Post-classical history

Notes

AHR    American Historical Review

ANS    Anglo-Norman Studies

ASC    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

BIHR    Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research

B.T.    Bayeux Tapestry

CPB    Corpus Poeticum Boreale

EHR    English Historical Review

PP    Past & Present

TRHS    Transactions of the Royal Historical Society

1 Edward the Confessor

1 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum Anglorum, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (1887), i, pp. 185–9, 207–15; D. Hill, ed., Ethelred the Unready (Oxford, 1987)

2 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (hereinafter ASC), 980, 981, 982, 991

3 See the epic poem Maldon reproduced in Janet Cooper, ed., The Battle of Maldon. Fiction and Fact (1993), and D. Scragg, ed., The Battle of Maldon (Oxford, 1991)

4 M. A. S. Blackburn, ‘Aethelred’s coinage and the payment of tribute,’ in Scragg, ed., The Battle of Maldon, op. cit., pp. 156–69; M. K. Lawson, ‘The collection of Danegeld and Heregeld in the reign of Aethelred II and Cnut’, EHR 99 (1984), pp. 721–38; Lawson, ‘“Those stories look true”’: levels of taxation in the reigns of Aethelred II and Cnut’,EHR 104 (1989), pp. 385–406; Lawson, ‘Danegeld and Heregeld once more’, EHR 105 (1990), pp. 951–61

5 Sten Korner, The Battle of Hastings, England and Europe, 1035–1066 (Lund, 1964), pp. 7–1O

6 ASC, 1011, 1016; S. D. Keynes, ‘A tale of two kings: Alfred the Great and Aethelred the Unready’, TRHS 36 (1986), pp. 195–217; Keynes, ‘The declining reputation of King Aethelred the Unready’, in Hill, ed., Ethelred, op. cit., pp. 227–53

7 Cooper, ed, Battle of Maldon, op. cit., p. 16; T. M. Andersson, ‘The Viking policy of Ethelred the Unready’, Scandinavian Studies 59 (1987), pp. 285–95

8 P. H. Sawyer, ‘Ethelred II, Olaf Tryggvason and the conversion of Norway’, Scandinavian Studies 59 (1987), pp. 299–307; J. A. Green, ‘The last century of Danegeld’, EHR 96 (1981), pp. 245–52

9 Frank Barlow, Edward the Confessor (1970) pp. 30, 308. Godgifu married twice, the first time with Drogo, Count of the Vexin, who accompanied Duke Robert on his pilgrimage to Jerusalem but did not survive. Her second husband was Eustace of Boulogne, of whom we shall hear much more.

10 ASC, 1016, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Historia Norwegiae in Gustav Storm, ed., Monumenta historica Norwegiae (Christiana, 1880), p. 123; M. K. Lawson, Cnut. The Danes in England in the Early Eleventh Century (1993), pp. 16–48

11 M. W. Campbell, ‘Queen Emma and Aelfgifu of Northampton: Canute the Great’s Women’, Medieval Scandinavia 4 (1971), pp. 66–79

12 David Douglas, ‘Some problems of early Norman chronology’, EHR 65 (1950), pp. 289–303; Lawson, Cnut, op. cit., pp. 109–12; L. M. Larson, ‘The political policies of Cnut as king of England’, AHR 15 (1910), pp. 720–43; Eric Christiansen, ‘Canute: model of Christian kingship or brigand Dane made good?’, History Today 36 (November 1986), pp. 34–9

13 Snorre Sturlusson, The Olaf Sagas, trans. Samuel Laing, ed. & notes by John Beveridge (1915), pp. 266–348; Alexander R. Rumble, The Reign of Cnut. King of England, Denmark and Norway (1994)

14 Encomium Emmae Reginae, ed. and trans. A. Campbell, Camden Series 3, vol. 72 (1949), pp. 32–4

15 Ibid., p. 41; Pauline Stafford, Unification and Conquest (1989), pp. 77–9

16 William of Poitiers, Gesta Guillelmi, ed. and trans. Raymond Foreville (Paris, 1952), pp. 4–6; Guillaume de Jumièges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum, ed. Jean Marx (Paris, 1914), pp. 120–1

17 ASC, 1036, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; C. Plummer & J. Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (1899), pp. 221–2; Encomium Emmae, op. cit., pp. 41–7; Florence of Worcester, Chronicon ex chronicis, ed. B. Thorpe (1849), i, pp. 191–2; Vita Eadwardi or The Life of Edward the Confessor, ed. F. Barlow (Oxford, 1992), p. 32; William of Poitiers,Gesta Guillelmi, op. cit. (hereinafter Poitiers), pp. 6–12; The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, ed. E. M. C. van Houts, 2 vols (Oxford, 1995), ii, p. 106; The Chronicle of John of Worcester, ii, 430–1066, ed. R. R. Darlington & P. McGurk (Oxford, 1995), pp. 522–4; Henry of Huntingdon,Historia Anglorum, ed. Diana Greenaway (Oxford, 1996), pp. 370–1

18 Jumièges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum, ed. Marx, op. cit. (hereinafter Jumièges), pp. 135–6; Poitiers, pp. 10–13; Van Houts, ed. Gesta Normannorum Ducum, op. cit. (hereinafter GND), ii, p. 106

19 Encomium Emmae, op. cit., pp. 42–3

20 Florence of Worcester, Chronicon ex chronicis (hereinafter Florence), i, p. 195

21 S. Keynes, ‘The aethelings in Normandy’, ANS 13 (1991), pp. 173–205 (at p. 195)

22 ASC, 1036, ‘C’ version; F. Barlow, Edward the Confessor (1970), pp. 44–6

23 Snorre Sturlusson, Heimskringla or Sagas of the Norse Kings, trans. Samuel Lang, revised and ed. Peter Foote (1961), pp. 141–2; Snorre Sturlusson, The Olaf Sagas, op. cit., pp. 364–76

24 Monumenta Historica Norwegiae, ed. G. Storm, op. cit., p. 46

25 ASC, 1040, ‘C’ version; Florence, i, p. 194

26 He was drinking at the wedding feast of Gytha, daughter of Osgod Clapa and Tofig the Proud. ASC, 1042, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 196. For wedding feasts of this period see Matthew Paris, Matthaei Parisiensis Chronica Majora, 7 vols, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series 57 (1883), i, pp. 514–15, and L’Estoire des Engleis by Geffrei Gaimar, ed. A. Bell (Oxford, 1960), vv, 4753–6

27 ASC, 1041, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; Florence, i, p. 196; Encomium Emmae, op. cit., pp. 52–3; Saxo Grammaticus, History of the Danes, ed. Eric Christiansen (1980), Books X–XI, i, p. 210; Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, trans. Francis J. Tschan (New York, 1959), pp. 124–5; Korner, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 64–7; Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith (1997), pp. 244–7

28 For this party see T. J. Oleson, The Witenagemot in the Reign of Edward the Confessor (Oxford, 1955), passim

29 E. K. Heningham, ‘The life of King Edward who rests at Westminster’, Albion 7 (1975), pp. 24–40; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, op. cit., pp. 54–72

30 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 157

31 N. K. Chadwick, Celt and Saxon: Studies in the Early British Border (Cambridge, 1963), passim; cf. also for pointers W. M. Aird, ‘St Cuthbert, the Scots and the Normans’, ANS 16 (1993), pp. 1–20; N. Higham, The Kingdom of Northumbria, AD 350–1100 (Stroud, 1993)

32 For full details see F. W. Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond (1960); Eric John, Land and Tenure in Early England (1960); J. H. Round, Feudal England (1895); P. Clemoes & K. Hughes, eds, England before the Conquest (Cambridge, 1971); Caroline Hicks, England in the Eleventh Century (Stamford, 1992)

33 ASC, 1051, ‘D’ version; J. Gillingham, ‘The most precious jewel in the English Crown. Levels of Danegeld and heregeld in the early eleventh century’, EHR 104 (1989), pp. 373–84; M. A. S. Blackburn, Anglo-Saxon Monetary History (Leicester, 1986)

34 P. Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century (1908), p. 140; Round, Feudal England, op. cit., pp. 25–30

35 Richard P. Abels, Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England (Berkeley, 1988), passim

36 H. R. Loyn, ‘Gesiths and Thegns in Anglo-Saxon England from the seventh to the tenth century’, EHR 70 (1955), pp. 529–49

37 Eric John, Land Tenure in Early England, op. cit, pp. 57–8

38 J. C. Holt, ed. Domesday Studies (Woodbridge, 1987); P. H. Sawyer, ed., Domesday Book: A Reassessment (1985); J. McDonald & G. D. Snooks, Domesday Economy: A New Approach to Anglo-Norman History (Oxford, 1986)

39 F. M. Stenton, ‘The thriving of the Anglo-Saxon ceorl’ in D. M. Stenton, Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1970), pp. 388–9; W. G. Runciman, ‘Accelerating Social Mobility: the case of Anglo-Saxon England’, PP104 (1985) pp.3–30

40 Pauline Stafford, Unification and Conquest, op. cit., p. 210

41 Naomi D. Hurnard, ‘Anglo-Norman franchises’, EHR 64 (1949), pp. 289–327; 433–60

42 M. Biddle, ‘Towns’, in D. M. Wilson, ed., The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England (1976), pp. 99–150; J. Tait, The Medieval English Borough (Manchester, 1936); P. Nightingale, ‘The origin of the Court of Husting and Danish influence in London’s development into a capital city’, EHR 102 (1987), pp. 559–78

43 M. A. S. Blackburn, Anglo-Saxon Monetary History, op. cit., pp. 137, 141

44 John S. Moore, ‘Quot homines? The population of Domesday England’, ANS 19 (1996), pp. 307–34; H. C. Darby, Domesday England (Cambridge, 1977), p. 89

45 Stafford, Unification and Conquest, op. cit., p. 207

46 Robert H. Davies, ‘The lands and rights of Harold, son of Godwine, and their distribution by William I: a study in Domesday evidence’ (unpublished M. A. dissertation, UC, Cardiff (1967), pp. 3–4

47 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, op. cit., pp. 143–8

48 H. H. Lamb, The Changing Climate (1966), pp. 208–10; H. Bertil Petersson, Anglo-Saxon Coinage (Lund, 1969), pp. 226–32

49 Brian K. Davison, ‘The origin of the castle in England: the institute’s research project’, Archaeological Journal 124 (1967), pp. 202–11

50 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 144–5

51 Encomium Emmae, op. cit., pp. 82–7; Vita Eadwardi, op. cit., pp. 8–10; E. A. Freeman, The History of the Norman Conquest, 5 vols (1875), i, pp. 722–5; Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1970), p. 417; L. M. Larson, Canute the Great (1912); M. K. Lawson, Cnut: The Danes in England in the early Eleventh Century (1993), p. 91

52 Freeman, Norman Conquest, op. cit., ii, pp. 552–55

53 D. J. G. Raraty, ‘Earl Godwine of Wessex: Origins of his power and his political loyalties’, History 74 (1989), pp. 3–19 (at pp. 4–5); S. Keynes, ‘Cnut’s Earls’, in A. Rumble, ed., The Reign of Cnut, King of England, Denmark and Norway (1994), pp. 43–88 (at pp. 70–3); R. Fleming, Kings and Lords in Conquest England (1991), pp. 92–6

54 Vita Eadwardi, op. cit., pp. 5–6; ASC, 1025, ‘E’ version; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. T. Arnold, Rolls Series 74 (1879), p. 187; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum Anglorum, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series 90 (1889), pp. 220–1; Lawson, Cnut, op. cit., pp. 96–9; Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest(Woodbridge, 1995), p. 11

55 M. W. Campbell, ‘The rise of an Anglo-Saxon “kingmaker”: Earl Godwin of Wessex’, Canadian Journal of History 13 (1978), pp. 17–33

56 A. Wilmart, ‘La légende de Ste Edith en prose et vers par le moine Goscelin’, Analecta Bollandiana 56 (1938), pp. 5–307; Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, op. cit., pp. 257–9

57 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 22–5; cf. also K. E. Cutler, ‘Edith, queen of England, 1045–1066’, Medieval Studies 35 (1973), pp. 222–31; Pauline Stafford, Queens, Concubines and Dowagers: the King’s Wife in the Early Middle Ages (1983), p. 82

58 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 59–60; Eric John, ‘Edward the Confessor and his celibate life’, Analecta Bollandiana 97 (1979), pp. 171–8; Stafford, Unification and Conquest, op. cit., p. 92

59 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 526–31

60 Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith (1997), pp. 260–1; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 531–5; Susan J. Ridyard, The Royal Saints of Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge, 1988); B. W. Scholz, ‘The canonization of Edward the Confessor’, Speculum 26 (1961); Christine E. Fell, ‘Anglo-Saxon saints in old Norse sources and vice versa’, in H. Belker-Nielsen, P. Foote & O. Olsen, eds, Proceedings of the 8th Viking Congress (Odense, 1981), pp. 95–106. Stafford’s warning is well taken: ‘It is futile to speculate on the sex lives, sex drives or sexuality of eleventh-century kings from such sparse and partial evidence’ (Queen Emma and Queen Edith, p. 261)

61 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 17–19; Michael Winterbottom, ‘Notes on the life of Edward the Confessor’, Medium Aevum 56 (1987), pp. 82–4

62 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 38

63 Simon Keynes, ‘The aethelings in Normandy’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 173–205

64 M. W. Campbell, ‘Emma, reine d’Angleterre: mère dénaturée ou femme vindictive?’, Annales de Normandie 23 (1973), pp. 97–114; F. Lishitz, ‘The Encomium Emmae Reginae: a political pamphlet of the eleventh century?’ Haskins Society Journal 1 (1989), pp. 39–50; O. Lindquist, ‘Encomium Emmae’, Scandia 33 (1967), pp. 175–81; E. John, ‘The Encomium Emmae Reginae: a riddle and a solution’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 63 (1981), pp. 58–94; M. W. Campbell, ‘The Encomium Emmae Reginae: Personal panegyric or political propaganda?’ Annuale Medievale 19 (1979), pp. 27–45

65 Frank Barlow, ‘Two notes: Cnut’s second pilgrimage and queen Emma’s disgrace in 1043’, EHR 73 (1958), pp. 651–6

66 Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, pp. 248–51

67 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 24–8; cf. also E. K. Heningham, ‘The genuineness of the Vita Eadwardi Regis’, Speculum 21 (1946), pp. 419–56

68 This was one of the reasons Svein was so angry with Edward later when he failed to punish Swein Godwinson adequately. Saxo Grammaticus, ed. Christiansen (1980), i, p. 210; Adam of Bremen, ed. Tschan (1959), pp. 124–5

69 Codex diplomaticus aevi Saxonici, ed. J. M. Kemble, 6 vols (1848), IV pp. 74–110

70 ASC, 1046, 1047, ‘D’ version; Adam of Bremen, p. 123

71 Florence, i, p. 200

72 Barlow, The Norman Conquest and Beyond (1955), pp. 72

73 ASC, 1048, all versions; P. Grierson, ‘The relations between England and Flanders before the Norman Conquest’, TRHS, 4th series 23 (1941), pp. 71–112

74 Ordericus Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. M. Chibnall, 6 vols (Oxford, 1980); R. Latouche, Histoire du comté du Maine pendant les Xe et XIe siècles (Paris, 1810), p. 34

75 Barlow, ‘Edward the Confessor’s Early Life’, EHR 80 (1965) (at pp. 237–8)

76 T. Hearne, ed., Hemingi Chartularium ecclesiae wigorniensis (1723), i, pp. 275–6

77 T.J. Oleson, The Witenagemot (Oxford, 1955), op. cit., p. 117; F. E. Harmer, Anglo-Saxon Writs (1952), p. 563; Barlow, The English Church 1000–1066 (1963), p. 58

78 ASC, 1046, ‘C’ version; Florence, i, p. 201; H. L. Maund, Ireland, Wales and England in the Eleventh Century (Woodbridge, 1989), pp. 126–30; Lynn H. Nelson, The Normans in South Wales, 1070–1171 (Austin, 1966), p. 16

79 ASC, 1047, ‘E’ version; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 90

80 Florence, i, pp. 201–2; Plummer & Earle, Two Chronicles Parallel, op. cit., pp. 229–31; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Diana Greenaway (Oxford, 1996), pp. 374–5

81 ASC, 1049, ‘E’ version; Florence, i, p. 203; J. E. Lloyd, A History of Wales (1939), ii, p. 362

82 ASC, 1049, ‘C’ D’ versions; Florence, i, p. 202

83 John of Worcester, Chronicle, ed. R. R. Darlington & P. McGurk (Oxford, 1995), ii, pp. 550–3; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 105–6

84 ASC, 1049, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 100–1

85 ASC, 1049, ‘C’ version; 1050 ‘E’ version

86 Vanessa King, ‘Ealdred, Archbishop of York. The Worcester years’, ANS 18 (1995), pp. 123–37; Janet M. Cooper, The Last Four Anglo-Saxon Archbishops of York (York, 1970), pp. 23–9; Barlow, The English Church, op. cit., pp. 87–90

2 Duke William of Normandy

1 E. M. C. van Houts, ‘The origins of Herleva, mother of William the Conqueror’, EHR 101 (1986), pp. 399–404; H. Prentout, ‘De la naissance de Guillaume le Conquérant’, in Études sur quelques points d’histoire de Normandie (Caen, 1927), pp. 73–89

2 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, op. cit., ii, p. 285; Benoît, Chronique des ducs de Normandie, ed. F. Michel, 3 vols (Paris, 1843), ii, pp. 555–7; H. Prentout, Guillaume le Conquérant. Légende et histoire (Caen, 1927), pp. 20–32

3 David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (1964), pp. 379–82

4 Eleanor Searle, ‘Possible history’, Speculum 61 (1986), pp. 783–4; Jumièges, op. cit., pp. 157–71; Searle, Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840–1066 (Berkeley, 1988), pp. 154–5

5 Wace, Le Roman de Rou, ed. A. J. Holden, 3 vols (Paris, 1973), 11, 3212–14; William of Malmesbury, op. cit., i, pp. 211–12; J. Laporte, ed., Inventio et miracula Sancti Vulfranni (Rouen, 1938), p. 41; C. H. Haskins, Norman Institutions (Harvard, 1918), p. 268

6 For Herluin see D. Bates & V. Goseau, ‘L’abbaye de Grestain et la famille d’Herluin de Conteville’, Annales de Normandie 40 (1990), pp. 5–30; D. Bates, ‘Notes sur l’aristocratie Normande. Herluin de Conteville et sa famille’, Annales de Normandie 23 (1973), pp. 21–38. For Herlève’s sons see J. Boussard, ‘Le comte de Mortain au XIe siècle’,Le Moyen Age 58 (1952), pp. 253–79; Brian Golding, ‘Robert of Mortain’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 119–44

7 C. Potts, ‘Normandy and Brittany’, ANS 12 (1989), pp. 135–56; David Bates, Normandy before 1066 (1982), pp. 70–1

8 Jumièges, op. cit., pp. 97–114; D. C. Douglas, ‘The earliest Norman Counts’, EHR 61 (1946), pp. 129–56; D. Bates, Normandy before 1066, op. cit., pp. 68–73; C. H. Haskins, Norman Institutions, op. cit., pp. 265–8

