· 1. Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage: A Narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation trans. R. A. Skelton. (Cambridge, Mass.: Folio Society 1975) p. 49.

Chapter 1: A Last Voyage

· 1. Twitchett, Cambridge History, vol. 3 p. 231.

· 2. Private correspondence between author and Mr. Frank Lee, 2005.

· 3. Tsai, Perpetual Happiness, reviewed in Journal of the American Oriental Society 122, no.4 (Oct.–Dec. 2002): 849–50. Viewable on JSTOR.

· 4. Dreyer, Zheng He, p. 6.

· 5. Tamburlaine died in 1405. His son Shah Rokh succeeded him in Persia, as did his grandson Ulugh Begh in Samarkand. Accounts of the accident are based on a Persian fifteenth-century account.

· 6. Dreyer, pp. 174–182.

· 7. Cambridge History of China p. 272. Dictionary of Ming Biography, p. 533.

· 8. Cambridge History of China p 278, 302. Renzong Shi Lu, ch. 1.

· 9. Cambridge History of China VII 286–8.

Chapter 2: The Emperor’s Ambassador

· 1 & 2. A medallion has been found in North Carolina issued by the Xuan De emperor to his representative. For the arguments put forward about the authenticity of the brass medallion and refutations by Dr. S. L. Lee, refer to Dr. Lee’s website Asiawind (see below). I am convinced that the medallion issued by Zhu Zhanji found in North Carolina and now owned by Dr. Lee is genuine for the multiplicity of reasons given by Dr. Lee. Research of Dr. S. L. Lee. See 1421 website, (, and Asiawind, (

· 3. Dreyer, Early Ming, p. 144, translating from Xuanzong Shi-lu, The shi-lus were true records of the period compiled in a highly formalized mandarin process, summarized after the emperor’s death with a shi-lu of his reign. shi-lus served as the primary source for the official history of the dynasty, frequently compiled during the succeeding dynasty, e.g., by the Qing dynasty for the Ming. Zheng He lived in the reigns of five Ming emperors, four of whom had a Shi-lu composed for their reigns. The shi-lu system has several lethal deficiencies. First, succeeding dynasties invariably loathe earlier ones and destroy much that they consider creditable from an earlier dynasty. Second, mandarin education was narrow in the extreme. If something did not appear in a shi-lu, it could not have happened. This is epitomized in the absurd conclusion reached by certain mandarin “scholars” that if the shi-lu does not say Zheng He’s fleets reached America, then they did not. Such a system ignores fleets that sailed to America, got wrecked there, or decided to stay and never returned to China. The shi-lu system leaves appalling holes in Chinese history. However, perhaps I should be thankful—if history had been properly recorded in China, Chinese scholars would have written books similar to mine centuries ago! See Dreyer, Zheng He, p. 144.

· 4. This is J. L. L. Duyvendak’s translation, in “The True Dates,” pp. 341–345, 349. Duyvendak’s views on the voyages reached almost mythical status—taken as gospel by historian after historian. In my view Duyvendak’s restriction of Zheng He to seven voyages is ludicrous. If one takes the shipbuilding records, there were more than 1,000 ships (and possibly many more) available to Zheng He on each of the “seven voyages” recorded by Duyvendak. It is not remotely possible to control fleets of that size. There were in my view between 20 and 50 fleets at sea continuously between circa 1407 and 1434, under the overall strategic command of Zheng He, who may indeed have received only seven imperial orders. There were hundreds of voyages during those years, not seven. Re “3,000 countries,” Duyvendak at p. 345, n. 2, argues that “3000” is a copyist error for “30.” He then destroys his argument by showing the Chinese symbol for “3,000” beside one for “30.” The “3,000” symbol has an extra bar on top. A “copyist error” would produce “30” from “3,000,” not the other way around. The “3000” made by the engraver is clearly deliberate.

· 5. Ibid.

· 6. Correspondence between author and Mr. Liu Gang. Full text on 1421 website, Mr. Liu Gang’s translation may be viewed on the 1434 website under the heading “The Real Discoverer of the World—Zheng He.” (See note 20 for ‘3000’ countries)

· 7. Liu Gang Research 2006 see 1434 website

· 8. Professor Xi Longfei and Dr. Sally Church references are invaluable. They should be read in conjunction with note

· 9. A full list of references in the Taizong Shi-lu to shipbuilding are given in Dreyer, Zheng He, p. 116–121. 9. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean, p. 241, Notes, Chapter 7, Note 29, citing Abdu’r Razzaq, Matla’al Sa’dain in Elliot and Dowson, eds., The History of India, IV, 103.

· 10. Camões, K. N. Chaudhuri “Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean,” Cambridge University Press, 1985. p. 154

· 11. Professor Pan Biao’s work was brought to my attention by Tai Peng Wang. Mr. Wang has kindly allowed me to place on our website the article “The Most Startling Discovery from Zheng He’s Treasure Shipyards.” Professor Pan Biao’s work was carried out at the Institute of Wood Material Science of Nanjing Forestry University. They analyzed 236 pieces of wood found at the bottom of no. 6 dry dock in Nanjing, which had been flooded for 600 years. Professor Pan Biao shows that hardwood was imported to China and Java on a massive scale to allow Zheng He’s junks to be built in China and repaired in Java. These finds corroborate the work of Professor Anthony Reid (see n. 11). A combination of Pan Biao’s and Reid’s work shows how building such massive fleets resulted in globalization of the timber trade in Asia. See

· 12. Reid, South east Asia in the Age of Commerce, vol. 2, p. 39. Professor Reid suggests that the most likely explanation for the flowering of fifteenth-century Javanese shipbuilding was a “creative melding of Chinese and Javanese marine technology in the wake of Zheng He expeditions.” “In each of the seasons 1406, 1414, 1418 and 1432 fleets of a hundred or more Chinese vessels spent long periods refitting in the ports of East Java.”

· 13. This exercise took place in the Andaman Sea and Strait of Malacca in January and February 1969. Singapore and Malaysian armed services participated.

· 14. This took place in the South China Sea, south of the Anambas Islands, in July 1969.

· 15. Dreyer, p. 127, has a good summary. The names of the vice and rear admirals are taken from inscriptions on the steles described earlier in the chapter. Dreyer gives the names at pp. 146, 208–15.

      Wang Jinghong’s name is sometimes spelled Wang Guitong, Wang Qinglian, and Wang Zinghong. He was after Zheng He the senior admiral until being drowned. Hou Xian was later envoy to Tibet and Nepal.

