Modern history

Reference Notes

ABBREVIATIONS

AHA

American Historical Association

AHR

American Historical Review

DAB

Dictionary of American Biography

DNB

Dictionary of National Biography (English)

GB Parl

The History, Debates and Proceedings of the Houses of Parliament

Morison, AP

Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of the American People

PRO

Public Record Office [London]

CHAPTER I “HERE THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA WAS FIRST ACKNOWLEDGED”

The most complete history of the Andrew Doria episode and the record of the supply of arms from St. Eustatius to the American rebels is by J. Franklin Jameson in “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” in AHR, July, 1903. See also Nordholt Schulte, The Dutch Republic and American Independence, 36-46; Melville; Edler; de Bruin; and Clark’s Naval Documents, which has a clear statement of all contents.

1 “DOUBTS AROSE”: Malmesbury introduction, 18.

2 “MOST EVENTFUL EPOCH”: ibid.

3 ROOSEVELT PLAQUE, “HERE THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE UNITED STATES”: The New York Times, December 9, 1939, p. 6, col. 7. The words can still be read on the monument.

4 “NINE CARTRIDGES TO A MAN”: Sparks, I, 146.

5 WASHINGTON, “WE ARE OBLIGED TO SUBMIT”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, IV, 27.

6 AT BUNKER HILL, BUTT ENDS: Jesse, II, 107.

7 CADWALLADER COLDEN, “CONTRABAND BETWEEN THIS PLACE AND HOLLAND”: q. Schulte, 35.

8 YORKE, “ALL OUR BOASTED EMPIRE”: ibid., 36.

9 PEPYS: full transcript, ed. Latham, Robert, entry of June 12, 1667, VIII, 261-2.

10 DUTCH RULERS ANNOUNCE SIX MONTHS’ EMBARGO OF CONTRABAND TO COLONIES: Edler, 26.

11 ENGLISH SHIPS TO SHOW “MORE VIGILANCE”: q. Schulte, 39.

12 PROPOSAL TO BLOCKADE YORKE’S RESIDENCE: Edler, 84.

13 KING GEORGE, “EVERY INTELLIGENCE CONFIRMS”: Sandwich Papers, I, 103.

14 HEYLIGER PROTESTS “IRREGULARITIES SO FLAGRANT”: q. Schulte, 38.

15 WIFE AS “STINGY AS SIN”: q. ibid., 38.

16 THE PORT IS “OPENED,” PROTESTED CAPTAIN COLPOYS: Clark’s Naval Documents, VII, 500.

17 “I AM ON THE BEST OF TERMS”: letter of November 19, 1776, in Maryland Archives, XII; Jameson, 690-91.

18 “NETHERLANDS ANTILLES WINDWARD ISLANDS”: Hartog, 168 and passim.

19 TWENTY-TWO CHANGES OF SOVEREIGNTY: ibid., 23.

20 ABRAHAM RAVENÉ, THE GOVERNOR ORDERED: Melville, 61.

21 CAPTAIN “MOST GRACIOUSLY RECEIVED”: Jameson, 691.

22 PARTY GIVEN FOR CAPTAIN ROBINSON: Clark, 616.

23 REPORTED IN PURDIE’S VIRGINIA GAZETTE: December 27, 1776, ibid.

24 ADMIRAL YOUNG’S PAINED “SURPRISE”: Clark, 485-8.

CHAPTER II THE GOLDEN ROCK

Chief sources for Chapter II, in addition to those for Chapter I, are, for the commerce of the Golden Rock, Boxer; for van Bibber, Maryland Archives.

1 SAID TO BE RICHEST ISLAND IN THE WORLD: Miller, 591.

2 BURKE’S SPEECH, “IT WAS DIFFERENT”: GB Parl, XXII, 220-21.

3 49,000 POUNDS OF GUNPOWDER: Jameson, 688.

4 ON A SINGLE DAY—FOUR SHIPS: q. Schulte, 35, nn. 36 and 37.

5 YORKE, “THE AMERICANS WOULD HAVE HAD TO ABANDON”: q. ibid., 36-7.

CHAPTER III BEGGARS OF THE SEA—THE DUTCH ASCENDANCY

For general Dutch history of the 16th and 17th centuries: Blok, Davies, Haley, Schama. For Dutch ascendancy and expansion of trade: in addition to the above, Boxer, Blok. For revolt of the Netherlands: in addition to the general histories, especially Davies, Geyl, Motley, Blok, Part 3, Schama.

1 “THE COUNTRY WHERE I AM”: to Abigail, letters of September 14, 15, 1780, Adams, Book of Abigail and John.

2 GREATEST TRADING NATION IN THE WORLD: Boxer, 27, 69.

3 ADMIRAL DE RUYTER ASTONISHED A FRENCH OFFICER: Haley, 37.

4 10,000 SHIPS: Palmer, 138; Mahan, Influence, 96.

5 PITT, “SUGAR, EH?”: Mintz, 156.

6 “BUNCH OF BEGGARS”: Motley, I, 160.

7 COUNCIL OF BLOOD: Boxer, 9.

8 “ODIOUS PERSONAGE”: q. G. P. Gooch, History and Historians in the 19th Century, Boston, 1965, p. 387.

9 “IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO HOPE”: q. in a Memorial to the late Carl Friedrich by a Committee of the Department of Government, Harvard University, Harvard Gazette, February 7, 1986. This striking statement was a favorite of Professor Friedrich of Harvard and he liked to repeat it to his classes. The only published version the author has found is in slightly altered words in The Oxford Book of Quotations, p. 1489.

10 SIEGE OF LEYDEN: Motley, II, 363-582. (This and other major events of the revolt will be found in the several Dutch histories of the period.)

11 WILLIAM’S PROPOSAL TO OPEN THE DIKES: Davies, II, 10.

12 CHOSE THE UNIVERSITY: Davies, II, 15.

13 OATH OF ABJURATION: Geyl, 183; Davies, II, 100 ff.

14 COUNCILOR OF FRIESLAND EXPIRES ON TAKING OATH: Davies, II, 111.

15 HANDS ON A CRUCIFIX: see the picture by Ter Borch reproduced in Haley, 112-13.

16 ON PIERRE BAYLE: Palmer, 276.

17 “AN IDEAL SOCIETY”: Haley, 172.

CHAPTER IV “THE MADDEST IDEA IN THE WORLD”—AN AMERICAN NAVY

For origins of the American navy, sources are: Morison, Jones; Morison, History; and Bancroft, V, 410 ff. For Greathead correspondence: Schulte, Edler, and Clark. For the Continental Flag: Lorenz, Burch. For Baltimore Hero, the protests of Greathead, Colpoys, and Admiral Young, and de Graaff’s hearings by the West India Company: Melville, Schulte.

1 WASHINGTON’S CREATION OF THE NAVY: Morison, Jones, 35.

2 WASHINGTON ASKS FOR ARMED SHIP TO GO TO BERMUDA: Fitzpatrick, Writings, III, 386.

3 SAMUEL CHASE, “MADDEST IDEA IN THE WORLD”: October 7, 1775, Journals of Continental Congress, I—III, 485.

4 GEORGE WYTHE, “NO MARITIME POWER”: October 21, 1775, ibid., 500.

5 “YOU HAVE BEGUN TO BURN OUR TOWNS,” BENJAMIN FRANKLIN TO WILLIAM STRAHAN, JULY 5, 1775: The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, XXII, New Haven and London, 1982, p. 85.

6 ESEK HOPKINS, “A PACK OF DAMN FOOLS”: q. Morison, Jones, 34.

7 MARGARET MANNY RECEIVED 49 YARDS: the order for red-and-white-striped bunting survives in James Wharton’s Day Book, now in the State Library, Hartford, Connecticut; Lorenz, 58.

8 NEW FLAG RAISED BY JONES: Lorenz, 58.

9 FIGHT WITH THE GLASGOW: Morison, Jones, 47-52.

10 “AWAY CAME POOR GLASGOW”: q. Lorenz, 70.

11 CAPTAIN BIDDLE, “A MORE IMPRUDENT”: q. Morison, Jones, 52.

12 CAPTAIN ROBINSON’S SEALED ORDERS: Burch, 4; Melville, 59-60. For incident of salute, Melville, 71-3.

13 CAPTAIN ROBINSON DIPPED HIS FLAG: Hartog, 71.

14 RAVENÉ ORDERED TO RESPOND: Burch, 4; Melville, 61.

15 BIDDLE ORDERED TO SALUTE OTHER FORTS: Clark, 1210.

16 NAVAL REGULATIONS FOR ACTION AT SEA: Morison, Jones, 38.

CHAPTER V BUCCANEER—THE BALTIMORE HERO

See references for Chapter IV.

