Modern history



Many people generously made themselves available for interviews, which were essential to the writing of this book. I would like to express my great appreciation to all of them for their graciousness and consideration. None of them are responsible for the interpretation and judgments in this book. Most of the interviews were expressly conducted for this book. A few of them were originally for projects that preceded the book.

In some cases, the identification of interviewees may not be the one most familiar to readers. However, in the interests of clarity, I have generally indicated the position that seems most apposite.

Frank Alcock, Vice-President, Petróleos de Venezuela, SA

Robert O. Anderson, Chairman, ARCO

Alicia Castillo de Pérez Alfonzo

James Akins, U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia

Naohiro Amaya, Vice-Minister, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

Nikolai Baibakov, Minister of Oil, Chairman, Gosplan, USSR

Lord Balogh, Minister of State, United Kingdom Department of Energy

Robert Belgrave, Oil and Middle East Desk, U.K. Foreign Office; Policy Adviser to the Board of British Petroleum

André Bénard, Managing Director, Royal Dutch/Shell

Jean Blancard, General Delegate for Energy, French Ministry of Industry; President, Gaz de France

Steven Bosworth, U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Energy, Resources, and Food Policy

Robert R. Bowie, Director, Policy Planning Staff, U.S. Department of State; Deputy Director, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency

Richard Bray, President, Standard Oil Production Company

Juan Pablo Pérez Castillo

Oscar Pérez Castillo

Fadhil al-Chalabi, Deputy Secretary General, OPEC

William Colby, Director, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency

Marcello Colitti, Vice-Chairman, ENI

Patrick Connolly, Vice-President and Head of Energy Group, Bank of Boston

Richard Cooper, U.S. Undersecretary of State

Walter Cutler, U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia

Alfred DeCrane, Jr., Chairman, Texaco

Charles DiBona, Deputy Director, White House Energy Policy Office; President, American Petroleum Institute

Yahaya Dikko, Minister of Petroleum Resources, Nigeria

Robert Dolph, President, Exxon International

Sir Eric Drake, Chairman, British Petroleum

Charles Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Energy

Robert Dunlop, Chairman, Sun Oil

Stuart Eizenstat, Director, Domestic Policy Staff, White House

Chief M. O. Feyide, Secretary General, OPEC

Clifton Garvin, Chairman, Exxon

Jeremy Gilbert, Manager, Capital Planning Oil Services Company of Iran

Herbert Goodman, President, Gulf Oil and Trading

Pierre Guillaumat, Chairman, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine

Armand Hammer, Chairman, Occidental Petroleum

Victor Hammer

Sir Peter Holmes, Chairman, Shell Transport and Trading

J. Wallace Hopkins, Deputy Executive Director, International Energy Agency

Wanda Jablonski, Editor and Publisher, Petroleum Intelligence Weekly

Henry Jackson, U.S. Senator

Yoshio Karita, Director, Resources Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan

George Keller, Chairman, Chevron Corporation

Frederick Khedouri, Deputy Chief of Staff to the U.S. Vice-President

William King, Vice-President, Gulf Oil

Ulf Lantzke, Executive Director, International Energy Agency

James Lee, Chairman, Gulf Oil

Walter Levy, oil consultant

John Loudon, Senior Managing Director, Royal Dutch/Shell

Robert Mabro, Director, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies

William Martin, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy

Charles Mateudi

Lord McFadzean of Kelvinside, Chairman, Shell Transport and Trading George McGhee, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near East, South Asia and Africa Philippe Michelon, Director, Strategic Planning, Gulf Oil Edward Morse, U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State; Publisher, Petroleum Intelligence Weekly Richard Murphy, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near East and South Asia George N. Nelson, President, BP Exploration Alaska John Norton, Partner, Arthur Andersen & Company

Tadahiko Ohashi, Director, Corporate Planning Department, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.