· 16. For the efforts of the 1421 team in assisting to locate the various remaining pieces of the Yongle Dadian that are scattered around European libraries and universities, please refer to our 1434 website, The National Library of China will digitize what is left of this massive encyclopedia, which was twelve times larger than Diderot’s eighteenth-century encyclopedia, then the world’s largest outside China.

      Currently the National Library in Beijing has 221 books, and 60 are stored in Taiwan.

      The Library of Congress has 41 books, the United Kingdom 51, Germany, 5, and Cornell University, 5. Cornell University has an excellent website, Explore Cornell-Wason Collection. “Starting in 1403 under the aegis of the Ming Dynasty Yongle Emperor (reign 1402–1424) the entire intellectual heritage of China was scrutinised for texts worthy to be included in what was to become the editorialised expression of Chinese civilization. One hundred and forty six of the most accomplished scholars of the Chinese empire took part. (See also Needham Vol 32 p. 174–5) After 16 months of work, the Scholars submitted the final product….” The Emperor however refused the tome on the grounds that it was not on the grand scale he had envisaged. Consequently he appointed another editorial committee complete with commissioners, directors, sub-directors and a staff of no less than 2141 assistants “making 2169 persons in all.” The newly assembled committee expanded greatly on the idea of literature and included sacred texts, medicine, writings on geography and astronomy, the arts and crafts, history, philosophy and the by then canonized Confucian texts…. The Emperor then ordered the entire work to be transcribed so that it could be printed which would facilitate the distribution process.”

      See e-mails between Lam Yee Din, Tai Pang Weng, Liu Gang, Dr. S. L. Lee, and Ed Liu at In my opinion the most likely place to find chunks of the Yongle Dadian will be the Louvre. Napoleon took Venetian records to Paris. See Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 19, and vol. 32, p. 174.

· 17. See Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol 19, p. 49–50, 109–10, and vol. 32, p. 174. In May 1913, Herbert Giles wrote to Cornell University confirming that Cambridge only has one volume. See also e-mails between Lam Yee Din, Tai Pang Weng, Liu Giang, Dr. S. L. Lee, and Ed Liu on 1434 website,

· 18. Tai Peng Wang kindly brought this research to my attention, as has Lam Yee Din. See 1434 website

· 19. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 32, pp. 100–175; and Temple, Genius of China, pp. 110–15.

      For transcribed copies, see Cornell University Explore Cornell-Wason Collection.

· 20. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol 19.

· 21. K. N. Chaudhiri “Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean,” Cambridge University Press, 1985. p. 154, Note 29.

Chapter 3: The Fleets Are Prepared for the Voyage to the Barbarians

· 1. I am Indebted to the research of Tai Peng Wang, whose work has been the foundation for this chapter. See titles of papers in bibliography.

· 2. Needham Vol 27 p. 145

· 3. Needham Vol 30 pt. 2 p. 83

      For calendars, see Needham, vol. 3, pp. 49, 125, 378–381.

Chapter 4: Zheng He’s Navigators’ Calculations of Latitude and Longitude

Extensive notes on

Chapter 5: Voyage to the Red Sea

· 1. Tai Peng Weng, “Zheng He Visit to Cairo,” p. 2, n. 18, and “Tale of Globalisation.”

· 2. Nelson had twenty-seven ships at Trafalgar.

· 3. Yingzong Shi-lu, chap. 31, 38, 45.

· 4. Xi Feilong, Yang Xi, and Tang Xien in Tai Peng Wang, “Zheng He Delegation to Papal Court,” p. 6, detailing Hong Bao; and “Zheng He and His Envoys” p. 1.

· 5. Hall, Empires of the Monsoon, p. 87–89.

· 6. Ibid., p. 124.

· 7. Tai Peng Wang, “Zheng He and His Envoys, p. 1.

· 8. Ibn Tagri Birdi, Al Nujun AzZahira Fi Mulek Misr Wal Kahira.

· 9. Lam Ye Din and Liu Gang research, on See also Tai Peng Wang, “What Was the Route Taken to Florence”, p. 1.

· 10. Ibn Battuta vol 4, p. 813.

· 11. The Travels of Ibn Battuta AD 13251354, vol. 4 Hakluyt Society, 1994), p. 773.

· 12. Tai Peng Wang, “Zheng He and His Envoys,” p. 2. See also S. D. Goitein, “New Light on the Beginnings of Karim Merchants,” both available at

· 13. Tai Pang Weng, “Zheng He and His Envoys,” p. 2.

· 14. Tai Peng Wang, see 1434 website

· 15. Poole History of Egypt. Frank Cass and Co Ltd London 1894

· 16. Tai Peng Wang, see 1434 website.

· 17. On 1434 website.

· 18. Tai Pang Weng and Lam Yee Din research on 1434 website

Chapter 6: Cairo and the Red Sea Canal

· 1. This paragraph and indeed much else of chapter 6 is a paraphrase of chapters from James Aldridge’s marvelous book Cairo: Biography of a City. Macmillan 1969 To my mind this book is the finest travel book ever written. Aldridge has an amazing knack for accurately compressing and summarizing a wealth of information in a few sentences. He is also a brilliant writer, witty without being unkind, choosing with great skill how and when to highlight colorful episodes of Egypt’s history. This book is a joy to read, and I have done so many times. I strongly recommend it to anyone thinking of visiting Egypt.

· 2. Ibid., pp. 5, 27, and 127.

· 3. Redmount, “Wadi Tumilat”; and Payne, The Canal Builders. Payne’s chapter entitled “Scorpion and Labyrinth” gives a detailed account of the builders from the pharaohs to Greek and Roman times.

· 4. Aldridge, Cairo, pp. 27, 43, 78, 79.

· 5. Poole, History of Egypt, p. 20. “In a.h. 23…it ran past Bilbeys to the Crocodile Lake and then…to the port at the head of the Red Sea.”

· 6. Aldridge, Cairo, p. 127; al-Makrizi, Histoire d’Egypte; and. Revaisse, “Essai Sur L’Histoire.”

· 7. SSECO. A more extensive report of the proceedings may be found on our website, See also Ibn Taghri Birdi, Abi I-Mahasin “A History of Egypt 13831469,” trans. William Popper (Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1958) p. 86.

· 8. R. L. Hobson, “Chinese Porcelain from Fustat” Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 61, no. 354. A photograph of a piece of blue and white porcelain of Zhu Di’s reign found at Fustat is shown on our 1434 website.

· 9. Aldridge, Cairo. The chapter entitled “Saladin’s Cairo,” from which this quote is taken, is a sumptuously written description showing Aldridge at the height of his powers.