9 A. le M de la Borderie & B. Poquet, Histoire de Bretagne, 6 vols (Rennes, 1914), iii, p. 9

10 Jonathan Sumption, Pilgrimage: An Image of Medieval Religion (New York, 1975), pp. 118–23; L. Musset, ‘Recherches sur les pèlerins et les pèlerinages en Normandie jusqu’ à la première Croisade’, Annales de Normandie 12 (1962), pp. 142, 150

11 Wace, Roman de Rou, op. cit., vv, 2987–3240; J. Laporte, ed., Inventio et miracula Sancti Vulfranni, op. cit., pp. 40–1; Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, ed. Francis J. Tschan (New York, 1959), p. 92; Rodolfus Haber, The Five Books of Histories, ed. J. France (Oxford, 1989), pp. 202–4; Brevis Relatio de origine Wilhelmi Conquestoris in J. A. Giles, ed., Scriptores rerum gestarum Wilhelmi Conquestoris (1845), pp. 1–2. For contacts between Normandy and Byzantium see E. M. C. van Houts, ‘Normandy and Byzantium in the Eleventh Century’, Byzantion 55 (1985), pp. 544–59; Krijnie Ciggaar, ‘Byzantine marginalia to the Norman Conquest’,ANS 9 (1986), pp. 43–69

12 Gwyn Jones, A History of the Vikings (1984), pp. 182–203; P. H. Sawyer, Kings and Vikings (1982), pp. 78–97; L. Musset, ‘Les deux âges des Vikings’, Medieval Scandinavia 2 (1969), pp. 187–93; Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., pp. 15–40; J. Renaud, Les Vikings et la Normandie (Rennes, 1989)

13 D. C. Douglas, ‘Rollo of Normandy’, EHR 57 (1942), pp. 418–32; R. McKittrick, Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751–987 (New York 1983), pp. 237, 307–8; P. Lauer, ed., Recueil des actes de Charles III le Simple, roi de France, 893–923 (Paris, 1940), No. 92

14 For Dudo of St Quentin and his work see L. Shopkow, ‘The Carolingian world of Dudo of St Quentin’, JMH 15 (1989), pp. 19–37; E. Habn Hanawalt, ‘Dudo of St Quentin: the heroic past imagined’, Haskins Society Journal 6 (1994), pp. 111–18; E. Searle, ‘Fact and pattern in heroic history: Dudo of St Quentin’, Viator 15 (1984), pp. 75–86; V. B. Jordan, ‘The role of kingship in tenth-century Normandy: Hagiography of Dudo of St Quentin’, Haskins Society Journal 3 (1991), pp. 53–62

15 D. C. Douglas, ‘The earliest Norman Counts’, EHR 61 (1946), pp. 526–45; E. Searle, Frankish rivalries and Norse warriors’, ANS 8 (1985), pp. 198–213

16 Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., p. 58

17 D. C. Douglas, Time and the Hour (1977), pp. 95–119; Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., pp. 79–90

18 J. Le Patourel, The Norman Empire (Oxford, 1976), pp. 3–27; C. W. Westup, ‘Le mariage des trois premiers ducs de Normandie’, Normannia 6 (1933), pp. 411–26

19 G. A. Loud, ‘The Gens Normannorum’, ANS 4 (1981), pp. 104–116; cf. also F. Lishitz, The Norman Conquest of Pious Neustria (1995); Lauren Wood Breese, ‘The persistence of the Scandinavian connection in Normandy in the tenth and eleventh centuries’, Viator 8 (1977), pp. 47–61; Jean Adigard des Gautries, Les Noms de personnes Scandinaves en Normandie de 911 à 1066 (Lund, 1954); Michel de Bouard, ed., Documents de l’histoire de la Normandie (Toulouse, 1972)

20 H. R. Loyn, Vikings in Britain (1977), p. 107

21 K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ‘William I and the Breton contingent in the non-Norman conquest’, 1060–1087, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 157–72 (at p. 161); R. McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987 (1983), pp. 236–7

22 Cassandra Potts, ‘Atque unum ex diversis gentium populum effecit. Historical tradition and the Norman identity’, ANS 18, pp. 139–52 (at pp. 141–2); M de Bouard, ‘La Hagne, camp retranché des Vikings?’, Annales de Normandie 3 (1953), pp. 3–14; Bouard, ‘De la Neustrie Carolingienne à la Normandie féodale: continuité ou discontinuité’,BIHS 28 (1955), pp. 1–14

23 Flodoard, Annales, ed. P. Lauer (Paris, 1906), p. 84; F. Lot, Fidèles ou Vassaux (Paris, 1940), pp. 177–92; Searle, Predatory Kinship, p. 121; D. C. Douglas, ‘The Rise of Normandy’, British Academy Proceedings 33 (1947), pp. 101–31; cf. also in general J. F. Lemarignier, Le Gouvernement royal aux premiers temps capétiens (987–1108)(Paris,1965); E. M. Hallam, Capetian France 987–1328 (1980); J. Dunbabin, France in the Making, 843–1180 (1985)

24 D. C. Douglas, William the Conqueror, op. cit., p. 18; L. Musset, Normandie Romane: la Basse Normandie (Paris, 1975)

25 J. le Patourel, ‘The Norman succession, 996–1135’, EHR 86 (1971), pp. 225–50; Jean Yver, ‘Les premières institutions du duché de Normandie’, in I Normanni e la loro espansione in Europe nell’ Alto Medioevo (Spoleto, 1969), pp. 299–366; F. Lifshitz, ‘Dudo’s historical narrative and the Norman succession of 996’, JMH 20 (1994), pp. 101–20; G. Garnet, ‘“Ducal” succession in early Normandy’, in G. Garnett & J. Hudson, eds, Law and Government in Medieval England and Normandy. Essays in Honour of Sir James Holt (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 80–110

26 Bates, Normandy before 1066, op. cit., pp. 99–100, 156–58; J. Yver, ‘Les châteaux-forts en Normandie jusqu’au milieu du XIIe siècle’, Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie 3 (1955–6), pp. 28–115 (at pp. 36–8)

27 M. Arnoux, ‘Classe agricole, pouvoir seigneurial et autorité ducale. L’évolution de la Normandie féodale d’après le témoignage des chroniqueurs Xe–XIIe siècles’, Le Moyen Age, 5th series 6 (1992), pp. 35–60 (at pp. 45–51)

28 V. H. Galbraith, ‘Monastic foundation charters of the eleventh and twelfth centuries’, Cambridge History Journal 4 (1934), pp. 205–22; cf. also Donald Matthew, Norman Monasteries and their English Possessions (Oxford, 1962); David Knowles, The Monastic Order in England (Cambridge, 1940)

29 ASC, 1002, ‘C’ version; William of Malmesbury, Memorials of St Dunstan, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series 63 (1874), p. 322; Henri Prentout, ‘Le règne de Richard II, duc de Normandie 996–1027. Son importance dans l’histoire’, Mémoires de l’Académie nationale des sciences, arts et belles-lettres de Caen, NS 5 (1929), pp. 57–104

30 C. Pfister, Étude sur le règne de Robert le Pieux (Paris, 1885), pp. 214–15

31 For the guardians in general see Ordericus Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. M. Chinall (Oxford, 1980), 6 vols, iii, p. 86; iv, p. 82. For Osbern the Steward see M. Fauroux, Recueil des actes des ducs de Normandie (hereinafter RADN), Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie 36 (Caen, 1961), Nos. 43, 93, 99; D. C. Douglas, ‘The ancestors of William Fitzosbern’, EHR 59 (1944), pp. 62–79. For Gilbert of Brionne see RADN No. 97; Ordericus Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, op. cit., iii, p. 88. For the obeisance to Henry see Rodulf Glaber, Francorum Historia (Paris, 1886), p. 108

32 Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., pp. 193–8. For the love of Herlève see William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum Anglorum, op. cit., ii, p. 333

33 Ordericus Vitalis, op. cit., iv, p. 80; Georges Lepelley, ‘La jeunesse de Guillaume le Conquérant’, Études normandes 59 (1966), pp. 57–64

34 Poitiers, GG, op. cit., pp. 12–14

35 ‘The notion that the duke was frequently snatched from his chamber for fear of his kinsmen and taken to cottages of the poor is a flourish of Orderic’s to enliven the duke’s supposed deathbed speech’ (Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., p. 196)

36 Inventio et miracula sancti Vulfranni, ed. J. Laporte, op. cit., pp. 47–9

37 Ordericus Vitalis, op. cit., ii, p. 240–2. For the Beaumonts see David Crouch, The Beaumont Twins (Cambridge, 1936)

38 Fauroux, RADN, op. cit., No. 97; Ordericus Vitalis, iii, p. 88

39 RADN, Nos. 88, 89, 94, 115; Ordericus Vitalis, iii, p. 130; Crouch, Beaumont Twins, op. cit., pp. 106–7; The Complete Peerage of England and Ireland, revised V. Gibbs et al. (1959), 13 vols, vii, pp. 522–3

40 Jumièges, p. 119; Douglas, William the Conqueror, pp. 40–1

41 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 40

42 Michel de Bouard, ‘Sur les origines de la Trève de Dieu en Normandie’, Annales de Normandie (1959), pp. 169–89; de Board, ‘Nouvelles remarques sur l’introduction de la Trève de Dieu en Normandie’, Revue historique de droit français et étranger, 4th series 38 (1960), pp. 481–2; E.J. Cowdrey, ‘The Peace and the Truce of God in the eleventh century’, PP 46 (1970), pp. 42–67; G. Duby, The Chivalrous Society, trans C. Postan (1977), pp. 123–33; T. Head and R. Landes, eds, The Peace of God. Social Violence and Religious Response in France around the year 1000 (1992)

43 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 199–200; F. M. Powicke, The Loss of Normandy (Manchester, 1913), pp. 14–15

44 For Gilbert Crispin see Fauroux, RADN, op. cit., Nos. 105, 110, 128, 137, 156, 188–9, 194; J. A. Robinson, Gilbert Crispin (Cambridge, 1911); J. Green, ‘Lord of the Norman Vexin’, inj. Gillingham & J. C. Holt eds., War and Government in the Middle Ages. Essays in Honour of J. O. Prestwich (Woodbridge, 1984), pp. 47–61 (at pp. 49–50).

45 Jumièges, pp. 117–18. For Thurston Goz and his son Richard (who restored his father to William’s favour) see Fauroux, RADN, Nos. 85, 100, 104, 110, 159, 199

46 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, op. cit., ii, p. 286; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed., T. Arnold (1879), pp. 189–90

47 Douglas, William the Conqueror, p. 45

48 Bates, Normandy before 1066, op. cit., pp. 61–2

49 Poitiers, pp. 14–20; Jumièges, pp. 122–4

50 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv 3737–4194. For the likely accuracy of Wace for this campaign see M. Bennett, ‘Poetry as history? The Roman de Rou as a source for the Norman conquest’, ANS 5 (1982), pp. 21–39 (at pp. 25–6)

51 For Taison see Bates, Normandy before 1066, p. 153; Michel de Boaurd, Guillaume le Conquérant (Paris, 1984), p. 122; cf. Wace, Roman de Rou, vv, 3737–4194

52 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 255

53 Poitiers, pp. 18–20; Jumièges, p. 123

54 F. Taylor, trans. & ed., Master Wace, his Chronicle of the Norman Conquest from the Roman de Rou (1837), pp. 18–27; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 286; E. Edwards, ed. Chronica monasterii de Hilda juxta Wintoniam, Rolls Series (1866), pp. 283–321 (at p. 286)

55 Ordericus Vitalis, iv, pp. 82–4; Poitiers, p. 20

56 Poitiers, pp. 22–6.

57 J. O. Prestwich, ‘The military household of the Norman kings’, EHR 96 (1981), pp. 1–35

58 Michel Bouard, ‘Sur les origines de la Trève de Dieue en Normandie’, Annales de Normandie (1959), pp. 172–87

59 For the Montgomerys see J. F. A. Mason, ‘Roger de Montgomery and his sons, 1067–1102’, TRHS, 5th series 13 (1963), pp. 11–28; K. Thompson, ‘The pre-conquest aristocracy in Normandy: the example of the Montgomerys’, Historical Research 60 (1987), pp. 251–63

60 For Odo see David Bates, ‘The character and career of Odo, bishop of Bayeux, 1049/50–1097’, Speculum 50 (1975), pp. 1–20. For Robert of Mortain see Brian Golding, ‘Robert of Mortain’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 119–44; C. Potts, ‘The earliest Norman counts revisited: the lords of Mortain’, Haskins Society Journal 4 (1992), pp. 22–35

61 Jumièges, p. 127

62 Jean Dhont, ‘Henri Ier, L’Empire et l’Anjou (1043–1056)’, Revue belge de Philologie et d’Histoire 25 (1946), pp. 87–109; P. Grierson, ‘The relations between England and Flanders before the Norman Conquest’, RHS Transactions, Series 4, 23 (1941), pp. 71–113 (at pp. 95–8); Leon Vanderhindere, La Formation territoriale des principautés belges (Brussels, 1981), i, pp. 108–11

63 ASC, 1049, ‘C’‘D’‘E’ versions; cf. Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, op. cit., ii, pp. 229–31

64 Pope Urban II (Oxford 1996), pp 285–89

65 O. Delarc, Saint Grégoire VII (Paris, 1889), i, pp. 101–63; A. Fliche, La Réforme grégorienne (Paris, 1924), i, pp. 136–40

66 C. J. Héféle, ed. Leclerc, Histoire des Conciles (Paris, 1911), iv, pp. 1011–28

67 Delarc, Saint Grégoire, op. cit., p. 163; Fliche, La Réforme grégorienne, op. cit., i, p. 140

68 Georges Lepelley, ‘La jeunesse de Guillaume le Conquérant’, Études Normandes 59 (1966), pp. 57–64 (at p. 59); Michel de Bouard, Guillaume le Conquérant, op. cit., p. 10; Paul Chesnel, Le Cotentin et l’Avranches sous les ducs de Normandie, 911–1204 (Caen, 1912), p. 169

69 T. Stapleton, ‘Observations in disproof of the pretended marriage of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, with a daughter of Matilda, daughter of Flanders, by William the Conqueror’, Archaeological Journal 3 (1846), p. 20; W. H. Blaauw, ‘Remarks on Matilda, queen of William the Conqueror and her daughter Gundrada’, Archaeologia. Society of Antiquaries of London 32 (1817), p. 124; Chester Waters, ‘The parentage of Countess Gundrada’, The Academy (1878), p. 597; (1879), p. 457; E. Freeman, ‘The parentage of Gundrada, wife of William of Warren’, EHR (1888), p. 680. The arguments are concisely summed up in Sten Korner, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 168–73

70 Korner, op. cit., pp. 173–81; M. Gibson, Lanfranc of Bee (Oxford, 1978), pp. 109–110; Bates, Normandy before 1066, op. cit., pp. 200–1; Duby, The Knight, the Lady and the Priest: the Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France (New York, 1983), p. 35

71 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 327; H. Prentout, ‘Le mariage de Guillaume’, Mémoires de l’académie nationale de Caen NS 6 (1931), pp. 29–56; D. Bates, William the Conqueror (1989), p. 100

72 A. Giles, ed. Beati Lanfranci Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis Opera Omnia (Oxford, 1844), 2 vols, i, pp. 286–9; A. A. Porée, Histoire de l’abbaye du Bec, 2 vols (Evreux, 1901); A. J. MacDonald, Lanfranc: A Study of his Life, Work and Writing (Oxford, 1926); R. W. Southern, ‘Lanfranc of Bee & Berengar of Tours’, in R. W. Hunt, ed., Studies in Medieval History presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke (Oxford, 1948), pp. 27–48

73 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 327; J. P. Migne, ed. Patrologiae cursus completus: Patrologia latina, op. cit., containing Milo Crispin, Vita beati Lanfranci, p. 151; Margaret Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978), pp. 30–2

74 Fauroux, RADN, No. 120; Korner, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., p. 166

75 Frank Stenton, William the Conqueror and the Rule of the Normans (1908), p. 105

76 Jumièges, p. 181; cf. also Maylis Bayle, La Trinité de Caen (Paris, 1979); M. de Bouard, Le Château de Caen (Caen, 1979)

77 Ordericus Vitalis, iii, pp. 102–10; Douglas, William the Conqueror, pp. 394–5; P. E. Schram, History of the English Coronation (1937), p. 29; Pauline Stafford, Queens, Concubines and Dowagers (1983)

3 Harald Hardrada

1 Johannes Bronsted, The Vikings (1965), pp. 24–7, 252–3; Gwyn Jones, A History of the Vikings (1984), pp. 182–203; Birgit & Peter Sawyer, Medieval Scandinavia. From Conversion to Reformation, c. 800–1500 (1993), pp. 33–4, 157–65. Else Roesdahl, Viking Age Denmark (1982), estimates the population of Denmark under Svein Estrithson as 700,000, while Sawyers (Medieval Scandinavia, op. cit., p. 42) provides a low of 500,000 for Norway and two million for the whole of Scandinavia. Sawyer, it is true, was well known for ‘downsizing’ all population figures, sizes of armies, etc., but such absurdly low figures mean that Harald Hardrada could not conceivably have mounted a credible invasion force in 1066.