Rene Ortiz, Secretary General, OPEC

Alirio Parra, President, Petróleos de Venezuela, SA

T. Boone Pickens, Chairman, Mesa Petroleum

James Placke, U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State

William Quandt, Director, Middle East Office, U.S. National Security Council

Alberto Quiros, President, Maraven, Lagoven, Venezuela

Sir Peter Ramsbotham, British Ambassador to Iran

M. S. Robinson, President, Shell International Trading Company

Gilbert Rutman, Vice Chairman, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine

Harold Saunders, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near East and South Asia

James Schlesinger, U.S. Secretary of Defense; U.S. Secretary of Energy

Ian Seymour, Editor, Middle East Economic Survey

Jesüs Silva Herzog, Minister of Finance, Mexico

Sir David Steel, Chairman, British Petroleum

Jack Sunderland, Chairman, Aminoil

Jean Syrota, Director, Agency for Energy Conservation, France

Sir Peter Walters, Chairman, British Petroleum

Paul Walton, geologist, Pacific Western

Harold Wilson, Prime Minister, Great Britain

Taylor Yoakam, Mesa Petroleum

Eugene Zuckert


Amoco archives, Chicago

Chevron archives, San Francisco

Gulf archives, Houston

Shell International archives, London

Public Records Office, Kew Gardens, London (PRO)

Foreign Office

Cabinet Office

War Cabinet

Prime Minister’s Office



Air Ministry

Colonial Office

Ministry of Power (including Petroleum Cabinet Committees Department)

Board of Trade

War Office

India Office, London

National Archives, Washington, D.C. (NA)

RG 59 State Department

RG 218 Joint Chiefs of Staff

RG 234 Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York

Official File

President’s Secretary’s File

Harry Hopkins papers

Henry Morgenthau Diary

Henry Morgenthau Presidential Diary

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas

Eisenhower Presidential Papers (Ann Whitman File)

John Foster Dulles papers

Christian Herter papers

Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri

President’s Secretary’s File

Ralph K. Davies papers

John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts

White House Staff Files

Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas

White House Central Files

Subject Files

Confidential File

Name File

Joseph Califano papers

Robson-Ross papers

National Security Files

Drew Pearson papers

Richard M. Nixon papers, National Archives

White House Central Files

White House Special Files

Confidential Files

President’s Office Files

Cabinet Task Force on Oil Import Controls

Gerald Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan

White House Central Files

Presidential Handwriting File

Council of Economic Advisors papers

White House Staff Files

Energy Resources Council papers

Arthur F. Burns papers

Frank G. Zarb papers

International Energy Agency, Paris

United Kingdom Department of Energy

Senate Multinational Subcommittee Interviews

U.S. State Department papers (1970–80) (Freedom of Information)

National War College, Washington, D.C.

Other Manuscript Collections

Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo papers, Caracas

Aramco papers, Middle East Center, Oxford

BBC Written Archives Centre, Reading

George Bissell collection, Dartmouth College

Sir John Cadman papers, University of Wyoming

Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge, England

Continental Oil Collection, University of Wyoming

Charles R. Crane papers, Middle East Center, Oxford

Ralph K. Davies papers, University of Wyoming

Everette Lee DeGolyer papers, Southern Methodist University

Henry L. Doherty papers, University of Wyoming

Colonel Drake manuscript, Drake Well Museum, Titusville, Penn.

James Terry Duce papers, University of Wyoming Herbert Goodman papers

Joseph Grew papers, Harvard University

Harold L. Ickes papers, Library of Congress Wanda Jablonski papers

Joiner v. Hunt case records, Rusk County District Court, Henderson, Texas

R. S. McBeth papers, University of Texas at Austin

Philip C. McConnell papers, Hoover Institution

A. J. Meyer papers, Harvard University

Oil Companies papers (Justice Department antitrust case), Baker Library, Harvard Business School

Pearson Collection, Imperial College, London

H. St. J. B. Philby papers, Middle East Center, Oxford

Mark L. Requa papers, University of Wyoming

Rockefeller Archives, Tarrytown, New York

Collection Banque Rothschild, Archives Nationales, Paris

Rusk County Historical Commission, Henderson, Texas

W. B. Sharp papers, University of Texas at Austin

Slade-Barker papers, Middle East Center, Oxford

George Otis Smith papers, University of Wyoming

Stimson Diary, Yale University

Ida Tarbell papers, Drake Well Museum, Titusville, Penn.

James M. Townsend papers, Drake Well Museum, Titusville, Penn.

Private archives

Oral Histories

Winthrop Aldrich, Baker Library, Harvard Business School

James Doolittle, Columbia University

Alan W. Hamill, University of Texas at Austin

Curt G. Hamill, University of Texas at Austin

Patillo Higgins, University of Texas at Austin

James William Kinnear, University of Texas at Austin

E. C. Laster, University of Texas at Austin

Torkild Rieber, University of Texas at Austin


Middle East Economic Survey (MEES)

Petroleum Intelligence Weekly (PIW)

Grampian Television, Oil. 8–part television series, 1986.

