THE PERIOD covered in this book, leaving aside the Dutch excursion, is approximately six years, from 1776 to 1781.
On the several subjects that make up the body of the story, that is to say, the salute to the Andrew Doria, the affairs of the Dutch Republic, naval warfare of the period focusing on Admiral Rodney, the American land battles in the South, and finally the long march leading to the siege of Yorktown, the published and unpublished material is far more extensive than I realized when I began, and too much for a standard bibliography. I have offered a limited bibliography of the sources that I used, together with a selection of works that were most useful for my purposes or for anyone interested in further reading.
Sources will be found in the notes located by page number and an identifying phrase from the text. The book title in each case will be found under the author’s name in the bibliography, with an indication of title in case he is responsible for more than one book.
The letter q. stands for material quoted from a secondary source.
Proceedings in the House of Parliament will be found under the given date of the statement in the relevant volume of Great Britain, Parliament.
On the Andrew Doria the most complete is J. Franklin Jameson’s “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution” and on the beginnings of the American navy, William Bell Clark’s Naval Documents of the American Revolution and Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison’sJohn Paul Jones: A Sailor’s Biography.
On the Dutch Republic, apart from the inevitable John Lathrop Motley, more modern and excellent works on the revolt of the Netherlands and the growth of the nation are Petrus Johannes Blok’s History of the People of the Netherlands; C. M. Davies’ The History of Holland and the Dutch Nation and Charles Boxer’s The Dutch Seaborne Empire.
For my period, the most useful by far was Nordholt Schulte’s The Dutch Republic and American Independence, which has something of everything.
For Admiral Rodney there are four biographies. The first and foundation work published in 1830, containing the most correspondence, is by Lieutenant-General George B. Mundy, Rodney’s son-in-law, who is said by his editor, George Bilias, to have “taken liberties with the wording” of the letters (preface to vol. I, p. ix of 1972 edition). Mundy was followed, while Rodney was still living, by the biography of a naval writer, David Hannay, published in 1891. Two modern biographies have followed since then, by Captain Donald MacIntyre in 1963 and David Spinney in 1969.
On naval warfare in general, one must begin with Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History; an essential study of shipboard life is Tobias Smollett’s novel Roderick Random, while the most informative work on management of sail and gunnery is Admiral Morison’s John Paul Jones. The most useful histories of naval events in my period are Captain W. M. James’s The British Navy in Adversity and Charles Lee Lewis’ Admiral de Grasse and American Independence. A fine complement is A. B. C. Whipple’s Age of Fighting Sail. Limited in subject matter but very readable is Harold A. Larrabee’s Decision at the Chesapeake on the Battle of the Bay.
A military guide to American land battles of the time is The Compact History of the Revolutionary War by Colonel Ernest and Trevor Dupuy. For the general reader seeking a comprehensive and lively survey of the period, I recommend John C. Miller’sTriumph of Freedom 1775–1783 and Samuel B. Griffith’s In Defense of the Public Liberty. The essential underpinnings lie in the seven volumes of Douglas Southall Freeman’s George Washington; in the thirty-nine volumes of the Writings of Washington edited by John Fitzpatrick; in the life and correspondence of John Adams in three volumes by Page Smith; and in specialist studies like Samuel Flagg Bemis’ A Diplomatic History of the United States.
For the Yorktown campaign itself two excellent books based on thorough research with well-chosen quotations by the participants, are Thomas J. Fleming’s Beat the Last Drum and Burke Davis’ The Campaign That Won America.
For the long march from the Hudson to Yorktown there are six eyewitness journals of particular interest: by Claude Blanchard, the Commissary or Quartermaster for the French army; by Baron Ludwig von Closen, Aide to General Rochambeau; by Gaspard Gallatin of the French general staff; Rochambeau’s own memoirs; and especially the indispensable journal of Karl Gustaf Tornquist, a Swedish Lieutenant serving under de Grasse, and an anonymous work of two French Officers entitled Operations of the French Fleet Under the Count de Grasse.
There is no English first-hand account of the American war overall, understandably in view of the outcome, except Sir Henry Clinton’s sad post-war narrative. This lack is made up for by the thorough work concentrating on the American campaigns of Lord Cornwallis by Franklin and Mary Wickwire and by the psychological portrait of Sir Henry Clinton by the late Professor William Willcox. Of English diaries, the most interesting is that of Captain Frederick MacKenzie, a keen observer with a sharp pen, writing from General Headquarters.
