Modern history

Notes

Part 1

One: YOUTH

1. Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia (Bridgewater, Va.: Green Bookman, 1932), pp. 22–23.

2. Rochonne Abrams, “The Colonial Childhood of Meriwether Lewis,” Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society, vol. XXXIV, no. 4, pt. 1 (July 1978), p. 218.

3. Jefferson’s biography of Lewis is reprinted in Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, p. 586.

4. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, vol. I of Jefferson and His Time (Boston: Little, Brown, 1948), p. 23; Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974), p. 36.

5. Abrams, “Colonial Childhood,” p. 219.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 591–92.

7. Ibid., p. 587.

8. Ibid.

9. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), pp. 8–9; John Bakeless, Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery (New York: William Morrow, 1947), pp. 8–13.

10. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 587.

11. Bakeless, Lewis and Clark, p. 13.

12. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 225.

13. Bakeless, Lewis and Clark, pp. 16–17.

14. Ibid.

15. Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, p. 390.

16. Woods, Albemarle County, p. 26.

17. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 587.

18. Abrams, “Colonial Childhood,” p. 224.

19. Dillion, Lewis, p. 12.

20. Bakeless, Lewis and Clark, p. 14.

21. Abrams, “Colonial Childhood,” p. 224.

22. Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, p. 40.

23. ML to Lucy Markes [sic], May 12, 1789, Lewis Papers.

24. ML to Lucy Marks, n.d., Lewis Papers.

25. ML to Rheubin [sic], March 7, n.y., Lewis Papers.

26. From “The Autobiography of Peachy R. Gilmer,” reprinted in Richard Beale Davis, Francis Walker Gilmer: Life and Learning in Jefferson’s Virginia (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1939) pp. 360–61.

27. Sarah Travers Lewis Anderson, Lewises, Meriwethers and Their Kin (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1938), p. 501.

28. Bakeless, Lewis and Clark, p. 24.

29. Dillon, Lewis, p. 15.

30. ML to Lucy Marks, Oct. 16, 1791, Lewis Papers.

31. ML to Lucy Marks, April 19, 1792, Lewis Papers.

32. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 225.

Two: PLANTER

1. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, vol. I of Jefferson and His Time (Boston: Little, Brown, 1948), p. 46.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid., p. 47.

4. Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974), p. 39.

5. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 5 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988), p. 118.

6. Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, p. 86.

7. Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia (Bridgewater, Va.: Green Bookman, 1932), pp. 39–40.

8. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), p. 16.

9. Woods, Albemarle County, p. 40.

10. Thomas P. Slaughter, The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 82.

11. Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, pp. 439–41.

12. John Hammond Moore, Albemarle: Jefferson’s County, 1727–1976 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), pp. 16–19.

13. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, p. 85.

14. Brodie, Intimate History, pp. 27, 192, 340.

15. John Chester Miller, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery (New York: Free Press, 1977), pp. 40–41.

16. Ibid., p. 8.

17. Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, p. 162.

18. Miller, Wolf by the Ears, p. 90.

19. Ibid., p. 181.

20. Winthrop D. Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), pp. 474–75.

21. Ibid.

22. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, p. 587.

23. Ibid., p. 589.

24. Ibid., pp. 587–88.

Three: SOLDIER

1. For a brilliant discussion, see Thomas P. Slaughter, The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

2. ML to Lucy Marks, Oct. 13, 1794, Lewis Papers.

3. Slaughter, Whiskey Rebellion, p. 213.

4. Ibid., pp. 215–17.

5. ML to Lucy Marks, Oct. 4, 1794, Lewis Papers.

6. ML to Lucy Marks, Oct. 13, 1794, Lewis Papers.

7. ML to Lucy Marks, Nov. 24, 1794, Lewis Papers.

8. ML to Lucy Marks, Dec. 24, 1794, Lewis Papers.

9. ML to Lucy Marks, April 6, 1795, Lewis Papers.

10. ML to Lucy Marks, May 22, 1795, Lewis Papers.

11. William B. Skelton, An American Profession of Arms: The Army Officer Corps, 1784–1861 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992), p. 40.

12. Ibid., p. 41; see also Norman Caldwell, “The Enlisted Soldier at the Frontier Post, 1790–1814,” Mid-America: An Historical Review, vol. 37, no. 4 (Oct. 1955), p. 201.