Government Documents

Declassified Documents Reference System. Washington, D.C.: Carrollton, 1977–81, and Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Publications, 1982–90.

Documents from the U.S. Espionage Den. Tehran: Center for the Publication of the U.S. Espionage Den’s Document, [1986].

International Energy Agency. Energy Policies and Programmes of IEA Countries. Paris: IEA/OECD.

———. World Energy Outlook. Paris: IEA/OECD.

Japan. Allied Occupation. Reports of General MacArthur: Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area. 4 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army, 1966.

Mexico. Secretaria de Progamacíon y Presupuesto. Antología de la Planeación en México (1917–1985). Vol. 1, Primeros Intentos de Planeación en México (1917–1946). Mexico City: Ministry of Budget and Planning, 1985.

Nuremberg Military Tribunals. Trials of War Criminals. Vols. 7–8. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1952–53.

Pogue, Joseph E., and Isador Lubin. Prices of Petroleums and Products. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1919.

Requa, Mark L. “Report of the Oil Division, 1917–1919.” H. A. Garfield. Final Report of the U.S. Fuel Administrator. 1917–1919. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1921.

United Kingdom. Ministry of Fuel and Power. Report on the Petroleum and Synthetic Oil Industry of Germany. London: HMSO, 1947.

United Kingdom. Admiralty. Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division. Geology of Mesopotamia and Its Borderlands. London: HMSO, 1920.

U.S. Army. Far East Command. Military Intelligence Section. Intelligence Series and Documentary Appendices. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1981. Microfilm.

U.S. Cabinet Task Force on Oil Import Control. The Oil Import Question: A Report on the Relationship of OH Imports to the National Security. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1970.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. CIA Research Reports: Middle East, 1946–1976. Ed. Paul Kesaris. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1983. Microfilm.

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Subcommittee on Evaluation. Iran: Evaluation of U.S. Intelligence Performance Prior to November 1978. Staff Report. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1979.

U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Pearl Harbor: Intercepted Messages Sent by the Japanese Government Between July 1 and December 8, 1941. 79th Cong. 1st sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1945.

———. Pearl Harbor Attack. 79th Cong. 2d sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1946.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations. A Documentary History of the Petroleum Reserves Corporation. 93d Cong. 2d sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1974.

———. The International Petroleum Cartel, the Iranian Consortium and U.S. National Security. 93d Cong. 2d sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1974.

———. Multinational Corporations and United States Foreign Policy. 93rd Cong. 1st sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1975 (Multinational Hearings).

———. Multinational Oil Corporations and U.S. Foreign Policy. 93rd Cong. 2d sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1975.

———. U.S. Oil Companies and the Arab Oil Embargo: The International Allocation of Constricted Supply. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1975.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Current Energy Shortages Oversight Series. 93rd Cong. 1st Session. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1974.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly. Petroleum, the Antitrust Laws and Government Policies. 85th Cong. 1st sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1957.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Small Business. Subcommittee on Monopoly. The International Petroleum Cartel: Staff Report to the Federal Trade Commission. 82d Cong. 2d sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1952 (FTC, International Petroleum Cartel).

U.S. Congress. Senate. Special Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources. Investigation of Petroleum Resources. 79th Cong. 1st and 2d sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1946.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Special Committee Investigating the National Defense Program. Investigation of the National Defense Program. Part 11, Rubber. 77th Cong. 1st sess. Part 41, Petroleum Arrangements with Saudi Arabia. 80th Cong. 1st sess. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1948.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Subcommittees of the Committee on the Judiciary and Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Emergency Oil Lift Program and Related Oil Problems. 85th Cong. 1st sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1957.

U.S. Congress, Senate. Subcommittee of the Committee on Manufactures. High Cost of Gasoline and Other Petroleum Products. 67th Cong. 2d and 4th sess. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1923.

U.S. Department of the Interior. An Analysis of the Economic and Security Aspects of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1971.

U.S. Department of Justice. Anti-Trust Division. Report of the Department of Justice to the President Concerning the Gasoline Shortage of 1979. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1980.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States. Washington, D.C.: GPO 1948–90 (FRUS).

U.S. Economic Cooperation Administration. European Recovery Program. Petroleum and Petroleum Equipment Commodity Study. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1949.