· 10. Jacques Berges, quoted in Braudel, History of Civilisations, p. 66.

Chapter 7: To Venice of Niccolò da Conti

· 1. “Geography of the Mediterranean”

      The first two paragraphs of this chapter are a paraphrase of the celebrated French historian and politician Fernand Braudel’s marvelous work The Mediterranean in the Time of Philip II. I have referred to this masterpiece time and again, for in my view Braudel is perhaps the greatest European historian, capable of summarizing a vast array of disparate facts into a coherent and readable whole.

· 2. Norwich, Venice: The Greatness; Hibbert, Biography of a City; Lorenzetti, Venice and Its Lagoon; Brion, Masque of Italy. See also Venice and the Islands (London: 1956), p. 22.

· 3. Ibid.

· 4. I am indebted to a number of writers who are household names. Norwich, Venice is a classic. Norwich, in his own words, is an “unashamed populariser”—a great achievement. Those who denigrate popularizers have no idea how difficult popularizing is. Another popularizer who is also erudite and who writes in a charming style is Jan Morris. My descriptions of life on Venetian galleys and of harbors within the Venetian Empire are taken largely from her Venetian Empire.

· 5. Descriptions of the Venetian Empire Morris, Venetian Empire, has colorful descriptions not only of the Venetian in the eastern Mediterranean but also of life aboard Venetian galleys. She brings to life the tough and skillful traders and seamen who made Venice. I have extensively paraphrased her book from p. 135 onward. Also Norwich, Venice, pp. 39–41.

· 6. Croatans—see Thompson, Friar’s Map at pages 171–174

· 7. See European Journal of Human Genetics, II, p. 535–542, entitles “Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates, Lavorka Bara, Marijana Perii and colleagues. The DNA reports referred to is on our website,

· 8. Morris, Venetian Empire, p. 107; Brion, Mask of Italy, pp. 86, 91; and Alazard, Venise, p. 73.

· 9. Morris, Venetian Empire, pp. 160–61. See also J. A. Cuddon, Jugoslavia: The Companion Guide (London: 1968) pp. 140–41.

· 10. Brion, a Mask of Italy, pp. 80–83; and Braudel, Wheels of Commerce, pp. 99–168.

· 11. Luca Paccioli, “Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita,” in Brion, Mask of Italy, p. 91; Alazard, Venise, pp. 72–73; and Braudel, Wheels of Commerce, pp. 141–68 and 390–424.

· 12. Brion, Masque of Italy, p. 83; and Hibbert, Biography, pp. 36–48.

· 13. Hibbert, Biography, pp. 36–40.

· 14. Brion, Masque of Italy, p. 83. See also Mas Latric, Commerce et expeditions militaire Collection des Documents inedits, vol. 3 (Paris: 1880).

· 15. Hutton, Venice and Venetia, pp. 30–41. Electa (authors Eugenia Bianchi, Nadia Righi, and Maria Cristina Terzaghi) has produced a beautifully illustrated guide, Piazza San Marco and Museums, from which I have extensively quoted. 63 shows the world map in the map room of the Doges’ Palace. See descriptions in Hibbert, Biography, pp. 57–58.

· 16. Brion, Masque of Italy, with a different translation, p. 84; Norwich, Venice See also Peter Lauritzen, Venice (New York 1978), p. 87.

· 17. F. M. Rogers, The Travels of an Infante, Dom Pedro of Portugal (Cambridge, Mass.: arvard University Press, 1961), pp. 45–48, 325.

· 18. Hall, Empires of the Monsoon, pp. 88, 124.

· 19. Hutton, Venice and Venetia, pp. 261, 127. (Vittore Pisano). Olschki, p. 101.

· 20. Olschki, “Asiatic Exoticism,” p. 105, n. 69.

· 21. Origo, “Domestic Enemy.”

(Subsidiary Notes for Chapter 7)

a) Pisanello’s Drawings in Venice and Florence 1419–1438

Antonio di Bartolomeo Pisano, (later known as Pisanello), was born probably in Verona before 1395. He was painting murals in the Doges’ Palace before 1419 in association with or in succession to Gentile de Fabriano. In 1432 he was painting in Rome at Saint John Lateran, and between 1432 and 1438 he painted in Florence. He also painted in Mantua for the Gonzagas, in Ferrara for the Este family, and for the Catholic Church in Verona. He made medals for the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg and for the Byzantine emperor John VIII Palaeologus (who attended the Council of Florence in 1438). Pisanello is noted for the power of his sketches from real life. He was one of the greatest exponents of drawing of all time—in the view of some experts almost of the caliber of Leonardo da Vinci. Many consider the quality of his drawings exceeds that of his paintings.

b) The Mongolian General

The Louvre keeps a box of comments for each of Pisanello’s sketches. I have read the comments of various experts who have attempted an explanation of where and when Pisanello saw the Mongolian general or whether he saw another sketch or portrait from which he copied. The various opinions are collated and refuted one by one by “D” in a five-page opinion entitled “Pisanello: Quatre têtes d’hommes coiffés d’un bonnet, de profile ou de trois quarts,” which includes a bibliography of the twelve experts. I assume D was an expert working at the Louvre; his or her opinion is on our website. As may be seen, D does not consider that the Mongol general was part of the entourage of the Byzantine or Holy Roman Emperor and is unable to offer a solution as to where Pisanello saw him. D also advances an opinion on the second Mongol, whom, as he rightly says, has a retroussé nose.

c) Pisanello’s Mandarin Hat

On the 1434 website’s extended notes (chap. 7) is a portrait of a wealthy Chinese in a hat (Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 15 (Jan. 1920), as reported in JSTOR). He wears a typical mandarin hat—black with flaps at the side and front (the front flap can only be clearly seen by viewing the original). These hats are very distinctive, shown in many Chinese paintings of the Ming dynasty and reproduced on the PBS documentary 1421. They were not worn by any other peoples than Chinese, as far as I am aware. So despite the retroussé nose, in my opinion the figure beneath the Mongol general can only be a mandarin.

d) Pisanello’s Dragon-Carrying Ship

This dragon has three claws. In China in the Ming dynasty, five-clawed dragons were for the emperor’s use; the imperial family and courtiers were granted four claws or fewer. This drawing, therefore, accords with a dragon ornament owned by a Chinese courtier.

e) Pisanello’s Drawing of “Macchina idraulica” (Deganhart 147)

As far as I am aware, this is the first European drawing of a piston pump—preceding Taccola and Leonardo. In the 1430s the piston pump was unknown in Europe but had been in use in China for two hundred years. Pisanello’s drawing also shows a bucket pump called in Italy tartari.

f) Pisanello’s Drawings of Guns with Triple Barrels (Deganhart 139)

Triple-barreled guns were unknown in Italy when Pisanello made this sketch but were in use in China (see chap. 19).