1 BALTIMORE HERO CAPTURES THE MAY: Hartog, 73; Maclay, 133; Schulte, 45.

2 CORRESPONDENCE ON BALTIMORE HERO OF GREATHEAD, YOUNG, VAN BIBBER: Melville, 62; Prescott, 2; fully documented in Edler, 245; Clark, 673; Schulte, 41-5; Young to de Graaff, December 14, 1776, Clark, 486.

3 GREATHEAD ACCUSATIONS: Melville, 62 et seq.; Clark, 507-9.

4 DE GRAAFF SUBJECT TO SEASICKNESS: Schulte, 13; PRO, Admiralty, 1/309, 31/336.

5 “A DISEASE WHICH RECEIVES NO PITY”: Anonymous, 32.

6 DE GRAAFF’S REPLY TO CHARGES AT HEARINGS: Clark, 501, 524-5; Schulte, 41-5.

7 TROTTMAN’S TESTIMONY: Clark, 485.

8 COMMITTEE ACCEPTS HIS DEFENSE: Jameson, 695.

9 182 SHIPS IN THIRTEEN MONTHS: ibid., 686.

10 ADAMS ON INCREASE: August 4, 1779, Adams, Works, VII, 104; Edler, 61-2.

11 TWO PRIVATEERS NAMED FOR DE GRAAFF AND WIFE: MUNDY, II, 46.

12 F. W. CRAGIN COMMISSIONS PORTRAIT: Donor was F. W. Cragin, who lived in Surinam as U.S. Consul to Paramaribo. The portrait of de Graaff, by an unknown painter, was commissioned by his brother, Paul Cragin, and donated in 1837 to New Hampshire, the Cragins’ native state. Letter to author from Visitors Center of State House, Concord, N.H.

13 YORKE ADDRESSES NETHERLANDS AS BOSTON: Adams, Works, VII, 329.

14 BRUNSWICK, “MOST INSOLENT AND IMPROPER”: q. Edler, 50.

15 “WRATH WITHOUT POWER”: q. Schulte, 43.

16 YORKE “RAISED A VIOLENT FERMENTATION”: to Sir William Eden, March 7, 1777: Edler, 51; Schulte, 21.

17 ISSUE OF UNLIMITED CONVOY: Schulte, 70-2.

18 ALL MEN OF SUBSTANCE “SEEMED TO SHUDDER”: Adams, Works, VII, 523.

CHAPTER VI THE DUTCH AND THE ENGLISH: ANOTHER WAR

For Dutch conditions, the major source is Schulte, on the political structure, especially Blok. Personalities of William V and the Duke of Brunswick are drawn by two observers, Malmesbury and Wraxall.

1 THE CONSTITUTION WAS “SO COMPLICATED AND WHIMSICAL A THING”: Adams, Works, VII, 507.

2 VAN BLEISWIJK: Schulte, prologue; van Loon, 297; Adams, Works, VII, 618.

3 “WHILE THE BURGHER IS SMALL”: q. Boxer, 33.

4 DE WITT, “THE PERFECT HOLLANDER”: ibid.

5 WILLIAM CARR, “SURPASS ALL OTHER CITIES”: q. Haley, 156.

6 WILLIAM II OPPOSED TERMS WITH SPAIN: Blok, IV, 142.

7 MACAULAY ON SILESIA: Macaulay, “Frederick the Great,” Critical and Historical Essays, II, 117.

8 BRUNSWICK MANIFESTO: James Robinson and Charles Beard, Readings in Modern European History, Boston, 1908, I, 292-4.

9 SECRET ACT OF ADVISERSHIP: Schama, 36.

10 ON BRUNSWICK, “I HAVE RARELY SEEN”: Wraxall, 78.

11 PRINCE-STADTHOLDER’S “CONSTITUTIONAL SOMNOLENCY”: ibid., 75.

12 ON FREDERIKA SOPHIA, “WELL-EDUCATED”: Blok, V, 152.

13 “NOT EVEN GO TO PARADISE”: Malmesbury, II, 95.

14 ON WILLIAM V, “HIS UNDERSTANDING WAS CULTIVATED”: Wraxall, 75.

15 WILLIAM V WISHED HIS FATHER HAD NEVER BECOME STADTHOLDER: Schama, 57.

16 “I WISH I WERE DEAD”: q. Schulte, 14.

17 TWENTY-FOUR SHIPS DISCUSSED FOR SEVEN YEARS: Blok, V, 61-2.

18 ON DECLINE: Blok, V, 146 ff., and VI, 188-92; Schulte, prologue, 3-17.

19 YORKE, “MERCHANTS OR MONEY GETTERS”: q. Schulte, 6.

20 JOHANN HERDER, HOLLAND “IS SINKING”: ibid., 7-8.

21 ADAMS DISENCHANTED, “THIS COUNTRY IS INDEED”: Adams, Works, VII, 418-19.

22 HERMAN COLENBRANDER ACKNOWLEDGED THE URGE: q. Schulte, 6.

23 WALPOLE, “A TERRESTRIAL PARADISE”: to Mann, May 18, 1782, Corres., XXV.

24 ON VAN DER CAPELLEN: van Loon, 200; Schulte, 21-31.

25 “A LAFAYETTE WITH AN EVEN LIGHTER HEAD”: q. Schulte, 22.

26 SCOTS BRIGADE: Schama, 37; van Loon, 185; Blok, V, 158.

27 VAN DER CAPELLEN’S SPEECH ON SCOTS BRIGADE: Schulte, 26; Edler, 32.

28 COLPOYS PROTESTS SALUTE OF THE AMERICAN VESSELS: Clark, 586-8.

29 THE BRIG SMACK AND BRIG BETSY AND CARGOES: Augur, 23.

30 YORKE, “TO RESTORE THE APPEARANCE”: to Suffolk, May 29, 1778, q. Edler, 101.

31 “MULTIPLY LIKE SAND”: the phrase was used by Desnoyers, French chargé at The Hague to Vergennes, September 10, 1776, q. Edler, 22, n. 1.

32 “A DESULTORY RAGE OF A FEW ENTHUSIASTS”: September 25, 1780, q. Smith, John Adams, I, 483.

33 BUFFON, “NIGGARDLY SKY AND UNPROLIFIC LAND”: q. Schulte. This and other statements of the time about Americans and America by European travelers and pseudo-scientific writers are quoted in Schulte, 133-40.

34 UNLIMITED CONVOY: Boxer, 112-15; Blok, V, 164-8.

35 VAUGUYON, A POLICY OF EASE AND QUIET: Edler, 20, n. 1.

36 FIELDING-BYLANDT COMBAT: Blok, V, 165-6.

37 MARINE COMMITTEE’S PLANS FOR JONES: Morison, Jones, 76-7.

38 FIGHT OF BONHOMME RICHARD AND SERAPIS: Whipple, 48-9; Lorenz, 288 et seq.

39 YORKE’S ACCESS TO SECRET CORRESPONDENCE: Edler, 17, n. 3.

40 BANCROFT AS “SUPREME SPY”: Augur, 136.

41 JONES REPORTS THE DUTCH PEOPLE ARE FOR US: q. Schama, 62.

42 YORKE’S PROTESTS ON PRESENCE OF JONES: q. Schulte, 72-3; Lorenz, 320.

43 “A THOUGHT STRUCK ME YESTERDAY,” YORKE WROTE TO THE ADMIRALTY: q. Lorenz, 327.

44 JONES, “DRAWBRIDGES HAULED UP OR LET DOWN AT OUR DISCRETION”: q. Schulte, 73.

45 THE DE NEUFVILLE OR SECRET TREATY: Augur, 322; Bemis, 289 ff.

46 WILLIAM V WOULD RESIGN AS STADTHOLDER RATHER THAN ACCEPT THE TREATY: Schulte, 63.

47 SECRET TREATY BECOMES PUBLICLY KNOWN: van Loon, 221, 252 ff.

48 CATHERINE II AND THE NEUTRALITY LEAGUE: de Madariaga, 383-5.

49LA MARIÉE EST TROP BELLE. ON VEUT ME TROMPER”: q. Haslip, 278.

50 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, “EVERY NATION IN EUROPE”: Committee of Secret Correspondence, March 12, 1977, q. Edler, 9.