U.S. Federal Trade Commission. Foreign Ownership in the Petroleum Industry. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1923.

———. Prices, Profits, and Competition in the Petroleum Industry. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1928.

U.S. National Response Team. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Report to the President from Samuel K. Skinner and William K. Reilly. May 1989.

U.S. National Security Council. Documents of the NSC, 1947–77. Ed. Paul Kesaris. Washington, D.C. and Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1980–87. Microfilm.

———. Minutes of Meetings of the NSC, with Special Advisory Reports. Ed. Paul Kesaris. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1982. Microfilm.

U.S. Office of Strategic Services and Department of State. O.S.S./State Department Intelligence and Research Reports. Ed. Paul Kesaris. Washington, D.C: University Publications of America, 1979. Micro-film.

U.S. Petroleum Administration for War. Petroleum in War and Peace. Washington, D.C: PAW, 1945.

U.S. President. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1977. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1978.

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey. Oil and Chemical Division. Oil in Japan’s War. Washington, D.C: USSBS, 1946.

———. Oil Division. Final Report. 2d ed. Washington, D.C: USSBS, 1947.

———. Overall Economic Effects Division. The Effects of Strategic Bombing on Japan’s War Economy. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1946.

———. Overall Economic Effects Division. The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy. Washington, D.C: USSBS, 1945.

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific). Naval Analysis Division. Interrogations of Japanese Officials. 2 vols. Washington, D.C: USSBS, [1945].

U.S. Tariff Commission. War Changes in Industry. Report 17, Petroleum. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1946.

U.S. War Production Board. Industrial Mobilization for War: History of the War Production Board and

Predecessor Agencies, 1940–1945. Vol. 1, Program and Administration. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1947.

Woodward, E. L., and Rohan Butler. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919–1939. 3 series. London: HMSO, 1946–86.

Selected Books, Articles, and Dissertations

Abir, Mordechai. Saudi Arabia in the Oil Era: Regime and Elites; Conflict and Collaboration. London: Croom Helm, 1988.

Abrahamian, Ervand. Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department. New York: New American Library, 1970.

Adelman, M. A. “Is the Oil Shortage Real? Oil Companies as OPEC Tax Collectors.” Foreign Policy (Winter 1972–73): 69–108.

———. The World Petroleum Market. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Agawa, Hiroyuki. The Reluctant Admiral: Yamamoto and the Imperial Navy. Trans. John Bester. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1979.

Ajami, Fouad. The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice Since 1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Akin, Edward N. Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and Florida Baron. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1988.

Akins, James E. “The Oil Crisis: This Time the Wolf Is Here.” Foreign Affairs 51 (April 1973): 462–490.

Alexander, Yonah, and Allan Nanes, eds. The United States and Iran: A Documentary History. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1980.

Alfonzo, Juan Pablo Pérez. Hundiéndos en el Excremento del Diablo. Caracas: Colleción Venezuela Contemporánea, 1976.

———. El Pentágono Petrolero. Caracas: Ediciones Revista Politica, 1967.

Almana, Mohammed. Arabia Unified: A Portrait of Ibn Saud. London: Hutchinson Benham, 1980.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower. 2 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983–84.

———. The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970.

American Bar Association, Section of Mineral Law. Legal History of Conservation of Oil and Gas: A Symposium. Chicago: American Bar Association, 1939.

Anderson, Irvine H. Aramco, the United States, and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy, 1933–1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

———. The Standard-Vacuum Oil Company and United States East Asian Policy, 1933–1941. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Anderson, Robert O. Fundamentals of the Petroleum Industry. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

Arnold, Ralph, George A. Macready, and Thomas W. Barrington. The First Big Oil Hunt: Venezuela, 1911–1916. New York: Vantage Press, 1960.

Arthur Andersen & Co. and Cambridge Energy Research Associates. The Future of Oil Prices: The Perils of Prophecy. Houston: 1984.

Asbury, Herbert. The Golden Flood: An Informal History of America’s First Oil Field. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1942.

Ashworth, William. The History of the British Coal Industry. Vol. 5, 1946–1982: The Nationalized Industry. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Asprey, Robert B. The First Battle of the Marne. 1962. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979.

Assiri, Abdul-Reda. Kuwait’s Foreign Policy: City-State in World Politics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990.

Bacon, R. H. The Life of Lord Fisher of Kilverstone. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1929.