13. Skelton, American Professional, pp. 38–39.

14. Ibid., p. 44.

15. Ibid., p. 51.

16. Ibid., pp. 57, 59.

17. Ibid., p. 53.

18. ML to Lucy Marks, Nov. 23, 1795, Lewis Papers; on the fever, see Norman Caldwell, “The Frontier Army Officer, 1794–1814,” Mid-America: An Historical Review, vol. 38, no. 1 (Jan. 1955), p. 121.

19. Eldon G. Chuinard, “The Court-Martial of Ensign Meriwether Lewis,” We Proceeded On, vol. 8, no. 4 (Nov. 1982), pp. 12–15.

20. ML to Lucy Marks, Nov. 23, 1795, Lewis Papers.

21. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), pp. 21–23; John Bakeless, Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery (New York: William Morrow, 1947), p. 70.

22. Eldon G. Chuinard, “Lewis and Clark, Master Masons,” We Proceeded On, vol. 15, no. 1 (Feb. 1989), pp. 12–15.

23. See for example ML to Lucy Marks, June 14, 1797, Lewis Papers.

24. Dillon, Lewis, p. 23.

25. There is great confusion over the actual numbers; for a discussion, See William Murphy, “John Adams: The Politics of the Additional Army, 1798–1800,” New England Quarterly, vol. 52 (June 1979), pp. 234–49.

26. Skelton, American Profession, p. 24.

27. Bakeless, Lewis and Clark, p. 70.

28. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, p. 588.

29. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801–1805, vol. IV of Jefferson and His Time (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), p. 9.

30. Skelton, American Profession, pp. 24–25.

Four: THOMAS JEFFERSON’S AMERICA

1. Henry Adams, History of the United States of America During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Library of America Edition, 1986), p. 6.

2. Ibid., p. 13.

3. Ibid., pp. 43–44.

4. Thomas P. Slaughter, The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 70.

5. John Hammond Moore, Albemarle: Jefferson’s County, 1727–1976 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), p. 99.

6. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801–1805, vol. IV of Jefferson and His Time (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), p. 181.

7. Quoted in Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974), p. 487.

8. Adams, History, pp. 20, 52.

9. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. xi.

10. Winthrop D. Jordan, White over black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), pp. 27, 453.

11. John Chester Miller, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery (New York: Free Press, 1977), p. 226.

12. Adams, History, p. 101.

13. Ibid., p. 109.

Five: THE PRESIDENT’S SECRETARY

1. Donald Jackson, Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 3.

2. Ibid., p. 2.

3. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 118.

4. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 3.

5. ML to T. Gilmer, June 18, 1801, Lewis Papers.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 1.

7. Donald Jackson, “Jefferson, Meriwether Lewis, and the Reduction of the United States Army,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 124, no. 2 (April 1980), pp. 91–95. This article was the result of a brilliant piece of detective work by Dr. Jackson—scholarship at its absolute best. It was matched and possibly preceded by that of Theodore Crackel, but Crackel didn’t publish his work until 1987.

8. William B. Skelton, An American Profession of Arms: The Army Officer Corps, 1784–1861 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992), p. 73.

9. Jackson, “Reduction of United States Army,” p. 96.

10. Theodore J. Crackel, Mr. Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801–1809 (New York: New York University Press, 1987), p. 38.

11. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 121.

12. Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801–1805, vol. IV of Jefferson and His Time (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), pp. 40–41.

13. Ibid., pp. 38–39.

14. Edwin Morris Betts and James Adam Bear, eds., The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986 reprint of 1960 University of Missouri Press ed.), p. 202.

15. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 590, 592.

16. Malone, Jefferson the President: First Term, p. xiii.

17. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 677.

18. Ibid., pp. 678–81.

19. Henry Adams, History of the United States of America During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Library of America Edition, 1975), p. 130.

20. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 679–81.

21. Richard Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1965), p. 30.

22. Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974), pp. 321–22.

23. Malone, Jefferson the President: First Term, pp. 210–12; Adams, History, pp. 219–21.

24. Dillon, Lewis, p. 28.

Six: THE ORIGINS OF THE EXPEDITION

1. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 8.

2. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. II, pp. 654–55.

3. Ibid., pp. 655–56.

4. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, pp. 48–49.

5. Ibid., pp. 46–50.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 661–65.

7. Ibid., p. 667.

8. Ibid., p. 671.

9. Alexander Deconde, This Affair of Louisiana (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976), pp. 113–14.

10. Ibid., pp. 114–15.

11. On Mackenzie, see Arlen Large, “North and South of Lewis and Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 10, no. 4 (Nov. 1984), pp. 8–12; on the sextant, see Arlen Large, “Fort Mandan’s Dancing Longitude,” We Proceeded On, vol. 13, no. 1 (Feb. 1987), pp. 12–14.

12. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 94.

13. John Logan Allen, Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975), p. 178.

14. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 95.

15. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 16–17.

16. Allen, Passage Through the Garden, p. 73.

17. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 30.

18. Silvio Bedini, “The Scientific Instruments of the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” Great Plains Quarterly, Winter 1984, pp. 54–69.

19. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 5.

20. Ibid., p. 9.

21. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, vol. I, pp. 126–27.

22. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, pp. 18–19.

Seven: PREPARING FOR THE EXPEDITION

1. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 21.

2. Ibid., p. 44.

3. Ibid., p. 40.

4. Paul Russell Cutright, “Contributions of Philadelphia to Lewis and Clark History,” special issue, We Proceeded On, July 1982.

5. Carl Russell, “The Guns of the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” North Dakota History, vol. 27 (Winter 1960), pp. 25–33.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 42.

7. Ibid., p. 43.

8. Ibid., pp. 39–40.

9. ML to William Irvin, April 15, 1803, Lewis Papers.

10. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), pp. 136–37.

11. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 40.

12. Cutright, “Contributions of Philadelphia,” p. 3.

13. Ibid., p. 51.

14. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 48.

15. Ibid., pp. 48–49.

16. Cutright, “Contributions of Philadelphia,” pp. 16–17.

17. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 55.

18. Ibid., p. 50.

19. Ibid., p. 54.

20. Ibid., vol. II, pp. 680–81.

21. Ibid., p. 52.

22. Elijah Criswell, Lewis and Clark: Linguistic Pioneers (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1940).

23. Cutright, “Contributions of Philadelphia,” pp. 14–15.

24. Ibid., pp. 6, 12–13.

25. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 53.

26. John Logan Allen, Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975), pp. 97, 87.

27. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 54.

Eight: WASHINGTON TO PITTSBURGH

1. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 34.

2. Ibid., p. 35.

3. Ibid., pp. 32–33.

4. Ibid., pp. 61–66.

5. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 139.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 68, 76.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., p. 68.

9. Ibid.

10. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 138.

11. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 57–60.

12. Ibid., p. 114.

13. Ibid., p. 100.

14. Ibid., pp. 102–3.

15. Ibid., p. 107.

16. Henry Adams, History of the United States of America During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Library of America Edition, 1986), pp. 334–35.

17. Quoted in Floyd Shoemaker, “The Louisiana Purchase, 1803,” Missouri Historical Review, vol. 48 (Oct. 1953), p. 9.

18. Jackson, Letters, vol. II, p. 591.

19. Alexander Deconde, This Affair of Louisiana (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976), pp. 178–79.

20. Arlen Large, “Trailing Lewis and Clark: ‘The Spirit of Party,’ ” We Proceeded On, vol. 6, no. 1 (Feb. 1990), p. 14.

21. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 108–9.

22. Thomas Maitland Marshall, A History of the Western Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, 1819–1841 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1914), p. 14.

23. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 106–7.

24. Ibid., p. 110.

25. Ibid., p. 112.

26. Ibid., pp. 110–11.

27. Ibid., p. 113.

28. Ibid., pp. 115–16.

29. Ibid., pp. 121–22.

30. See Richard C. Boss, “Keelboat, Pirogue, and Canoe: Vessels Used by the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery,” Nautical Research Journal, June 1993.

31. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 122.

Nine: DOWN THE OHIO

1. Roy Chatters, “The Not-So-Enigmatic Lewis and Clark Airgun,” We Proceeded On, vol. 3, no. 2 (May 1977), pp. 4–7.

2. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 2 (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1986), p. 261.