51 FIVE PRINCIPLES OF NEUTRALITY: Bemis, 152 ff.

52 CABINET MEETING AT WHICH LORD NORTH FELL ASLEEP: Mackesy, 378-9.

53 MALMESBURY, “UNGRATEFUL DIRTY SENSELESS BOORS”: to Sir Robert Keith, November 29, 1780, Malmesbury, Diaries, I, 345.

54 LAURENS LOSES DE NEUFVILLE TREATY OVERBOARD: Blok, V, 168; Schulte, 148.

55 STORMONT TO YORKE, “EQUIVALENT TO ACTUAL AGGRESSION”: q. Schulte, 149.

56 LAURENS PAPERS WOULD GIVE “PROPEREST DIRECTION TO THE WAR”: ibid.

57 PUBLICATION WOULD “OCCASION A WONDERFUL ALARM”: ibid.

58 YORKE DEMANDS PUNISHMENT OF VAN BERCKEL ET AL.: Schulte, 150; Blok, V, 168.

59 ADAMS REPORTS YORKE TREATING AMSTERDAM AS BOSTON: q. Schulte, 150.

60 ADAMS, “A VIOLENT STRUGGLE” IN THE REPUBLIC: to Congress, December 25, 1780, Adams, Works, VII, 346-7.

61 DUTCH JOIN THE LEAGUE: Blok, V, 168-9; Madariaga, 238.

62 LORD NORTH’S SPEECH ANNOUNCING THE WAR: January 25, 1781, GB Parl.

CHAPTER VII ENTER ADMIRAL RODNEY

Correspondence and remarks by and about Admiral Rodney not cited are from the biographies by Mundy and Spinney; on conditions under sail: Whipple; Mahan, Types; Morison, Jones.

1 RODNEY RECEIVES ORDERS JANUARY 27 TO TAKE ST. EUSTATIUS: Mahan, Types, 217.

2 “FIRST OBJECTS OF ATTACK”: Spinney, 360, q. from Sandwich Papers, IV, 128.

3 GREAT “QUANTITIES OF PROVISIONS … LAID UP THERE”: Mundy, II, 8.

4 ATTACK ON EUSTATIUS “A MOST PROFOUND SECRET”: ibid., 15.

5 RODNEY DEMANDS “INSTANT SURRENDER”: ibid., 12-13.

6 “MORE DETRIMENTAL”: Rodney to Sandwich, February 7, 1781, Sandwich Papers, IV, 148.

7 RODNEY ENTERS ST. EUSTATIUS FLYING FRENCH FLAG: Miller, 591.

8 RODNEY’S CONFISCATIONS: Hartog, chap. 9; Jameson, 700 et seq.; Augur, 323; Larrabee, 165.

9 SINGLES OUT THE JEWS: Hartog, 88; Jameson, 705; Hannay, 154.

10 RODNEY ON DE GRAAFF AS “FIRST MAN WHO INSULTED THE BRITISH FLAG”: to Stephens, March 6, 1781, q. Mundy, II, 46.

11 DE GRAAFF SEIZED AND SENT AS PRISONER TO BRITAIN: Mundy, II, 46.

12 TRADING WITH THE ENEMY: Augur, 53.

13 MERCHANTS’ PAPERS DEPOSITED WITH LORD GEORGE GERMAIN: Spinney, 420; MacIntyre, 163.

14 PAPERS MISSING AFTER THE WAR: Augur, 325; Larrabee, 168.

15 WIFE WRITES, “JOY TO YOU, MY DEAR SIR GEORGE”: March 17, 1781, Mundy, II, 50-1.

16 ADAMS REPORTS “GLOOM AND TERROR” IN THE NETHERLANDS: Adams, Works, VII, 523.

17 RODNEY, “LOSS TO HOLLAND … GREATER THAN CAN BE CONCEIVED”: Mundy, II, 15-16.

18 BURKE’S SPEECH ON CRUELTY AND OPPRESSION OF RODNEY: debate November 30, 1781, GB Parl.

19 GERMAIN’S DEFENSE OF RODNEY: ibid.

20 CHARLES JAMES FOX’S SPEECH: ibid.

21 DEFENSE BY LORD ADVOCATE OF SCOTLAND: ibid.

22 RODNEY, “NEST OF VIPERS”: Mundy, II, 29.

23 RODNEY, “THEY DESERVE SCOURGING”: to Germain, q. Jameson, 702.

24 RODNEY’S LOSS: Larrabee, 167-8; Jameson, 707, 708n.

25 RODNEY AND VAUGHAN WILL LEAVE THE ISLAND “A MERE DESERT … THIS ROCK … HAS DONE ENGLAND MORE HARM,” APRIL 23, 1781: Mundy, II, 97.

26 A FAMILY OF GREATER ANTIQUITY THAN FAME: Hannay, I.

27 KING GEORGE I AS GODFATHER: Hannay, 4; Spinney, 19, declares this claim is a myth.

28 WRAXALL, “TWO PASSIONS HIGHLY INJURIOUS”: Wraxall, 130.

29 WALPOLE, THE PRINCESS AMELIA AND “LITTLE MISS ASHE”: to Montagu, June 23, 1750, Walpole, Corres., IX, 106, n. 13; Wraxall, 130.

30 RODNEY, “MAKING HIMSELF FREQUENTLY THE THEME OF HIS OWN DISCOURSE”: Wraxall, 130.

31 “HIS PERSON WAS MORE ELEGANT”: ibid.

32 “THE MOST ENTERPRISING AND IRASCIBLE”: Valentine, Establishment, II, 747.

33 ADMIRAL KING: Hough, 219.

34 ADMIRAL HYDE PARKER, LESTOCK, MATHEWS, D’ESTAING AND OTHERS WHO WERE IRASCIBLE: Lestock and Mathews, MacIntyre, 20; Hyde Parker and d’Estaing, Lewis, C. L., 71-80.

35 DE GRASSE ADMINISTERED “SHARPEST REPROACHES”: Tornquist, 42.

36 SANDWICH, “NO SET OF MEN UNDERSTAND THESE MATTERS SO ILL”: q. Martelli, 23.

37 “CHARMING MARITIME ILL-TEMPER”: Anonymous, 63.

38 ADMIRAL MAHAN ON NEED OF EDUCATION: Mahan, Influence, 267.

39 HAKLUYT, CHARLES V WITH “GREAT FORESIGHT”: Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffics, and Discoveries of the English Nation, Glasgow, 1903, I, 34-5.

40 ENGLISH LOOT AT FINISTERRE: Lewis, C. L., 24-7; MacIntyre, 27.

41 FIGHT OF THE GLOIRE AT FINISTERRE: Lewis, C. L., 24-6.

42 PRIZE LAW ON DIVISION OF LOOT AMONG OFFICERS: MacIntyre, 26; Morison, Jones, 68.

43 RODNEY’S SHARE WAS £8,165: Spinney, 80.

44 LOOT AT HAVANA: Lewis, C. L., 69.

45 BRITISH NAVAL APPROPRIATIONS CUT: Kennedy, 109.

46 FRENCH NAVAL THEORY, ADMIRAL GRIVEL QUOTED: q. Mahan, Influence, 289.

47 NELSON’S VICTORY REQUIRED 2,500 TREES: Whipple, 17.

48 CONDUCT OF GUNNERY: Morison, Jones, 41-2.

49 GUN CREWS COULD FIRE ONCE EVERY TWO MINUTES: Whipple, 30.

50 MANAGEMENT OF SAIL: Morison, Jones, 58; Larrabee, 7.

51 M. MAUREPAS, PIFF POFF: q. Martelli, 215.

52 MATHEWS-LESTOCK QUARREL AT BATTLE OF TOULON: Mahan, Influence, 265-7; Lewis, C. L., 22; MacIntyre, 20-1.

53 MAHAN, “POSSIBLE TAINT OF ILL WILL”: Mahan, Influence, 267.

54 FIGHTING INSTRUCTIONS: MacIntyre, 21; Encyc. Brit., 11th edition: “Toulon”; Whipple, 13.

55 MATHEWS-LESTOCK COURTS-MARTIAL: MacIntyre, 22-3.

56 LINE AHEAD: Whipple, 45.

57 LOUIS XVI, “BUT WHO SHALL RESTORE THE BRAVE SAILORS”: Mundy, II, 273.

58 ADMIRALTY’S REPORT OF 35 SHIPS OF THE LINE: James, W. M., 122; Mahan, Influence, 341.

59 KEPPEL, “NO PLEASURE TO HIS SEAMAN’S EYE”: ibid.

60 ON CONDITIONS IN THE NAVY: MacIntyre, 35-6, 74-6.

61 BYNG, “I SHALL ENDEAVOR TO AVOID”: q. Mahan, Types, 571-3; for the case of Admiral Byng, Mahan, Influence, 286-91.

62 BYNG CONDEMNED FOR NEGLIGENCE: MacIntyre, 37.

63 RODNEY AIDS PETITION FOR PARDON: Spinney, 131.

64 SCHOOLBOY OF EDINBURGH, JOHN CLERK: Whipple, 53-4.

65 BREAKING THE LINE: Mahan, Influence, 381.

66 CHURCHILL, “PROFESSIONAL HIERARCHY OF THE ROYAL NAVY”: Hough, 247.

67 BATTLES OFF BREST AND CAPE FINISTERRE: Spinney, 75-84.

68 GEORGE II ON RODNEY’S YOUTH: Mundy, I, 43.

69 WALPOLE, “STREETS OF OUR CAPITAL, THE OCEAN”: to Mann, May 18, 1782, Corres., XXV, 277.

70 MAHAN, “KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN HAD BECOME THE BRITISH EMPIRE”: Mahan, Influence, 291.