Pisanello’s Decorated Gun Barrels (140)

These accord with Francesco di Giorgio’s, drawn two decades later.

Pisanello’s Portrait of a Wounded Soldier (133)

This is a Mongol.

Pisanello’s Painting of the Mongol General

Note his rich silk clothes—mere “Archers” would not have worn these.

Other Pisanello Drawings, Not Yet Analyzed by the Author

Water Buffaloes: Louvre, inv 2409

Tartar pallet pump and water wheels: Louvre, 2284, 2285

Cold Desert Camels: Louvre, inv 2476

Ship with Carved Hull: Louvre, inv 2282 to 2288

Chapter 8: Paolo Toscanelli’s Florence

· 1. I strongly suspect that Brunelleschi and Toscanelli also met the Chinese ambassador and Chinese mathematicians and astronomers in Zhu Di’s reign between 1408 and 1413. Chinese records show Zhu Di’s emissaries did travel to Rome and Florence in that period, but I have been unable to find any Italian records in support or to give corroborative evidence. Papal records at this time were in a complete mess because of the schism. The Vatican library has no record of Eugenius IV records while in exile in Florence and Ferrara. I have been unable to find records of the Avignon papacy and have not searched records of the Spanish pope. My guess is that if the records eventually turn up, they will be among those of the Council of Constance (1415–1418), when the triple papacy came to an end and Martin V became sole pope.

      Brunelleschi could have obtained his knowledge of spherical trigonometry from the Arabs and of reversible hoists and pinhole cameras from the Romans—but all this and articulated barges and “Chinese” methods of improving mortar at the same time?

· 2. I have read many books on the Renaissance, as may be expected. Some are brilliantly written. My favorites, from which I have quoted extensively, are: Plumb, The Horizon Book of the Renaissance (see pp. 14–19 for Italy after the fall of Rome); Hibbert, Rise and Fall (see pp. 32–39 for economic growth and emergence of the Medici’s); Hollingsworth, Patronage (see pp. 48–55 for Cosimo de’ Medici’s patronage of Renaissance scholars and in particular the San Lorenzo sacristy); Bruckner, Renaissance Florence (see pp. 1–6 for Florence’s economic development, notably the River Arno, pp. 42–43 for the role of slaves in economic development; and pp. 216–18 for early communication among social groups); Carmichael, Plague and the Poor (see pp. 122–26 for control of the plague by means of printed edicts); and Jardine, Worldly Goods (for spreading Renaissance ideas). The next two paragraphs are summaries and extensive quotes from these authors. Their descriptions are extraordinarily vivid and so revealing that in my view it would be a waste of everyone’s time for me to try and improve on them.

· 3. Plumb, Horizon Book of the Renaissance, jacket copy.

· 4. This paragraph is a summary of Plumb’s magnificent book, with many direct quotes. Plumb, it seems to me, has brilliantly highlighted the reasons for divisions of Europe after the fall of Rome. Horizon Book of the Renaissance.

· 5. Bernard Berenson, Essays in the Study of Sienese Painting.

· 6. Leonard Olschki, “Asiatic Exoticism.”

· 7. Ibid., p. 105

· 8. Hibbert, Rise and Fall; Plumb, Horizon Book of the Renaissance; Hollingsworth, Patronage; Bruckner, Renaissance Florence.

· 9. Origo, Merchant of Prato.

· 10. Rise and Fall; and Hibbert, Hollingsworth, Patronage.

· 11. Timothy J. McGee, “Dinner Music for the Florentine Signoria, 1350–1450, Speculum, 74, no. 1 (Jan. 1999): 95, Viewable on JSTOR.

· 12. Rise and Fall; and Hibbert, Hollingsworth, Patronage, pp. 48–55.

· 13. Hollingsworth, Patronage, p. 50.

· 14. Brown, “Laetentur Caeli.”

· 15. Beck, “Leona Battista Alberti.” Toscanelli cometary observations also in G. Celoria, Sulle osservazioni de comete Fatte da Paulo dal Pozzi Toscanelli (Milan: 1921).

Chapter 9: Toscanelli Meets the Chinese Ambassador

· 1. Markham, Journals of Christopher Columbus

      The overwhelming majority of historians consider the letters to Canon Martins and Christopher Columbus to be genuine. In 1905 the French historian Henri Vignaud made an attempt to say that they were forged but as far as I know, no other scholar has supported Vignaud. Recent studies described in chapter 12 show that Toscanelli’s writing on his cometary observations is the same as the letters. Moreover, every statement in Toscanelli’s letters can be substantiated—for the reasons in chapter 11. If Toscanelli’s letters were forgeries, then Waldseemüller’s “Green Globe,” and map of 1507 would be as well. A host of academics down the centuries and across Europe would have to be party to the forgery. The middle part of Toscanelli’s letter to Canon Martins has been found by Harrisse in the Biblioteca Colombina in Seville. This is a copy made by Columbus himself of the letter from Toscanelli to Canon Martins.

· 2. Johnson, The Papacy, pp. 18, 100–3, 106, 115–19, 125.

· 3. G Lorenzetti, Venice and Its Lagoon, pp. 623–58, (map at 660): Palaces 15, 32, 35, 40, 42, 43, 66, and 84 (numbers as shown on map).

· 4. Same as note 1

· 5. These words were frequently interchangeable in medieval Europe.

· 6. See detailed notes for chapter 13 that summarise the cooperation between Toscanelli, Alberti, Nicholas of Cusa, and Regiomontanus. For Uzielli, See Zinner, Regiomontanus, p. 59.

· 7. Ibid.

· 8. Mr A. G. Self and F. H. H. Guillemard

      See notes 6 to 12 for chapter 10

· 9. I have seen Schöner’s 1520 globe in the basement of the German Historical Museum, Nuremberg, courtesy of the curator. It is not on public display, unlike Behaim’s 1492 globe, also in that museum.

Chapter 10: Columbus’s and Magellan’s World Maps

· 1. Vignaud, Toscanelli and Columbus, pp. 322, 323.

· 2. Ibid.

· 3. “In the time of Eugenius.”

· 4. Zinner, Regiomontanus, reporting Uzielli, p. 59.

· 5. Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage, p. 58; and Pigafetta and Miller, Straits of Magellan.

