensive, fully illustrated catalogue. Cologne, 2003.

Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Trattato di architetura. Presented in Biblioteca Comunale, Siena (first draft); Biblioteca Nazionale Siena; and Laurenziana Library, Florence (Leonardo’s copy).

H. Bibliography for Chapters 17–19

Gablehouse, Charles. Helicopters and Autogiros. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1967.

Galluzzi, Paolo. The Art of Invention: Leonardo and the Renaissance Engineers. Florence: Gunti, 1996.

Jackson, Robert. The Dragonflies—The Story of Helicopters and Autogiros. Arthur Barker: London, 1971.

Leonardo da Vinci. Codex B (2173). Nell Istito di Franck I. Manoscritti e I disegni di Leonardo da Vinci. Vol. 5. Rome; and Reale Commissione Vinciana, 1941.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. 7 vols. 30 section. Cambridge University Press, 1956–. Vol IV, Pt 2. pp 580–585.

Parsons, William Barclay. Engineers and Engineering in the Renaissance. The Williams and Wilkins Company: Baltimore, 1939.

Prager, Frank D., and Giustina Scaglia. Mariano Taccola and His book De Ingeneis. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972.

Promis, Carlo, ed. Vita di Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Turin, 1841.

Reti, Ladislao. “Francesco di Giorgio Martini’s Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists.” Technology and Culture 4, no. 3 (1963): 287–93. John Hopkins University Press.

———. “Helicopters and Whirligigs.” Raccolta Vinciana 20 (1964): 331–38.

Singer, Charles. A History of Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1954–58. vol. 2. Taccola, Mariano di Jacopo ditto.

De Ingereis I and II (c. 1430–1433) III and IV after 1434

De Machinis after 1435 in Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence.

Wellers, Stuart. Francesco di Giorgio Martini 14391501. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943. p 340.

White, Lynn, Jr. “Invention of the Parachute.” Technology and Culture v. 9, no. 3 (July 1968): 462–67. University of Chicago Press

———. Medieval Technology and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962. p 86–87

Braudel, Fernand. “The Mediterranean in the time of Philip II.” Translated by Sian Reynolds Fontana. London, 1966.

Hibbert, Christopher. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall, 14201440. London: Penguin Books, 1974.

Hobson, John. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Molà, Luca. “The Silk Industry of Renaissance Venice.” American Historical Review 106, no. 3 (June 2001). Viewable on JSTOR. This gives a good chronological description, which I have extensively used.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. 7 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956–.

Nung Shu.

Reti, Ladislao. “Francesco Di Giorgio Martini’s Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists.” Technology and Culture 4, no. 3 (1963): 287–93. John Hopkins University Press. Shapiro, Sheldon. “The Origin of the Suction Pump.” Technology and Culture 5, no. 4 (Autumn 1964): 566–74. Viewable on JSTOR. John Hopkins University Press

Temple, Robert. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery & Invention. London: Prion, 1998.

Thorley, John. “The Silk Trade Between China and the Roman Empire at Its Height Circa A.D 90–130.” Greece and Rome. 2nd series, vol. 18, no. 1, (April 1971): 71–80. JSTOR.

Dixon, George Campbell. Venice, Vicenza and Verona. London: Nicholas Kaye, 1959.

Lonely Planet. ‘China’ A Travel Survival Guide. Sydney: Lonely Planet 1988.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Vol 28. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956–.

Parsons, William Barclay. Engineers and Engineering in the Renaissance. Rev. ed. Introduction by Robert S. Woodbury. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1968.

This is the accepted bible. It is very useful for Renaissance engineers but ignores any Chinese input. Parsons sees the Renaissance as a quasi-religious event and Leonardo as a demigod. He ignores the question of how so many new machines managed to appear at the same time in Italy; and of how different artists drew the same entirely new machines in different parts at the same time—viz. the pumps of Taccola, Alberti, Fontana, and Pisanello. The subject of copying from earlier books is not addressed. His explanation of the development of Lombard’s canals is excellent.

Payne, Robert. The Canal Builders. New York: Macmillan, 1959.

Temple, Robert. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science Discovery & Invention. London: Prion, 1998.

Biringuccio, Vannoccio. Pirotechnia. Translated by Cyril S. Smith and Martha T. Gnudi. New York, 1942. Viewable on article JSTOR.

Butters, Suzanne. Triumph of Vulcan—Sculptors’ Tools, Porphyry, and the Prince in Ducal Florence. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1996.

“Porphyry, and the Prince in Ducal Florence.” Sixteenth Century Journal 28, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 286–87. Viewable on JSTOR.