2 Jones, A History of the Vikings, op. cit., pp. 2–3, 99–103, 153–81, 250–64, 301–2; Sawyers, Medieval Scandinavia, op. cit., pp. 34–5, 144–65; Birgitta Hardi, ‘Trade and money in Scandinavia in the Viking age’, Meddelanden fran Lunds universitets historiska museu 2 (1978), pp. 157–71; Klaus Ransborg, The Viking Age in Denmark(1980),passim

3 Jones, A History of the Vikings, pp. 90–1; Sawyers, Medieval Scandinavia, pp. 129–42

4 Sawyers, Medieval Scandinavia, pp. 80–99

5 L. Musset, ‘La pénétration chrétienne dans l’Europe du Nord et son influence sur la civilisation Scandinave’, in Settimane di studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull’alto medioevo 14 (Spoleto, 1967), pp. 263–325, 527–35; H. G. Leach, Angevin Britain and Scandinavia (Harvard, 1921); Oluf Lolsrud, Noregs Kyrkjesoga (Oslo, 1958)

6 P. H. Sawyer, ‘Ethelred II, Olaf Tryggvason and the conversion of Norway’, Scandinavian Studies 59 (1987), pp. 299–307; Birgit Sawyer, Peter Sawyer and Ian Woods, eds, The Christianisation of Scandinavia (Alingas, 1987)

7 Snorre Sturlusson, The Olaf Sagas, trans. Samuel Laing, ed. John Beveridge (1915), pp. 118–183; G. Turville-Petre, The Heroic Age of Scandinavia (1951), pp. 140–6

8 O. A. Johnsen, Olav Haraldssons ungdom indtil slaget ved Nesjar (Oslo, 1922); Sigurdur Nordal, Om Olaf den helliges saga (Copenhagen, 1914); O. A. Johnsen & J. Helgason, eds., Den store saga om Olav den bellige (Oslo, 1941)

9 Snorre Sturlusson, The Olaf Sagas, op. cit., pp. 266–348; Jones, A History of the Vikings, op. cit., pp. 383–6; L. G. Jerlow, ed. Ordo Niderosiensis Ecclesiae (Oslo, 1968), p. 124–8

10 The Olaf Sagas, op. cit., 324–8, 348–50

11 Ibid., p. 141. The Olaf Sagas show Sigurd Syr notably henpecked and Aasta egregiously shrewish, ibid., pp. 117, 137–9

12 The Olaf Sagas, pp. 183–4. Harald’s brother Guttorm chose corn and his brother Halfdan cattle. When speaking of his putative warriors Harald added: ‘I would like to have as many as would eat up my brother Halfdan’s cows at a single meal.’ For other such tales of the young Harald see G. Vigfusson, trans. G. W. Dasent, Icelandic Sagas(1894). For Ringerike see James Graham-Campbell, The Viking World (1970); P. Anker, The Art of Scandinavia (1970); D. M. Wilson & O. Kundt-Jensen, Viking Art (1966)

13 G. Vigfusson & F. York Powell, Corpus Poeticum Boreale, 2 vols (1883), ii, p. 229; C. R. Unger & C. R. Keyser, The Shorter St Olafs Saga (Christiana, 1849), pp. 64–95; The Olaf Sagas, p. 350; Paddy Griffith, The Viking Art of War (1995), p. 191

14 Fornmanna Sogur, Latin version, Scripta Historica Islandorum, 12 vols (Copenhagen, 1846), x, p. 399; F. Jonsson, ed., Fagrskinna (Copenhagen, 1903), pp. 178–83; Orkneyingsaga, eds. G. Vigfusson & G. W. Dasent, Rolls Series 88 (1887), i, p. 47; The Olaf Sagas, pp. 364–78

15 Orkneyingsaga, ed. Hermann Palsson & Paul Edwards (1978), p. 55; Orkeyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, pp. 36–7; Fagrskinna, op. cit., p. 217; Flateyjarbok, eds. G. Vigfusson & C. R. Unger (Christiana, 1869), ii, pp. 408–9

16 For Yaroslav see S. H. Cross & O. P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, trans. and ed., The Russian Primary Chronicle (Cambridge, Mass., 1953); Vladmir Volkoff, Vladimir the Russian Viking (1984), pp. 292–303; S. H. Cross, ‘Yaroslav the Wise in Norse tradition’, Speculum 4 (1929), pp. 177–97; F. Braun, ‘Die historische Russland im Nordischen schriftum des X–XIV Jahrunderts’, in Festschrift Eugen Mogk (Halle, 1924), pp. 150–96; G. Vernadsky, Kievan Russia (1973); B. Rybakov, Kievan Rus (Moscow, 1989); S. Franklin & J. Shepard, The emergence of Rus 750–1200 (1996)

17 The Olaf Sagas, pp. 392–6; Snorre Sturlusson, Heimskringla, trans. Samuel Laing, revised and ed. Foote (1961), p. 161; Flateyjarbok, ed. G. Vigfusson & C. R. Unger (Christiana, 1869), ii, p. 290; P. A. Munch, Samlede Afhandlinger, ed. G. Storm (Christiana, 1873), i, p. 534; F. Jonsson, Skjald Edigtning der Norsk-Islandske Skjaledigtning(Copenhagen, 1915), p. 355

18 J. L. Teall, ‘The grain supply of the Byzantine empire’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13 (1959), pp. 105–34; R. S. Lopez, ‘The silk industry in the Byzantine empire’, Speculum 20 (1945), pp. 1–42; D. A. Miller, Imperial Constantinople (1969), p. 119

19 J. Eberzolt, ‘Mélanges d’histoire et d’archaeologie byzantines’, Revue d’Histoire des Religions 76 (1917), pp. 1–23; G. Wright, ‘The Automata in the Byzantine Throne of Solomon’, Speculum 29 (1954), pp. 477–87; F. A. Wright, ed., The Works of Lintprand of Cremona (1930), containing Antapodosis, v, pp. 21, 190, 207–8

20 Michael Psellus, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, trans. & ed. E. R. A. Sewter (1966), pp. 27–49; M. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine Empire, ed. & trans. M. Hussey (1968); M. J. Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204. A Political History (1984); A. P. Kazhdan, ed., The Oxford History of Byzantium (1991)

21 Psellus, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, op. cit. (hereinafter Psellus), pp. 53–9; D. Obolensky, Six Byzantine Portraits (Oxford, 1988); Ostrogorsky History of the Byzantine State (1966) pp. 283–94

22 Psellus, pp. 63–83; G. Cedrenus, Ioannis Scylitzae Ope, ed. I. Beker, ii, p. 505

23 Vihelm Thomsen, The Relations between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia and the Origin of the Russian State (New York, 1877), pp. 37–86; George Vernadsky, The Origin of Russia (1959), pp. 174–209; G. S. Lebedev & V. A. Nazarenko, ‘The Connections between Russians and Scandinavians in the 9th–11th centuries’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 6 (1973), pp. 4–9; Omeljan Pritsak, The Origin of Rus. Old Scandinavian Sources other than the Sagas (Cambridge, Mass., 1982); Henry Paskzkiewicz, The Origin of Russia (1954); A. Stender-Petersen, Varangica (Aarhus, 1953); M. W. Thompson, Novgorod the Great (1967); D. Obolensky, ‘Byzantium, Kiev and Moscow: a study in ecclesiastical relations’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 11 (1957), pp. 21–78; J. Martin, Medieval Russia, 1980–1584 (Cambridge, 1995)

24 G. Vernadsky, A History of Russia (New Haven, 1969), i, pp. 275–6; A. A. Vasilev, The Russian Attack on Constantinople in 860 (Cambridge, Mass., 1946); John Scylitzes, Synopsis Historion, ed., H. Thun (New York, 1973), p. 367

25 M. Canard & H. Berberian, eds, Aristakes, Histoire (1973), pp. 23–4; M. F. Brosset, Histoire de la Georgie (St Petersburg, 1851), i, pp. 308–9; J. Gay, L’Italie méridionale et l’empire byzantin (Paris, 1909), p. 183; F. Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et Sicilie (Paris, 1907), i, pp. 54–5

26 R. J. H. Jenkins, Byzantium. The Imperial Years (1966), p. 302; B. S. Benezikz, ‘The evolution of the Varangian regiment in the Byzantine army’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 62 (1969), pp. 20–4; R. M. Dawkins, ‘Greeks and Northmen’, in Custom is King: Essays presented to R. R. Marett (1936), p. 41; T. Kolias, Byzantische Waffen: ein Beitrag zur byzantischen Waffennhunde von den Anfangen bis zur lateinischen Eroberung (Vienna, 1988), pp. 162–72; Mark Harrison, Viking Hersir, 793–1066 (1993)

27 Flateyjarbok, op. cit., ii, p. 380; S. Cross, The Russian Primary Chronicle, op. cit., p. 93; A. Harvey, Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900–1200 (Cambridge, 1989), p. 264

28 M. Izedin, ‘Un prisonnier arabe à Byzance au XIe siècle: Haroun Ibn Yahya’, Revue d’Études islamiques 15 (1946), pp. 41–62; F. A. Wright, The Works of Lindprand of Cremona (1930) including Antapodosis, vi, pp. 10, 211; H. W. Haussig, A History of Byzantine Civilization (1971), p. 193

29 R. Guillard, ‘Études sur l’hippodrome de Byzance’, Byzantinoslavica 27 (1966), pp. 289–307; A. Vogt, Le Livre de cérémonies, 2 vols (Paris, 1955), ii, p. 119; G. Schlumberger, L’Épopée byzantine (Paris, 1905), ii, pp. 280–1; D. A. Miller, Imperial Constantinople (1969), p. 30

30 Zonaras, Annales, ed. M. Pinder & T. Buttner-Wobst (Bonn, 1897), iii, p. 763; R. Guillard, Études de topographie de Constantinople byzantine (Berlin, 1869), pp. 14, 41; S. Blondal, Vaeringjasaga (Reyjkavik, 1954), p. 360; B. G. Niebuhr, ed., The Book of Ceremonies (Bonn, 1829), i, pp. 692–3; F. A. Wright, trans. & ed., The Works of Lindprand of Cremona (1930), pp. 12, 42

31 B. Vasilievsky & V. Jernstadt, Cecaumeni Strategicon et incerti scriptoris de officiis regiis libellis (St Petersburg, 1896), pp. 246–97; H. R. Ellis Davidson, The Viking Road to Byzantium (1976), pp. 205–6

32 S. Blondal, ‘Nabites the Varangian’, Classica et Medievalia 2 (1939), pp. 145–67; Formanna Sogur, eds C. F. Rafn & S. Egilsson, 12 vols (Copenhagen, 1837), vi, pp. 147–8; Morkinskinna, ed. F. Jonsson (Copenhagen, 1932), pp. 59–60; F. Jonsson, Skjaldedigtning (Copenhagen, 1915), p. 355; Cedrenus, Scylitzae Ope, ed. I. Bekker (Bonn, 1839), op. cit. (hereinafter Cedrenus), ii, pp. 511–13; Schlumberger, Épopée, op cit., iii, p. 192

33 Fornmanna Sogur, op. cit., vi, p. 148

34 Zonaras, Annales, op. cit., iii, p. 589; Morkinskinna, op. cit., p. 60; Cedrenus, op. cit., ii, pp. 511–12; Schlumberger, Épopée, op. cit., iii, pp. 184–200

35 Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen ed. and trans. Francis J. Tschan (New York, 1959), p. 159; Heimskringla op. cit., p. 169; Cedrenus, ii, p. 515; Schlumberger, L’Épopée, op. cit., iii, pp. 202–4

36 Matthew of Edessa, Chronique, trans. E. Dulaurier (Paris, 1858), p. 352; Michael Glycas, Annales, ed. I. Bekker (Bonn, 1836), i, p. 586; M. Canard & H. Berberian, Aristakes, Histoire (Brussels, 1973), pp. 36–7; H. R. Ellis Davidson, The Viking Road to Byzantium (1976), op. cit., pp. 188–9

37 Cedrenus, ii, p. 517; Schlumberger, Épopée, iii, p. 227

38 Scylitzes, Synopsis historicon, op. cit., p. 425; Zonaras, Annales, iii, p. 591; Schlumberger, Épopée, iii, p. 235. For the Byzantine navy and amphibious operations see John H. Pryor, Geography, Technology and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649–1571 (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 104–11; A. Toynbee, Constantine Porphyrogenitus and his World (1973), pp. 343–5

39 Psellus, op. cit., p. 193; Scylitzes, op. cit., p. 406; Cedrenus, ii, p. 500; Schlumberger, Épopée, iii, p. 88; Heimskringla, p. 163. For Maniakes see Lucio Melazzo, ‘The Normans through their languages’, ANS 15 (1992), pp. 243–50

40 Cecaumeni Strategicon, eds Vasilievsky & Jernstadt, op. cit., p. 282; Heimskringla, pp. 165–8; Ellis Davidson, The Viking Road to Byzantium, op. cit., pp. 215–17

41 Morkinskinna, p. 76; Flateyjarbok, iii, p. 302; H. Cam, ‘The legends of the incendiary birds’, EHR 31 (1916), pp. 98–101

42 Heimskringla, pp. 167–8

43 Cedrenus, ii, pp. 522–3, 544–6, 720; Schlumberger, Épopée, iii, pp. 243, 247, 250; William of Apulia, Gesta Roberti Wiscardi, ed. D. R. Wilmans (Hanover, 1851), p. 250

44 Aimé, Ystoire de li Normant, ed. o. Delarc (Rouen, 1892), ii, pp. 23–5; O. Delarc, Les Normands en Italie (Paris, 1895), p. 94; Gay, L’Italie méridionale et l’empire byzantin (Paris, 1909), op. cit., p. 457; G. H. Pertz, ed., Annales Barenses (Hanover, 1844); F. Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et Sicilie (Paris, 1907), op.cit., p. 98; J. France, ‘The occasion of the coming of the Normans in southern Italy’,journal of Medieval History 17 (1991), pp. 185–205; E. Joranson, ‘The inception of the career of the Normans in Italy’, Speculum 23 (1948), pp. 353–90; R. H. C. Davis, The Normans and their Myth (1976), pp. 88–92; Donald Matthew, The Norman Kingdom of Sicily(Cambridge, 1992)

45 Psellus, pp. 109–16; S. Blondahl, The Varangians of Byzantium, trans., revised, rewritten by Benedikt S. Benedicz (Cambridge, 1978), p. 74; R. Browning, Byzantium and Bulgaria: A Comparative Study across the Early Medieval Frontier (Berkeley, 1975)

46 Cecaumeni Strategicon, op. cit., pp. 296, 96–7; S. Blondal, Vaeringjasaga (Reyjkavik, 1954), pp. 134–5; H. G. Beck, Vademecum des byzantischen Aristokraten (Cologne, 1964), pp. 138–41, 164; M. F. Hendy, ‘Michael IV and Harald Hardrada’, The Numismatic Chronicle, series 7, 10 (1970), pp. 187–97; W. Ennshin, ‘The Byzantine army’,Cambridge Medieval History 4, ii, p. 19; Ostrogorsky, The History of the Byzantine State (New Brunswick, 1969), pp. 317–18

47 Cedrenus, ii, p. 547; Psellus, pp. 193–4

48 Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 302–3; Morkinskinna, pp. 68, 77; Ellis Davidson, The Viking Road to Byzantium, p. 222

49 Morkinskinna, pp. 12, 79; Heimskringla, p. 170

50 Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 304–5; Morkinskinna, p. 79; Saxo Grammaticus, History of the Danes, ed. & trans. Eric Christiansen (1980), Bk 11, p. 54; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 318

51 Cedrenus, ii, pp. 536–7; Psellus, pp. 134–6

52 Psellus, pp. 138–41; Schlumberger, Épopée, iii, pp. 369–70

53 Cedrenus, ii, p. 539; Glycas, Annales, p. 592; George Finlay, The History of the Byzantine Empire (1906), p. 389

54 Psellus, pp. 144–51; Heimskringla, p. 171; Jonsson, ed., Skjaldedigtining, op. cit., p. 368; S. Blondal, ‘The last exploit of Harald Sigurdsson in Greek service’, Classica et Medievalia 2 (1939); Sigfur Blondal, The Varangians of Byzantium, trans., revised, rewritten by Benedict S. Benedikz (Cambridge, 1978), p. 95. Some recent writers have doubted whether Harald personally carried out the blinding, but the weight of tradition in the sagas is overwhelming. Scepticism about Harald’s cruelty is of a piece with the recent tendency to play down alleged Viking atrocities. See R. Frank, ‘Viking atrocity and skaldic verse: the rite of the Blood-Eagle’, EHR 99 (1984), pp. 332–43

55 Psellus, pp. 155–62; Cedrenus, ii, p. 542; Flateyjarbok, iii, p. 418; CPB, ii, p. 212; Blondal–Benedicz, Varangians of Byzantium, op. cit., pp. 183, 229, 231

56 Psellus, pp. 180–97; Cedrenus, ii, pp. 547–9

57 Heimskringla, pp. 171–2; R. Guillard, Études de topographie de Constantinople Byzantine (Berlin, 1969), ii, p. 121; Blondal–Benedicz, Varangians of Byzantium, pp. 99–100; Gustav Storm, ‘Harald Haalraade og Vaeringerne in de Graeske Keiseres Tjeneste’, Historisk Tidsskrif (Christiana), 2nd series (1884)

58 Psellus, pp. 199–203; Cedrenus, ii, pp. 551–3

59 Schlumberger, Épopée, iii, pp. 460–76; J. R. Partington, A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder (Cambridge, 1960); J. Haldon & M. Byrne, ‘A possible solution to the problem of Greek fire and gunpowder’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 70 (1977), pp. 91–9; H. R. Ellis Davidson, ‘The secret weapon of Byzantium’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 66 (1973), pp. 61–74

60 G. Vernadsky, ‘The Byzantine-Russian war of 1043’, Sudost Forschungen 12 (1953), pp. 47–67; F. Braun, ‘Das historische Russland im nordischen Schrifttrum des 10 bis 14 Jahrundert’, in Festschrift Eugen Mogk (Halle, 1924), p. 150–96

61 Heimskringla, pp. 172–3; V. Lazanev, Old Russian Murals and Mosaics (1966), p. 47; G. Turville-Petre, Haraldr the Hard Ruler and his Poets (1968), p. 19; N. de Baumgarten, ‘Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rusikides russes’, Orientalia Christiana, IX, 35 (1927), pp. 1–95

4 Earl Godwin

1 Frank Barlow, ‘Edward the Confessor’s early life, character and attitudes’, EHR 80 (1965), pp. 225–51 (at p. 237)

2 ASC, 1051, ‘E’ version; J. Stevenson, ed., Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Rolls Series (1858), i, pp. 462–4; Florence, i, p. 204; Barlow, The English Church, pp. 85–6; C. Morris, The Papal Monarchy (Oxford, 1991), p. 87

3 Vita Eadwardi, op. cit., pp. 30–1; N. Brooks, The Early History of the Church of Canterbury (Leicester, 1984), p. 304

4 ASC, 1051, ‘E’ version; Barlow, The English Church, pp. 116–17, 154

5 Bertie Wilkinson, ‘Freeman and the crisis of 1051’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 22 (1938), pp. 368–87

6 Ann Williams, ‘The king’s nephew: the family and career of Ralph, Earl of Hereford’, in Christopher Harper-Bill, Christopher J. Holdsworth & Janet L. Nelson, eds, Studies in Medieval History presented to R. Allen Brown (Woodbridge, 1989), pp. 227–43

7 C. P. Lewis, ‘The French in England before the Norman Conquest’, ANS 17 (1994), pp. 123–44; J. H. Round, ‘The Normans under Edward the Confessor’, Feudal England (1895), pp. 317–31; Pauline Stafford, Unification and Conquest, op. cit., pp. 90–3; R. G. L. Ritchie, Normans in England before Edward the Confessor (Exeter, 1948)

8 Margaret Ashdown, English and Norse Documents relating to the Reign of Ethelred the Unready (1930), p. 152; C. E. Wright, The Cultivation of Saga in Anglo-Saxon England (1939), p. 67; F. Barlow, The Norman Conquest and Beyond (1983), pp. 70–1

9 ASC, 1051, ‘E’ version; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Oxford, 1899), ii, pp. 235–6; Korner, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 36–42; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 109, 307–8

10 For Eustace see Edmond Rigaux, ‘Recherches sur les premiers comtes de Boulogne’, Bulletin de la société académique de l’arrondissement de Boulogne-sur-mer (1894), pp. 151–77; H. J. Tanner, ‘The expansion of the power and the influence of the Counts of Boulogne under Eustace II’, ANS 14 (1992), pp. 264–8