71 QUIBERON BAY CALLED “THE GREATEST VICTORY”: Valentine, Establishment, I, 429.

72 RODNEY AT LE HAVRE: Mundy, I, 54-5; Spinney, 153 et seq.

73 COLORS FOR GRADES OF ADMIRAL: letter to author from Naval Historical Library of Ministry of Defence, London, November 2, 1987.

74 GEORGE III, “OUR ISLANDS MUST BE DEFENDED.… IF WE LOSE OUR SUGAR ISLANDS”: Sandwich Papers, III, 163.

75 SANDWICH, FLEET IN LEEWARDS “VERY DEPLORABLE”: ibid., 164.

76 RODNEY AT MARTINIQUE IN 1761 “SILENCED THE FORTS”: Mundy, I, 69-70.

77 “NOBLEST AND BEST HARBOUR”: ibid., 73.

78 “FROM THAT MOMENT,” WROTE RODNEY’S BIOGRAPHER, PREDICTING MOVEMENT FOR INDEPENDENCE: ibid., 99.

79 ON RANKS OF REAR AND VICE ADMIRAL AND RODNEY’S CAREER PROGRESSION: Spinney, appendix XI.

CHAPTER VIII THE FRENCH INTERVENTION

For political quarrel in the Royal Navy: Wraxall, Spinney. For the Carlisle peace mission: Townshend, McDevitt.

1 BATTLE OF USHANT AND CONSEQUENCES: James, W. M., 124-42; Griffith, 518-19; Mahan, Influence, 350-3.

2 PALLISER-KEPPEL CONTROVERSY: Miller, 336-7; Mackesy, 239-43; James, B., 135-42.

3 “FIERCE TORRENT OF INVECTIVE” AGAINST SANDWICH: Jesse, II, 241.

4 LONDON MOB CELEBRATES KEPPEL’S ACQUITTAL: Spinney, 292; Griffith, 542.

5 LORD NORTH CLIMBED TO THE ROOF: Miller, 336.

6 REFUSALS TO SERVE UNDER SANDWICH: Spinney, 292.

7 “SO VIOLENT WAS THE SPIRIT OF PARTY”: Wraxall, 306.

8 HOOD ON “WANT OF DISCIPLINE”: George A. Billias, ed., George Washington’s Opponents: British Generals and Admirals in the American Revolution, New York, 1969, p. 297.

9 BARRINGTON, “WOULD HAVE MADE ME RUN MAD”: q. Mackesy, 354.

10 A MODERN HISTORIAN: Callender, 15-16; q. Lewis, C. L., 67-8. “A [British] victory at Ushant would entirely have changed the history of the world. It would have shut the French up in their own ports and rendered them incapable of assisting the Americans. The helplessness of the French would have kept Europe passive and Britain would not have been called to face the world in arms. If left to deal with her turbulent sons, uninterrupted by foreigners, she might well have subdued them. She might then in a happier hour have granted them the substance of their demands and the great republic of North America might today form an integral part of her world-embracing empire.” On the same theory, see also Kennedy, 109.

11 “WILDLY FALLACIOUS”: Willcox, Portrait, 143.

12 “INTELLECTUAL SHORTCOMINGS”: ibid.

13 STORMONT, “WE HAVE NO INTELLIGENCE”: Walpole, Last Journals, II, 355.

14 GERMAIN, “UTMOST FORCE,” ON GENERAL BELIEF IN USE OF FORCE: Miller, 338.

15 DUKE OF RICHMOND ADVISES KEPPEL: q. James, W. M., 121.

16 PITT (LORD CHATHAM), “YOU CANNOT CONQUER AMERICA”: November 20, 1777, GB Parl.

17 ASTONISHING REVERSAL OF LORD NORTH’S GOVERNMENT: OFFER OF PEACE TERMS TO THE COLONIES: Willcox, Portrait, 219 ff.; Griffith, 469 ff.

18 JOHNSTONE COURT-MARTIALED FOR MANSLAUGHTER AND INSUBORDINATION: Valentine, Establishment, II, 499.

19 JOHNSTONE’S BRIBES AND OFFER OF PEERAGES: Miller, 332, 333n.

20 CARLISLE MANIFESTO OF 1778: Miller, 333.

21 CONGRESS ON “INSIDIOUS DESIGNS”: Carl van Doren, Secret History of the American Revolution, New York, 1951, 114.

22 UNPUBLISHED DRAFT (OF SEPTEMBER 29, 1778): Stevens, B. F., V, 529.

23 TRYON PROCLAMATION: Townshend, 24.

24 TRYON RAID IN CONNECTICUT: ibid., 37-8.

25 MURDER OF BENJAMIN ENGLISH: The Connecticut Journal, July 3, 1779; q. Townshend, 27.

26 RESISTANCE OF REV. NAPHTALI DAGGETT: Townshend, 74-5; DAB.

27 WALPOLE, AS INSIGNIFICANT AS DENMARK OR SARDINIA: to Henry Seymour Conway, January 3, 1781, Corres., XXXIX, 354.

28 A FALL “LIKE CARTHAGE”: unidentified q. Miller, 339.

29 D’ESTAING EXPEDITION: Clinton, 99; Mahan, Influence, 359-63.

30 “DESERTED IN A MOST RASCALLY MANNER”: q. Miller, 330.

CHAPTER IX LOW POINT OF THE REVOLUTION

1 SANDWICH TO KING ON A COMMISSIONER TO WATCH RODNEY IN PURCHASING: September 17, 1779, Fortescue, IV, 448.

2 RODNEY, “DELAYS ARE WORSE THAN DEATH”: Mundy, I, 173.

3 BIRON PROPOSES TO PUT HIS PURSE AT RODNEY’S SERVICE: Rodney letter to his wife, April, 1779, ibid., 177 ff.

4 BIRON EPISODE: Spinney, 283-8.

5JE VOUS ENVIE”: q. Spinney, 286, from Comte R. de Gontaut Biron, Le duc de Lauzun, Paris, 1937.

6 LAUZUN’S HOUSE WAS THE PRESENT RITZ HOTEL: Whitridge, 128.

7 EXPENDITURES OF DUC DE LAUZUN: Manceron, 253n.

8 CREDITORS HAD GROWN SO “CLAMOROUS”: Spinney, 284.

9 ON SIR CHARLES HARDY, “DOES THE PEOPLE AT HOME THINK”: Kampenfelt to Sir Charles Middleton, letters of July 2 and August 6, 1779, q. James, W. M., 174-5.

10 ADMIRAL GEARY “WHOLLY DEBILITATED”: q. Mackesy, 355.

11 ATTEMPTED INVASION: James, W. M., 177-84; Mackesy, 280 et seq.

12 D’ORVILLIERS, “MEDIOCRE CAPTAINS”: q. James, W. M., 177.

13 ALARM GRIPPED ENGLAND: Griffith, 556.

14 “IGNORANCE AND VACILLATION”: q. James, W. M., 181-2.

15 RODNEY AT PORTSMOUTH, “AN ABSENCE OF PROPER ZEAL”: Mundy, I, 203.

16 OPPOSITION SPEAKERS, “SUPERLATIVELY WRETCHED”: amendment to King’s speech from the throne on November 25, 1779, q. Griffith, 572-3.

17 SANDWICH, “FOR GOD’S SAKE GO TO SEA”: q. Martelli, 215.

18 RODNEY WOULD BE HERO OF THE HOUR: Walpole, Corres., XXVII, 46, n. 27; Hannay, 104.

19 “BRILLIANT RUSH”: Hannay, 100.