Clagett, Marshall. The Life and Works of Giovanni Fontana. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976. Fontana’s principal works are:

Nova compositio horologii (clocks)

Horologium aqueum (water clock)

Tractatus de pisce, cane e volvere (a treatise on measurement of depths, lengths, surface areas)

Bellicorum instrumentorum liber cum figuris et fictitiis literis conscriptus (written in cipher;

(see Alberti, Compondendis cifris)

Secretum de thesauro experimentorum y imaginationis hominum

Notes on Alhazen

Tractatus de trigono balistario (An extraordinarily detailed handbook of calculating lengths and distances by trigonometry; see Alberti, De arte pictoria (ca. 1440) and De sphera solida (ca. 1440).

Liber de omnibus rebus naturalibus (the book analyzed by Lynn Thorndike in “Unidentified Work.”

Eichstadt, Konrad Kyser von. Bellifortis (War fortifications). 1405. This describes rockets.

Foley, Vernard, and Werner Soedel. “Leonardo’s Contributions to Theoretical Mechanics.” Scientific American (1983): 255. Viewable on JSTOR

Fontana, Giovanni di. Liber bellicorum instrumentorum. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, c. 1420.

Goodrich, L. Carrington, and Fêng Chia-Shêng. “The Early Development of Firearms in China.” Isis 36, no. 2 (Jan. 1946): 114–23. Viewable on JSTOR. This has been of major value to our research and makes the following specific points:

· The Wu Chung Tsung Yao, compiled in 1044 by Tsêng Kung-Liang, discusses gunpowder manufacture, bombs, trebuchets, and grenades fired by gunpowder.

· Exploding arrows were used in 1126.

· Mortars were used in 1268.

· Exploding cannonballs were in use by 1281.

· A lengthy section on Zhu Di’s weapons mentions land mines (“a nest of wasps”). Every unit of 100 men had 20 shields, 30 bows, and 40 firearms.

· Every three years after 1380 the bureau of military weapons turned out 3,000 bronze Ch’ung muskets and 90,000 bullets.

· The exploding weapons after 1403 were manufactured from dried copper with a mixture of refined and unrefined. Fuses were in use from the thirteenth century. The earliest cannons were dated 1356, 1357, and 1377.

· Flame-throwing devices were used from 1000, and bullets since 1259.

Liu Chi. Huo Lung Ching, (Fire drake artillery manual).

Part 1. Needham, Joseph. Vol. V, Pt. 7. Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Joseph Needham, with the collaboration of Ho Ping-Yu [Ho Peng-Yoke], Lu Gwei-djen and Wang Ling, 1987.

For Leonardo, crossbow, and gunpowder, see arsenic sulphides added to gunpowder, p. 51; trebuchets (Leonardo and Taccola), p. 204; missiles, p. 205; “eruption,” mortar, p. 266; trebuchet, p. 281; Seven-barreled Ribaudequin (see Pisanello sketches), p. 322; rocket launcher, p. 487; machine gun, p. 164; mortars, p. 165; handguns, p. 580; aerial cars, p. 571; poisonous projectiles, p. 353; rockets and missiles, p. 516; riffling; p. 411; breechblock, p. 429.

Schubert, H. R. History of the British Iron and Steel Industry from 450 B.C. to A.D. 1775. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.

Spencer, John R. “Filarete’s Description of a Fifteenth Century Italian Iron Smelter at Ferriere.” Technology and Culture 4, no. 2 (Spring 1963): 201–6. Viewable on JSTOR.

Temple, Robert. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery & Invention. London: Prion, 1998.

Thorndike, Lynn. “An Unidentified Work by Giovanni di Fontana: Liber de Omnibus Rebus.” Lynn Thorndike, Isis 15, no. 1 (Feb. 1931): 31–46. Viewable on JSTOR. Description of America on p. 37; Australia, p. 38; Indian Ocean, p. 39; Niccolò da Conti, p. 40; gunpowder, p. 42.

A. Stuart Weller, “Francesco di Giorgio Martini 1439–1501”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943.

Wertime, Theodore A. “Asian Influences on European Metallurgy.” Technology and Culture 5, no. 3 (Summer 1964): pp. 391–97. Viewable on JSTOR.

———. The Coming of the Age of Steel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

White, Lynn Jr. “Tibet, India and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology.” American Historical Review 15, no. 3 (April 1960): 520. Viewable on JSTOR.

Wu Chung Tsung Yao. Song dynasty, ca. 1044.

Allmand, Christopher. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 7, edited by Christopher Allmand. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Bouchet, Henri. The Printed Book: Its History, Illustration and Adornment From the Days of Gutenberg to the Present Time. Translation by Edward Bigmore. New York: Scribner and Welford, 1887.

Carter, Thomas Francis. The Invention of Printing in China and Its Spread Westward. New York: Columbia University Press, 1925.

Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Deng Yinke. Ancient Chinese Inventions. Hong Kong: China Intercontinental Press, 2005.

I. Bibliography for Chapter 20

Hessel, J. H. Haarlem, The Birthplace of Printing. London: Elliot Stock and Co., 1887.

Humphreys, H. N. A History of the Art of Printing. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1868.

McMurtrie, Douglas. The Book: The Story of Printing and Bookmaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948.