11 ASC, 1051, ‘E’ version; Florence, i, p. 204

12 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, RS90i (1887) p. 24; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 132

13 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 17–20; Florence, i, pp. 205–6

14 ASC, 1051, ‘E’ version; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, p. 237; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, p. 242

15 ASC, 1051, ‘D’ version; Florence, i, p. 206

16 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 112

17 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 35–7; ASC, 1051, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Chronicles, op. cit., p. 237

18 Mary Frances Smith, ‘Archbishop Stigand and the eye of the needle’, ANS 16 (1993), pp. 199–219; N. Brooks, The Early History of the Church of Canterbury (Leicester, 1984), pp. 388–9; Barlow, English Church, op. cit., pp. 77–81, 302–10

19 Vita Eadwardi, p. 36

20 ASC, 1051, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 206; Vita Eadwardi, p. 37; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 150–7

21 For the Godwinsons in Ireland see The Annals of Ulster to AD 1131, eds S. MacAirt & G. MacNiocaill (Dublin, 1983); B. Hudson, ‘The family of Harold Godwin and the Irish Sea Province’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 109 (1979), pp. 92–100; Patrick F. Wallace, ‘The English presence in Viking Dublin’, in M. A. S. Blackburn, Anglo-Saxon Monetary History (Leicester, 1986), pp. 201–21 (at p. 205); M. Richter, ‘The first century of Anglo-Irish relations’, History 59 (1974), pp. 195–210; D. Bethell, ‘English monks and Irish reform in the eleventh and twelfth centuries’, Historical Studies 8 (1971), pp. 111–35; A. Gwynn, ‘Ireland and Rome in the Eleventh Century’, Irish Ecclesiastical Record 57 (1941), pp. 213–32; D. O. Corrain, Ireland before the Normans (Dublin, 1972); C. Haliday, The Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin (Shannon, 1969); Therese Flanagan, Irish Society, Anglo-Norman Settlers, Angevin Kingship (Oxford, 1989), pp. 57–8; K. L. Maund, Ireland, Wales and England in the Eleventh Century (Woodbridge, 1991), p. 165; T. Jones, trans. & ed., Brut y Tywysogyon. Red Book of Hergest Version (Cardiff, 1973); The Annals of Tigernach trans. Whitley Stokes (Llanerch, 1993); The Annals of Inisfallen, ed. S. MacAirt (Dublin, 1977); The Annals of Ulster, ed. S. MacAirt & G. MacNiocaill (Dublin, 1983)

22 ASC, 1051, ‘E’ version; Florence, i, p. 205; Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Rolls Series (1858), i, p. 463

23 ASC, 1051, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 207; Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, op. cit., p. 11; Kenneth E. Cutler, ‘Edith, queen of England 1045–1066’, Medieval Studies 35 (1973), pp. 222–31; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 105, 116

24 R. Allen Brown, The Normans and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1985), pp. 102–7; Miles Campbell, ‘The anti-Norman reactions in England in 1052’, Medieval Studies 38 (1976), pp. 428–41

25 Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, op. cit., p. 264

26 Vita Eadwardi, op.cit.; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 97–9

27 Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, trans. Francis J. Tschan (New York, 1959), pp. 124–5; Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia or The History of the Danes, Books 10–16, 2 vols, ed. Eric Christiansen (Oxford, 1980), i, p. 210; cf. for background Else Roesdahl, Viking Age Denmark (1982); Klaus Randsborg, The Viking Age in Denmark (1980); Jean Dhondt, ‘Henri Ier, l’empire et l’Anjou’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire 25 (1947), pp. 87–109

28 Heather Tanner, ‘The expansion of the power and influence of the counts of Boulogne under Eustace II’, ANS 14 (1991), pp. 251–86 (at p. 266); Korner, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 188–9

29 Korner, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 184–8

30 Poitiers, GC, p. 64

31 David Douglas, ‘Edward the Confessor, Duke William of Normandy and the English succession’, EHR 68 (1953), pp. 526–45; David Bates, William the Conqueror (1989), p. 34. It is worth mentioning, however, that other reputable authorities accept the reality of the visit. See Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 116; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 158–63

32 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 301–6. A close reading of William of Poitiers does indeed suggest that the hostages were sent to Normandy before the return of Godwin and his sons in 1052. See K. E. Cutler, ‘The Godwinist hostages: the case for 1051’, Annuale Mediaevale 12 (1971), pp. 70–7

33 Poitiers, pp. 30–2, 174–6

34 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 107–8, 117

35 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 41–5

36 J. E. Lloyd, A History of Wales (1939), ii, p. 363–4. Walker, Harold, the Last Anglo-Saxon King, op. cit., p. 46, suggests, reasonably enough, that Leofric and Siward were alarmed by the ease with which Edward had exiled Godwin and feared that what he had done to him he might easily do to them in turn.

37 ASC, 1052, ‘C’ version; Florence, i, pp. 209–10

38 ASC, 1052, ‘E’ version; Vita Eadwardi, pp. 41–3; R. Fleming, Kings and Lords in Conquest England (Cambridge, 1991), p. 58

39 ASC, 1052, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 208; Vita Eadwardi, p. 43; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 316

40 ASC, 1052, ‘E’ version; Vita Eadwardi, pp. 41–3; Stafford, Unification and Conquest, op. cit., p. 91; N. Hooper, ‘Some observations on the Navy in late Anglo-Saxon England’, in C. Harper-Bill, ed., Studies in Military History for R. Allen Brown (1989), pp. 203–13

41 ASC, 1052, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, pp. 208–9; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, ii, pp. 239–41

42 Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 36–42; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 322–3

43 ASC, 1052, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 210; Mary Frances Smith, ‘Archbishop Stigand and the eye of the needle’, ANS 16 (1993), pp. 199–219

44 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 42–5

45 Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, p. 265; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, p. 239

46 John of Worcester, Chronicle, eds R. R. Darlington & P. J. McGurk (Oxford, 1995), p. 576; Stafford, Unification and Conquest, p. 87

47 T. J. Oleson, ‘Edward the Confessor’s promise of the throne to Duke William of Normandy’, EHR 72 (1957), pp. 221–8

48 Korner, Battle of Hastings, p. 193

49 ASC, 1058, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; N. Brooks, The Early History of the Church of Canterbury (Leicester, 1984), pp. 304–10; Mary Frances Smith, ‘Archbishop Stigand and the eye of the needle’, loc. cit., pp. 199–219 (esp. p. 213)

50 ASC, 1053, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Vita Eadwardi, op. cit.; Florence, i, p. 211

51 R. Twysden, ed., Historiae Anglicanae scriptores X (1652), 2 vols, cols 294, 395; H. R. Luard, ed., Annales Monastici, Rolls Series (1865), ii, p. 26

5 The Conqueror

1 For the Giroie family see J. M. Maillefer, ‘Une famille aristocratique aux confines de la Normandie: les Geré au XIe siècle’, in L. Musset, J. M. Bouvris & J. M. Maillefer, eds, Autour du pouvoir ducal normand, X–XIIe siècles (Caen, 1985), pp. 175–206

2 J. Boussard, ‘L’éviction des tenants de Thibaut de Blois par Geoffrey Martel, comte d’Anjou, en 1044’, Le Moyen Age 18 (1963), pp. 141–9; O. Guillot, Le Comte d’Anjou et son entourage au XIe siècle (Paris, 1972), pp. 57–72; Louis Halphen, Le Comte d’Anjou (Paris, 1906), pp. 70–80

3 G. Louise, La Seigneurie de Bellême, X–XIe siècles, 2 vols (Flens, 1992); K. Thompson, ‘Family and influence to the south of Normandy in the eleventh century: the lordship of Bellême’, Journal of Medieval History 11 (1985), pp. 215–16; J. Boussard, ‘La Seigneurie de Bellême au X et XIe siècles’, in Mélanges Louis Halphen (Paris, 1951), pp. 43–54; G. H. White, ‘The first house of Bellême’, TRHS, 4th series, 22 (1940), pp. 67–99; Henri R. du Motey, Le Champion de Normandie. Robert III de Bellême (Paris, 1923)

4 R. Bouet, ‘Les Domfrontais de 1050 à 1150 d’après les historiens normands contemporains’, in J. C. Payers, ed., La Légende arthurienne et la Normandie (Condé-sur-Noireau, 1983), pp. 73–94; Henri R. du Motey, Origines de la Normandie et du duché d’Alençon (Paris, 1920)

5 Bates, Normandy before 1066, op. cit., pp. 255–7; Douglas, William the Conqueror, op. cit., pp. 58–67; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 280–6. Freeman wrongly dates this campaign to 1048–9.

6 Poitiers, op. cit., pp. 42–4; Jumièges, op. cit., p. 126; Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., p. 209

7 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 46–8; iii, pp. 134–8

8 J. Dhondt, ‘Les relations entre la France et la Normandie’, Normannia 12 (1939), pp. 465–86. Cf. E. James, The Origins of France (1982)

9 For William of Arques see Fauroux, RADN, op. cit., Nos. 67, 112, 124–6

10 For the Counts of Ponthieu see Hariulf. Chronicon Centulense ou Chronique de l’Abbaye de Saint-Riquier, ed. F. Lot (Paris, 1894), pp. 193, 204, 230, 282

11 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 127–9

12 Fauroux, RADN No. 114; M. Bur, La Formation du comte de Champagne 950–1150 (Nancy, 1977), pp. 212–13

13 Ordericus Vitalis, iii, p. 254; Catherine Morton & Hope Muntz, The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio of Guy, Bishop of Amiens (Oxford, 1972), pp. xxx–xxxii

14 Ordericus Vitalis, iv, p. 85; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 4565–618

15 Ordericus Vitalis, iii, pp. 254–60; Poitiers, pp. 52–64; Jumièges, pp. 119–20

16 Jumièges, p. 130; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 150–4

17 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 4929–40

18 Ibid., vv. 4565–902

19 Ibid., vv. 4927–8

20 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 163

21 Poitiers, pp. 66–78

22 F. Soehnée, Catalogue des actes d’Henri I, roi de France, 1031–1060 (Paris, 1907), Nos. 106–7

23 M. Bur, La formation du comté de Champagne, 950–1150 (Nancy, 1977), pp. 138–9. Intermarriage often produced strange and unexpected results. See also J. Richard, Les Ducs de Bourgogne et la formation du duché du Xie au XIVe siècle (Paris, 1954)

24 Poitiers, pp. 80–2

25 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 5223–42

26 Ibid., vv. 5174–99

27 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 179; Douglas, William the Conqueror, p. 74

28 M. Prou, ed., Recueil des actes de Philippe I, roi de France, 1059–1108 (Paris, 1908), pp. xv–xxiii, xxvii–xxviii; E. M. Hallam, ‘The king and the princes in eleventh-century France’, BIHR 53 (1980); J. Dunbabin, France in the making, 843–1180 (1985)

29 L. Halphen, Le Comte d’Anjou, op. cit., p. 12

30 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 105–6; Jean Dunbabin, ‘Geoffrey of Chaumont, Thibaud of Blois and William the Conqueror’, ANS 16 (1993), pp. 101–16 (at p. 110)

31 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 18; Poitiers, pp. 77–80, 98–100; Bates, Normandy before 1066, pp. 78–9

32 R. E. Barton, ‘Lordship in Maine: transformation, service and anger’, ANS 17 (1994), pp. 41–63; R. Latouche, Histoire du comté du Maine pendant les Xe et XIe siècles (Paris, 1910); André Bouton, Le Maine, histoire économique et sociale des origines au XIVe siècle (Le Mans, 1962)

33 O. Gillot, Le Comte d’Anjou et son entourage au XIe siècle, 2 vols (Paris, 1972), i, pp. 457–8

34 For Fitzosbern’s career see V. Gibbs, ed., Complete Peerage, 13 vols (1959), vi, pp. 447–51; cf. also Christopher Lewis, ‘The Norman settlement of Herefordshire under William I’, ANS 7 (1984), pp. 195–213 (esp. p. 211). For the Tosny family Fitzosbern married into see L. Musset, ‘Aux origines d’une classe dirigeante: les Tosny’, Francia 5 (1977), pp. 45–80

35 Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., p. 233. For some of these families see S. Deck, ‘Le Comté d’Eu sous ses ducs’, Annales de Normandie 4 (1954), pp. 99–101; Andrew Wareham, ‘The motives and politics of the Bigod family c. 1066–1177’, ANS 17 (1994), pp. 223–42; cf. also Fauroux, RADN No. 18; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 288

36 J. O. Prestwich, ‘War and finance in the Anglo-Norman state’, TRHS, 5th series, 4 (1954), pp. 19–43; L. Musset, ‘A-t-il existé en Normandie au XI siècle une aristocratie d’argent’, Annales de Normandie 9 (1959), pp. 285–99

37 For the castle as one of the keys to William’s dominance see Le Patourel, Norman Empire, op. cit. pp. 65–7, 303–18, 351–3. Castles, indeed, virtually merit an entire volume to themselves. The Normans may originally have got this key idea from Fulk Nerra, Count of the Angevins. See Bernard Bachrach, ‘Enforcement of the Forma Fidelitatis: the techniques used by Fulk Nerra, count of the Angevins, 987–1040’, Speculum 59 (1984), pp. 796–819; Bachrach, Fulk Nerra, the neo-Roman consul, 987–1040 (Berkeley, 1993). Some scholars make castles all but definitional of feudalism. See R. Allen Brown, The Origins of English Feudalism (1973), pp. 30–1; Roger Antenas, ‘Les Châteaux forts des Xe et XIe siècles: contribution à l’étude des origines de la féodalité’, Revue historique de droit français et étranger, 4th series, 17 (1938), pp. 54–86. Others emphasize the way the existence of castles made a quick campaign like that of 1066 impossible in Europe and stress the absence of castles in England as a key factor in the Norman conquest. See Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 218; Matthew Strickland, War and Chivalry: The Conduct and Perception of War in England and Normandy, 1066–1217 (Cambridge, 1996), p. 207

38 Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, trans. Cynthia Portan (Columbia, SC, 1968), p. 185

39 L. Musset, ‘Le satiriste Garnier de Rouen et son milieu (début du XIe siècle)’, Revue du Moyen Age Latin 10 (1954), pp. 237–66 (at p. 254); Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., p. 164

40 D. C. Douglas, ‘The Norman episcopate before the Norman Conquest’, Cambrige Historical Journal 13 (1957), pp. 101–15

41 Cassandra W. Potts, ‘Les Ducs normands et leur nobles: le patronage monastique avant la conquête de l’Angleterre’, Études Normandes 35 (1986), pp. 29–37

42 Margaret Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978), pp. 98–108

43 Cassandra Potts, ‘Atque unum ex diversis gentibus populum effecit. Historical tradition and Norman identity’, ANS 18 (1995), pp. 139–52 (at p. 150)

44 C. Harper-Bill, ‘The piety of the Anglo-Norman knightly class’, ANS 2 (1979), pp. 63–79; J. Fournée, La Spiritualité en Normandie au temps de Guillaume le conquérant (Rouen, 1987)

45 Emily Z. Tabuteau, Transfers of Property in Eleventh-century Norman Law (Chapel Hill, NC, 1988), pp. cit., p. 189; Robert Norbert Sauvage, L’Abbaye de Saint-Martin de Troarn au diocèse de Bayeux des origines au seizième siècle: histoire et développement économique d’un monastère normand au Moyen Age (Caen, 1911), pp. 61–2; Donald A. Matthew, The Norman Conquest (New York, 1966), p. 51

46 For the entire complex story see vol. 1 of F. Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile, 2 vols (Paris, 1907)

47 A. Fliche, La Réforme grégorienne, 2 vols (Paris, 1924), i, p. 325

48 H. Leclerc, ed., Hefele, Histoire des conciles, 11 vols (Paris, 1952), iv, pp. 1139–79; Fliche, La Réforme grégorienne, i, pp. 214–316

49 Margaret Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec, op. cit., pp. 109–10

50 Jean-François Lemarignier, ‘Political and monastic structures in France at the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh century’. in F. Cheyette, ed., Lordship and Community in Medieval France (New York, 1968), pp. 100–27; Georges Duby, ‘Evolution of juridical institutions: Burgundy in the tenth and eleventh centuries’, trans Cynthia Portan (Berkeley, 1980), pp. 15–58; Thomas Bisson, ‘Feudal Revolution’, PP 142 (1994), pp. 6–42; Jean-Pierre Poly & Eric Bournazel, The Feudal Transformation, 900–1200 (New York, 1991). The model is of discontinuity between the centralized Carolingian pagi and centrifugal fiefs. But others say the old pagi were not actually very well integrated and were fairly lawless; that both the ‘old’ and ‘new’ systems depended on kinship, patronage, and clientelism; and therefore that continuity, not disjuncture, marked the passage from Carolingian society to that of eleventh-century France. See Dominique Barthélémy, ‘La Mutation feodale a-t-elle eu lieu?’, Annales ESC 47 (1992), pp. 776–7; cf. also Barthelemy, La Société dans la comté de Vendôme de l’an Mil au XIVe siècle (Paris, 1993); Dominique Iogua-Prat, La France de l’an Mil (Paris, 1990)

51 D. C. Douglas, The Norman Achievement (1969); L. Musset, ‘Les deux âges des Vikings’, Medieval Scandinavia 2 (1969), pp. 187–92

52 Krijnie Ciggaar, ‘Byzantine marginalia to the Norman Conquest’, ANS 9 (1986), pp. 43–69 (at p. 54)

53 Douglas, William the Conqueror, pp. 83–104

54 From the vast literature on this subject one might select L. Musset, ‘L’Aristocratie normande au XIe siècle’, in P. Contamine, ed., La Noblesse au Moyen Age (Paris, 1976), pp. 71–96; P. van Luyn, ‘Les milices dans la France du Xie siècle. Examen des sources narratives’, Moyen Age 77 (1971), pp. 5–51, 193–238; Sally Harvey, ‘The knight and the knight’s fee’, PP 49 (1970), pp. 3–43; R. H. Hilton, Peasants, Knights and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History (Cambridge, 1976), pp. 133–73; R. Allen Brown, ‘The status of the Norman knight’, in J. Gillingham & J. C. Holt, War and Government in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of J. O. Prestwich (Woodbridge, 1984); J. Gillingham, ‘The introduction of knight service into England’, ANS 4 (1981), pp. 53–64

55 The classic work on feudalism is Marc Bloch, Feudal Society, trans. L. A. Manyon, 2 vols (Chicago, 1961). See also Lynn White, Medieval Technology and Social Change (Oxford, 1962)

56 Bates, Normandy before 1066, p. 172

57 Emily Z. Tabuteau, ‘Definitions of feudal military obligation in eleventh-century Normandy’, in Morris S. Arnold, ed. On the Laws and Customs of England: Essays in Honor of Samuel E. Thorne (Chapel Hill, NC, 1981), pp. 18–59, and, more generally, Zabuteau, Transfers of Property, op. cit.

