Modern history

Part 2

Twenty-one: LOOKING FOR THE SHOSHONES

1. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 197.

2. Donald Jackson, Among the Sleeping Giants, p. 16.

3. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 140; Roy Appleman, Lewis and Clark (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975), p. 155.

4. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 140.

5. John Logan Allen, “Summer of Decision: Lewis and Clark in Montana, 1805,” We Proceeded On, vol. 8, no. 4 (Fall 1976), p. 10.

Twenty-two: OVER THE CONTINENTAL DIVIDE

1. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 143.

2. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 5 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988), p. 116.

3. Biddle edition of the Journals.

4. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 147.

5. Ibid., p. 154.

Twenty-four: OVER THE BITTERROOTS

1. Harry M. Majors, “Lewis and Clark Enter the Rocky Mountains,” Northwest Discovery, vol. 7 (April and May 1986), pp. 4–120, as quoted in The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, Gary Moulton, ed. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988), vol. 5, p. 186.

2. Quoted in James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 156.

3. Roy Appleman, Lewis and Clark (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975), p. 169. No matter how hungry, the Shoshones and the Salish never ate horsemeat. The Americans preferred not to but would if necessary.

4. Quoted in Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 157.

5. Lewis made the comment in a letter of Sept. 29, 1806, reprinted in Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 339.

6. Ibid.

7. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), p. 321.

8. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 5 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), p. 225; Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 159.

9. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 339.

Twenty-five: DOWN THE COLUMBIA

1. Verne F. Ray, “Lewis and Clark and the Nez Perce Indians,” The Great Western Series, no. 10 (Dec. 1971), pp. 1–2.

2. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), pp. 171–72.

3. Ibid., p. 178.

4. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 6 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), p. 104.

Twenty-six: FORT CLATSOP

1. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), pp. 202–3, has an extended discussion of this point. He goes further in condemning the captains for their attitude than I would.

2. Ibid.

3. Roy Appleman, Lewis and Clark (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975), p. 197.

4. Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986), pp. 258–60.

5. Ibid., p. 261.

6. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 218.

7. Cutright, Lewis and Clark, p. 398.

8. John Logan Allen, Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975), p. 324.

9. Ibid., p. 325.

10. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 336.

11. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, pp. 210–11.

Twenty-seven: LEWIS AS ETHNOGRAPHER: The Clatsops and the Chinooks

1. Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists, pp. 272–73; for a full discussion of Lewis and Clark with the Chinookans, see chapter six, “Cloth Men Soldiers,” in Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown, The Chinook Indians: Traders of the Lower Columbia River (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976).

Twenty-eight: JEFFERSON AND THE WEST

1. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, pp. 199–200.

2. Ibid., p. 209.

3. Ibid., pp. 201–2.

4. Ibid., p. 215.

5. Ibid., p. 216.

6. Ibid., vol. II, p. 215.

7. Ibid., p. 687.

8. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 153.

9. Ibid.

10. David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), p. 294.

11. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 688–89.

12. Ibid., pp. 259, 264–65.

13. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 214.

14. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 155.

15. Ibid., p. 689.

16. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, pp. 216.

17. Ibid., pp. 216–17.

18. Ibid., p. 217.

19. Ibid., p. 214.

20. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 245.

21. Ibid., vol. II, p. 691.

22. Edwin Morris Betts and James Adam Bear, eds., The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986 reprint of 1960 University of Missouri Press ed.), p. 275.

23. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 251.

24. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), p. 189.

25. Ibid., p. 189.

26. Ibid., p. 190.

27. Paul Russell Cutright, A History of the Lewis and Clark Journals (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976), pp. 13–14.

28. Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term, p. 190.

29. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 281–82, 286.

30. Ibid., pp. 290–91.

31. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 6 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), p. 86.

32. Arlen Large, “The Empty Anchorage: Why No Ship Came for Lewis and Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 15, no. 1 (Feb. 1989), p. 9.

33. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 650.

Twenty-nine: RETURN TO THE NEZ PERCÉ

1. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 7 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), p. 186.

2. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 225.

3. Moulton, ed., Journals, vol. 7, p. 348.

4. Ibid., p. 297.

5. Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986), pp. 297–99.

Thirty: THE LOLO TRAIL

1. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 236.