Moran James. Printing Presses: History and Development from the Fifteenth Century to Modern Times. London: Faber and Faber, 1973.

Ottley, William Young. An Inquiry into the Invention of Printing. London: Joseph Lilly, 1863.

———. An Inquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engraving upon Copper and in Wood. London: John and Arthur Arch, 1816.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955. Vol. 32.

Ruppel, A., Gutenberg: Sein Leben and Sein werk (His Life and His Work), second edition. Berlin: Mann, 1947.

Singer, Samuel Weller. Research into the History of Playing Cards. Oxford University: 1816.

You can read the whole book on Google following this link: http:// books.google.com/ books?id = _WAOAAAAQAAJ & printsec = titlepage.

The Haarlem Legend of the Invention of Printing by Coster. Translated by A Van der Linde. London: Blades, East and Blades, 1871.

Wu, K. T. “The Development of Printing in China.” T’ien Hsia Monthly 3 (1936).

Wu, K. T., and Wu Kuang-Ch’ing. “Ming Printing and Printers.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 7, no. 3. (Feb. 1943): 203–60. Viewable on JSTOR.

J. Bibliography for Chapter 21

Antonio de Bilhao Pato, Raymondo, ed. Cartas de Alfonso de Albuquerque Seguides de documentos que as elucidam. 7 vols. Lisbon: 1884–1955. Vol. 1, letter 10 (April 1512), pp. 29–65. Translated by E. Manuel Stock.

Aslaksen, Helmer, and Ng Say Tiong. “Calendars, Interpolation, Gnomons and Armillary Spheres in the Work of Guo Shoujing (1231–1314).” Article. Dept of Mathematics, University of Singpore 2000–2001.

Cortesão, Jaime. “The Pre-Columbian Discovery of America.” Geographical Journal 89, no. 1:39. Davies, Arthur. “Behaim, Martellus and Columbus.” Royal Geographical Society Journal 143, pt. 3: 451–59.

Gadol, Joan. Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Johannessen, Carl, and Sorenson John. Biology Verifies Ancient Voyages. (unpublished)

Sorenson John L. and Martin H. Raish Pre-Columbian contact with the Americans across the oceans, an annotated bibliography, second edition, 2 vols. Provo, Utah: Research Press, 1996.

Professor Liu Manchum.

Mui, Rosa, Paul Dong, and Zhou Xin Yan. “Ancient Chinese Astronomer Gan De Discovered Jupiter’s Satellites 2000 Years Earlier Than Galileo.” Unpublished article sent to author by Rosa Mui on May 22, 2003.

Sorenson, John L., and Martin H. Raish. Pre-Columbian Contact with the Americans Across the Oceans. Provo, Utah: Research Press, 1990.

Swerdlow, Noel M. “The Derivation and First Draft of Copernicus’s Planetary Theory.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 117, no. 6 (31 Dec. 1973). Viewable on JSTOR.

Thompson, Gunnar, Ph.D. The Friar’s Map of Ancient America, 1360AD. Bellevue, WA: Laura Lee Productions, 1996.

Zinner, Ernst. Regiomontanus: His Life and Work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Leiden: Elsevier, 1990.

Antonio de Bilhao Pato, Raymondo, ed. Cartas de Alfonso de Albuquerque Seguides de documentos que as elucidam. 7 vols. Lisbon: 1884–1955. Vol. 1, letter 10 (April 1512), pp. 29–65. Translated by E. Manuel Stock.

Aslaksen, Helmer, and Ng Say Tiong. “Calendars, Interpolation, Gnomons and Armillary Spheres in the Work of Guo Shoujing (1231–1314).” Article. Dept of Mathematics, University of Singpore, 2000–2001.

Cortesão, Jaime. “The Pre-Columbian Discovery of America.” Geographical Journal 89, no. 1:39.

Davies, Arthur. “Behaim, Martellus and Columbus” Royal Geographical Society Journal 143, pt. 3: 451–59.

Gadol, Joan. Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Beals, K and Steele, H, University of Oregon Anthropological Paper No. 23, Oregon 1981.

K. Bibliography for Chapter 22

Fernandez-Cobo, Marianna, and colleagues. “Strains of JC Virus in Amerind-speakers of North America (Salish) and South America (Guarani), Na-Dene speakers of New Mexico (Navajo) and modern Japanese suggest links through an Ancestral Asian Population.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118, 154–168 (2002)

Keddie, Grant. “Contributions to Human History,” No. 3, Royal British Columbia Museum, Vancouver, B.C. 1990

Macedo, Justo Caceres. “Pre-Hispanic Cultures of Peru”, Peruvian Natural History Museum, Lima, Peru, 1985

Novick, Gabriel and colleagues. “Polymorphic-Alu Insertions and the Asian origin of Native American Populations” in “Human Biology”, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1988 Rostoworski, Maria. History of the Inca Realm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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