58 C. H. Haskins, Norman Institutions (Harvard, 1918), pp. 5–30; F. M. Powicke, The Loss of Normandy (1961), p. 40; Michel de Bouard, Guillaume le Conquérant (Paris, 1958), passim

59 Marjorie Chibnall, ‘Military service in Normandy before 1066’, ANS 5 (1982), pp. 65–77 (esp. p. 77)

60 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 234–7. For the Anglo-Saxon forty-day service see Eric John, ‘Edward the Confessor and the Norman Succession’, EHR 94 (1979), pp. 241–67

61 J. F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (Amsterdam, 1977), pp. 16–17; cf. Verbruggen, ‘La tactique militaire des armées des chevaliers’, Revue du Nord 29 (1947)

62 R. H. C. Davis, ‘The warhorses of the Normans’, ANS 10 (1987), pp. 67–82; cf. Davis, The Medieval Warhorse. Origin, Development and Redevelopment (1989)

63 N. P. Brooks, ‘Arms, status and warfare in late Anglo-Saxon England’, in D. Hill, Ethelred the Unready (1978), pp. 81–103; J. Gillingham, ‘Thegns and knights in eleventh-century England: who was then the gentleman?’ TRHS, 6th series, 5 (1995), pp. 129–53; J. Bradbury, The Medieval Archer (Woodbridge, 1985), esp. pp. 12–16, 71–75; J. Manley, ‘The archer and the army in the late Saxon period’, Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 4 (1985), pp. 222–35; R. Hardy & M. Strickland, The Great War Bow (1997)

64 BT, Plates 47, 57, 68; G. Pierce, ‘The knight, his arms and armour in the eleventh and twelfth centuries’, in C. Harper-Bill & Ruth Harvey, eds, The Ideals and Practices of Medieval Knighthood (1986)

65 F. Buttin, ‘La Lance et l’arrêt de cuirasse’, Archaeologia 99 (1965), pp. 77–178; D. Nicolle, ‘The impact of the European couched lance on Muslim military tactics’, Journal of Arms and Armour Society 10 (1980), pp. 6–40; J. Flori, ‘Encore l’usage de la lance’, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 31 (1988), pp. 213–40

66 E. R. A. Sewter, ed., The Alexiad of Anna Comnena (1969), p. 416; G. Buckler, Anna Comnena (Oxford, 1929), p. 378

67 M. J. Strickland, War and Chivalry (Cambridge, 1996), op. cit., pp. 144–6; David R. Cook, ‘The Norman military revolution in England’, ANS 1 (1978), p. 94–102 (at p. 98)

68 Jumièges, pp. 145–9 containing De obitu Willhelmi by an unknown monk of Caen; Poitiers, pp. 196–9; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, p. 335; C. Hippeau, L’Abbaye de Saint-Etienne de Caen (Paris, 1855), pp. 169–82; de Bouard, Guillaume le Conquérant, op. cit., p. 124; L. J. Engels, ‘De obitu Willhelmi ducis Normannorum regisque Anglorum: textes, modèles, valeur, origines’, in Mélanges Christine Mohrmann (Utrecht, 1973), pp. 209–55

69 Jumièges, p. 145; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 79–80

70 Frank Barlow, William Rufus (1983); G. Slocombe, The Sons of the Conqueror (1960); F. Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216 (1962)

71 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 162; Walter Fröhlich, ‘St Anselm’s special relationship with William the Conqueror’, ANS 10 (1987), pp. 101–10

72 ASC, 1086, 1087, ‘E’ version

73 Douglas, William the Conqueror, p. 372; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 263–6

74 Douglas, William the Conqueror, pp. 408–15

75 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 252, 269, iii, p. 225; Jumièges, pp. 193–4

76 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 259; R. Latouche, Comte du Maine (Paris, 1910), p. 34

77 Jumièges, pp. 172–3

6: Svein Estrithson

1 Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, ed. Tschan, op. cit., p. 159; P. A. Munch, Samlede Afhandlinger, ed. G. Storm (Christiana, 1873), i, pp. 506–54; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 578–82; K. Gjerset, History of the Norwegian People (1915), i, p. 678

2 Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1971), pp. 420–3; Gwyn Jones, A History of the Vikings (1984), pp. 398–400; Heimskringla, pp. 127–30; Philip Pulsiano, ed., Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia (1993)

3 F. Jonsson, ed., Agrip af Noregs Konunga Sogum (Halle, 1929), p. 36; Monumenta Historica Norwegiae, containing Theodric Monachi Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium, ed. G. Storm (Christiana, 1880), pp. 46, 48; The Roskilde Chronicle. Scriptores Minores Historiae Danicae medii aevi (Copenhagen, 1918), ed. M. Gertz, i, p. 22;Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards (1978), op. cit., p. 61; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 142, 147

4 Heimskringla, pp. 138–41

5 Fagrskinna, p. 202; Flateyjarbok, iii, p. 285; ASC, 1045, ‘D’ version; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, i, p. 167; Regsta Norwegiana (Christiana, 1898), pp. 2–4; Korner, Battle of Hastings, p. 147

6 Fornmanna Sogur, v, p. 141; Fagrskinna, p. 201

7 Orkneyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, pp. 35–6; Flateyjarbok, ii, pp. 408–20

8 Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards, pp. 65–8

9 Adam of Bremen, op. cit., p. 108; Saxo Grammaticus, ed. Christiansen, op. cit., p. 47; J. H. Ramsey, The Foundation of England, 2 vols (1898), ii, p. 3; F. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1971), p. 594; Heimskringla, p. 144

10 Fagrskinna, pp. 206–8; Agrip, op. cit. p. 36; The Roskilde Chronicle, op. cit., i, p. 22; Heimskringla, p. 145; E. Arup, Kong Svend (Copenhagen, 1931)

11 Corpus Poeticum Boreale, eds G. Vigfusson & F. York Powell, op. cit., ii, pp. 200–1; Heimskringla, pp. 146–8

12 Saxo Grammaticus, op. cit., p. 49; Corpus Poeticum Boreale (herein-after CPB), pp. 201–2; Heimskringla, pp. 150–6

13 ASC, 1045, ‘D’ version; Earle & Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, i, p. 167; Regesta Norvegica (Christiana, 1898), pp. 2–4

14 Monumenta Historica Norvegiae. Theodrici Monachi Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norvagiensium, ed. G. Storm (Christiana, 1880), p. 50; F. Jonsson, Den old norske og oldislandske litteraturs historie, 2 vols (Copenhagen, 1923), i, pp. 609–13; G. Storm, ‘Harald Hardraade og Voeringerne; de graeske Keiseres’, Norsk Historisk Tidsskrift(1884), p. 354; J. Schreinder, ‘Harald Hardrade og oplandene’, Festschrift til Finnur Jonsson (Copenhagen, 1928), p. 157

15 CPB, ii, p. 217; Peter Foote & D. M. Wilson, The Viking Achievement (1980), p. 67; Ruth Mazo Karras, Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia (1988)

16 Heimskringla, pp. 175–6; Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 251–441

17 Morkinskinna, ed. F. Jonsson (Copenhagen, 1932), p. 94; Monumenta Historica Norvegiae. Theodrici Monachi Historia, op. cit., p. 54; Agrip, p. 39; Fagrskinna, p. 234

18 Heimskringla, pp. 177–9

19 Morkinskinna, ed. C. R. Unger (Christiana, 1867), p. 44; Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 326, 400; Fornmanna Sogur, x, pp. 405–8; Orkneyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, p. 347; Jonsson, Den old norske, op. cit., i, p. 615

20 Saxo Grammaticus, p. 58; Peter Foote & D. M. Wilson, The Viking Achievement (1980), p. 213

21 Morkinskinna, ed. Jonsson, pp. 116–18; Turville-Petre, Haraldr the Hard Ruler, op. cit., p. 6

22 Heimskringla, pp. 180–1

23 Agrip, p. 39; Saxo Grammaticus, p. 52; Adam of Bremen, pp. 108, 123; E. Arup, Kong Svend (Copenhagen, 1931); Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 143, 150–1, 155–7

24 Saxo Grammaticus, pp. 51, 215; Heimskringla, pp. 181, 183

25 Flateyjarbok, iii, p. 400; Heimskringla, p. 182; L. Gjerlow, ed. Ordo Nidrosiensis Ecclesiae (Oslo, 1968), pp. 124–8

26 B. Dickins, ‘The cult of St Olave in the British Isles’, Sagabook of the Viking Society 12 (1937–45), pp. 53–80; Flateyjarbok, ii, pp. 182, 420–1; Orkneyingsaga, ed. Palsson & Edwards, pp. 70–1

27 Gustav Storm, ‘Harald Haardraades Paastaades Dobbeltgifte’, Historisk Tidsskrift 3 (1883), p. 424; E. Eames, ‘Mariage et concubinage légal en Norvège à l’époque des Vikings’, Annales de Normandie 2 (1952), pp. 196–208; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 22

28 CPB, ii, pp. 208–9; Turville-Petre, Haraldr the Hard Ruler, p. 18

29 ASC, 1048, ‘D’ version; Florence, i, p. 200; Adam of Bremen, p. 124; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 92–3

30 CPB, ii, p. 218; James Graham-Campbell, The Viking World (1980), p. 94; Peter Foote & D. M. Wilson, The Viking Achievement (1980), p. 213

31 Heimskringla, pp. 185–7

32 Adam of Bremen, pp. 128–9; J. P. Migne, Patrologia Cursus Completus. Series Latina (Paris, 1864), 146, p. 1281; P. A. Munch, Det norske Folks Historie (Christiana, 1862), ii, p. 208

33 P. Grierson, ‘Harald Hardrada and Byzantine coin types in Denmark’, Byzantinische Forshungen 1 (1966), pp. 124–38; Grierson, ‘Byzantine coins as source material’, Acts of the 13th International Congress of Byzantine Studies (Oxford, 1967), pp. 317–25; Grierson, Byzantine Coins (Berkeley, 1982); M. A. S. Blackburn & D. M. Metcalf, eds,Viking Age Coinage in the Northern Lands (1981); C. Morrison, ‘Le Rôle des Varanges dans la transmission de la monnaie byzantine en Scandinavie’, in Les Pays du nord et Byzance (Scandinavie et Byzance). Actes du colloque nordique et internationale de byzantinologie (Uppsala, 1981), pp. 134–6; Dimitri Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth (1971), p. 235

34 R. M. Dawkins, ‘The later history of the Varangian Guard: some notes’, Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), p. 43; A. Vasiliev, ‘The opening stages of Anglo-Saxon immigration to Byzantium in the eleventh century’, Seminarium Kondakovianum 9 (1937), pp. 39–70; L. Rogers, ‘Anglo-Saxons and Icelanders at Byzantium. With special reference to the Icelandic saga of St Edward the Confessor’, Byzantine Papers (Canberra, 1981), pp. 82–9; J. Shepard, ‘The English and Byzantium; a study of their role in the Byzantine army in the late eleventh century’, Traditio 29 (1973), pp. 53–92; J. Godfrey, ‘The defeated Anglo-Saxons take service with the Eastern Emperor’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 63–74; J. Shepherd, ‘The use of the Franks in eleventh-century Byzantium’, ANS 15 (1992), pp. 275–305

35 Cedrenus, ii, pp. 547–610; Psellus, pp. 204–60; J. C. Cheynet, Pouvoir et Contestation à Byzance, 963–1210 (Paris, 1990); A. A. Vasiliev, Byzance et les Arabes (Brussels, 1950); S. Vryonis, The Process of Islamization from the eleventh through the fifteenth century (Berkeley, 1971)

36 Adam of Bremen, pp. 194, 220; Heimskringla, p. 188; Beasley, The Dawn of Modern Geography, ii, p. 525; Haldor Hermansson, The Book of Icelanders (Ithaca, 1930)

37 Turville-Petre, Haraldr the Hard Ruler, pp. 5, 9–11; M. Olsen, ed., Ragnars saga. Volsung saga ok Ragnars saga Lodrokar (Copenhagen, 1908), p. 169

38 Henry Howorth, ‘Harald Fairhair’, Saga Book of the Viking Society, 9–10 (1920–29), p. 245; Heimskringla, p. 189; Peter Foote & D. M. Wilson, The Viking Achievement, op. cit., p. 425

39 Jenny M. Jochem, ‘The politics of reproduction: Medieval Norwegian kingship’, AHR 92 (1987), pp. 327–49

40 Heimskringla, pp. 190–1

41 CPB, ii, p. 230

42 Heimskringla, p. 192

43 Fornmanna Sogur, vi, pp. 283–6; x. p. 406

44 Heimskringla, pp. 193–5

45 Ibid., pp. 195–6

46 Fagrskinna, p. 197; Fornmanna Sogur, v, p. 127; vi, p. 37

47 Heimskringla, pp. 198–9

48 Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards, op. cit.; Peter Ellis Davidson, Macbeth (1980) pp. 53, 58, 68–72; G. Henderson, Norse Influence on Celtic Scotland (1910), pp. 18–29; W. F. Skene, The Highlanders in Scotland (1890), i, p. 113

49 CPB, ii, pp. 221–2, 228; Flateyjarbok, ii, p. 379; Fornmanna Sogur, v, p. 135; Monumenta Historica Norvegiae, op. cit., pp. 133–4; J. O’Donovan, ed., Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters (Dublin, 1854), ii, pp. 851, 861

50 Earle & Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, i, p. 188; Florence, i, p. 217; ‘Annals of Tigernach’, Revue Celtique 17 (1896), pp. 354–406 (esp. p. 398); Annales Cambriae, ed. J. W. ab Ithel, Rolls Series 20 (1860), p. 25; B. G. Charles, Old Norse Relations with Wales (Cardiff, 1934), p. 48; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 151–4; Stenton,Anglo-Saxon England, p. 575; Larson, Cnut, p. 212; E. Bromberg, ‘Wales and the medieval slave trade’, Speculum 17 (1942), pp. 263–9

51 CPB, i, p. 365; ii, pp. 209–10; Saxo Grammaticus, p. 52; Heimskringla, pp. 202–3

52 CPB, ii, pp. 208–9, 595; Saxo Grammaticus, pp. 54–5; Heimskringla, p. 203

53 Heimskringla, pp. 196–7

54 E. A. Kock, ed. Den Norsk-Islanska Skaldediktningen (Lund, 1949), i, pp. 172–4, 187–8

55 CPB, ii, p. 206

56 Heimskringla, pp. 206–8; Saxo Grammaticus, p. 56; CPB, ii, pp. 223–4

57 Saxo Grammaticus, p. 57; Fagrskinna, p. 273; Fornmanna Sogur, x, p. 407

58 Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards, p. 75; Fagrskinna, p. 278

59 CPB, ii, pp. 210–11; Fagrskinna, p. 278; Heimskringla, pp. 213–15

60 Saxo Grammaticus, op. cit. p. 58; Adam of Bremen, op. cit. pp. 124–25

61 Heimskringla, pp. 241–2; Fagrskinna, p. 295

7: Harold Godwinson

1 Fleming, Kings and Lords, op. cit., p. 101

2 Peter Sawyer, ed., Anglo-Saxon Charters: An Annotated List and Bibliography (1968), No. 1008; Peter A. Clarke, The English Nobility under Edward the Confessor (Oxford, 1994), pp. 13–14; J. P. Migne, Patrologia (Paris, 1864), op. cit., vol. 155

3 Clarke, English Nobility, op. cit., pp. 24–5

4 Ann Williams, ‘Land and power in the eleventh century: the estates of Harold Godwineson’, ANS 3 (1980), pp. 171–87; R. Fleming, ‘Domesday estates of the king and the Godwinesons: a study in late Saxon politics’, Speculum 58 (1983), pp. 987–1007

5 Clarke, English Nobility, op. cit., p. 149; Fleming, Kings and Lords, pp. 63–71; D. Hill, An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1981), p. 103

6 Fleming, Kings and Lords, pp. 48, 65–74, 91–103

7 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 32–3; Fleming, Kings and Lords, pp. 82–3; David Bates, ‘The land pleas of William I’s reign: Penenden Heath revisited’, BIHR 51 (1978), pp. 14–16

8 For Harold’s rapacity and seizures see ASC, 1052, ‘C’ version; Earle & Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles, op. cit., ii, p. 241; H. Ellis, A General Introduction to Domesday Book (1833), 2 vols, i, p. 313. For the quarrel with Giso see J. Hunter, ed., The Autobiography of Giso of Wells, Camden OS 8 (1840), pp. 15–20; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 542–52; J. R. Green, ‘Earl Harold and Bishop Giso’, Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society Proceedings, 12 (1864), pp. 148–57. For Giso see Simon Keynes, ‘Giso, bishop of Wells, 1061–1088’, ANS 19 (1996), pp. 203–71

9 Fleming, Lords and Kings, p. 102

10 W. de Gray Birch, ed., Vita Haroldi (1885), pp. 122–7; M. Swanton, Three Lives of the Last Englishmen (1984), pp. 7–10; Joseph Stevenson, ed., Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis (1841), p. 146; W. Stubbs, ed. De Inventione Sanctae Crucis nostrae. . . . apud Waltham (Oxford, 1861), pp. 40–9; D. Giles, ed., Original Lives of the Anglo-Saxons and Others, Caxton Society 16 (1854), pp. 50–1; W. Winters, The History of the Ancient Parish of Waltham Abbey, Essex (1888), p. 138; Ann Williams, ‘Land and Power in the eleventh century: the estates of Harold Godwineson’, ANS 3 (1980), pp. 171–87 (at p. 182)

11 R. R. Darlington, ed., The Vita Wulfstani of William of Malmesbury, Camden Society 3rd series 40 (1928), pp. 13, 18; M. Rule, ed., Eadmer, Historia Novorum in Anglia (1884), p. 5; David Douglas, ‘Odo, Lanfranc and the Domesday Survey’, in J. G. Edwards, V. H. Galbraith & E. F. Jacob, eds., Essays in Honour of James Tait (Manchester, 1993), pp. 47–57

12 BT, Plate 20; Ian W. Walker, Harold. The Last Anglo-Saxon King (1997), pp. 121–7. On the other hand, there are repeated suggestions in the sources that Harold suffered from periodic bad health, including an incident of temporary paralysis. M. Swanton, Three Lives of the Last Englishmen (1984), pp. 5–7

13 For favourable opinions of Harold see R. R. Darlington, ed., Vita Wulfstani, op. cit., p. 13; E. Mason, St Wulfstan of Worcester c. 1008–1095 (Oxford, 1990), pp. 65–7, 219–21; David Rollason, Saints and Relics in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989), pp. 217–20. For hostile views see W. Stubbs, ed., Memorials of St Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, Rolls Series (1874), i, p. 57; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Diana Greenaway (Oxford, 1996), pp. 378–9; M. Rule, ed., Eadmer. Historia Novorum in Anglia (1884), pp. 8–9

14 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, i, p. 380; William of Malmesbury, De gestis pontificum Anglorum, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton, Rolls Series (1870), p. 207; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 38; Martin Brett, ‘John of Worcester and his contemporaries’, in R. H. C. Davies & J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, eds, The Writing of History in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1981), pp. 101–26 (at p. 123)