· 6. Pigafetta, and 1421, pp. 169–77. ii—Magellan / King of Spain Contract March 22nd, 158—“Magellan’s terrifying circumnavigation of the globe—Over the edge of the world” Bergreen, Harper Perennial, New York, 2004, p. 34.

· 7. Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage, p. 56.

· 8. Ibid., p. 49; Guillemard, Ferdinand Magellan, p. 189; and Bergreen, Over the Edge, p. 32: “[Magellan] intended to go by Cape St. Mary which we call Rio de la Plata, and from thence to follow the coast until he hit the Strait.”

· 9. Pigafetta and Miller, Straits of Magellan; Griffin, Portsmouth, 1884, p. 7; and Menzles, 1421, 169–177.

· 10. Galvão, Tratado; and Antonio Cordeyro, Historia Insula (Lisbon: 1717), quoted in H. Harrisse, The Discovery of North America, (1892), p. 51.

· 11. Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage, pp. 49, 50, 57; Menzies, 1421, pp. 169–177; and Guillemard, Ferdinand Magellan, p. 189.

· 12. Guillemard, Ferdinand Magellan, p. 191. I am indebted to Mr. A. G. Self for introducing me to Guillemard’s book.

· 13. “Hunc in midu terre iam quadri partite conuscitet; sunt tres prime partes continentes quarta est insula cu omni quaque mare circudata cinspiciat,” Martin Waldseemüller, Cosmographiae introductio.

· 14. Orejon et al., Pleitos Columbinos, 8 vols. and Schoenrich, Legacy of Columbus.

· 15. I am indebted to Greg Coelho, who brought this to my attention on March 20, 2003. Original agreements, April 17 and 30, 1492. The decree confirming the favors is in the Archivo General de Indias, Seville. Confirmation came in the capitulations of Burgos, April 23 and 30, 1497.

· 16. Menzles, 1421, pp. 425–427; and Fernández-Armesto, Columbus, p. 75.

· 17. The Times Atlas of World Exploration, p. 41. Available on

· 18. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus, p. 76.

· 19. Marcel Destombes, Une carle interessant des Études Colombiennes conservé a Modena (1952), and Davies, “Behaim, Martellus.” See also Ao Vietor, “A Pre-Columbian Map of the World c. 1489,” Imago Mundi 18: p. 458.

· 20. Correspondence between Dr. Aurelio Aghemo and Marcella Menzies. In summer 2006 on

· 21. Zinner, Regiomontanus.

· 22. Schöner’s 1520 globe is in the German National Museum, Nuremberg, where it may be viewed courtesy of the curator. It is not on public display. The Behaim globe of 1492 (which does not show the Americas) is on public display there.

· 23. J. J. O’Connor and E. F. Robertson, “Johann Muller Regiomontanus,” website, google “Johann Muller Regiomontanus.”

· 24. In 1656 Emperor Ferdinand III of Austria purchased the Library of George Fugger, which included Schöner’s library. The emperor gave the collection to the Hofbibliothek in Vienna, where it remains. The collection contains a chart of stars only visible in the Southern Hemisphere, published before Magellan’s circumnavigation.

· 25. Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 109–39, 211–37, 242–44. Lost works in trade list pp. 115–17.

      Zinner (Regiomontanus) Folio 2, Leipzig 1938, pp. 89–103.

· 26. Guillemard, Ferdinand Magellan.

· 27. Pinzón was really the organizer of Columbus’s 1492 expedition. See Bedini, Columbus Encyclopedia, vol. 2. S. V. “Arias Perez Pinzón.” The History Co-operative. Seville Pinzón’s eldest son testified that in 1492 a friend of his father, employed in the Vatican Library, had given him a copy of a document showing that Japan could be reached by sailing westward across the Atlantic. Impressed, Pinzón showed Columbus the Vatican document and persuaded Columbus to visit the Catholic sovreigns once again. This time he was successful in obtaining their backing.

Chapter 11: The World Maps of Johannes Schöner, Martin Waldseemüller, and Admiral Zheng He

· 1. This shows the Americas as Waldseemueller drew them on a flat piece of paper which he copied from a globe.

· 2. At this stage I had no evidence Waldseemüller had copied from a globe, although my experiments had shown he must have done.

· 3. The exhibition was to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the publication of Waldseemüller’s 1507 map. Please see the 1434 website,, for a reproduction of Waldseemüller’s world map and for Dr. Ronsin’s description in French of how Waldseemüller obtained it.

Chapter 12: Toscanelli’s New Astronomy

· 1. The Catholic Encyclopedia, S. V. “China: Foreign Relations,” See also 1434 website,

· 2. Tai Peng Wang, “Zheng He’s Delegation.”

· 3. Ibid.

· 4. Ibid. See also Zheng Xing Lang, Zhongxi Jiaotong Chiliao Huibian (Collected historical sources of the history between China and the West), vol. 1, chap. 6, pp. 331 et seq.)

· 5. Pinturicchio painting can be seen on the 1434 website, Age of the Renaissance. Borgia Apartments of the Palazzi Pontifici, in the Vatican.

· 6. Tai Peng Wang, (V) “Zheng He’s Delegation.”

· 7. Tai Peng Wang, “Zheng He, Wang Dayvan.” Tai produces evidence that Yuan navigators had mastered astronavigation sufficiently to cross oceans. See Gong Zhen, Xiyang Banguo Zhi (Notes on barbarian countries in the western seas) (Beijing: Zhounghua bookshop, ). See also Xi Fei Long, Yank Xi, Tang Xiren, eds. Zhongguo Jishu Shi, Jiaotong Cluan (The history of Chinese science and technology), vol. on Transportation (Beijing: Science Publisher, 2004), pp. 395–96; and W. Scot Morton and Charlton M. Lewis, China: Its History and Culture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005), p. 128.

· 8. Jane Jervis, “Toscanelli’s Cometary Observations: Some New Evidence” Annali Del Instituto e Museo Di Storia Della Scienza Di Firenze II (1997).

· 9. Right Ascension—its significance, a Chinese method not Arabic nor Babylonian method of celestial coordinates.

· 10. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: p. 196. See Zinner, Regiomontanus, p. 58.

Chapter 13: The Florentine Mathematicians: Toscanelli, Alberti, Nicholas of Cusa, and Regiomontanus

· 1. Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 29, 41, 52–59, 64–65.

· 2. Ibid., pp. 44, 48, 71, 73–78, 83, 104, 214–515; The S. V. “Suggest.”

· 3. Compare with Regiomontanus, “De Triangulis,” in Zinner, Regiomontonus. p. 55–60.

· 4. Zinner, Regiomontenus, pp. 44, 48, 71–73, 78, 83, 104, 214–515.