Badger, Daniel, and Robert Belgrave. Oil Supply and Price: What Went Right in 1980? London: Policy Studies Institute, 1982.

Bain, Joe S. The Economics of the Pacific Coast Petroleum Industry. 3 parts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1944–47.

Bakhash, Shaul. The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1984.

Bardou, Jean-Pierre, Jean-Jacques Chanaron, Patrick Fridenson, and James M. Laux. The Automobile Revolution: The Impact of an Industry. Trans. James M. Laux. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

Barnhart, Michael A. Japan Prepares for Total War: The Search for Economic Security, 1919–1941. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987.

———. “Japan’s Economic Security and the Origins of the Pacific War.” Journal of Strategic Studies 4 (June 1981): 105–24.

Bates, J. Leonard. The Origins of Teapot Dome: Progressives, Parties, and Petroleum, 1909–1921. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963.

———. “The Teapot Dome Scandal and the Election of 1924.” American Historical Review 55 (January 1955): 303–22.

Beaton, Kendall. “Dr. Gesner’s Kerosene: The Start of American Oil Refining.” Business History Review 29 (March 1955): 28–53.

———. Enterprise in Oil: A History of Shell in the United States. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.

Beck, Peter J. “The Anglo-Persian Oil Dispute of 1932–33.” Journal of Contemporary History 9 (October 1974): 123–51.

Beeby-Thompson, A. Oil Field Development and Petroleum Mining. London: Crosby Lockwood, 1916.

———. The Oil Fields of Russia and the Russian Petroleum Industry. 2d ed. London: Crosby Lockwood, 1908.

———. Oil Pioneer. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1961.

Belasco, Warren James. Americans on the Road: From Autocamp to Motel, 1910–1945. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1979.

Benn, Anthony. Against the Tide: Diaries, 1973–76. London: Hutchinson, 1989.

Bentley, Jerome Thomas. “The Effects of Standard Oil’s Vertical Integration into Transportation on the Structure and Performance of the American Petroleum Industry, 1872–1884.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1976.

Bérenger, Henry. Le Pétrole et la France. Paris: Flammarion, 1920.

Bergengren, Erik. Alfred Nobel: The Man and His Work. Trans. Alan Blair. London: Thomas Nelson, 1960.

Betancourt, Romulo. Venezuela: Oil and Politics. Trans. Everett Bauman. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.

———. Venezuela’s Oil. Trans. Donald Peck. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978.

Betts, Richard K. Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1987.

Bill, James A. The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Bill, James A., and William Roger Louis, eds. Mossadiq, Iranian Nationalism, and Oil. London: I. B. Tauris, 1988.

Blair, Clay, Jr. Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1975.

Blair, John M. The Control of Oil. New York: Pantheon, 1976.

Blum, John Morton. From the Morgenthau Diaries. 3 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959–67.

Blumenson, Martin. Patton: The Man Behind the Legend, 1885–1945. New York: William Morrow, 1985.

———, ed. The Patton Papers. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972–74.

Boatwright, Mody C, and William A. Owen. Tales from the Derrick Floor. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970.

Bonine, Michael E., and Nikkie R. Keddie, eds. Continuity and Change in Modern Iran. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1981.

Borkin, Joseph. The Crime and Punishment of I. G. Farben. New York: Free Press, 1978.

Bowie, Robert R. Suez 1956. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Bradley, Omar N. A Soldier’s Story. New York: Henry Holt, 1951.

Brady, Kathleen. Ida Tarbell: Portrait of a Muckraker. New York: Seaview/Putnam, 1984.

Brands, H. W. “The Cairo-Tehran Connection in Anglo-American Rivalry in the Middle East, 1951–1953.” International History Review 11 (August 1989): 434–56.

———. Inside the Cold War:Loy Henderson and the Rise of the American Empire, 1918–1961. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Brenner, Anita. The Wind That Swept Mexico: The History of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1942. 1943. Reprint. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971.

Brewster, Kingman, Jr. Antitrust and American Business Abroad. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

Bright, Arthur A., Jr. The Electric Lamp Industry: Technological Change and Economic Development from 1800 to 1947. New York: Macmillan, 1949.

Bringhurst, Bruce. Antitrust and the Oil Monopoly: The Standard Oil Cases, 1890–1911. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979.

Brodie, Bernard. “American Security and Foreign Oil.” Foreign Policy Reports 23 (1948): 297–312.