2. The letter, written on July 1 but dated July 20, is in Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, pp. 309–13.

Thirty-one: THE MARIAS EXPLORATION

1. Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986), p. 313.

2. Arlen Large’s comments on the manuscript, in author’s file.

3. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 239.

4. Ibid., p. 241.

Thirty-two: THE LAST LEG

1. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), pp. 392–94.

2. Quoted in Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (New York: Arno Press reprint, 1969), vol. VII, p. 347.

Thirty-three: REPORTING TO THE PRESIDENT

1. Verne Ray, “Lewis and Clark and the Nez Perce Indians,” The Great Western Series, no. 10 (Dec. 1971), has a brilliant discussion of Lewis’s plan.

2. David Lavender, The Way to the Western Sea: Lewis and Clark Across the Continent (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), p. 374. Lavender provides an excellent discussion of Lewis’s publicity program.

3. Donald Jackson, Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 361.

4. Allan Nevins, ed., The Diary of John Quincy Adams, 1794–1845 (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1970), pp. 25, 26.

5. Henry Adams, History of the United States of America During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Library of America Edition, 1986), pp. 751–52.

6. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), p. 200.

7. Lewis’s report is printed in its first draft and in its final form in Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 317–25.

8. Ibid., p. 391.

9. Ibid., p. 369.

10. Ibid., p. 330.

11. Quoted in Arlen Large, “Expedition Aftermath: The Jawbone Journals,” We Proceeded On, vol. 17, no. 1 (Feb. 1991), p. 13.

12. Ibid.

13. Quoted in Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (New York: Arno Press reprint, 1969), vol. VII, pp. 347–48.

14. Ibid.

15. James Ronda discovered this account of the ball at Christy’s in the October 11, 1806, Frankfort Western World and reprinted it in “St. Louis Welcomes and Toasts the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” We Proceeded On, vol. 13, no. 1 (Feb. 1987), pp. 19–20.

16. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 336–42.

17. Quoted in Thwaites, ed., Original Journals, vol. VII, p. 347.

18. Jefferson’s comments appear in Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 612.

19. Ibid., vol. I, p. 345.

20. Ibid., vol. II, p. 386; vol. I, p. 346.

21. Ibid., vol. I, pp. 348–49.

22. Ibid., p. 345.

23. Ibid., vol. II, p. 424.

24. Richard Oglesby, Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), p. 40.

25. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 351.

26. Ibid.

27. See Eldon G. Chuinard, “Thomas Jefferson and the Corps of Discovery: Could He Have Done More?,” American West, vol. 12, no. 6 (1975), pp. 12–13.

28. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 352.

29. Ibid., pp. 239, 356–58; vol. II, p. 694.

30. Ibid., vol. II, pp. 692–94.

31. Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term, p. 202.

32. Quoted in James Ronda, “A Knowledge of Distant Parts: The Shaping of the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History, vol. 41, no. 4 (Autumn 1991), p. 8. This is a seminal article.

33. Ibid., p. 9.

34. Donald Jackson, “The Public Image of Lewis and Clark,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Jan. 1966, p. 3.

35. Ronda, “Knowledge of Distant Parts,” p. 9.

36. Quoted in ibid.

37. We know this from Jefferson’s remark in a 1816 letter, in Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 612.

Thirty-four: WASHINGTON

1. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 361.

2. Ibid.

3. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), p. 203.

4. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), p. 276.

5. Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term, p. 204.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 375.

7. Ibid., p. 362.

8. Ibid., vol. II, pp. 364–69.

9. Ibid., pp. 377–78; see also Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term, p. 205.

10. Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term, p. 205.

11. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 443.

12. Ibid., vol. I, p. 376.

13. Ibid., p. 375.

14. Ibid.

15. Edwin Morris Betts and James Adam Bear, eds., The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986 reprint of 1960 University of Missouri Press ed.), pp. 298, 300.

16. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 382.

17. Ibid., p. 385.

18. Ibid., p. 386.

19. Ibid., p. 396.

20. Ibid., pp. 399–407.

21. Ibid., p. 387.

22. Ibid., pp. 387–88.

23. Ibid., p. 389.

24. Ibid., pp. 391–92.

25. Ibid., p. 389.

Thirty-five: PHILADELPHIA

1. Paul Russell Cutright, “Contributions of Philadelphia to Lewis and Clark History,” We Proceeded On, suppl. no. 6 (July 1982), p. 32.

2. Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (New York: Arno Press reprint, 1969), vol. VII, p. 363.

3. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, pp. 392–93.

4. Ibid., p. 463.

5. Ibid., pp. 394–97; Thwaites, ed., Original Journals, vol. VII, p. 366.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 695.

7. Ibid., p. 398.

8. Ibid., p. 463.

9. Cutright, “Contributions of Philadelphia,” pp. 23–24.

10. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 439.

11. Ibid., p. 411.

12. Ibid., p. 463.

13. Alexander Wilson, American Ornithology, 9 vols. (Philadelphia: Bradford & Inskeep, 1808–14), vol. III, pp. 31–32.

14. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 463.

15. Ibid., p. 462.

16. Ibid., pp. 408, 417.

17. Ibid., p. 428.

18. Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIV, The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri 1806–1814 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949), p. 131.

19. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 415.

20. Carter, ed., Territorial Papers, vol. XIV, p. 139.

21. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 418.

22. Ibid., pp. 393, 463.

23. Ibid., pp. 683–84.

24. Ibid., p. 575.

25. Ibid., p. 720.

Thirty-six: VIRGINIA

1. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, p. 721.

2. Ibid., pp. 431, 439.

3. Quoted in John Bakeless, Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery (New York: William Morrow, 1947), p. 384.

4. Ibid., p. 385.

5. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 720.

6. Bakeless, Lewis and Clark, pp. 384–85; Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 721.

7. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 725–32.

Thirty-seven: ST. LOUIS: March–December 1808

1. Washington Irving, Astoria (New York, 1868), pp. 154–55, quoted in Harvey Wish, “The French of Old Missouri (1801–1821): A Study in Assimilation,” Mid-America: An Historical Review, vol. XII, no. 3 (July 1941), p. 173. See also William Foley, “St. Louis: The First Hundred Years,” Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society, July 1978, p. 193.

2. Wish, “The French of Old Missouri,” p. 186.

3. Ibid., p. 174.

4. Thomas Maitland Marshall, The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 2 vols. (St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1926), vol. I, p. 241.

5. Ibid., p. 99.

6. Ibid., pp. 108, 114, 135.

7. Ibid., p. 300.

8. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 134.

9. Marshall, Bates, vol. I, p. 9.

10. Grace Lewis, “The First Home of Governor Lewis in Louisiana Territory,” Missouri Historical Society Bulletin, vol. XIV (July 1958), pp. 363–64

11. There is a copy of the indenture, dated May 13, 1809, in the Grace Lewis Miller Papers, National Park Service, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Archives, St. Louis.

12. Quoted in John Bakeless, Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery (New York: William Morrow, 1947), p. 391.

13. Marshall, Bates, vol. I, p. 301.

14. James Bentley, ed., “Two Letters from Meriwether Lewis to Major William Preston,” Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 44 (April 1970), pp. 170–75.

15. Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIV, The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri 1806–1814 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949), p. 189.

16. Carter, ed., Territorial Papers, vol. XIV, pp. 196–202.

17. Ibid., p. 204.

18. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 444–45.

19. Ibid.

20. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), p. 209.

21. There is a copy of his application in the Grace Lewis Miller Papers.

22. Missouri Gazette, Nov. 16, 1808.

23. ML to Lucy Marks, Dec. 1, 1808, copy in Grace Lewis Miller Papers.

24. Marshall, Bates, vol. I, p. 84.

25. Carter, ed. Territorial Papers, vol. XIV, pp. 212–16.

26. Ibid., pp. 219–21.

27. Ibid., p. 200.

28. Ibid., p. 222.

29. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), p. 298.

30. Carter, ed., Territorial Papers, vol. XIV, pp. 34–39.

31. Ibid., pp. 229–30.

32. Dillon, Lewis, p. 313.

33. Lewis’s account book is in the Missouri State Historical Society; there is a copy in the Grace Lewis Miller Papers.

34. James J. Holmberg, “ ‘I Wish You to See & Know All’: The Recently Discovered Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 18, no. 4 (Nov. 1992), pp. 7–9.

35. Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, p. 163.