20 HORACE MANN, “CAUGHT LIKE WILD FIRE”: March 11, 1780, Walpole, Corres., XXV, 24.

21 LETTERS OF DAUGHTER AND WIFE ON MOONLIGHT BATTLE: Mundy, I, 259, 262.

22 WALTER YOUNG CLAIMS CREDIT: MacIntyre, 105.

23 SANDWICH CONGRATULATIONS: Mundy, I, 265.

24 SIR JOHN ROSS, OUR EXPEDITION: Sandwich Papers, III, 204.

25 WALPOLE LETTER TO REV. COLE, “MY SYSTEMATIC BELIEF”: February 27, 1780, Walpole, Corres., II, 84.

26 ADAMS, “NAVAL VICTORIES EXCITE THEM”: q. Miller, 596.

27 RODNEY’S PENSION: MacIntyre, 143.

28 “TO BE OUT OF PARLIAMENT”: q. Spinney, 343.

29 MAHAN, “THE OBJECTIVE FROM WHICH HIS EYE NEVER WANDERED”: Mahan, Influence, 378.

30 SIGNALING SYSTEM: MacIntyre, 111-12, 120; Hannay, 125; Spinney, 321.

31 COMBAT OF APRIL 17, 1780: Hannay, 129-35; Mahan, Influence, 378-80; Lewis, C. L., 86-93; MacIntyre, 177 et seq.; Spinney, 320 et seq.; James, W. M., 198, et seq. ON “DISOBEDIENCE” TO SIGNALS: to Germain, q. Spinney, 329.

32 RODNEY’S REPORT TO THE ADMIRALTY: Mundy, [1836], 102 ff.

33 RODNEY, “MY EYE WAS MORE TO BE DREADED”: Sandwich Papers, III, 215; Mundy, I, 295.

34 PURSUIT OF GUICHEN FOR 14 DAYS AND NIGHTS AND SLEEPING ON THE FLOOR: MacIntyre, 137.

35 RODNEY GOES TO THE AMERICAN COAST: MacIntyre, 149; Hannay, 144.

36 CLINTON, “FOR GOD’S SAKE, MY LORD”: q. Willcox, Portrait, 269.

37 CLINTON “IMPLORED” HIS MAJESTY: Clinton, 137.

38 PLEA BECOMES A “PRAYER”: ibid., 149 and 173.

39 CORNWALLIS, “WHAT IS OUR PLAN?”: April 10, 1781, to Major General Phillips, Cornwallis, Corres., II, 87.

40 GENERAL MURRAY, “TO LOSE A BATTLE TO YOU EVERY WEEK”: q. Mackesy, 407.

41 RODNEY “FLEW ON THE WINGS OF NATIONAL ENTHUSIASM”: q. Spinney, 346.

42 ARBUTHNOT “DESTITUTE OF … NAVAL TACTICS”: DNB on Arbuthnot.

43 CLINTON, THROWN REBELS “INTO A CONSTERNATION” (TO RODNEY, SEPTEMBER 18, 1780): PRO Clinton papers, document 30/20/12 102388.

44 CLINTON, “YOUR FORTUNATE ARRIVAL”: ibid.

45 CLINTON ON ARBUTHNOT, “THIS OLD GENTLEMAN”: q. Griffith, 596.

46 RODNEY’S CONDUCT “AS USUAL PRAISEWORTHY”: q. Spinney, 353.

47 “FATAL MEASURE” OF EVACUATING RHODE ISLAND UNDER “ENFORCED” ADVICE OF ARBUTHNOT: Mundy, I, 429; Spinney, 348.

48 ARBUTHNOT, RHODE ISLAND “WAS OF NO USE TO THE NAVY”: Clinton, 145.

49 “THE GENERAL HATES THE ADMIRAL”: q. Willcox, Portrait, 332.

50 RODNEY PROPOSES A SHAM BATTLE TO LURE FRENCH FROM RHODE ISLAND: Clinton to Rodney, September 18, 1780, Clinton Papers, PRO, 30/20/12; Spinney, 348.

51 RODNEY, WAR CONDUCTED WITH “SLACKNESS INCONCEIVABLE”: Mundy, I, 428.

52 WASHINGTON, PROSPECTS “INFINITELY WORSE”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XVII, 272.

53 RATIONS REDUCED TO ONE-EIGHTH OF NORMAL: Morris and Commager, 121 under May 25, 1780.

54 MUTINY OF PENNSYLVANIA TROOPS: Griffith, 618-20; Miller, 542-5.

55 VON STEUBEN, “CAESAR AND HANNIBAL”: q. Miller, 562.

56 WASHINGTON DIARY ON MAY I, “WE HAVE NOTHING”: Fitzpatrick, Diaries, II, 208.

CHAPTER X “A SUCCESSFUL BATTLE MAY GIVE US AMERICA”

1 LORD NORTH, “IF AMERICA SHOULD GROW”: q. Miller, 585.

2 CLINTON, “I HAVE ALL TO HOPE”: According to the Curator of the Clinton Papers at the Clements Library, this was a phrase that Clinton used from time to time, as seen in his Papers #133:8; q. Mackesy, 385.

3 GERMAIN, “SO VAST IS OUR SUPERIORITY”: q. Miller, 612.

4 MURRAY, “I JUDGE THAT THE ENEMY”: q. Mackesy, 384.

5 HORACE MANN, “UNLESS SOME DECISIVE STROKE”: Walpole, Corres., XXV, 83.

6 CLINTON, “ARMY THREE TIMES IN DANGER OF STARVING”: Clinton, 99.

7 WASHINGTON, NAVAL SUPERIORITY “WITH AN AID OF MONEY”: to Laurens, January 15, 1781, Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXI, 108.

8 WASHINGTON, “WITHOUT THE SHADOW OF A BLANKET”: to Fielding Lewis, July 6, 1780, q. Freeman, V, 177.

9 GREENE, “SPRAT IN A WHALE’S BELLY”: ibid., 99.

10 WASHINGTON, “I HAVE ALMOST CEASED TO HOPE”: q. Miller, 528.

11 LAUZUN “VERY AGREEABLE TO THE AMERICANS”: Rochambeau, Memoirs, 28.

12 WASHINGTON TO BROTHER SAMUEL, “IT IS IMPOSSIBLE”: August 31, 1780, Fitzpatrick, Writings, XIX, 482.

13 ALEXANDER HAMILTON ON GATES’S RETREAT: Dupuy, 366.

14 CLINTON, “A FEW WORKS IF PROPERLY REINFORCED”: q. Willcox, AHR, 5. “THESE COUNTRY CLOWNS”: q. Miller, 156.

15 KING OF FRANCE IN NURSERY RHYME (AS QUOTED IN BARTLETT): Sometimes cited as “the Duke of York” but known in this form since childhood to the author and presumably to Bartlett.

16 LAFAYETTE, “WE ARE … DESTITUTE”: Idzarday, S. J., ed., Lafayette in the Age of the American Revolution, Ithaca, N.Y., 1980.

17 HARTFORD CONFERENCE: Sparks, VII, 110, 130, 137, 171.

18 COLONEL BALFOUR, “DEFECTION … SO UNIVERSAL” IN SOUTH CAROLINA: q. Fleming, 58.

19 CORNWALLIS HAD A DORMANT COMMISSION TO SUCCEED CLINTON: Wickwire, 107.

20 CLINTON, “I CAN NEVER BE CORDIAL”: q. Larrabee, 104.

21 CLINTON, “I AM NEGLECTED AND ILL-TREATED”: q. Miller, 597; primary source is believed at Clements Library to be a letter from Clinton to Germain (letter from Curator of Clinton Papers to author, March 25, 1988).

22 CURRICULUM AT TURIN: Wickwire, 25-6.

23 LORD CAMDEN ON DECLARATORY BILL, “ABSOLUTELY ILLEGAL”: February 24, 1776, GB Parl., I, 364-7.

24 CORNWALLIS VOLUNTEERED: Wickwire, 79; Valentine, Establishment, I, 207.

25 CORNWALLIS TO MAJOR GENERAL PHILLIPS, “IF WE MEAN AN OFFENSIVE WAR”: April 10, 1781, Cornwallis, Corres., I, 87-8.

26 “A SUCCESSFUL BATTLE MAY GIVE US AMERICA”: ibid.