· 5. Zinner, Regiomontanus, p. 125; and The Catholic Encyclopedia, S. V. “Nicholas of Cusa.”

· 6. Ernst Zinner. I have extensively quoted from his majestic work, Regiomontanus. Where Zinner’s opinion differs from other experts, I have used Zinner’s. My only disagreement with Zinner is with his opinion of which precedent Regiomontanus relied upon for his ephemeris tables. Zinner did not know of Guo Shoujing’s work; if he had he, in my view, would have come to the inevitable conclusion that Regiomontanus followed Guo Shoujing.

      Regiomontanus’s principal works mentioned in chapter 13 are discussed in Zinner as follows: almanacs: pp. 8–12, 21–37, 40, 85, 104–9, 112–25, 141–49, 153; calendars: pp. 42, 50, 112–42 (see also e-mails between Bodleian Library at Oxford University and author, on; compass: pp. 16–20; De tranigulis: pp. 51–65; ephemeris tables: pp. 108–28, (see also e-mails between Bodleian Library at Oxford University and author, on; Epitome of Ptolomy: pp. 2, 29, 41–52, 59; instruments: pp. 135–36, 180–84; maps: pp. 113–16, 148; obliquity of ecliptic: pp. 23, 25, 38, 48, 53–69. See also Johannes Regiomontanus Calendar Printed in Venice of Aug. 1482, on 1434 website University of Glasgow, 1999.

· 7. Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 1–30, 32, 36–56, 76–78.

· 8. Ibid., pp. 24, 36, 58–60, 72–77.

· 9. Ibid., pp. 117–25.

· 10. Ibid., pp. 121–25.

· 11. Ibid., pp. 98, 115, 133, 137, 158, 212, 244, 246.

· 12. Ibid., pp. 95 and 301. See also pp. 131–34, 135 (clock); p. 136 (armillary sphere, pp. 137–38, mirrors, compass; and p. 115, torquetum.

· 13. Ibid., pp. 112, 113, 301. See also Ernst Zinner, “The Maps of Regiomontanus,” Imago Mundi, 4 (1947): 31–32.

· 14. Zinner, Regiomontanus, p. 40.

· 15. Ibid., p. 42.

· 16. Ibid., p. 183.

· 17. Ibid., p. 64.

· 18. Ibid., pp. 365, 370; and Ulrich Libbrecht, Chinese Mathematics, 1973 p. 247.

· 19. See Libbrecht for his discussion on Curtze contribution at p. 247. See Needham S19, p. 40 for the Shu-shu Chiu-chang and the evolution of Chinese mathematics from the Sung dynasty through to the Yuan.

· 20. Ch’ in Chiu-Shao Libbrecht, Chinese Mathematics, pp. 247–48.

· 21. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 19, pp. 10, 40, 42, 120, 141, 472, 577.

· 22. Ibid., vol. 30. Photo by kind permission of the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge University.

· 23. Zinner, Regiomontanus, p. 117. For Copernicus, see p. 119. Other versions of Regiomontonus’s tables can be viewed in the copies held by the Royal Astronomical Society, London, and the John Rylands University, Manchester. Photo by kind permission of the British Library.

· 24. Davies, “Behain, Martellus.”

· 25. Menzies, 1421, pp. 430–31.

· 26. Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 119–23.

· 27. Bedini, Columbus Encyclopedia, p. 436; and ibid., p. 120.

· 28. Zinner, Regiomontonus, p. 123.

· 29. Ibid., pp. 119–25.

· 30. Ibid., p. 123.

· 31. Lambert, “Abstract.”

· 32. G. W. Littlehales, “The Decline of Lunar Distances,” American Geography Society Bulletin, 4, no. 2 (1909): 84. Viewable on JSTOR.

· 33. Lambert, “Abstract.”

· 34. Phillips and Encarta.

· 35. Zinner, Regiomontonus, p. 181.

· 36. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 19, pp. 49–50, 109, 110, and 370–378. See also Yongle Dadian (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), chap. 16, pp. 343, 344.

Chapter 14: Alberti and Leonardo da Vinci

· 1. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti, introduction.

· 2. Ibid., pp. 67 and 196.

· 3. See “Selected Works of Leon Battista Alberti” in bibliography.

· 4. Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 24, 36, 58–60, 67–68, 72–77, 130–34, 265; and Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti, p. 196.

      Letter of Feb 1464 in ‘Vita di LB Alberti at p 373

· 5. Santinello’s parallels are explored in more detail on the 1434 website, chapters 13, 18 and 21.

· 6. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti, p. 155.

Chapter 15: Leonardo da Vinci and Chinese Inventions

· 1. Temple, Genius of China, p. 192.

· 2. Peers, Warlords, of China, p. 149.

· 3. Deng, Ancient Chinese Inventions, p. 104.

· 4. Ibid., pp. 113–14.

· 5. Ibid., p. 112.

· 6. See ch. 16 for Leonardo copying Taccola, who drew in 1438 a Chinese helicopter.

· 7. Temple, Genius, p. 175.

· 8. Ibid., p. 177.

· 9. Ibid., p. 243.

· 10. Taddei, Leonardo’s Machines, p. 118.

· 11. Temple, Genius, p. 59.

Chapter 16: Leonardo, di Giorgio, Taccola and Alberti

· 1. White, “Parachute,” pp. 462–67.

· 2. Reti, “Francesco di Giorgio Martini’s Treatise,” p. 287.

· 3. Francesco, Trattato. Copies Biblioteca Nazionale Florence and Biblioteca Communale Siena

· 4. Reti, “Helicopters and Whirligigs”; Leonardo, “Parachute”; Jackson, “Dragonflies”; and Gablehouse, “Helicopters and Autogiros.”

· 5. See Guidebooks on Siena

· 6. Prager and Scaglia, Mariano Taccola.

· 7. Please also refer to Modern Guide Book “Siena” Romas, Siena p. 154.

· 8. Sigismund Faced Uprisings In Bohemia following Jan Huss Murder in 1419 (Following Council of Constance)

· 9. Prager and Scaglia, “Mariano Taccola.”

· 10. Ibid.; and Galluzzi, Art of Invention, p. 118.

· 11. Prager and Scaglia, Mariano Taccola. Galluzzi, Art of Invention, p. 35.

· 12. Galluzzi, Art of Invention, pp. 36–37.

· 13. Prager and Scaglia, Mariano Taccola; and ibid., pp. 37–38.

· 14. Prager and Scaglia, Mariano Taccola, p. 93; and Galluzzi, Art of Invention, p. 87.