14 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 48–9

15 Ibid., pp. 50–6

16 Saxo Grammaticus, ed. Christiansen, pp. 228–9; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 652–6, iii, pp. 790–3; Ross M. Clunies, ‘Concubinage in Anglo-Saxon England’, PP 108 (1985), pp. 3–34; Walker, Harold, The Last Anglo-Saxon King, op. cit., pp. 127–30; C. Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England and the Impact of 1066 (1984), pp. 13–40; M. Meyer, ‘Women’s estates in later Anglo-Saxon England: the politics of possession’, Haskins Society Journal 3 (1992), pp. 111–29. Curiously, we know more about Harold’s daughters than his sons. Gytha married Prince Vladimir of Smolensk and Kiev, after fleeing from England in 1068 via Flanders and Denmark, while Gunnhild is said to have become a nun (Eleanor Searle, ‘Women and the legitimization of the succession at the Norman Conquest’, ANS 3 (1981), pp. 166–9). There is a particularly good summary of the later lives of Harold’s children in Walker, Harold, op. cit., pp. 187–98

17 ASC, 1039, ‘C’ version; Florence, i, p. 193; T. Hearne, ed., Hemingi Chartularium ecclesiae Wigorniensis (1723), i, p. 278

18 Thomas Wright, ed., Walter Mapes, de Nugis Curialium, Camden Society (1850), pp. 99–104

19 ASC, 1053, ‘D’ version; J. E. Lloyd, History of Wales (1939), ii, p. 357; J. E. Lloyd, ‘Wales and the coming of the Normans, 1039–93’, Transactions of Cymmrodorion 1899–1900 (1901), pp. 122–79

20 J. Leclerc & J. P. Bonnes, Un Maître de la vie spirituelle au XIe siècle: Jean de Fécamp (Paris, 1946), pp. 14, 17; J. Mabillon, Annales Ordinis Sancti Benedicti Occidentalium Monachorum Patriarchae (Paris, 1739), iv, p. 547; Donald Matthew, The Norman Monasteries and their English Possessions (1962), pp. 19–21

21 ASC, 1054, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; Joseph Stevenson, ed., Chronicle of Melrose (Edinburgh, 1835), pp. 50–1; W. M. Hennessy & B. MacCarthy, eds, Annals of Ulster, 3 vols (Dublin, 1895), i, p. 594; Kapelle, The Norman Conquest of the North (1979), pp. 46–7. For Macbeth see Peter Beresford Ellis, Macbeth (1980); R. J. Steward, Macbeth. Scotland’s Warrior King (1988)

22 A. O. Anderson, ed., Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers (1908), pp. 85–6; W. Stokes, ed., ‘Annals of Tigernach’, Revue Celtique 17 (1896), pp. 395–8; Florence, i, p. 212; William F. Skene, ed., Johannes Defordun, Chronica Gestis Scotorum (1871), i, pp. 188–205

23 ASC, 1055, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; Lives of Edward the Confessor, Rolls Society 3, p. 408; F. Michel, Chroniques Anglo-Normandes (Rouen, 1840), ii, pp. 110–11; K. L. Maund, ‘The Welsh Alliances of Earl Aelfgar of Mercia and his family in the mid-eleventh century’, ANS 11 (1989), pp. 181–90; D. Walker, Medieval Wales (Cambridge, 1990), p. 17

24 ASC, 1055, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, pp. 212–14; J. Williams ab Ithel, Annales Cambriae, Rolls Series (1860), pp. Walker, Harold, op. cit., pp. 79–80

25 ASC, 1055, ‘C’ version; Florence, i, pp. 213–14; Richard P. Abels, Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England (1988), p. 174; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 399

26 P. Grierson, ‘A visit of Earl Harold to Flanders in 1056’, EHR 51 (1936), pp. 90–7; Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216 (1955), p. 69; M. de Bouard, Guillaume le Conquérant (Paris, 1958), p. 72; T. Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages, 800–1056 (Harlow, 1991), p. 255; Vita Eadwardi, p. 52

27 ASC, 1056, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; Florence, i, pp. 214–15; Lloyd, History of Wales, op. cit., p. 135; Lloyd, ‘Wales and the coming of the Normans’, loc. cit., p. 135

28 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 138, 216; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 398–400; T. Wright, ed., Walter Map. De Nugis Curialium, Camden Society 50 (1980), p. 99

29 Florence, i, p. 181; D. M. Dumville, ‘The atheling: a study in Anglo-Saxon constitutional history’, Anglo-Saxon England 8 (1979), pp. 1–33; N. Hooper, ‘Edgar the atheling: Anglo-Saxon prince, rebel and crusader’, Anglo-Saxon England 14 (1985), pp. 197–214; Simon Keynes, ‘The Crowland Psalter and the sons of King Edmund Ironside’,Bodleian Library Record 11 (1985), pp. 359–70; Sandor Fest, ‘The sons of Eadmund Ironside, Anglo-Saxon king, at the court of St Stephen’, Archivum Europae Centro-Orientalis (Budapest), 4 (1938), pp. 115–46; Z. J. Koztolnyik, Five Eleventh-Century Hungarian Kings (New York, 1981), p. 75; R. L. Graeme Ritchie, The Normans in Scotland(1954), pp. 389–92

30 Chronicle of John of Worcester, eds Darlington & McGurk, op. cit., ii, pp. 574–5; Vita Wulfstani of William of Malmesbury, ed. R. R. Darlington, op. cit., pp. 15–16; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 196–205; Vanessa King, ‘Ealdred, Archbishop of York. The Worcester Years’, ANS 18 (1995), pp. 123–37

31 Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 204–6

32 Florence, i, p. 215; Eric John, ‘Edward the Confessor and the Norman Succession’, EHR 94 (1979), pp. 241–67 (at p. 257); Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, op. cit., p. 269

33 ASC, 1057, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 215; Alfred of Rievaulx, De genealogia regum Anglorum in J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologiae cursus completus; patrologia latina, op. cit., 145, colls 715, 734; William F. Skene, ed., Johannes de Fordun. Chronica gentis Scotorum, i, pp. 206–8; R. L. G. Ritchie, The Normans in Scotland, op. cit., p. 8; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 410–13

34 ASC, 1055, ‘E’ version; ASC, 1058, ‘D’ version; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, op. cit., i, p. 245; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, Rolls Series 74 (1879), p. 196; K. L. Maund, ‘The Welsh alliances of Earl Aelfgar of Mercia and his family in the mid-eleventh century’, ANS 11 (1988), pp. 181–90

35 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 417–27. Walker, Harold, op. cit., pp. 114–19, sees Harold making the decision for kingship only at the moment of Edward the Confessor’s death

36 H. Bohmer, Kirche und Staat im XI und Xlljahrundert (Leipzig, 1899), p. 79; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 211–12

37 ASC ‘D’ version; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, op. cit., ii, pp. 249–50; Vita Wulfstani, ed. R. R. Darlington, op. cit., pp. 16–17; Florence, i, p. 218; William of Malmesbury, De gestis pontificum Anglorum, ed. Hamilton (1870), op. cit., pp. 251–2

38 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 54–5; D. C. Douglas & G. W. Greenaway, English Historical Documents (Oxford, 1981), ii, pp. 599–60; Korner, Battle of Hastings, p. 217

39 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 54–5; Vita Wulfstani, pp. 16–17; Franz Herberhold, ‘Die Angriffe des Cadalus von Parma auf Rom in den jahren 1062 und 1063’, Studi Gregoriani 2 (1947), pp. 477–503; F. Gregorius, History of the City of Rome, trans. A. Hamilton, iv, Pt. 1 (1896), pp. 111–15

40 Emma Mason, St Wulfstan of Worcester c. 1008–1095 (Oxford, 1990), pp. 72–87; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 452–9

41 K. L. Maund, ‘The Welsh alliances of Earl Aelfgar of Mercia and his family in the mid-eleventh century’, ANS 11 (1989), pp. 181–90 (at p. 188)

42 ASC, 1063, ‘D’ ‘E’ version; Florence, i, pp. 221–2; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, op. cit., ii, pp. 250–1

43 Giraldus Cambrenis, Descriptio Kambriae in J. F. Dimock, ed., Opera Omnia, Rolls Series (1868), vi, p. 217; Clement C. J. Webb, ed., Johannis Saresberiensis Episcopi Carnotensis Policraticus, Bk 6, ch 6, ii, pp. 19–20; M. Chibnall, ed., The Historia Pontificalis of John of Salisbury (1956); Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 466–76

44 John Williams ab Ithel, ed., Brut y Tywysogion, Rolls Series (1860), p. 45; Vita Eadwardi, pp. 64–5; The Annals of Ulster, eds S. MacAirt & G. MacNiocaill (Dublin, 1983); K. L. Maund, ‘Cynan ap Iago and the killing of Gruffydd ap Llewelyn’, Cambridge Medieval Celtic studies 10 (1985), p. 65; J. E. Lloyd, ‘Wales and the coming of the Normans, 1039–93’, Transactions of Cymmrodorion (1899–1900), pp. 122–47; J. E. Lloyd, A History of Wales (1939), ii, pp. 358–371

45 Vita Haroldi, op. cit., p. 117; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 138, 216; R. R. Davies, Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 1063–1415 (Oxford, 1987), pp. 24–5; Davies, The Age of Conquest: Wales 1063–1415 (Oxford, 1991), p. 26; C. N. L. Brooke, The Church and the Welsh Border in the Central Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1986), pp. 11, 93; D. Walker, Medieval Wales (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 18–19

46 J. Campbell, ‘Observations on English government from the tenth to the twelfth century’, TRHS, 5th series 25 (1975), pp. 39–54. Cf. also Campbell, ‘Some agents and agencies of the late Anglo-Saxon State’, in J. C. Holt, ed., Domesday Studies (Woodbridge, 1986), pp. 201–18, and Campbell, ‘Was it infancy in England? Some questions of comparison’, in M. Jones & M. Vale, eds, England and her Neighbours, 1066–1453 (1989), pp. 1–17

47 C. Warren Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Institutions on the Eve of the Norman Conquest (1962); Michael Powicke, Military Obligations in Medieval England (1962)

48 N. Brooks, ‘Arms, status and warfare in late Saxon England’, in D. Hill, ed., Ethelred the Unready (Oxford, 1978), pp. 81–103

49 J. C. Russell, British Medieval Population (Albuquerque, 1948), p. 54; John S. Moore, ‘Quot homines? The population of Domesday England’, ANS 19 (1996), pp. 307–34

50 P. Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century (1908), pp. 19–22; Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Institutions, op. cit., p. 12; Lawson, Cnut, op. cit., p. 183

51 N. Hooper, ‘The housecarls in England in the eleventh century’, ANS 7 (1984), pp. 161–76 (esp. p. 174); Florence, i, pp. 195–6; Richard Abels, Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England (1988), pp. 167–8

52 John Langdon, Horses, Oxen and Technological Innovation (Cambridge, 1986), p. 18; R. H. C. Davis, ‘Did the Anglo-Saxons have warhorses?’ in S. C. Hawkes, Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989), pp. 141–4; Matthew Bennett, ‘The myth of the military supremacy of knightly cavalry’, in M. J. Strickland, ed.,Armies, Chivalry and Warfare (Stamford, 1997); A. Hyland, The Medieval Warhorse from Byzantium to the Crusades (Stroud, 1994)

53 N. Hooper, ‘Anglo-Saxon warfare on the eve of the Conquest; a brief survey’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 84–93; Eric John, ‘War and society in the tenth century; the Maldon campaign’, TRHS, 5th series, 27 (1977), pp. 173–95

54 ASC, 1008; Nicholas Brooks, ‘Weapons and armour’, in Donald Scragg, ed., The Battle of Maldon (Oxford, 1991), pp. 208–17

55 Scragg, Battle of Maldon, op. cit., pp. 143–55; R. Glover, ‘English warfare in 1066’, EHR 67 (1952), pp. 1–18

56 S. Pollington, The English Warrior from earliest times to 1066 (1996), pp. 127–35, 236–44

57 John Manley, ‘The archer and the army in the late Saxon period’, Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 4 (1985), pp. 222–35; J. Bradbury, The Medieval Archer (Woodbridge, 1985); pp. 12–16, 22–32, 71–5; R. Hardy, The Longbow: A Social and Military History (Yeovil, 1992); R. Hardy & M. J. Strickland, The Great War Bow(1997)

58 M. J. Swanton, The Spearheads of Anglo-Saxon Settlements (1973); H. R. Ellis Davidson, The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1962); N. Hooper, ‘The Anglo-Saxons at War’, in S. Hawkes, ed., Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989), pp. 191–202

8: Tostig

1 Poitiers pp. 91–3; H. Prentout, Études sur quelques points de l’histoire de Guillaume le Conquérant (Caen, 1930), pp. 149–53

2 Heimskringla, pp. 215–17; CPB, ii, pp. 206–7, 220; Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 365–7

3 Heimskringla, p. 218; Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards, p. 75; CPB, ii, pp. 191–2

4 Orkneyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, pp. 58, 239; Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards, p. 71; Flateyjarbok, ii, pp. 421–7; E. Crawford, ‘Birsay and the early earls of Orkney’, Orkney Heritage 2 (1983), pp. 97–118

5 Morton & Muntz, Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, op. cit., xxxi, xxxiv, xl; F. Lot, ed., Chronicon Centuleuse ou Chronique de l’Abbaye de Saint-Riquier (Paris, 1894), pp. 230, 239; C. Brunel, Recueil des actes des comtes de Ponthieu, 1026–1279 (Paris, 1930), p. iv; Le Patourel, Norman Empire, op. cit., p. 39

6 Carmen, op. cit., vv 50–1, p. 4; Arnold Taylor, ‘Belrem’, ANS 14 (1991), pp. 1–23; C. H. Haskins, Norman Institutions, op. cit., p. 39

7 Jumièges, pp. 132–3; Poitiers, pp. 100–6; John Gillingham, ‘William the Bastard at war’, in S. Morillo, The Battle of Hastings (1995), pp. 96–112 (at p. 109)

8 D. C. Douglas & G. W. Greenaway, English Historical Documents (1981), ii, p. 231; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv 5663–4

9 Poitiers, pp. 110–12; H. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ‘William I and the Breton contingent in the non-Norman Conquest, 1060–1087’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 157–72 (esp. pp. 164–70); J. C. Potts, ‘Normandy or Brittany? A conflict of interest at Mont St-Michel, 966–1066’, ANS 12 (1986), pp. 135–56; J. Smith, Province and Empire: Brittany and the Carolingians (Cambridge, 1992)

10 Poitiers, pp. 100–4; Carmen, vv. 239–40, 291–300, pp. 16–20; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, i, p. 279; ii, p. 294; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Diana Greenaway (Oxford, 1996), pp. 380–1

11 Carmen, p. 67; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 667–71; C. N. L. Brooke, The Saxon and Norman Kings (1963), pp. 28–58; M. Campbell, ‘Earl Godwin of Wessex and Edward the Confessor’s promise of the throne to Duke William’, Traditio 28 (1972), pp. 141–58

12 D. C. Douglas, ‘Edward the Confessor, Duke William of Normandy and the English succession’, EHR 68 (1953), pp. 526–45; T. J. Oleson, ‘Edward the Confessor’s promise of the throne to Duke William of Normandy’, EHR 72 (1957), pp. 221–8; Eric John, ‘Edward the Confessor and the Norman succession’, EHR 94 (1979), pp. 241–67

13 G. Garnett, ‘Coronation and propaganda: some implications of the Norman claim to the throne of England in 1066’, TRHS, 5th series, 36 (1986), pp. 91–116; N. P. Brooks & H. E. Walker, ‘The authority and interpretation of the Bayeux Tapestry’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 1–34 (at p. 11); Allen Brown, The Normans and the Norman Conquest (1969), p. 132; Anne Williams, ‘Problems connected with the English royal succession, 860–1066’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 144–67

14 Barlow, William I and the Norman Conquest (1965), p. 111; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 213–17; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 671; Lewis Thorpe, The Bayeux Tapestry and the Norman Invasion (1973), p. 9; Charles H. Gibbs-Smith, The Bayeux Tapestry (1973), pp. 10–11

15 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, i, pp. 278–9; Pauline Stafford, Unification and Conquest, p. 97; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 222

16 Korner, Battle of Hastings, p. 137; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 227; Stafford, Unification and Conquest, p. 97

17 G. Bosanquet, ed. & trans., Eadmer. History of Recent Events in England (1964), p. 6; Florence, ii, p. 20; Barlow, Norman Conquest, pp. 73–6, Barlow, William Rufus (1983), pp. 67–8

18 Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 126–31; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 671–80, 699; BT, plates 4, 17, 18; J. B. McNulty, ‘The Lady Aelfgyva in the Bayeux Tapestry’, Speculum 55 (1980), p. 659–68; M. W. Campbell, ‘Aelfgyva: the mysterious lady of the Bayeux Tapestry’, Annales de Normandie 34 (1984), pp. 127–45; D. J. Bernstein,The Mystery of the Bayeux Tapestry (1986), p. 19; D. M. Wilson, The Bayeux Tapestry (1985), p. 178; R. D. Wissolik, ‘The Saxon statement: code in the Bayeux Tapestry’, Annuale medievale 19 (1979), pp. 81–8

19 Carmen, p. 70; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 242; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 5581–604; 5673–724

20 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 134–7; Poitiers, pp. 102–7; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 220–1; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 115–19; H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Towards an interpretation of the Bayeux Tapestry’, ANS 10 (1987), pp. 49–65 (at p. 50)

21 Poitiers, p. 230; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 136; iii, p. 114; Barlow, William Rufus, op. cit., pp. 42–3; Tabuteau, Transfers of Property, op. cit., pp. 55, 122

22 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 228–47, 689–92

23 The complexity of feudal obligations can be reconstructed from pointers in a number of recent books: F. L. Cheyette, ed., Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe (New York, 1968); T. Reuter, ed., The Medieval Nobility (Amsterdam, 1978); W. Davies & P. Fouracre, eds, The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1986); George S. Duby, The Chivalrous Society (Berkeley, 1980)

24 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 252

25 Oleson, Witenagemot, op. cit., pp. 82–90

26 G. Bosanquet, ed. & trans., Eadmer. History of Recent Events in England (1964), p. 8; Richard D. Wissolik, ‘The monk Eadmer as historian of the Norman succession: Korner and Freeman examined’, American Benedictine Review 30 (1979)

27 ASC, 1065, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; Florence, i, pp. 222–3; W.J. Rees, ed., Lives of the Cambro-British Saints (Cardiff, 1853), pp. 153–4; A. W. Wade-Evans, Vitae sanctorum Britanniae et genealogiae (1944), pp. 184–6

28 ASC, 1065, ‘D’ version; Barlow, English Church, op. cit., pp. 131–2, 35, 156, 174–5; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 229, 233–4

29 Lives of Edward the Confessor, Rolls Series 3, p. 404; G. H. Pertz, ed. Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Hanover, 1909), 5, p. 66

30 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 245; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, Rolls Series 74, p. 196; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 262; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 560; P. H. Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Charters (1968), Nos. 1033, 1481