3. Quoted in Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986), p. 45.

4. Moulton, ed., Journals, vol. 2, p. 35.

5. Paul Russell Cutright, “Meriwether Lewis’s ‘Coloring of Events,’ ” We Proceeded On, vol. 11, no. 1 (Feb. 1985), pp. 10–16.

6. Moulton, ed., Journals, vol. 2, p. 34. Paul Russell Cutright, “The Journal of Captain Meriwether Lewis,” We Proceeded On, vol. 10, no. 1 (Feb. 1984), pp. 8–10, makes a strong case for the proposition that Lewis had long lapses in which he did not keep a journal, without explaining why.

7. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 124.

8. Eldon Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), p. 175.

9. Robert Hunt, “The Blood Meal: Mosquitos and Agues on the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” We Proceeded On, vol. 18, no. 3 (May and Aug. 1992), p. 5.

10. Dr. Joseph DiPalma, quoted in Chuinard, Only One Man Died, p. 156.

11. Hunt, “Blood Meal,” pp. 7–8.

12. Ibid., p. 7.

13. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 117–18.

14. Ibid., p. 125.

15. Ibid., pp. 125–30.

16. Chuinard, Only One Man Died, p. 105.

17. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 131.

18. Ibid., pp. 136–38.

19. Roy Appleman, Lewis and Clark (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975), p. 52.

20. Olin D. Wheeler, The Trail of Lewis and Clark, 1804–1806 (New York, 1904), vol. I, p. 122.

21. Appleman, Lewis and Clark, p. 57.

22. Arlen Large, “ ‘Additions to the Party’: How an Expedition Grew and Grew,” We Proceeded On, vol. 16, no. 1 (Feb. 1990), pp. 4–7.

23. Arlen Large, “Lewis and Clark: Part Time Astronomers.” We Proceeded On, vol. 5, no. 1 (Feb. 1979), pp. 8–10.

Ten: UP THE MISSISSIPPI TO WINTER CAMP

1. Arlen Large, “ ‘Additions to the Party’: How an Expedition Grew and Grew,” We Proceeded On, vol. 16, no. 1 (Feb. 1990), p. 7.

2. Ibid.

3. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 142.

4. Ibid., p. 143.

5. Ibid., pp. 148–57.

6. Roy Appleman, Lewis and Clark (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975), p. 73.

7. Samuel W. Thomas, “William Clark’s 1795 and 1797 Journals and Their Significance,” Missouri Historical Society Bulletin, July 1969, pp. 277–95.

8. Richard E. Oglesby, Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), p. 30.

9. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 217–18, has the list.

10. Ibid., p. 144.

11. Ibid., p. 163.

12. Ibid., pp. 165–66.

13. Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986), pp. 41–42.

14. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 161.

15. Michael Brodhead, “The Military Naturalist: A Lewis and Clark Heritage,” We Proceeded On, vol. 9, no. 4 (Nov. 1983), p. 6.

16. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 173.

17. Appleman, Lewis and Clark, pp. 67–68.

18. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 167–68.

19. Appleman, Lewis and Clark, p. 73.

20. Patrick Gass, A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery Under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark, ed. David McKeehan (Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, 1958). p. 12.

21. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 176–77.

Eleven: READY TO DEPART

1. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 179.

2. Ibid., p. 173.

3. Ibid., p. 179.

4. Ibid., vol. II, pp. 571–72.

5. Theodore J. Crackel, Mr. Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801–1809 (New York: New York University Press, 1987), pp. 109–10.

6. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 189–90.

7. Ibid., pp. 192–95.

8. Roy Appleman, Lewis and Clark (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1975), p. 79.

9. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 196.

Twelve: UP THE MISSOURI

1. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 163.

2. Ibid., p. 186.

3. Quoted in Robert Hunt, “Gills and Drams of Consolation: Ardent Spirits on the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” We Proceeded On, vol. 17, no. 3 (Feb. 1991), p. 19.

4. Ibid., pp. 20–22.

5. Jackson, Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, p. 182.

6. Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986), p. 70.

Thirteen: ENTERING INDIAN COUNTRY

1. For a discussion, see Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986).

2. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 3.

