IN THE COURSE of writing a book of this scope, one accumulates many debts, and I want to acknowledge the people who have helped me in so many different ways over the years.
First and foremost, my gratitude goes to my editor at Simon & Schuster, Frederic Hills, who brought great commitment and considerable conceptual talents and insights to this project and who from the beginning focused on the great themes. Burton Beals proved his gifts for language, nuance, and the psychology of authors, saw this as an epic saga, and was dedicated to word and story. My agent Helen Brann has always provided the support her author needed.
Five people were particularly important over a number of years. Sue Lena Thompson’s commitment, manifold talents, and mastery have been essential. She truly ensured that this book would happen. Robert Laubacher brought his high standards and his rigor as a historian and sleuth to the venture. Both have given a great deal of time and energy, and I am very grateful to both of them. Geoffrey Lumsden, an intrepid researcher, helped me through the labyrinth of British archives and sources.
I am especially indebted to my colleagues, James Rosenfield and Joseph Stanislaw, for their commitment, untiring support, intellectual vigor, and willingness to take on extra responsibilities to ensure that the book would be done. They really made it possible.
For their considerable advice and careful readings, I am particularly grateful to Nicholas Rizopoulos, who began as my teacher and became my friend and introduced me to diplomatic history when I was still a student; C. Napier Collyns, who insisted that this subject would properly bring together international affairs, oil and energy, and narrative history; and to James Schlesinger, who was extremely gracious with his insights, experience, and time.
I benefited greatly from extensive critical readings and other assistance from John Loudon, George McGhee, Wanda Jablonski, Tadahiko Ohashi, Philip Oxley, James Placke, Ian Skeet, Ronald W. Stent, Ernst Von Metzsch, Bennett Wall, Julian West, and Mira Wilkins. I extend my gratitude to all of them.
I must acknowledge the support from everybody at Cambridge Energy Research Associates. Some people made special contributions. Welton Barker and Mary Alice Sanderson went far beyond what might have been reasonably expected, gave extraordinary care to all they did, and were always forgiving. I thank Kathleen Fitzgerald, Susan Leland, and Leta Sinclair, all of whom worked directly with me and who managed two tracks that only sometimes met. I. C. Bupp, Dennis Eklof, and James Newcomb all gave welcome support. Peter Bogin helped a great deal with archives in Paris, and Michael Williams worked ingeniously with me on the numbers. I would also like to thank, in Cambridge, members of our Production staff—Christine Marchuk, Patricia Ingalls, Roberta Klix, Mary Moineau-Riegel, and Deanna Troust—and also Steven Aldrich, Sam Atkinson, Alice Barsoomian, Jennifer Battersby, Barbara Blodgett, Laurent Hevey, Matthew MacDonald, Kathleen Moineau, Geoffrey Morgan, Jeff Pasley, and Robin Weiss; in Paris, Micheline Manoncourt and James Long; in Oslo, Odd Hassel; and, in London, Michael Clegg. I also want to thank Barbara Kates-Garnick, Gregory Nowell, and Elizabeth Michelon.
For their sagacious perspectives, I am indebted to Raymond Vernon, a distinguished student of international economics and politics from whom I have learned much, and Edward Jordan, who has a unique grasp of business and public policy.
At Simon & Schuster, I am especially appreciative to Daphne Bien for her essential coordination. And for their great care for the manuscript, I offer deep thanks to Leslie Ellen, Ted Landry, Gypsy da Silva, and Sophie Sorkin. And I thank Irving Perkins Associates for their design and Karolina Harris for her text art direction. Also special appreciation to Sydney Cohen, Ron Doucette and crew, Robert Forget, Ursula Obst, and Karen Weitzman.
The opportunity to be a Lecturer and then a Research Associate at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University was most constructive, and I want to express my gratitude to William Hogan, Henry Lee, Graham Allison, and Irwin Stelzer. Although many libraries and archives were helpful, one stands out, and appreciation must be expressed—to the wondrous and accessible Harvard University Library system, especially Widener Library, the Center for International Affairs, and the Baker Library at the Harvard Business School—and to the staffs thereof.
I also want to thank Jay Carlson, Herbert Goodman, and Jerome Levinson for their special and kind help.
I interviewed many people for this book. A number of them subsequently read over the relevant chapters. I thank all in the interviews section, but want to add further appreciation here, as well. Their contribution was enormous. In some cases, people preferred to assist anonymously.
In addition, I would like to express my appreciation to the following people for their comments, readings, help, and dialogues over the years: Richard Adkerson, Frank Alcock, Fausto Alzati, Hans Bär, Joseph Barri, Robert R. Bowie, Benjamin A. Brown, Elizabeth Bumiller, Victor Burk, Scott Campbell, Guy Caruso, James Chace, Fadhil al-Chalabi, Marcello Colitti, Chester K. Cooper, Richard Cooper, Brian Coughlin, Alfred DeCrane, Jr., Richard Fairbanks, Russell Freeburg, Vera de Ladoucette, Charles DiBona, Robert Dunlop, Margaret Goralski, David Gray, Thane Gustafson, Laura Hein, Peter Holmes, J. Wallace Hopkins, Akira Iriye, Kazuhiko Itano, John Jennings, David Jones, Yoshio Karita, Milton Katz, William Kieschnick, Leonard Kujawa, Kenjiro Kumagai, the late Ulf Lantzke, Kenneth Lay, Quincy Lumsden, Robert L. Maby, Jr., Phebe Marr, William F. Martin, Thomas McNaugher, Robert McClements, John Mitchell, N. Nakahara, E. V. Newland, John Newton, John Norton, Michael O’Donnell, H. Okuda, Rene Ortiz, Alirio Parra, David Painter, Wolf Petzell, George Piercy, Maria Rodriguez, William Quandt, Beatrice Rangel, Gilbert Rutman, Peter Schwartz, Gary Sick, Robert Stobaugh, Nadir Sultan, Katsuhiko Suetsugu, Elizabeth P. Thompson, L. Paul Tempest, Robert W. Tucker, Enzo Viscusi, Hillman Walker, Barbara Weisel, Steven R. Weisman, Mason Willrich, and M. Yamao.
And I express my deepest appreciation to my wife, Angela Stent, for contributing to this work in so many different ways and for her judgment, encouragement, and caring through so many seasons. And I happily thank Alexander and Rebecca, who were patient and curious beyond their years and in their own ways helped their father a lot.
It has taken seven years to research and write this book. I am sure that I have left out some people whom I should acknowledge, and I ask their forbearance and express my appreciation. As I look back over the names herein, I can see how many so graciously helped and how multitudinous are the obligations that I have acquired. The work would not have been possible without their contributions and their cooperation and enthusiasm. But I alone in this venture am responsible for any errors and, of course, for all interpretations and judgments.