27 ARNOLD SOLD HIMSELF TO THE BRITISH FOR £6,000: Willcox, Portrait, 341, n. 6; Morris and Commager, 122.

28 PRICE CALCULATED ON A BASIS OF 2 GUINEAS PER MAN OF THE WEST POINT GARRISON: Griffith, 600.

29 TARLETON CHARGED WITH BURNING LIVESTOCK: Wickwire, 258.

30 WAXHAW MASSACRE: Dupuy, 347.

31 GREENE, “WE FIGHT, GET BEAT”: on the campaigns in the Carolinas, letter of June 22, 1781, to Luzerne, q. Dupuy, 411.

32 SWAMP FOX “HAD SO WROUGHT ON THE MINDS OF THE PEOPLE”: q. Wickwire, 191.

33 FERGUSON’S PROCLAMATION: Wickwire, 208.

34 FERGUSON MESSAGE, “SOMETHING MUST BE DONE”: Dupuy, 368.

35 KING’S MOUNTAIN: Wickwire, 195 et seq.; Dupuy, 367-70.

36 LOYALISTS “DASTARDLY AND PUSILLANIMOUS”: q. Wickwire, 221.

37 PRISONERS TRIED FOR TREASON AND HANGED: ibid., 218.

38 GREENE TO JEFFERSON, “THE GREAT BODY OF THE PEOPLE ARE WITH US … THEY ARE A LIFELESS AND INANIMATE MASS”: November 19, 1780, q. Malone, 232.

39 WASHINGTON, “WE HAVE BUT A HANDFUL OF MEN”: q. Freeman, V, 177.

40 WASHINGTON, “THE SAME BOUNTIFUL PROVIDENCE”: q. Freeman, V, 250.

41 WASHINGTON, “THE GAME IS YET IN OUR HANDS”: to John Matthews, June, 1781, q. Freeman, V, 295.

42 TARLETON ORDERED TO PUSH MORGAN’S ARMY: q. Dupuy, 378.

43 AT COWPENS: ibid., 379-88.

44 “JUST HOLD YOUR HEADS UP, BOYS”: q. Davis, 99.

45 CORNWALLIS, “ALMOST BROKE MY HEART”: q. Wickwire, 269.

46 GREENE, “AFTER THIS, NOTHING SEEMS DIFFICULT”: q. Bass, 162.

47 O’HARA, “WITHOUT BAGGAGE … TO FOLLOW GREENE’S ARMY”: O’Hara to Duke of Grafton, April 20, 1781, Wickwire title page.

48 CORNWALLIS DISCARDS BAGGAGE: Wickwire, 276.

49 O’HARA, “FATAL INFATUATION”: ibid., 285.

50 CORNWALLIS, “OUR FRIENDS … SO TIMID AND STUPID”: q. Wickwire, 243.

51 “A-HOLLERIN’, A-SNORTIN’ ”: q. ibid., 280.

52 MORGAN, “SHOOT THE FIRST MAN WHO RUNS”: q. Dupuy, 395.

53 BATTLE OF GUILFORD: Dupuy, 394-404.

54 CHARLES FOX, “ANOTHER SUCH VICTORY”: q. ibid., 405.

55 CORNWALLIS TO CLINTON, “THE ONLY POSSIBLE PLAN”: q. Wickwire, 320.

56 LAURENS TO INFORM FRANCE IN “CLEAREST LIGHT”: Rochambeau, Memoirs, 32-3 [1838].

57 LAURENS’ “INTREPIDITY BORDERING ON RASHNESS”: q. Encyc. Brit. on Laurens.

58 WASHINGTON, “CALAMITOUS DISTRESS”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXI, 106-7.

59 WASHINGTON TO LAURENS, “WE ARE AT THE END OF OUR TETHER”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXI, 439.

60 LAURENS MISSION: Aldridge, 217-20.

61 LAURENS “BRUSQUED” THEM TOO MUCH: van Doren, 626.

62 LAURENS TO VERGENNES, THE “SWORD WHICH I WEAR”: q. Fleming, 17-18.

63 LOUIS XVI ORDERS ADMIRAL DE GRASSE TO AID AMERICANS: Corwin, 293; Lewis, C. L., 99.

64 DE GRASSE SIX FEET SIX ON DECK IN TIME OF COMBAT: q. Whipple, 47, from Tornquist.

65 CLINTON TO RODNEY, “SHOULD YOU BE APPOINTED COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF”: q. Spinney, 355.

66 HURRICANE DAMAGE: Spinney, 354-7; Griffith, 615; Mundy, I, 448 ff.

67 “THE LOSS OF ONE HALF OF IT”: March 29, 1781, MacKenzie, 497.

68 HOOD TO RODNEY, AND VICE VERSA, “I KNOW OF NO-ONE WHATSOEVER”: q. Spinney, 359.

69 NELSON ON HOOD: DNB.

70 SANDWICH, “IT HAS BEEN DIFFICULT”: q. MacIntyre, 158.

71 HOOD’S NASTY LETTERS: Larrabee, 171-2.

72 RODNEY, “MENTAL AND BODILY FATIGUE”: Mundy, II, 47-9.

73 SANDWICH TO RODNEY, “THE WHOLE GOVERNMENT, AND THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL”: Mundy, II, 104.

74 SANDWICH, WAR “CANNOT LAST MUCH LONGER”: ibid., 105.

75 RODNEY TO LEAVE ST. EUSTATIUS “A MERE DESERT”: ibid., 97-8.

76 SANDWICH REPORTS FRENCH FLEET: ibid., 59-60.

77 MME. DU DEFFAND TO WALPOLE (MARCH 13, 1780): Walpole, Corres., VII, 212.

78 CAPTAIN TIMOTHY FOLGER AND GULF STREAM: A. B. C. Whipple, Restless Oceans, Alexandria, Va., 23 ff.

79 ROCHAMBEAU AT WETHERSFIELD RECOMMENDS OFFENSIVE AT CHESAPEAKE: Rochambeau, Memoirs, 50; Larrabee, 243-4; Lewis, C. L., 121, 133.

80 ROCHAMBEAU ON “GRAVE CRISIS”: Larrabee, 152-3; Lewis, C. L., 119-25.

81 DE GRASSE LETTER CHOOSES CHESAPEAKE: Lewis, C. L., 138-9; Mahan, Influence, 388.

82 WASHINGTON TO LUZERNE, “GREAT DECISIVE STROKE”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXII, 206.

83 “BEAUTIFUL BLUE ESTUARY”: Gallatin, 41.

84 CORNWALLIS’ CHOICE OF YORKTOWN AND CLINTON’S ORDERS: Wickwire, 328, 349-52; Willcox, AHR, 19-20; Mackesy, 410-12.

CHAPTER XI THE CRITICAL MOMENT

1 COMBAT OF HOOD AND DE GRASSE OFF MARTINIQUE: Lewis, C. L., 109-13; Spinney, 370-72.

2 RODNEY’S FAILURE TO PURSUE WHILE KEEPING GUARD AT BARBADOS: Spinney, 374; MacIntyre, 178-80.

3 ROCHAMBEAU’S LETTERS REPORTING “GRAVE CRISIS” RECEIVED IN HAITI: Tornquist, 49; Lewis, C. L., 133-5.

4 DE BARRAS TO DE GRASSE, “MOST NECESSARY ARTICLE NEEDED HERE IS MONEY”: Tornquist, 53.

5 DE GRASSE PLEDGE OF PROPERTY REJECTED: Lewis, C. L., 138; Anonymous, 151-2; Larrabee, 155.

6 DECISION TO TAKE THE WHOLE FLEET: Lewis, C. L., 138-9; Larrabee, 156; Mackesy, 419.

7 DE GRASSE CONCLUSIVE LETTER OF JULY 28: Lewis, C. L., 138; Mackesy, 414.

8 RODNEY’S WARNING NOTICE TO GRAVES: Larrabee, 173-4.

9 LETTER TO EARL OF CARLISLE: Mundy, II, 151.

10 ORDERS TO SIR PETER PARKER: Mackesy, 423; Willcox, AHR, 22.

11 RODNEY TO HIS WIFE, “THE FATE OF ENGLAND MAY DEPEND”: Mahan, Types, 233; Mundy, II, 139.

12 SPECIFIES CAPES OF VIRGINIA AS PLACE WHERE FRENCH INTEND THEIR “GRAND EFFORT”: q. Larrabee, 179, from Graves Papers.

13 NOTICE TO GRAVES WENT UNDELIVERED: James, W. M., 284.

14 HOOD AND GRAVES CONFER ON LONG ISLAND WITH CLINTON: Willcox, Portrait, 421.

15 RODNEY PREPARES TO TAKE PROMISED LEAVE: Mundy, II, 143 ff.

16 RODNEY TO CARLISLE, “TO BE DEPRIVED OF THAT HONOUR”: September 17, 1781, Mundy, II, 151.

17 HOTHAM’S CONVOY CAPTURED: James, W. M., 305-6; Mundy, II, 61.

18 “DETERMINED TO SERVE AGAIN”: q. Spinney, 383.