3. Ibid., p. 7.

4. Ibid., p. 9.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., p. 189.

7. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, pp. 203–8.

8. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 19.

9. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), p. 167.

10. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 19.

Fourteen: ENCOUNTER WITH THE SIOUX

1. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 33. Ronda has a brilliant chapter on this event.

2. Ibid., p. 36.

3. Ibid., pp. 39–40.

Fifteen: TO THE MANDANS

1. Raymond Darwin Burroughs, The Natural History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1961), p. 236.

2. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), chap. 3, is an excellent description of the Arikara.

3. Ibid., p. 55.

4. Ibid., p. 63.

5. Ibid., chap. 4, is indispensable on the Mandans and Hidatsas.

6. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, pp. 213–14.

7. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 3 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), p. 241, n. 2, discusses Larocque. Larocque’s journal is printed in L. R. Masson, Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest (New York: Antiquarian Press, 1960 reprint), pp. 304–11.

8. MacKenzie’s journal is reprinted in Masson, Bourgeois, pp. 330–39.

9. Quoted in Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 88.

10. Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (New York: Arno Press reprint, 1969), vol. I, p. 227, n. 1; Masson, Bourgeois, p. 310.

11. Masson, Bourgeois, pp. 336–37.

12. Ibid., p. 330.

13. Thwaites, ed., Original Journals, vol. I, p. 227, n. 1.

14. See Lewis’s entry of Aug. 24, 1805.

15. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 93.

16. Masson, Bourgeois, p. 331.

Sixteen: WINTER AT FORT MANDAN

1. Arlen J. Large, “ ‘. . . It Thundered and Lightened’: The Weather Observations of Lewis and Clark,” We Proceeded On, vol. 12, no. 2 (May 1986), p. 8.

2. James Ronda, “A Most Perfect Harmony: Life at Fort Mandan,” We Proceeded On, vol. 14, no. 4 (Nov. 1988), p. 8.

3. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 109.

4. Ibid., pp. 100–103.

5. Ibid., p. 107.

6. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), p. 267.

7. Ibid., p. 268.

8. Ibid., p. 264.

9. For a discussion of food intake in the conditions facing the expedition, see Jim Smithers, “Food for Mackenzie,” We Proceeded On, vol. 15, no. 1 (Feb. 1989).

10. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians, p. 103.

11. Donald Jackson, ed., Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 172.

12. Donald Jackson, Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, p. 218.

Seventeen: REPORT FROM FORT MANDAN

1. Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, vol. 3 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), p. 333.

2. L. R. Masson, Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest (New York: Antiquarian Press, 1960 reprint), pp. 336–37.

3. James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark Among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 121.

4. The text I use here is Moulton, ed., Journals, vol. 3, pp. 336–69.

5. Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents: 1783–1854, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. I, pp. 222–23.

6. Moulton, ed., Journals, vol. 3, pp. 386–450.

7. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, p. 220.

8. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), pp. 271–72. Chuinard notes that the plant was widely known for its anti-snakebite properties among frontiersmen.

9. Jackson, Letters, vol. I, pp. 232–33.

Eighteen: FROM FORT MANDAN TO MARIAS RIVER

1. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), p. 43.

2. Ibid., pp. 158, 279; Gary Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), n. for April 24, 1805.

3. Chuinard, Only One Man Died, p. 24; Lewis’s entry of May 10, 1805.

4. Gary Moulton has an excellent chapter on the question of whether Lewis was a risk-taker, using this incident among others to argue that with Lewis reason won out over impulse, restraint over rashness. See “Lewis and Clark: Meeting the Challenges of the Trail,” in Carlos Schwantee, ed., Encounters with a Distant Land: Exploration and the Great Northwest (Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1994), p. 105.

5. Entry of May 30, 1805.

6. Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), pp. 194–95.

7. According to Moulton (n. 6 for entry of May 31, 1805), it was not a distinct species, as Lewis supposed, but a cross fox, a color phase of the red fox.

Twenty: THE GREAT PORTAGE

1. Eldon G. Chuinard, Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur Clark Company, 1980), p. 291.

2. Ibid., p. 290.

3. Ibid., p. 156.

4. Paul Russell Cutright, Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1969), p. 332.

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