English diaries of social life not directly connected to the war are ample and invaluable: they include Sir N. William Wraxall’s Memoirs; the diaries of James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury, who was British minister at The Hague and St. Petersburg; the memoirs of John Heneage Jesse; and above all the correspondence and Last Journals of Horace Walpole.
ADAMS, JOHN, The Book of Abigail and John. Butterfield, Lyman, ed. Harvard, 1963.
———, Works, 10 vols. Adams, Charles Francis, ed. New York, 1850-56.
ANONYMOUS, Operations of the French Fleet Under the Count de Grasse Two Contemporaneous Journals in 1781-82. New York, 1864.
BIRON, ARMAND LOUIS—see Lauzun.
BLANCHARD, CLAUDE, Journal of 1780-83. Trans. Albany, 1867.
CLARK, WILLIAM BELL, ed., Naval Documents of the American Revolution, vol. 7. Washington, 1976.
Clinton Cornwallis Controversy, 6 pamphlets, 2 vols. Stevens, Benjamin F., ed. London, 1888.
CLINTON, SIR HENRY, The American Rebellion (Sir Henry Clinton’s narrative of his campaign). Willcox, William B., ed. New Haven, 1954.
CLOSEN, BARON LUDWIG VON, The Revolutionary Journal of 1780-83. Trans. Chapel Hill, 1958.
Continental Congress, Journals of (Index to papers of), 34 vols. Ford, Chancy, ed. National Archives, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1921-26.
CORNWALLIS, CHARLES, FIRST MARQUIS, Correspondence, 3 vols. Ross, Charles, ed. London, 1859.
CRÈVECOEUR, J. HECTOR ST. JOHN, Letters from an American Farmer. First published 1782; Modern edition, London, 1912.
DEUX-PONTS, COUNT WILLIAM DE, My Campaigns in America. Boston, 1868.
FORTESCUE—see George III.
GALLATIN, GASPARD (Etat Major of the French army and Colonel of the Deux-Ponts regiment), Journal of the Siege of Yorktown in 1781 of the Royal Deux-Ponts. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1931.
GEORGE III, Correspondence from 1760 to December, 1783, 6 vols. Fortescue, John, ed. London, 1927-28.
GREAT BRITAIN, PARLIAMENT, The History, Debates and Proceedings of the Houses of Parliament of Great Britain, 1743-1774.
GREENE, NATHANAEL, The Papers of General Nathanael Greene, 4 vols. R.I. Historical Society, 1976 et seq.
HARRIS, JAMES—see Malmesbury.
JAMES, BARTHOLOMEW, REAR ADMIRAL, Journal of 1752-1828. London, 1896.
JESSE, JOHN HENEAGE, Memoirs of the Life and Reign of George III, 3 vols. London, 1867.
LAUZUN, ARMAND LOUIS DE GONTAUT, DUC DE, Memoirs. Trans. Scott Moncrieff, C. K. New York, 1928.
MACKENZIE, FREDERICK, Diary of, 1775-81, vol. II. Cambridge, Mass., 1930.
MALMESBURY, FIRST EARL OF (James Harris), Diaries and Correspondence, 4 vols. Ed. by his grandson, the third, earl. London, 1844.
MARYLAND, ARCHIVES OF, vols. 11 and 12, in Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, August 29, 1775, and July 6, 1776. Browne, William Hand, ed. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, 1892.
MCDEVITT, ROBERT, Attacked: A British Viewpoint, Tryon’s Raid on Danbury. Chester, Conn., 1974.
ROCHAMBEAU, COUNT DE, Memoirs of the Marshal Count de Rochambeau Relative to the War of Independence of the United States. Trans. Paris, 1809 and 1838; New York, 1971.
———, The American Campaign of Rochambeau’s Army; vol. II, Itineraries, Maps and Views. Trans. Rice, Howard, and Brown, Anne S. K., eds. Princeton and Providence, 1972.
RODNEY, GEORGE, LORD (see Mundy), Letter-Books and Order Book of George, Lord Rodney, 1780-1872, 2 vols. New York, 1932.
Sandwich Papers, 4 vols. Barnes, G. R., and Owen, J. H., eds. London, 1932-38.
STEVENS, BENJAMIN F., Facsimiles of mss. in European archives relating to America, 25 vols. London, 1889-95.
TORNQUIST, KARL GUSTAF, The Naval Campaigns of Count de Grasse. Trans. Philadelphia, 1942.
TOWNSHEND, CHARLES HERVEY, The British Invasion of New Haven, Connecticut. New Haven, 1879. Contains contemporary material from the Connecticut Journal of July, 1779, about the raid.
WALPOLE, HORACE, Correspondence, 48 vols. Lewis, W. S., ed. New Haven, 1937-83.