      Di Giorgio adapts Taccola—Examples

· i) Di Giorgio’s fountain (Ms Ash 4IR) and Taccola’s surprise fountain (Ms PAL 767 p. 21)

· ii) Taccola’s hoists for Mills (III, 36R) and di Giorgio’s Mills (Trattato I Ms Ash 361 for 37v)

· iii) Taccola’s and di Giorgio’s underwater swimmers with breathing (Cod Lat Mon 288800 fol 78R and MS PAL 767 BNCF p. 9)

· iv) Floating Riders on Horseback (Taccola II 90V) di Giorgio MS II. I. 141 (BNCF) follow 196v

· v) Paddle wheel boats—Taccola Ms Lat 7239 fol 87r: di Giorgio Ms 197 b21 (BML) fol 45v

· vi) Devices for measuring distances—Taccola Ms Pal 766 fol 52R: di Giorgio Ms Ash 361 fol 29R

· vii) Drawings of Trebuchet Ms 197.b.21 (BML) fol 3V (di Giorgio) and cod lat Mon 197 II fol 59V (Taccola)

· viii) Underground Mining causing towns to collapse—di Giorgio Ms Ash 361 fol 50R; Taccola Codex lat Mon 28800 fol. 48

· ix) Transportable crane di Giorgio Ms 197 b.21 fol 11V Taccola Ms PAL 766 for ZOR

· x) Weight driven wheels—Taccola Code lat Mon 197 II fol 57 R: di Giorgio Ms 197 b21 Fol 71 V

· xi) Water mills transforming vertical power to horizontal Taccola Ms Pal 766 Fol 39R: di Giorgio Ms Sal 148 for 34V

· xii) Ox drawn pumps Taccola Ms Lat 7239 p. 32 di Giorgio MS II.1.141 fol 97V

· 15. K. T. Wu, and Wu Kuang-Ch’ing, “Ming Printing and Printers,” Harvard Journal of Asiatie Studies 7, no. 3 (Feb. 1943): 203–60.

· 16. See Needham, Science and Civilisation, vols. 19 and 27.

· 17. Taccola MS Lat BNP fol 50R

· 18. Francesco Di Giorgio MS II 1.141 fol 97v

· 19. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 27, figs. 602–27, table 56.

· 20. Nung Shu, ch. 19, pp. 5bb6a and NS 183.

· 21. MS Lat Urbinas 1757 Fol 118R

· 22. Carts with steering gear—Codicetto

· 23. Reversible hoists—de Ingeneis III 36R Taccola, De Ingeneis, book 2, 96v.

· 24. Ms Ash 361 F 37V

· 25. Ms Getty GEM fol R

· 26. Galluzzi, Art of Invention, pp. 4243.

· 27. Ibid., p. 44.

· 28. 361 Fol 46v

· 29. Galluzzi, Art of Invention, p. 11.

· 30. Ibid., p. 11.

· 31. Jackson, “Dragonflies,” pp. 1–4; Gablehouse,

      Helicopters and Autogiros, pp. 1–3; and White,

      “Helicopters and Whirligigs.”

Chapter 17: Silk & Rice

· 1. Nung Shu; and Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. 27, p. 104.

· 2. Martial, quoted in Thorley, pp. 71–80.

· 3. Thorley, “Silk Trade Between China and the Roman Empire at Its Height Circa. A.D. 90–130” Greece and Rome, 2nd Series, Vol. 18, No. 1 (1971) p. 71–80. See Bibliography.

· 4. Temple, “Genius,” p. 120, ill. 88.

· 5. Molà, “Silk Industry,” pp. 261 and 218, 220.

· 6. Hobson, Eastern Origins, pp. 128, 342; and Kuhn, “Science V.”

· 7. Molà, “Silk Industry,” p. 261.

· 8. “Braudel, Wheels of Commerce,” Fontana, 1985, pp. 405–408.

· 9. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 28, pp. 225 and 340.

· 10. Ms Ash 361 (BMLF) fol 6V

· 11. Shapiro, “Suction Pump,” p. 571.

· 12. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 27, p. 144.

· 13. Molà, “Silk Industry,” pp. 218–46.

· 14. Hibbert, House of Medici, p. 63.

· 15. Ibid., p. 63.

· 16. Ibid., Hibbert, p. 89

Chapter 18: Grand Canals, China and Lombardy

· 1. Emperor Yang—Sui dynasty. Ancient China,” p. 66.

· 2. Lonely Planet p. 378.

· 3. Now named Xian. “Ancient China” pp. 63–75. Ancient China-Chinese Civilisation from the origin to the Tang dynasty Barnes & Noble N.Y. 2006.

· 4. Quoted in Lonely Planet pp. 378–79.

· 5. Temple, Genius, pp. 196–97.

· 6. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 28; and ibid., p. 197.

· 7. Needham, Science and Civilization, ch. 28, pp. 358–76.

· 8. Barbarossa Capture of Milan Frederick I (1123–1190) conquered Milan in 1161.

· 9. Taccola’s Lock Gate Taccola, De ingeneis, vol. 4; and Parsons, Engineers, pp. 367–373.

· 10. Parsons, Engineers, p. 373.

· 11. Ibid.

· 12. Ibid., p. 376.

· 13. Parsons, Engineers. Descriptions Trattato dei Pondi p. 373; Alberti, pp. 374–75; Bartola, pp. 358–376.

· 14. Ibid., pp. 372–81; Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 28, pp. 377–80.

· 15. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 28, pp. 358–76.

· 16. Parsons, Engineers, pp. 374–75.

· 17. See Mantua L. Santoni Mantua 1989, p. 36 et seq

· 18. Dixon, Venice, Vicenza, p. 112. et seq

· 19. Ibid.

Chapter 19: Firearms and Steel

· 1. Spencer, “Filarete’s Description”; and Wertime, “Asian Influences” and Age of Steel.

· 2. Ibid.

· 3. Spencer, “Filarete’s Description.”

· 4. Ibid.

· 5. Ibid.

· 6. Brescia and Bergamo are towns in northern Italy.

· 7. Wertime, “Asian Influences,” p. 397.

· 8. Butters, Triumph of Vulcan.

· 9. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 30. pt. II

· 10. Genius of China, pp. 224–228.

· 11. Goodrich, L. Carrington, and Fêng Chia-Shêng. “The Early Development of Firearms in China.” Isis 36, no. 2 (Jan. 1946): 114–23. Viewable on JSTOR.

· 12. Temple, Genius, p. 230.

· 13. Ibid., p. 234.

· 14. Cited in Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 30, pt. II.