31 Dorothy Whitelock, ‘The dealings of the kings of England with Northumbria in the tenth and eleventh centuries’, in Peter Clemoes, ed., The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of their History and Culture presented to Bruce Dickins (1959), pp. 70–88; Hodgson Hinde, ed., Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Surtees Society, 51 (1868), pp. 212–13, 156–7, 91–3

32 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 380–1. For details on Cnut’s laws see Dorothy Whitelock, ‘Wulfstan and the laws of Cnut’, EHR 63 (1948), pp. 533–52; Whitelock, ‘Wulfstan’s authorship of Cnut’s laws’, EHR 69 (1954), pp. 72–85

33 ASC, 1065, ‘C’ version; Florence, i, p. 223; William Kapelle, The Norman Conquest of the North: the Region and its Transformation, 1000–1135 (1979), pp. 86–106 (esp. pp. 96–7); Whitelock, ‘Dealings’, loc. cit., pp. 72–87; VCH, Lancashire, i, p. 272

34 Symeon of Durham, Historia Ecclesiae Dunhelmis, ed. T. Arnold, in Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, Rolls Series 75 (1882), i, pp. 92, 97; Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, op. cit., p. 89

35 Geoffrey Gaimar, L’Estorie des Engles, trans. & ed. T. D. Hardy & C. T. Martin, Rolls Series 91, 2 vols (1888), 11. 5085–6; Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, pp. 90–1

36 Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia. Historia Ecclesiae Dunhelmenis, ed. T. Arnold, ii, p. 174; G. H. Pertz, ed., Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Hanover, 1866), 19, p. 508; Gaimar, L’Estorie, op. cit., 11. 5085–99; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, pp. 25–6

37 Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, ed. T. Arnold, op. cit., pp. 174–5: Gaimar, L’Estorie, op. cit., 11. 5115–22; H. W. C. Davis, ‘Cumberland before the Norman Conquest’, EHR 20 (1905), pp. 61–5

38 Symeon of Durham, Historia Regum in Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, ed. Hodgson Hynde (1868), pp. 91–3, 156–7, 212–13; Bertie Wilkinson, ‘Northumbrian separatism in 1065 and 1066’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 35 (1938), pp. 368–87; Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, p. 98

39 C. J. Morris, Marriage and Murder in Eleventh-century Northumbria, a Study of the ‘De Obsessione Dunelmi’ (York, 1992); Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, pp. 94–5; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 477–8; Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, p. 271; Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (1995), p. 69

40 Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, pp. 45–6, 269–72

41 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 54–7; Symeon of Durham, Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Colectanea, ed. Hodgson Hynde, op. cit., p. 156

42 Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 238; Stafford, Unification and Conquest, pp. 96–9

43 ASC, 1065, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 223; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, p. 479

44 Wilkinson, ‘Northumbrian separatism’, loc. cit., pp. 368–87; W. H. C. Davis, ‘Cumberland before the Conquest’, loc. cit.; Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, pp. 100–1

45 Symeon of Durham, Historia Ecclesiae Dunhelmensis, op. cit., pp. 87–9; W. M. Aird, ‘St Cuthbert, the Scots and the Normans’, ANS 16 (1993), p. 1–20

46 Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 479–84; M. W. Campbell, ‘Tostig displaced’, Annales de Normandie 23 (1973); cf. in general M. R. Godden, ‘Money, power and morality in late Anglo-Saxon England’, Anglo-Saxon England 19 (1990), pp. 41–65

47 ASC, 1065, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Vita Eadwardi, pp. 76–9; Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions (Oxford, 1962), op. cit., p. 16

48 Ian W. Walker, Harold the Last Saxon King (1997), pp. 110–14

49 Florence, i, pp. 223–4; Vita Eadwardi, pp. 78–81

50 Vita Eadwardi, p. 81; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 236–9; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 485–97. For the implications of the change in laws see Pauline Stafford, ‘The laws of Cnut and the history of Anglo-Saxon royal promises’, Anglo-Saxon England 10 (1982), pp. 173–90

51 Walker, Harold, op. cit., pp. 118–19; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 238–9

52 B. W. Scholz, ed., Sulcard of Westminster. Prologus de Constucione Westmonasterii, Traditio 20 (1964); Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 138; Poitiers, p. 146. For the list of those present see Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 244–6

53 Vita Eadwardi, op. cit; Barlow, ‘The Vita Aedwardi. The Seven Sleepers; some further evidence and reflections’, Speculum 40 (1965), pp. 385–97

54 Vita Eadwardi, pp. 123–5; Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, pp. 44–5, 273; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, p. 249

55 Poitiers, pp. 172–3, 266–8; Raymond Foreville, ‘Aux origines de la renaissance juridique’, Moyen Age 58 (1952), pp. 63–72; J. le Patourel, ‘The Norman succession, 996–1035’, EHR 86 (1971), pp. 231–6

56 Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, op. cit., pp. 20, 70; J. S. Beckerman, ‘Succession in Normandy, 1087, and in England, 1066; the role of testamentary custom’, Speculum 47 (1972), pp. 258–60; Ann Williams, ‘Some notes and considerations on problems connected with the English royal succession, 860–1066’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 144–67 (esp. p. 165); Poitiers, pp. 172–3

57 ASC, 1066, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 224; M. Rule, ed., Eadmer. Historia Novorum in Anglia (1884), p. 8; Jumièges, p. 133; W. Dunn Macray, Historia Ramesiensis, Rolls Series 83 (1886), p. 178

58 Jumièges, p. 133; Lives of Edward the Confessor, Rolls Series 3, pp. 433–4; F. Michel, Chroniques Anglo-Normandes (Rouen, 1840), ii, pp. 223–54; R. Drogereit, ‘Memerkungen zum Bayeux Teppick’, Mitteilungen des Osterreichischen Instituts für geschichts forschung 70 (1962), pp. 261–76 (at p. 264); Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 29–49, 576–97; Barlow, Edward the Confessor, pp. 254–5

59 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 49–61; Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith, pp. 272, 274; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 306

60 Florence, i, p. 228; William of Malmesbury, Vita Wulfstani, ed., R. R. Darlington (1928), i, pp. 16–23; J. H. F. Peile, ed. & trans., William of Malmesbury’s Life of St Wulstan (Oxford, 1934), pp. 34–5; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 61–7

9: Stamford Bridge

1 Jumièges, p. 133; Searle, Predatory Kinship, op. cit., pp. 193–229, 232

2 Poitiers, p. 149; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 140–1; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 5841, 6024, ii, pp. 103–9

3 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 262

4 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 122; Poitiers, p. 152

5 P. Jaffe, ed., Monumenta Gregoriana (Berlin, 1865), pp. 414–16; Catherine Morton, ‘Pope Alexander II and the Norman Conquest’, Latomus. Revue des Études Latines 34 (1975), pp. 362–82

6 D. C. Douglas, The Norman Achievement (1969); J. Le Patourel, The Norman Empire (Oxford, 1976); John Julius Norwich, The Normans in the South (1967)

7 L. Halphen, Le Comte d’Anjou au XIe siècle (Paris, 1906), p. 133; Korner, Battle of Hastings, p. 219; Lawson, Cnut, pp. 211–12

8 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6069–86, ii, p. 111

9 Ibid., vv. 6110–62, ii, pp. 112–14; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 293–9

10 Elizabeth van Houts, ‘The ship list of William the Conqueror’, ANS 10 (1987), pp. 159–83; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 379–83; C. Warren Hollister, ‘The greater Domesday tenants-in-chief’, in J. Holt, ed., Domesday Studies Novocentenary Conference (Wodbridge, 1987), pp. 219–48; P. Banbury, Man and the Sea: From Ice Age to Norman Conquest (1975), pp. 223–4

11 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6417–32, ii, p. 123; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 144; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 314; Poitiers, p. 180; BT, Plates 42–4; W. Spatz, Die Schlacht von Hastings (1896), pp. 28–30; J. Williamson, The English Channel. A History (1959), p. 83

12 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 134, 144–5; Poitiers, p. 190; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 7657–60; Spatz, Die Schlacht, op. cit., p. 27; Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, p. 577; R. H. George, ‘The contribution of Flanders to the conquest of England’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire 5 (1926), pp. 81–97; B. Lyon, From Fief to Indenture(Cambridge, Mass., 1957), p. 33; J. O. Prestwich, ‘War and finance in the Anglo-Norman state’, TRHS, 5th series, iv (1954), pp. 19–44; Stephen D. B. Brown, ‘Military service and monetary reward in the eleventh and twelfth centuries’, History 74 (1989), pp. 20–38; David Nicholas, Medieval Flanders (1992)

13 Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 228–36, 254; Jumièges, pp. 34–5; Poitiers, pp. 64, 78; Marcel Garaud, ‘Les incursions des Normands en Poitou et leurs conséquences’, Revue historique 37, pp. 241–68; R. H. C. Davis, ‘William of Poitiers and his history of William the Conqueror’, in The Writing of History in the Middle Ages. Essays presented to Richard Williams Southern (Oxford, 1981), pp. 71–100

14 George Beech, ‘The participation of Aquitanians in the conquest of England, 1066–1100’, ANS 9 (1986), pp. 1–24; J. Verdon, La chronique de Saint-Maixent, 751–1140 (Paris, 1979), pp. 104, 112, 170, 176, 192; Jane Martindale, ‘Aimeri of Thouars and the Poitevin connection’, ANS 7 (1984), pp. 224–43; Shirley Ann Brown, ‘The Bayeux Tapestry: why Eustace, Odo and William?’ ANS 12 (1989), pp. 7–28

15 Jumièges, pp. 193–4; C. Fahlin, ed., Chronique des ducs de Normandie, 2 vols (Upsala, 1854), ii, p. 489; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 312; A. de la Borderie, Histoire de Bretagne, 6 vols (Paris, 1914), iii, pp. 14–23; Douglas, William the Conqueror, pp. 408–15; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 714–16

16 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 138–42

17 E. Edwards, ed., Chronica monasterii de Hilda juxta Wintoniam, Rolls Series (1866), pp. 283–321 (at p. 292); Poitiers, p. 186

18 Monumenta historica Norvegiae, ed. G. Storm, op. cit., p. 56; Flateyjarbok, op. cit., iii, pp. 386–8; Morkinskinna, op. cit., p. 111; Agrip, op. cit., p. 41

19 Fagrskinna, op. cit., p. 281; Fornmanna Sogur, op. cit., v, p. 142; vi, pp. 402, 430; x, p. 407; Morkinskinna, p. 262; Heimskringla, p. 222

20 Fagrskinna, pp. 301–2; Fornmanna Sogur, vi, pp. 431–2; Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 398–9; Heimskringla, p. 223

21 ASC, 1066, ‘C’ version; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, i, pp. 194–6; Geoffrey Gaimar, Estorie des Engles, eds T. Hardy & C. T. Martin, op. cit., vv. 5191–4; A. O. Anderson, Scottish Annals from English Chronicles (1908), p. 87; Symeon of Durham, Opera Omnia (1885), op. cit., ii, p. 174

22 J. C. Russell, Late Ancient and Medieval Population (Philadelphia, 1958), pp. 96–8; Philip Contamine, War in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1984), p. 52; C. Warren Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions (Oxford, 1962), pp. 25–37; Poitiers, p. 156; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ed. W. Stubbs, op. cit., iii, p. 300

23 P. Lancaster-Brown, Halley and his Comet (Poole, 1985), p. 113; F. Stevenson & C. B. F. Walker, Halley’s Comet in History (1985), p. 57; Fauroux, RADN, No. 229; ASC, 1066, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 71–3, 645–50; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6905, 7897

24 Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 382–3; Fauroux, RADN, No. 224

25 G. M. Gillmor, ‘Navy logistics of the cross-Channel operation, 1066’, ANS 7 (1984), pp. 105–31; L. Musset, ‘A-t-il existé en Normandie au XIe siècle une aristocratie d’argent?’ Annales de Normandie 9 (1959), pp. 285–94

26 ASC, 1066, ‘C’ ‘D’ versions; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, i, p. 194; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 337; Gillmor, ‘Navy logistics’, loc. cit., p. 125

27 Poitiers, pp. 39, 182, 192, 194, 204, 260; Douglas & Greenaway, English Historical Documents, op. cit., pp. 237–8; D. C. Douglas, ‘Companions of the Conqueror’, History 28 (1943), pp. 130–47; J. F. A. Mason, ‘The companions of the Conqueror’, EHR 66 (1956), pp. 61–9; Brian Golding, ‘Robert of Mortain’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 119–44 (at p. 121)

28 R. N. Sauvage, L’Abbaye de Saint-Martin de Troarn (Caen, 1911), pp. 245–52; Poitiers, pp. 150–2; J. Verdon, ed., La Chronique de Saint-Maixeunt, 751–1140 (Paris, 1979), p. 136

29 Bernard S. Bachrach, ‘Some observations on the military administration of the Norman Conquest’, ANS 8 (1985), pp. 1–25; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6166, 6474, 6509, 6544, 6557, 6629, 7024; Poitiers, pp. 160, 164, 182; Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, op. cit., p. 8; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 172

30 C. H. Lemmon, ‘The campaign of 1066’, in C. T. Chevallier, ed., The Norman Conquest (New York, 1966), p. 85; J. F. C. Fuller, The Decisive Battles of the Western World (1954), p. 372; J. Laporte, ‘Les opérations navales en Manche et Mer du Nord pendant l’année 1066’, Annales de Normandie 17 (1967), pp. 9–10; Bernard S. Bachrach, ‘Cabalus et Caballarius in medieval warfare’, in H. Chickering, ed., Approaches to the Teaching of Chivalry (Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1986); Poitiers, p. 198; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6486, 6888, 7498, 7561; P. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, op. cit., pp. 69–70, 96–7; R. Allen Brown, ‘The status of the Norman knight’, in J. Gillingham & J. C. Holt, War and Government in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1984), pp. 28–9

31 Bachrach, ‘Some observations’, loc. cit.; Poitiers, pp. 160, 212

32 For Roger of Montgomery see Ordericus Vitalis, ii, pp. 20–2, 48, 210, 262; iii, pp. 136, 142; Jumièges, p. 322; David Howarth, 1066 (1977), p. 124

33 Poitiers, p. 160; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 389–93; Gillmor, ‘Navy logistics’, loc. cit.

34 ASC, 1066, ‘D’ version; J. Neumann, ‘Hydrographic and ship-hydrodynamic aspects of the Norman invasion, AD 1066’, ANS 11 (1988), pp. 221–43 (at p. 223)

35 J. Williamson, The English Channel. A History (1959), p. 80; Gillmor, ‘Navy logistics’, loc. cit.; Neumann, ‘Hydrographic aspects’, loc. cit.

36 Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, op. cit., vv. 53, 59, 63–4, p. 6; Poitiers, p. 160; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 170; J. Laporte, ‘Les opérations navales en Manche et Mer du Nord pendant l’année 1066’, Annales de Normandie 17 (1967), pp. 2–36; David Bates, William the Conqueror (1989), p. 65

37 Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 264–6

38 P. H. Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings (1971), pp. 66, 228; F. Lot, L’Art militaire, i, p. 283; L. M. Larson, Cnut (1912), op. cit., p. 177. Cf. also A. W. Brogger & H. Shetelig, The Viking Ships (1971); O. Olsen & O. Crumlin-Pedersen, Five Viking Ships from Roskilde Fjord (1970); I. Atkinson, The Viking Ships (Cambridge, 1979)

39 Heimskringla, pp. 223, 225; Marianus Scottus, Chronicon in G. H. Pertz, ed., Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores (Hanover, 1844), v, pp. 495–565; J. P. Migne, Patrologia Latina (Paris, 1853), op. cit., pp. 147, 623–796; Jacqueline Simpson, The Northmen Speak (1965)

40 James Graham-Campbell, ‘Anglo-Scandinavian equestrian equipment’, ANS 14 (1991), pp. 77–89; F. Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicilie, op. cit., i, pp. 90–2; CPB, ii, p. 211; Heimskringla, p. 224

41 Flateyjarbok, ii, p. 423; Orkneyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, p. 61; Orkneyingsaga, eds Palsson & Edwards, p. 73; Chronicle of Man, ed. Goss, 2 vols (Douglas, 1874), i, p. 50

42 Morkinskinna, p. 112; Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 389–90; Heimskringla, p. 225; Bjarni Adalbjarnarson, Om de Norsk. Kongers Sagaer (Oslo, 1937); Svenda Hoj, Studier over den eldste norrone historierskrivning (Copenhagen, 1965)

43 ASC, 1066, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, p. 196; John of Worcester, eds R. R. Darlington & P. McGurk (Oxford, 1995), ii, p. 602

44 Paddy Griffith, The Viking Art of War (1995), p. 101; F. W. Brooks, The Battle of Stamford Bridge (East Yorkshire Local History Society, 1956), p. 11; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 342; Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, op. cit., pp. 103–4

45 ASC, 1066, ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, p. 196; CPB, ii, pp. 192, 225, 227; John of Worcester, op. cit., p. 602; Heimskringla, p. 226

46 Florence, i, pp. 225–6. For York see A. P. Smyth, Scandinavian York and Dublin, 2 vols (Dublin, 1979); R. A. Hall, Jorvik, Viking Age York (York, 1979)

47 Brooks, Battle of Stamford Bridge, p. 12; Marianus Scottus, Chronicon in Pertz, ed. Monumenta, op. cit., v, p. 559; Ian W. Walker, Harold the Last Saxon King, op. cit., p. 160

48 R. Glover, ‘English Warfare in 1066’, EHR 67 (1952), pp. 1–18; R. H. C. Davis, ‘Did the Anglo-Saxons have warhorses?’ in S. C. Hawkes, ed., Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England (1989), pp. 141–4; Vita Haroldi, op. cit., pp. 156–7; W. Stubbs, ed., De Inventione (Oxford, 1861), op. cit., pp. 47–8; W. Stubbs, ed., The Foundation of Waltham Abbey (Oxford, 1861), p. 125

49 CPB, i, pp. 192–3; Monumenta Norvegiae Historica, ed. G. Storm, op. cit., pp. 56–7; Brooks, Battle of Stamford Bridge, p. 13

50 Fagrskinna, p. 286; Fornmanna Sogur, vi, p. 411; Morkinskinna, p. 115

51 Florence, i, pp. 225–6; John of Worcester, p. 602; Brooks, Battle of Stamford Bridge, p. 14

52 Geoffrey Gaimar, L’Estoire des Englais, ed. A. Bell (Oxford, 1960), vv. 522–4; J. Stevenson, The Church Historians of England, 5 vols (1858), ii, 2, p. 793; John of Worcester, p. 602

53 Fornmanna Sogur, x, pp. 407–8; Monumenta Norvegiae Historica, ed. G. Storm, op. cit., p. 57

54 Heimskringla, p. 230

55 Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, Rolls Series 74, pp. 199–200; Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Greenaway (1996), pp. 387–9; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, Rolls Series 90, ii, p. 81; B. Dickins, ‘The late addition to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1066’, Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society 5 (1940), pp. 148–9

56 Brooks, Battle of Stamford Bridge, p. 20; Paddy Griffith, The Viking Art of War, op. cit., pp. 191–3; I. Atkinson, The Viking Ships, op. cit., p. 26

57 Heimskringla, p. 232; Turville-Petre, Haraldr the Hard Ruler, op. cit., pp. 19–20

58 CPB, ii, p. 192–3; C. R. Unger, ed., Frisbok (Christiana, 1871), pp. 245–6; A. H. Burne, More Battlefields of England (1952), pp. 83–95

59 Flateyjarbok, ii, p. 423; Orkneyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, pp. 61–2; Brooks, Battle of Stamford Bridge, pp. 21–2

60 ASC, 1066, ‘D’ version; Plummer & Earle, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, p. 197; Fagrskinna, pp. 287–95; John of Worcester, p. 604

61 Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 168; D. Howarth, 1066. The Year of Conquest (1977), p. 106; Heimskringla, p. 233

62 Heimskringla, pp. 234–9; Fornmanna Sogur, vi, p. 143; x, p. 408; Morkinskinna, p. 122; Flateyjarbok, iii, pp. 399; ii, p. 423; Fagrskinna, p. 295; Monumenta Norvegiae Historica, ed. G. Storm, p. 58; Orkneyingsaga, Rolls Series 88, i, p. 383

63 Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 260–1; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 419–21; Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions (Oxford, 1962), p. 151

64 Gaimar, L’Estoire des Englais, op. cit., v. 5251; Brooks, Battle of Stamford Bridge, p. 16

65 Florence, i, p. 228; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, Rolls Series 90, ii, pp. 306–7; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 282–4

10: Hastings

1 Poitiers, pp. 160–2; Carmen, vv. 58–75, pp. 6–8; ASC, 1066, ‘D’ version; Douglas, William the Conqueror, p. 396; Neumann, ‘Hydrographic aspects’, ANS 11 (1988), pp. 221–43, loc. cit. (at p. 236)

2 Poitiers, p. 164; BT, Plates 9, 10; Christine Grainge & Gerald Grainge, ‘The Pevensey expedition: brilliantly executed plan or near disaster?’ Mariner’s Mirror 79 (1993), pp. 261–73; C. M. Gillmor, ‘Naval logistics of the cross-Channel operation’, ANS 7 (1984), pp. 105–31, loc. cit.