36. Carter, ed., Territorial Papers, vol. XIV, pp. 240–41.

Thirty-eight: ST. LOUIS: January–August 1809

1. See Lewis’s 1808 book, in the Missouri Historical Society, for his descriptions of the pills and his practice in taking them.

2. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, pp. 446–50.

3. Donald Jackson, “A Footnote to the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” Manuscripts, vol. 24 (Winter 1972), p. 9.

4. Thomas Maitland Marshall, The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates (St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1926), p. 64.

5. Ibid., p. 112.

6. Ibid., pp. 108–9.

7. Ibid., p. 64.

8. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 450–51; there is a copy of the receipt from Pierre Chouteau in the Grace Lewis Miller Papers.

9. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 451–56.

10. Marshall, Bates, pp. 68–69.

11. Ibid., p. 73.

12. Ibid., p. 75.

13. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 722.

14. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), pp. 323–24.

15. Marshall, Bates, pp. 108–11.

16. Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIV, The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri 1806–1814 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949), pp. 285–86.

17. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 458.

18. Ibid., pp. 459–61.

19. Ibid., pp. 723–24.

20. Jackson, “Footnote,” pp. 11–12.

21. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 470–73.

22. Marshall, Bates, p. 86.

23. Ibid., pp. 99, 111.

24. Ibid., pp. 101, 111.

25. James J. Holmberg, “ ‘I Wish You to See & Know All’: The Recently Discovered Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 18, no. 4 (Nov. 1992), p. 10.

Thirty-nine: LAST VOYAGE

1. See Captain Gilbert Russell’s statement of Nov. 26, 1811, in Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, p. 573.

2. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), p. 328.

3. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 573.

4. Ibid., p. 748.

5. Ibid., p. 464.

6. Ibid., p. 573.

7. Ibid., p. 748.

8. Ibid., p. 466.

9. Dawson A. Phelps, “The Tragic Death of Meriwether Lewis,” William and Mary Quarterly, vol. XIII, no. 3 (1956), p. 317.

10. Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIV, The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri 1806–1814 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949), pp. 332–33.

11. Gary Moulton, “New Documents of Meriwether Lewis,” We Proceeded On, vol. 13, no. 4 (Nov. 1987), p. 7.

12. Phelps, “Tragic Death,” p. 317.

13. James J. Holmberg, “ ‘I Wish You to See & Know All’: The Recently Discovered Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 18, no. 4 (Nov. 1992), p. 11.

14. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 748.

15. Carter, ed., Territorial Papers, vol. XIV, p. 333.

16. This account is taken from Russell’s statement, in Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 574, and from Alexander Wilson’s interview with Mrs. Grinder, May 28, 1811, in Elliott Coues, ed., The History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 3 vols. (New York: Dover ed., 1987; reprint of 1893 Francis P. Harper 4-vol. ed.), vol. I, pp. xliv-xlvi.

Forty: AFTERMATH

1. James J. Holmberg, “ ‘I Wish You to See & Know All’: The Recently Discovered Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 18, no. 4 (Nov. 1992), p. 10.

2. Ibid.

3. Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. XIV, The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri 1806–1814 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949), p. 333.

4. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, p. 474.

5. Ibid., p. 575.

6. Ibid., pp. 591–92.

7. Vardes Fisher, Suicide or Murder? The Strange Death of Governor Meriwether Lewis (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1962).

8. Eldon G. Chuinard, “How Did Meriwether Lewis Die? It Was Murder,” We Proceeded On, vol. 18, nos. 1 and 2 (Jan. and May 1992).

9. “Rest, Rest, Perturbed Spirit,” We Proceeded On, vol. 12, no. 1 (March 1986).

10. Reimert Thorolf Ravenholt, “Triumph Then Despair: The Tragic Death of Meriwether Lewis,” Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 3 (May 1994), pp. 366–79.

11. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 730–31.

12. Donald Jackson, “A Footnote to the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” Manuscripts, vol. 24 (Winter 1972), p. 19.

13. Holmberg, “ ‘I Wish You to See & Know All,’ ” p. 11.

14. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 486.

15. Ibid., p. 469.

16. Paul Russell Cutright, A History of the Lewis and Clark Journals (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976), pp. 55–56.

17. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 493.

18. Cutright, Journals, p. 63.

19. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: Second Term (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), p. 212.

20. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 590.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!