· 15. Temple, Genius, p. 237.

· 16. Goodrich and Feng, “Early Development.”

· 17. Eichstadt, Bellifortis; Thorndike, “Unidentified Work,” p. 42.

· 18. Thorndike, “Unidentified Work,” p. 42.

· 19. Ibid., p. 37.

· 20. Ibid., p. 38.

· 21. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 30, pt. II, p. 51.

· 22. A Stuart Weller “Francesco di Giorgio Martini 1439–1501” University of Chicago Press, Chicago Ill 1943 at p. 74.

· 23. Ibid.

· 24. Refer to 1434 website under “cannon.”

· 25. Chien Tzu Lei Phao.

· 26. Huo Lung Chung, pt. 1, ch. 2, pp. 2, 2a, 10a.

· 27. Ibid., p. 16a

· 28. MS 5, IV. 5 (BCS) c. 5R.

Chapter 20: Printing

· 1. Ottley, and Humphreys, History.

· 2. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 32, pp. 100–75; and Deng Ancient Chinese Inventions, pp. 21–23.

· 3. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 32, pp. 100–175, esp. p. 172. For Yongle Dadian see p. 174, n. c. See also Wu, “Development.”

· 4. Hessel, Haarlem, and Humphreys, History, p. 55.

· 5. “The Case of Rival Claimants,” p. 170.

· 6. Bibs. 7, 8, and 9.

· 7. Blaise Agüeras y Arcas and Paul Needham Reported on Google.

      APHA/Grolier Club lecture by Paul Needham and Blaise LECTURE:

      Agueras y Arcas—(organisation of Book Collectors)

      January 2001. New York.


      Agüera y Arcas, Blaise; Paul Needham (November 2002). “Computational analytical bibliography”. Proceedings Bibliopolis Conference The future history of the book, The Hague (Netherlands): Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

· 8. Ottley, Inquiry, p. 47; and Termanza, “Lettere,” vol. 5 p. 321.

· 9. “Early Venetian Printing,” exhibition, Kings College, London, Dec. 2006.

· 10. Carmichael, Plague and the Poor, pp. 124–26.

Chapter 21: China’s Contribution to the Renaissance

· 1. Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 112–13.

· 2. Liu Manchums, evidence at Nanjing Conference Dec 2002.

· 3. Ibid.

· 4. Villiers and Earle, Albuquerque, pp. 29–65; and in Antonio de Bilhao Pato, Cartas de Afonse de Albuquerque Seguides de dowmentos que as elucidam, vol. 1, letter 9 (April 1512): pp. 29–65. Translation and research by E Manuel Stock.

· 5. O Brasil invar Portulano do sec xv (Brasil on a Map of Fifteenth Century)

· 6. Thorndike, “Unidentified Work,” p. 42.

· 7. Corte são, “Pre-Columbian Discovery,” p. 39.

· 8. Thompson, Friar’s Map, pp. 171–74.

· 9. Fiske, John.

      The Discovery of America—With Some Account of Ancient America and the Spanish Conquest (two volumes). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1892. Reprinted 1920.

· 10. Thompson, Friar’s Map, “Venice Goes West,” p. 171. Sinovic, 1991, p. 155.

· 11. Duchess of Medina-Sidonia’s collection of Columbus record, in her Library at Sanlucar de Barrameda.

· 12. Ruggero, Marino, Cristoforo Colombo: L’ultimo dei Templari. Milan: Sperling, Kupfer Editori, 2005.

· 13. Royal Geographical Society Journal Davies, “Behaim, Martellus and Columbus,” 143, pt. 3: 451–59.

· 14. Encyclopedia Britannica, New “The Copernican Revolution.” S. V. “Copernicus, Nicolaus,” and also Zinner, Regiomontanus, p. 183.

· 15. Ibid., Zinner, p. 183.

· 16. Ibid.

· 17. This is being corrected in the latest edition.

· 18. Ernst Zinner, Regiomontanus, pp. 184–185.

· 19. Swerdlow, “Derivation.”

· 20. “Derivation.”

· 21. Ibid.

· 22. See Gou Shoujing’s third-degree method of interpolation in Aslaksen and Ng Say Tiong, “Calendars, Interpolation.”

· 23. Siderius. See New Encyclopedia Brittanica

· 24. New Encyclopedia Brittanica, 15th ed., S. V. 1994 “Galilei, Galileo.”

· 25. Mui, Dong, and Zhou, “Ancient Chinese.”

· 26. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti.

· 27. Sorenson and Raish, Pre-Columbian Contact; and Johannesen and Sorenson, Biology

· 28. Thompson, Friar’s Map; and letters to author 2003–2007

Chapter 22: Tragedy on the High Seas: Zheng He’s Fleets Destroyed by a Tsunami

This chapter relies heavily on the work of Professor Ted Bryant and Dr. Dallas Abbott and colleagues; please refer to the Acknowledgments section.

· 1. Legend of the bear climbing out of a wrecked ship on Clatsop Beach. This is Chinook folklore, recounted to us by Catherine Herrold Troeh.

· 2. The legend is corroborated by a similar one of the Crow people, told to us by Frank Fitch.

· 3. Zatta’s map appears on our 1434 website as do drawings of Chinese people made during Russian expeditions carried out before Vancouver or Cook.

· 4. These figures are explained in more detail in chapter 2.

· 5. This correspondence was in 2002.

· 6. The relevant part of this is reported on the 1434 website

· 7. Keddie, Grant, “Contributions to Human History,” published by Royal British Columbia Museum, No. 3, March 19, 1990.

· 8. Further details of the Washington potters may be found on our 1434 website

· 9. Professor Marianna Fernandez Cobo and colleagues (see Bibliography)

· 10. Professor Gabriel Novick and colleagues (see Bibliography)

· 11. Diego Ribero’s chart of 1529 can be seen on our 1434 website. It contains accurate mapping details of places from South America to Indonesia, which in 1529 had not been “discovered” by Europeans and were unknown to them.

· 12. Rostowerski, Maria—“History of the Inca Realm”, Cambridge University Press, 1999

· 13. Macedo Justo Cáceres “Pre-Hispanic Cultures of Peru,” Peruvian National Museum, Lima, Peru, 1985.

      Copper coins—these were the shape of small axes. See our 1434 website for the section on coinage.

Chapter 23: The Conquistadores’ Inheritance: Our Lady of Victory

This chapter relies heavily on a series of lectures on Medieval Spain given by Dr. Christopher Pollard at Dillington House near Taunton, Somerset, which the author was privileged to attend in 1999. Please refer to the acknowledgments section.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!