3 BT, Plate 10; Poitiers, p. 210; Carmen, vv. 601–11, p. 38; J. R. Lamby, The Chronicle of Henry Knyghton, Rolls Series 92 (1889), i, p. 54; J. Beeler, Warfare in England, 1066–1189 (Cornell, 1966), p. 12

4 ASC, 1066, ‘E’ version; J. Haywood, Dark Age Naval Power (1991), p. 4; R. Allen Brown, ‘The Battle of Hastings’, ANS 3 (1980), pp. 1–21; Stephen Morillo, The Battle of Hastings (Woodbridge, 1995), p. 202; Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1995), p. 19

5 William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 300; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6483–8, 6573–90, ii, pp. 127–8; R. Allen Brown, The Normans and the Norman Conquest, p. 133; A. Taylor, ‘Evidence for a pre-Conquest origin for the chapels in Hastings and Pevensey castles’, Château-Gaillard. European Castle Studies 3 (1969), pp. 144–51

6 Stephen Johnson, Late Roman Fortifications (Totowa, NJ 1983), pp. 204–6; Bachrach, ‘Some observations on the military administration of the Norman conquest’, ANS 8 (1985), pp. 1–25; Poitiers, p. 210

7 BT, Plate 51; Poitiers, p. 170; Elizabeth van Houts, ed., Gesta Normannorum ducum (Oxford, 1995), pp. 170–1; Carmen, vv. 137–8, p. 10

8 BT, Plate 50; Poitiers, pp. 168, 180; W. Spatz, Die Schlacht von Hastings (1896), pp. 23, 25; H. Delbruck, Geschichte der Kriegkunst im Rahmen des politische Geschichte (Berlin, 1920), iii, p. 160; J. F. A. Mason, ‘The Rapes of Sussex and the Norman Conquest’, Sussex Archaeological Collections 102 (1964), pp. 75–7; D. Matthew, The Norman Monasteries and their English Possessions (Oxford, 1962), pp. 19–21; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 728–9

9 W. Stubbs, ed., De Inventione, op. cit., pp. 48–9; Vita Haroldi, p. 127; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6983–7050; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 427–34

10 Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions, p. 151; Brown, ‘Battle of Hastings’, loc. cit.; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, pp. 202, 205; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 172

11 Ordericus Vitalis, Historica Ecclesiastica, ed. & trans. Thomas Forester (New York, 1968), i, p. 482; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 301; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 6905, 7743–4, 7897, ii, p. 173; Jim Bradbury, The Battle of Hastings (1998), pp. 167–8; J. A. Williamson, The English Channel (1959), pp. 72–80; C. H. Lemmon,The Field of Hastings (St Leonards, 1970), pp. 20–2

12 Poitiers, p. 180; Ordericus Vitalis, ed. Chibnall, ii, p. 172; Carmen, vv. 319–21, p. 20; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 433–7

13 ASC, 1066, ‘E’ version; Florence, i, p. 227; John of Worcester, p. 604

14 Domesday Book, ii, pp. 409, 449; Poitiers, p. 186; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, i, p. 182; J. Stevenson, ed., Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Rolls Series (1858), ii, p. 3; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 200, 260–1; Abels, Lordship and Obligation, op. cit., pp. 143–4, 179, 185; Clarke, English Nobility, op. cit., pp. 87–8; Freeman,Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 729–31

15 Elizabeth van Houts, ed., Gesta Normannorum ducum (Oxford, 1995), ii, p. 168; James Graham-Campbell, ‘Anglo-Scandinavian equestrian equipment in eleventh-century England’, ANS 14 (1991), pp. 77–89 (at p. 89)

16 BT, Plate 57; Jumièges, pp. 134–5; Poitiers, p. 180; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 172; Wace, Roman de Rou, ii, pp. 156–7; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 302; Williamson, English Channel, op. cit., p. 88

17 ASC, 1066, ‘D’ version; Nicholas Hooper, ‘The Anglo-Saxons at war’, in S. C. Hawkes, ed., Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989), pp. 191–202 (at p. 198); Jim Bradbury, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., p. 173; Brown, ‘Battle of Hastings’, loc. cit.; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, op. cit., p. 200

18 BT, plates 57, 63, 67; Jumièges, p. 135; Carmen, vv. 261–8, 314, 343–4, pp. 18–22; Williamson, English Channel, p. 79

19 Carmen, vv. 341–2, 363–8, 381–2, p. 24; ASC, 1066, ‘D’ ‘E’ versions; Florence, i, p. 227

20 Stephen of Rouen, Draco Normannicus, ed. R. Howlett (1885), ii, vv. 1415–20; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, pp. xxiii–xxx

21 Poitiers, pp. 192–4; Spatz, Die Schlacht von Hastings, op. cit., pp. 30, 33, 34–6; F. Lot, L’Art militaire et les armées au Moyen Age en Europe et dans le Proche Orient, 2 vols (Paris, 1946), i, p. 285; Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England (1955), p. 83; Fuller, Decisive Battles, op. cit., pp. 376–7

22 C. H. Lemmon, ‘The campaign of 1066’, in D. Whitelock, ed., The Norman Conquest: Its Setting and Impact (1966), pp. 77–122 (at p. 100); Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 7771–4, 8607–13; Florence, i, p. 227; Carmen, vv. 177–88, pp. 12–13

23 Poitiers, p. 182; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Greenaway, pp. 389–93; Eadmer, Historia Novorum in Anglia, ed. M. Rule (1884), p. 9; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 302; Brevis Relatio in J. A. Giles, ed., Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris (1845), pp. 1–23; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 7403–41

24 M. A. Lower, ed., Chronicon monasterii de Bello (1846), p. 4; Poitiers, pp. 182–4; Douglas, ‘Companions of the Conqueror’, History 28 (1943), pp. 129–47; J. F. A. Mason, ‘Barons and their officials in the later eleventh century’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 243–62; C. P. Lewis, ‘The early earls of Norman England’, ANS 13 (1990), pp. 207–23

25 BT, Plates 14, 44–6; Spatz, Die Schlacht, op. cit., p. 31

26 Carmen, vv. 395–402, p. 26; Gaimar, L’Estoire, ed. Bell (1960), op. cit., vv. 5261–300; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Greenaway, pp. 392–3; G. H. White, ‘The companions of the Conqueror’, Genealogists’ Magazine 9 (1944), pp. 417–24 (at p. 423); E. Faral, Les Jongleurs de France (1910), pp. 56–7

27 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 8035–43; P. Abrahams, ed., The Carmen of Baudri of Bourgeuil (Paris, 1926), vv. 405–8; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 302; D. C. Douglas, ‘The Song of Roland and the Norman Conquest of England’, French Studies 14 (1960), pp. 99–116

28 Poitiers, p. 188; Carmen, vv. 409–12, p. 26; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 8057–8, ii, p. 184; Spatz, Die Schlacht, p. 50; Douglas & Greenway, English Historical Documents, ii, pp. 226–9

29 Carmen, vv. 413–20, p. 26; Poitiers, pp. 188–90; Spatz, Die Schlacht, p. 50; David R. Cook, ‘The Norman military revolution in England’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 94–102 (at p. 98)

30 Carmen, vv. 421–4, p. 28; Poitiers, p. 190; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 174; Spatz, Die Schlacht, p. 52; Fuller, Decisive Battles, pp. 374–82; Stephen Morillo, ‘Hastings: an unusual battle’, Haskins Society Journal 2 (1990), pp. 95–104; Morillo, Warfare under the Anglo-Norman Kings, 1066–1135 (Woodbridge, 1994)

31 Poitiers, p. 190; Carmen, vv. 439–61, pp. 28–30; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, p. 169

32 BT, Plates 64–5; van Houts, Gesta Normannorum ducum, p. 168; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 176; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, p. 224

33 Carmen, vv. 439–44, 471–526, pp. 28, 34, 94; Poitiers, p. 192; BT, Plates 64–5; William of Malmesbury, ii, p. 302; Spatz, Die Schlacht, pp. 40–1; Fuller, Decisive Battles, op. cit., p. 376

34 J. France, ‘La Guerre dans la France féodale à la fin du IX et Xe siècles’, Revue belge d’histoire militaire 23 (1979), pp. 185–96; J. F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1877); Matthew Strickland, War and Chivalry: The Conduct and Perception of War in England and Normandy, 1066–1217(Cambridge, 1996), p. 130; Poitiers, p. 194; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 8189–208, ii, p. 190; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, pp. 302–3; Jumièges, p. 120; A. Fliche, Le Règne de Philippe I, roi de France (Paris, 1912), pp. 258–9; D. P. Waley, ‘Combined operations in Sicily, AD 1060–1078’, Papers of the British School at Rome 22 (1954), p. 123; F. Barlow, ‘The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio’, in K. Bourne & D. C. Watts, eds, Studies in International History: Essays presented to W. Norton Medlicott (1967), pp. 35–67

35 Spatz, Die Schlacht, op. cit., pp. 55, 61–2, 67; C. H. Lemmon, The Field of Hastings (St Leonards, 1956), p. 44; Lemmon, The Norman Conquest (1966), pp. 109–10; Hans Delbruck, Geschichte der Kriegskunt im Rahmen des politische Geschichte (Berlin, 1907), iii, p. 162; Alfred H. Burne, The Battlefields of England (1950), pp. 31, 42, 43; Eric John, ‘The Battle of Hastings’, in James Campbell, ed., The Anglo-Saxons (1982), p. 235; G. Köhler, Die Entwicklung des Kriegwesens und der Krieg Führung in der Ritterzeit von Mitte des 11 Jahrhunderts bis zu den Hussitenkriegen (Breslau, 1886), i, p. 39; John Beeler, Warfare in England, 1066–1189 (Ithaca, NY, 1966), pp. 21–2; R. J. Adam, A Conquest of England (1965), p. 127; Timothy Baker, The Normans (1966), p. 112; Denis Butler, 1066. The Story of a Year (1966), p. 246; C. W. Barclay, Battle, 1066 (1966), p. 81; D. J. A. Matthew, The Norman Conquest (1966), p. 84

36 Bernard S. Bachrach, ‘The feigned retreat at Hastings’, Medieval Studies 33 (1971), pp. 344–7; Brown, ‘Battle of Hastings’, loc. cit.; Brown, The Normans and the Norman Conquest, pp. 171–2; Fuller, Decisive Battles, p. 380; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, pp. 190–3, 212–13; G. Slocombe, William the Conqueror (1959), pp. 153–4; Alan Lloyd,The Making of a King (New York, 1966), p. 214

37 Jim Bradbury, The Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 198–9; Bernard S. Bachrach, ‘The Alans in Gaul’, Traditio 23 (1967), pp. 480–9; Bachrach, ‘The origins of Armorican chivalry’, Technology and Culture 10 (1969), pp. 166–71

38 BT, plates 66–7; Carmen, vv. 423–44, pp. 26–8; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 8079–111, 8189–208, ii, pp. 186, 190; Poitiers, p. 194; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 303; Brown, ‘Battle of Hastings’, loc. cit., p. 20; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Greenaway, pp. 394–5; P. Abraham, Les Oeuvres poétiques de Baudri de Bourgeuil, 1046–1130. Carmen (Paris, 1926), vv. 419–20

39 Carmen, vv. 527–30, p. 34; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, pp. 491–4; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, p. 161

40 Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 8139–59, ii, p. 188; BT, Plates 70–1; Poitiers, p. 196; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. Greenaway, pp. 394–5; J. Bradbury, The Medieval Archer (Woodbridge, 1985), pp. 22–32; Matthew Strickland, ‘Military technology and conquest: the anomaly of Anglo-Saxon England’, ANS 19 (1996), pp. 353–82

41 Spatz, Die Schlacht, p. 62; Poitiers, pp. 198–200

42 Carmen, vv. 531–4, p. 34; BT, Plates 71–2; Wace, Roman de Rou, vv. 8859–60; Poitiers, p. 202; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 304; Barlow, Norman Conquest, p. 211; Matthew Strickland, War and Chivalry, op. cit., p. 5; J. Flori, L’Essor de la chevalerie, XIe–XIIe siècles (Geneva, 1986), pp. 66–8

44 Carmen, vv. 551–8, p. 36; Poitiers, pp. 200–2; BT, Plates 72–3; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii, p. 501; R. H. Gordon, The Battle of Maldon: Anglo-Saxon Poetry (1970), pp. 332–3; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, p. 224

45 W. H. Stevenson, ‘Senlac and the Malfosse’, EHR 28 (1913), pp. 292–303; C. T. Chevallier, ‘Where was the Malfosse? The end of the battle of Hastings’, Sussex Archaeological Collections 101 (1963), pp. 1–13; Jim Bradbury, The Battle of Hastings, op. cit., pp. 208–11

46 Poitiers, pp. 202–4; Carmen, vv. 559–66, p. 36; van Houts, Gesta Normannorum ducum, pp. 168–70; E. Searle, ed., Chronicle of Battle Abbey (Oxford, 1980), p. 38; C. H. Lemmon, ‘Campaign of 1066’, loc. cit., pp. 97, 111–12

47 Carmen, vv. 573–6, p. 36; F. Michel, Chroniques Anglo-Normandes, op. cit., ii, p. 26; Freeman, Norman Conquest, ii, pp. 763–5

48 Douglas & Greenway, English Historical Documents, ii, p. 243; Poitiers, p. 204; Ordericus Vitalis, ii, p. 178; Carmen, vv. 577–96, pp. 36–8; also, ibid., pp. xliii–xlv; Cyril Hart, ‘William Malet and his family’, ANS 19 (1996), pp. 123–65

49 F. Lot, L’Art militaire (Paris, 1946), op. cit., i. pp. 284–5; F. Baring, ‘The battlefield of Hastings’, EHR 77 (1905), pp. 65–70; C. H. Lemmon, ‘Campaign of 1066’, loc. cit., pp. 100–1; Fuller, Decisive Battles, pp. 372–4; Korner, Battle of Hastings, p. 273; E. M. C. van Houts, ‘The Norman Conquest through European eyes’, EHR 110 (1995), pp. 832–53; van Houts, ‘The trauma of 1066’, History Today (1996), pp. 9–15; H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Ermenford of Sion and the Penitential Ordinance following the Battle of Hastings’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 20 (1969), pp. 225–42

50 Lynn White, Medieval Technology and Social Change (Oxford, 1962), p. 37; David R. Cook, ‘The Norman military revolution in England’, ANS 1 (1978), pp. 94–102 (esp. p. 100); R. Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonisation and Cultural Change, 950–1350 (1993), pp. 60–84; F. C. Suppé, Military Institutions on the Welsh Marches. Shropshire 1066–1300 (Woodbridge, 1994), pp. 1–33; C. W. Hollister, Anglo-Saxon Institutions, op. cit., passim

51 Florence, i, p. 228; William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum, ii, p. 306; Korner, Battle of Hastings, pp. 282–4; Morillo, Battle of Hastings, p. 225

52 Vita Haroldi, pp. 135–47, 168–73; Swanton, Three Lives of the Last Englishmen, op. cit., pp. 13, 38–40; M. Ashdown, ‘An Icelandic account of the survival of Harold Godwineson’, in P. Clemoes, ed., The Anglo-Saxons (1959), pp. 122–36; R. Wilson, The Lost Literature of Medieval England (1970), pp. 58–9; D. Rollason, Saints and Relics in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989); C. Kightly, Folk Heroes of Britain (1984), p. 110

Epilogue

1 N. Hooper, ‘Edgar the Atheling, Anglo-Saxon prince, rebel and crusader,’ Amglo-Saxon England 14 (1985) pp. 197–214; Florence, i. p. 228; William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, ii. p. 307; Freeman, Norman Conquest, iii. pp. 766–67

2 Ordericus Vitalis, ii. pp. 180, 218; William of Poitiers p. 210; Carmen, vv. 620–30; R. Allen Brown, The Origins of English Feudalism pp. 30–31

3 ASC, 1066, ‘D’ version; Ordericus Vitalis, ii. pp. 180–82; William of Poitiers pp. 212–16; J. A. Giles, ed. Lanfranc. Opera Omnia, 2 vols (Oxford 1844), i. p. 57; Clarke, English Nobility, op. cit. pp. 114–15; C. H. Lemmon, The Norman Conquest: its setting and impact (1966) pp. 116–22; J. Beeler, Warfare in England 1066–1189 (N. Y. 1966) pp. 25–33; E. H. Baring, ‘The Conqueror’s footprints in Domesday’, EHR 13 (1898) pp. 17–25; G. H. Fowler, ‘The devastation of Bedfordshire and the neighbouring counties in 1065 and 1066’, Archaeologia 72 (1922) pp. 41–50

4 William of Poitiers p. 220; Ordericus Vitalis, ii. pp. 182–84; J. Nelson, ‘The rites of the Conqueror’, ANS 4 (1981) pp. 117–32

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