Brown, Benjamin, and Daniel Yergin. “Synfuels 1979.” Draft case, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1981.

Brown, Jonathan C. “Domestic Politics and Foreign Investment: British Development of Mexican Petroleum, 1889–1911.” Business History Review 61 (Autumn 1987): 387–416.

———. “Jersey Standard and the Politics of Latin American Oil Production, 1911–1930.” Latin American Oil Companies and the Politics of Energy, ed. John D. Wirth. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

———. “Why Foreign Oil Companies Shifted Their Production from Mexico to Venezuela during the 1920s.” American Historical Review 90 (April 1985): 362–385.

Bryant, Arthur. The Turn of the Tide: A History of the War Years Based on the Diaries of Field-Marshall Lord Alanbrooke. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1957.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977–1981. Rev. ed. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1985.

Bullock, Alan. Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary, 1945–1951. London: Heinemann, 1984.

———. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

Bupp, I. C, Joseph Stanislaw, and Daniel Yergin. “How Low Can It Go? The Dynamics of Oil Prices.” Cambridge Energy Research Associates Report, May 1985.

Busch, Briton Cooper. Britain and the Persian Gulf. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

———. Britain, India, and the Arabs, 1914–1921. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Bush, George, with Victor Gold. Looking Forward: An Autobiography. New York: Bantam, 1988.

Business History Review, ed. Oil’s First Century. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1960.

Butow, Robert J. C. Japan’s Decision to Surrender. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1954.

———. Tojo and the Coming of the War. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961.

Caldwell, Martha Ann. “Petroleum Politics in Japan: State and Industry in a Changing Policy Context.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1981.

Cambridge Energy Research Associates. Energy and the Environment: The New Landscape of Public Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge Energy Research Associates, 1990.

Carell, Paul. Hitler Moves East, 1941–1943. Trans. Ewald Osers. Boston: Little, Brown, 1965.

Carré, Henri. La Veritable Histoire des Taxis de La Mame. Paris: Libraire Chapelot, 1921.

Caro, Robert. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982.

Carter, Jimmy. Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President. London: Collins, 1982.

de Chair, Somerset. Getty on Getty: A Man in a Billion. London: Cassell, 1989.

al-Chalabi, Fadhil J. OPEC and the International Oil Industry: A Changing Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

———. OPEC at the Crossroads. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1962.

———. The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., and Stephen E. Ambrose, eds. The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower. Vol. 4, The War Years. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970.

Chandler, Geoffrey. “The Innocence of Oil Companies.” Foreign Policy (Summer 1977): 52–70.

de Chazeau, Melvin G., and Alfred E. Kahn. Integration and Competition in the Petroleum Industry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959.

Chester, Edward W. United States Oil Policy and Diplomacy: A Twentieth-Century Overview. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Chisholm, Archibald H. I. The First Kuwait Oil Concession Agreement: A Record of the Negotiations, 1911–1934. London: Frank Cass, 1975.

Christopher, Warren, Harold H. Saunders, et al. American Hostages in Iran: The Conduct of a Crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Churchill, Randolph S. Winston S. Churchill. Vols. 1–2. 1966–67.

Churchill, Winston S. The World Crisis. 4 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923–29.

Cicchetti, Charles J. Alaskan Oil: Alternative Routes and Markets. Baltimore: Resources for the Future, 1972.

Clark, Alan. Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941–1945. 1965. Reprint. London: Macmillan, 1985.

Clark, James A., and Michael T. Halbouty. Spindletop. New York: Random House, 1952.

———. The Last Boom. Fredericksburg, Tex.: Shearer Publishing, 1984.

Clark, John G. Energy and the Federal Government: Fossil Fuel Policies, 1900–1946. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Cohen, Jerome B. Japan’s Economy in War and Reconstruction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949.

Cohen, Stuart A. “A Still Stranger Aspect of Suez: British Operational Plans to Attack Israel, 1955–56.” International History Review 10 (May 1988): 261–81.

Cole, Hugh M. The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1965.

Colitti, Marcello. Energia e Sviluppo in Italia: La Vicenda de Enrico Mattel. Bari: De Donata, 1979.

Coll, Steve. The Taking of Getty Oil. New York: Atheneum, 1987.

Collier, Peter, and David Horowitz. The Rockefellers: An American Dynasty. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976.

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Continental Oil Company. Conoco: The First One Hundred Years. New York: Dell, 1975.

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