19 HOOD, “IF THAT ADMIRAL HAD LED”: q. Spinney, 382.

20 RODNEY TO JACKSON, “IN MY POOR OPINION”: ibid.

21 TORNQUIST ON MONEY RAISED IN CUBA: Tornquist, 53.

22 DE GRASSE TOOK BAHAMAS CHANNEL: Lewis, C. L., 140; Mahan, Influence, 388.

23 HOOD SAW NO FOREIGN SAIL IN CHESAPEAKE BAY: Lewis, C. L., 152; Willcox, AHR, 25, n. 90.

24 GRAVES, “HEATED IMAGINATION”: q. Willcox, Portrait, 417.

25 IMPOSSIBLE FOR RODNEY TO SEND REINFORCEMENTS IN TIME: q. Miller, 604.

26 DE LAUZUN, ENGLISH “STRICKEN WITH BLINDNESS”: Lauzun, 200.

27 MORE THAN “CONGRESS HAD A RIGHT TO EXPECT”: q. Miller, 592.

28 WASHINGTON DECIDES TO ADOPT PLAN FOR CHESAPEAKE: “I WAS OBLIGED”: August 14, 1781, Fitzpatrick, Diaries, II, 254; Gallatin, 21.

29 STOCKS ROSE SIX PERCENT: to Mann, March 13, 1781, Walpole, Corres., XXV, 139.

30 EMPRESS OF RUSSIA AND SIR JOSEPH OFFERED TO MEDIATE: ibid.

31 WALPOLE “ON THE WINGS OF WINDS TO VIENNA”: ibid.

32 “THEN MEANLY SOLICIT”: September 30, 1781, Walpole, Last Journals, II, 374.

CHAPTER XII LAST CHANCE—THE YORKTOWN CAMPAIGN

Clinton Papers supplied by William L. Clements Library; material on the “World Turned Upside Down” from consultants at the Library of Congress.

1 WASHINGTON NOTIFIES CONTINENTALS OF DECISION TO MARCH, AUGUST 15: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXII, 500.

2 DE LAUZUN’S CAVALRY LEGION: Davis, 6.

3 WASHINGTON TO GREENE, “AS INTERESTING AND ANXIOUS A MOMENT”: q. Lewis, C. L., 148.

4 DE GRASSE “TO DO THE IMPOSSIBLE”—WILL SEND TRANSPORTS: ibid., 155.

5 DEUX-PONTS, WE “ARE IN PERFECT IGNORANCE”: Deux-Ponts, My Campaigns, 126.

6 CLINTON, “UNLESS A SUPERIOR FLEET”: Clinton to William Eden, May 30, 1780, q. Willcox, AHR, 5.

7 CLINTON’S ORDERS FOR FOOD AND LIQUOR: Document headed House Expensing [sic] New York and His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton, 250:20:22 and 250:20:30, Clinton Papers, Clements Library.

8 GENERAL OFFICERS AT CLINTON’S HEADQUARTERS: Manual of the Common Council of New York, Clinton Papers, Clements Library.

9 CLINTON “QUITE A MONOPOLIZER … RIDING FULL TILT TO AND FROM HIS DIFFERENT SEATS”: q. Stevens, October, 1880, 1139, from political magazine of London citing Manual of the Common Council (of the Corporation of the City of New York).

10 WASHINGTON WATCHES FERRIES CROSSING WITH CLAUDE BLANCHARD: Blanchard, 129, 130.

11 WASHINGTON TO ROCHAMBEAU ON RIVER CROSSING: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXIII, 25.

12 DEUX-PONTS, “AN ENEMY OF ANY BOLDNESS OR ANY SKILL”: Deux-Ponts, My Campaigns, 123n.

13 WILLIAM SMITH, “NO SPIRIT OF ENTERPRISE”: q. Fleming, 99.

14 CLINTON TO NEWCASTLE, “AMERICA IS BECOME NO OBJECT?”: q. Willcox, Portrait, 355-6.

15 CLINTON’S “FEAR THAT THE ENEMY MIGHT BURN NEW YORK”: q. Wickwire, 355.

16 CLINTON, “THINGS … COMING FAST TO A CRISIS”: to Germain, September 7, 1781, q. Willcox, AHR, 26.

17 CLINTON TO GRAVES, “AS SOON AS THE WAY IS CLEAR”: September 2, 1781, ibid.

18 VON CLOSEN, A “PLEASING, INDUSTRIOUS …”: von Closen, intro., xxii-xxiii. VON CLOSEN, “A VERY BEAUTIFUL SMALL VALLEY”: von Closen, 109.

19 ON PRINCETON: Blanchard, 134.

20 APPEARANCE OF A FLEET: Freeman, V, 3, 15.

21 MARCHERS IN PHILADELPHIA: Royal Deux-Ponts, My Campaigns, 26 ff.; von Closen, 120-21; Gallatin, 126.

22 DINE AT ROBERT MORRIS’S: von Closen, 117.

23 DINE AT JOSEPH REED’S: ibid., 119.

24 WASHINGTON TO LAFAYETTE ON SEPTEMBER 2, “I AM DISTRESSED”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXIII, 77.

25 COURIER FROM DE GRASSE’S FLEET: Freeman, V, 321.

26 WASHINGTON AT CHESTER, WAVING HIS HAT AND HANDKERCHIEF: von Closen, 123; Freeman, V, 322.

27 NEWS REPORTED TO PHILADELPHIA BANQUET: Gallatin, 27, 31; Scott, 16-17. “LONG LIVE LOUIS SIXTEENTH:”: ibid.

28 BATTLE OF THE BAY: Lewis, C. L., 156-69; Larrabee, 184-223; James, W. M., 288-96; Tornquist, 58-61.

29 GRAVES, “EFFECTUAL SUCCOUR”: q. Lewis, C. L., 169.

30 TORNQUIST, “IT WAS A PLEASANT SURPRISE”: Tornquist, 57.

31 CLINTON TO CORNWALLIS ON SEPTEMBER 2, “YOU MAY BE ASSURED”: Clinton, 563.

32 CLINTON TO CORNWALLIS ON SEPTEMBER 6, “I THINK THE BEST WAY”: ibid., 564.

33 “THEY ARE ALREADY EMBARKED”: Letter of September 6, 1781, q. Wickwire, 362.

34 “RAISED SPIRITS TO THE REQUIRED LEVEL”: von Closen, 124.

35 “THIS DAY WILL BE FAMOUS IN THE ANNALS”: q. Davis, 82.

36 WASHINGTON’S JOURNEY TO MOUNT VERNON: Freeman, V, 324-7; Gallatin, 36-7.

37 WASHINGTON TO LAFAYETTE, “I HOPE YOU WILL KEEP”: q. Davis, 87.

38 TORNQUIST DESCRIBES WILLIAMSBURG COUNTRY AS “VERY FERTILE”: Tornquist, 75.

39 TORNQUIST ON MURDERED PREGNANT WOMAN: ibid., 57.

40 “GODLESS BEHAVIOUR OF THEIR ENEMIES”: ibid., 58.

41 UNBORN BABY HUNG FROM A TREE: Anonymous, 78.

42 WASHINGTON GOES TO MEET DE GRASSE: Tornquist, 64; Lewis, C. L., 172-5; Freeman, V, 334-6.

43 MON CHER PETIT GŃŃRAL: q. Stone, 410, from George Washington Parke Custis, Recollections.

44 INTERVIEW WITH DE GRASSE: Scott, Corres., 36-41.

45 FORDING THE SUSQUEHANNA: Von Closen, 125.

46 MR. WALKER REFUSING PAYMENT: ibid., 128.

47 “FIRE SHIPS”: James, B., 116-17; Tornquist, 64-6.

48 “ALARMED AND DISQUIETED … THE NAVY”: von Closen, 133.

49 DE GRASSE DECISION TO LEAVE: Doniol, V, 544; Scott, Corres., 45-7; von Closen, 134; Freeman, V, 340.

50 WASHINGTON’S LETTER OF “PAINFUL ANXIETY”: Scott, Corres., 48-50; Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXIII, 136-9.