———, Last Journals (during the reign of George III, 1771-1783), 2 vols. Stewart, A. Francis, ed. London, 1910.
WASHINGTON, GEORGE, The Correspondence of General Washington and Comte de Grasse. Scott, James Brown, ed. Washington, D.C., 1931.
———, Diaries, 4 vols. Fitzpatrick, John C., ed. Boston, New York, 1975.
———, Writings, 39 vols. Fitzpatrick, John C., ed. Washington, D.C., 1931-44.
———, Writings, 12 vols. Sparks, Jared, ed. Boston, 1831-37.
WRAXALL, SIR N. WILLIAM, Historical Memoirs of My Own Time, 1772-1784. Philadelphia, 1837.
ALDRIDGE, ALFRED OWEN, Benjamin Franklin. Philadelphia and New York, 1965.
AUGUR, HELEN, The Secret War of Independence. New York, 1955.
BANCROFT, GEORGE, History of the United States of America, 6 vols. Boston, 1876.
BASS, ROBERT D., The Green Dragoon (life of Banastre Tarleton). New York, 1957.
BEMIS, SAMUEL FLAGG, A Diplomatic History of the United States. New Haven, 1936.
BLOK, PETRUS JOHANNES, History of the People of the Netherlands, 5 vols. (parts); Part III, The War with Spain 1568-1648. London and New York, 1912.
BOULTON, WILLIAM B., Sir Joshua Reynolds. New York, 1905.
BOXER, CHARLES, The Dutch Seaborne Empire 1600-1800. New York, 1965.
BROOKE, JOHN, King George III. New York, 1972.
BRUIN, FRED DE, St. Eustatius “A Golden Link with the Independence of the United States,” De Halve Maen, Quarterly Journal of the Holland Society of New York, vol. 58, no. 2, New York, 1984.
BURCH, JR., LUCIUS E., “The Guns of Statia.” Pamphlet, 1966.
CALLENDER, GEOFFREY, Sea Kings of Britain: Keppel to Nelson, vol. III. London and New York, 1911.
CARMER, CARL, The Hudson. New York, 1939.
CARTER, ALICE, “The Dutch as Neutrals in the Seven Years War,” International & Comparative Law Quarterly. July, 1963.
CLOWES, WILLIAM LAIRD, The Royal Navy, vol. IV. London, 1899.
CORWIN, EDWARD S., French Policy and the American Alliance of 1778. Princeton, 1916.
DAVIES, C. M., The History of Holland and the Dutch Nation. London, 1851.
DAVIS, BURKE, The Campaign That Won America. New York, 1970.
DONIOL, HENRI, Histoire de la Participation de la France à L’Etablissement des Etats-Unis d’Amérique, 5 vols. Paris, 1890.
DUPUY, R. ERNEST AND TREVOR N., The Compact History of the Revolutionary War. New York, 1963.
EDLER, FRIEDRICH, The Dutch Republic and the American Revolution. Baltimore, 1911.
FLEMING, THOMAS J., Beat the Last Drum. New York, 1963.
FREEMAN, DOUGLAS SOUTHALL, George Washington; A Biography, 7 vols. New York, 1952.
GARRATY, JOHN A., AND GAY, PETER, Columbia History of the World. New York, 1972.
GEYL, PIETER, The Revolt of the Netherlands, 2nd ed. London, 1958.
GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS, AND LACH, DONALD, Toward the French Revolution; Europe and America in the 18th Century World. New York, 1973.
GRIFFITH, SAMUEL B., In Defense of the Public Liberty. New York, 1976.
GRUBER, IRA D., The Howe Brothers and the American Revolution. Williamsburg, Va., 1972.
HALEY, K. H. D., The Dutch in the 17th Century. London, 1972.
HANNAY, DAVID, Rodney. Boston, 1972. First published London, 1891.
HARRIS, JAMES—see Malmesbury.
HART, FRANCIS RUSSELL, Admirals of the Caribbean. Boston and New York, 1922.
HARTOG, J., History of St. Eustatius. U.S. Bicentennial Committee of the Netherlands, 1976. Aruba, Netherlands, Antilles.
HASLIP, JOAN, Catherine the Great. New York, 1977.
HOOD, DOROTHY, The Admirals Hood. London, 1942.
HOUGH, R., The Greatest Crusade. New York, 1986.
JAMES, CAPTAIN W. M., The British Navy in Adversity. London, 1926.
JAMESON, J. FRANKLIN, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Review, vol. 8, July, 1903.
JOHNSTON, HENRY P., The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781. New York, 1881.