51 DE GRASSE’S FLAG CAPTAINS “DID NOT APPEAR TO FULFILL THE AIMS WE HAD IN VIEW”: Scott, Corres., 51-2; q. Freeman, V, 343.

52 DE GRASSE AGREES TO REMAIN: von Closen, 136, and 136 n. 9; Scott, Corres., 51, 53.

53 SMITH, “A WEEK WILL DECIDE”: Smith’s diary of August 31, q. Fleming, 214.

54 GRAVES’S TERRIBLE WORDS, “THE ENEMY HAVE SO GREAT A NAVAL FORCE”: to Clinton, September 9, 1781, q. Willcox, AHR, 28.

55 WILLIAM SMITH, STAFF OFFICERS “SERVILE”: q. Fleming, 218.

56 GENERAL ROBERTSON CLAIMED INACTION COULD “BRING DOWN THE WHOLE CAUSE IN AMERICA”: Willcox, AHR, 28.

57 CLINTON ASKS COUNCIL OF SEPTEMBER 14 WHETHER RELIEF SHOULD BE HAZARDED: Fleming, 219; partial minutes in Clinton, 569-70.

58 CORNWALLIS, LETTER OF SEPTEMBER 16-17, “IF YOU CANNOT RELIEVE ME VERY SOON”: Clinton Cornwallis Controversy, II, 158.

59 FOR DELAYS AND POSTPONEMENTS IN NEW YORK AND DELIBERATIONS OF THE COUNCILS: Willcox, Portrait, 427-36; Willcox, AHR, 28-31.

60 “OUR GENERALS AND ADMIRALS DON’T SEEM TO BE IN EARNEST”: MacKenzie, 641. RAWDON, “INFATUATED WRETCHES”: q. Miller, 164.

61 “DIGBY, DIGBY!”: q. Willcox, Portrait, 432.

62 MACKENZIE, “SHOULD OUR FLEET BEAT THEIRS.”: Diary of September 24.

63 VISIT OF PRINCE WILLIAM: Willcox, Portrait, 433; MacKenzie, 64.

64 RUMOR PRINCE WOULD TAKE OFFICE AS GOVERNOR: Rochambeau, Memoirs, 67.

65 CORNWALLIS IN “DAILY EXPECTATION” OF RELIEF: MacKenzie, 664, 671.

66 COUNCILS IN NEW YORK OF SEPTEMBER 23 AND 24 (IF THEY WENT IN HOW WOULD THEY GET OUT?): Willcox, Portrait, 435.

67 SMITH TO TRYON, “EVERY HOUR IS PRECIOUS”: ibid., 432.

68 MACKENZIE, “THREE DAYS TO GET OVER THE BAR”: MacKenzie, 653.

69 SMITH, “IF THE ENEMY’S THIRST FOR PEACE”: q. Fleming, 224.

70 MACKENZIE, “THEY MAY AS WELL STAY FOR TEN MONTHS”: MacKenzie, 653-4.

71 CLINTON, BARRING AN “UNFORESEEN ACCIDENT”: Clinton Cornwallis Controversy, II, 172.

72 CLINTON PROPOSES DIVERSION AGAINST PHILADELPHIA: According to Captain MacKenzie, “if the French bring a superior fleet to the coast, turning their utmost force against Cornwallis’s army … there will hardly be any possibility of relieving them unless by our gaining a victory at sea. If Washington passes the Delaware … the only action open to Britain would be a diversion in Lord Cornwallis’s favor by entering Jersey with a large corps and if possible by taking possession of Philadelphia”: MacKenzie, 611.

73 CORNWALLIS INFORMED CLINTON ON OCTOBER 11, “NOTHING BUT A DIRECT MOVE”: Clinton, 581.

74 LT. JAMES, “THE DISTRESSING CRIES OF THE WOUNDED”: James, B., 122.

75 LAUZUN-TARLETON CAVALRY CLASH: Wickwire, 372-4.

76 ATTACK ON THE REDOUBTS: James, B., 121-6; Gallatin, 41-4; Freeman, V, 369-71. A full account of the assault is in Deux-Ponts, My Campaigns, 142-9.

77 WASHINGTON EXHORTATION TO SOLDIERS: q. Freeman, V, 369.

78 MCPHERSON SAID TO HAVE RETREATED: Fleming, 289.

79 CORNWALLIS TO CLINTON, OCTOBER 15, 1781, “MY SITUATION NOW BECOMES VERY CRITICAL”: Cornwallis, Corres., I, 125; q. Wickwire, 382.

80 CORNWALLIS NOTE OF SURRENDER: q. Freeman, V, 377.

81 WASHINGTON’S REPLY, “AN ARDENT DESIRE”: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXIII, 236-7.

82 CORNWALLIS TO CLINTON, “I HAVE THE MORTIFICATION”: October 20, 1781, Clinton, 583.

83 SURRENDER PARLEY: Freeman, V, 379-85.

84 WASHINGTON ON CORNWALLIS, “PASSIVE BEYOND CONCEPTION”: to Governor Thomas Sim Lee, October 11, 1781, Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXIII, 210.

85 WASHINGTON’S CREED: Freeman, V, 106.

86 LAURENS, “THIS REMAINS AN ARTICLE”: q. Fleming, 322.

87 SURRENDER SCENE: Blanchard, 141; Stone, 472-4, from the Journals of James Thacher and John Conrad Doehla.

88 “THE WORLD TURNED UPSIDE DOWN”: cf. Freeman, V, 388, n. 47.

89 BRITISH “MUCH IN LIQUOR”: q. Freeman, V, 390, from two eyewitness diarists, Major Ebenezer Denny and Lieutenant Williams Feltman.

90 BRITISH EXHIBITED “CONTEMPT FOR THE AMERICANS”: Blanchard, 152.

91 LAFAYETTE ORDERED THE BAND TO PLAY “YANKEE DOODLE”: Fleming, 328-9.

92 ADAMS, “THE GREATEST QUESTION”: Smith, John Adams, 1, 270.

EPILOGUE

1 TILGHMAN BRINGS NEWS OF SURRENDER: Stone, 487.

2 “GORNVALLIS IST GEDAKEN!”: Johnston, 158.

3 WASHINGTON, “MELIORATING INFLUENCE ON ALL MANKIND”: q. Smith, People’s History, III, 21-2.

4 LAFAYETTE CARRIED HOME SOIL FOR A GRAVE: Woodward, 451.

5 ENGLISH-SPEAKING REGIMENT OF DE BOUILLÉ’S TROOPS: Tornquist, 78.

6 BATTLE OF THE SAINTS: all the Rodney biographies; also Lewis, C. L., 225-54; Whipple, 56-61; Mahan, Influence, 485-93; Anonymous, 126.

7 “ONLY BREAK THE LINE, SIR GEORGE!”: MacIntyre, 232; Spinney, 398-9. The breaking of the line developed into a lengthy controversy in later years in which Douglas’ role was disputed; see Spinney, 427-9.

8 RODNEY IN ARMCHAIR ON DECK: Jesse, II, 396; Wraxall, 307.

9 HOOD, “THE MOST MELANCHOLY NEWS”: q. Freeman, V, 400n, from letters of Lord Hood, 39.

10 “OH, GOD, IT IS ALL OVER!”: Wraxall, 264; Walpole, Last Journals, II, 474.

11 GEORGE III, “I WOULD RATHER LOSE MY CROWN”: Morison, AP, 266; cf. Brooke, 188: “I would rather lose the Crown I now wear than bear the ignominy of possessing it under their shackles.”

12 WALPOLE, “OUR AFFAIRS ARE CERTAINLY DISMAL”: to Mann, December 4, 1781, Corres., XXV, 213.

13 “COMMENCING A NEW DATE”: to Mann, Walpole, Corres., XXV, 213.

14 SIR JAMES LOWTHER’S MOTION, DECEMBER 12, 1781: q. Valentine, North, II, 281.

15 CONWAY’S MOTIONS, FEBRUARY 20, 27 AND MARCH 4: ibid., 302-7.

16 GEORGE III, DRAFT OF ABDICATION: Brooke, 221; Valentine, North, II, 310.

17 “ONE OF THE FULLEST AND MOST TENSE HOUSES”: Valentine, North, II, 315.

18 NORTH RESIGNS MARCH 20, 1782: ibid., 315-16.

19 ANDREW DORIA AND OTHER SHIPS DESTROYED: Morison, Jones, 100n.

20 WASHINGTON’S LAST CIRCULAR TO THE STATES: Fitzpatrick, Writings, XXVI, 485 (in part).

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