KENNEDY, PAUL M., The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery. New York, 1976.
KING, LESTER S., The Medical World of the 18th Century. Chicago, Toronto and Cambridge, 1958.
LARRABEE, HAROLD A., Decision at the Chesapeake. New York, 1964.
LEWIS, CHARLES LEE, Admiral de Grasse and American Independence. Annapolis, 1945.
LEWIS, MICHAEL ARTHUR, England’s Sea Officers. London, 1939.
———, History of the British Navy. London, 1957.
LORENZ, LINCOLN, John Paul Jones. Annapolis, 1943.
MACAULAY, T. B., Critical and Historical Essays, 2 vols. London, Toronto, New York, 1907.
MACINTYRE, CAPTAIN DONALD, RN, Admiral Rodney. New York, 1963.
MACKESY, PIERS, The War for America 1775-1783. Harvard, 1964.
MACLAY, EDGAR S., A History of American Privateers. New York, 1899.
MADARIAGA, ISABEL DE, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great. New Haven, 1981.
MAHAN, ALFRED THAYER, The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Boston, 1890; 12th ed., 1918.
———, Types of Naval Officers. Boston, 1901.
MALONE, DUMAS, Jefferson and His Time, 3 vols. Boston, 1962.
MANCERON, CLAUDE, Twilight of the Old Order. New York, 1977.
MARTELLI, GEORGE, Jemmy Twitcher [Sandwich]. London, 1962.
MEJEAN, JACQUES, “Address to the Huguenot Society of America 13 April 1978,” Proceedings, vol. XIII. New York, 1978.
MELVILLE, PHILLIPS, “Eleven Guns for the Grand Union.” American Heritage, October, 1958.
MERLANT, JOACHIM, Soldiers and Sailors of France in the American War for Independence. Trans. New York, 1920.
MILLER, JOHN C., Triumph of Freedom 1775–1783. Boston, 1948.
MINTZ, SIDNEY, Sweetness and Power; The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York, 1985.
MITCHELL, HAROLD, Europe in the Caribbean. Edinburgh, Stanford, Calif., 1963.
MORISON, SAMUEL ELIOT, History of the American People. New York, 1965.
———, John Paul Jones: A Sailor’s Biography. Boston and New York, 1959.
MORRIS, RICHARD B., AND COMMAGER, HENRY S., Encyclopedia of American History, 6th ed. New York, 1953-82.
MOTLEY, JOHN LATHROP, Rise of the Dutch Republic, 3 vols. New York, 1875-78.
MUNDY, LIEUTENANT-GENERAL GEORGE B., The Life and Correspondence of the Late Admiral Rodney, 2 vols. London, 1830. New ed. 1836 (in 1 vol).
NAMIER, LEWIS, The Structure of Politics. London, 1957.
NORDHOLT, JAN WILLEM—see Schulte.
PALMER, R. R., AND COULTON, JOEL, A History of the Modern World. New York, 1962.
PARRY, J. H., Trade and Dominion; European Overseas Empires in the 18th Century. London and New York, 1971.
PRESCOTT, BENJAMIN F., “The Stars and Stripes. When, Where and by Whom was it First Saluted?” Republican Press Association, Concord, N.H., 1876.
SCHAMA, SIMON, Patriots and Liberators; Revolution in the Netherlands 1780-1813. New York, 1978.
SCHULTE, NORDHOLT, The Dutch Republic and American Independence. Chapel Hill and London, 1982.
SCOTT, JAMES BROWN, de Grasse at Yorktown. Baltimore, 1931.
SMITH, PAGE, John Adams, 3 vols. New York, 1962.
———, A New Age Now Begins; A People’s History of the American Revolution, 3 vols. New York, 1976.
SPINNEY, DAVID, Rodney. Annapolis, 1969.
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STEVENS, JOHN, A., ed., Magazine of American History. New York, 1877-1917.
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VALENTINE, ALAN, The British Establishment, 1760-1784; An 18th Century Biographical Dictionary. Norman, Okla., 1970.
———, Lord North, 2 vols. Norman, Okla., 1967.
VAN DOREN, CARL, Benjamin Franklin. New York, 1938.
VAN LOON, HENDRICK WILLEM, The Fall of the Dutch Republic. Boston and New York, 1913.
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WICKWIRE, FRANKLIN AND MARY, Cornwallis, the American Adventure. Boston, 1970.
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———, Portrait of a General [Sir Henry Clinton]. New York, 1964.
WINGFIELD-STRATFORD, ESME, The History of British Civilization. New York, 1930.
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