Modern history

NOTES

The spelling in the sources used has been modernised in all cases where appropriate.

Part 1 The Earliest Boleyn Women: The Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Centuries

1 Norfolk Origins

1. Parsons 1935, p. 387.

2. Parsons 1935, p. 387 and Armstrong 1781, p. 69.

3. Gurney 1858, p. 828.

4. Parsons 1935, p. 387.

5. Ibid. p. 389.

6. Calendar of the Close Rolls Richard II Vol. III, p. 140.

7. Badham 2011.

8. The de Banco Rolls (quoted from Parsons 1935, p. 393).

9. Will of Sir William Boleyn (Testamenta Vetusta II, p. 465).

10. Parsons 1937, p. 19.

11. Ibid., p. 4.

12. Duffy 2004, p. 325.

13. Parsons 1935, p. 389.

14. Ibid., p. 390.

15. Ibid., p. 390.

16. Saul 2009, p. 256.

17. The Visitation of the Archdeacon of Norwich 1368–1420 (Parsons 1935, p. 391).

18. Blomefield and Parkin 1769, p. 626 both state that Alice was the daughter of Sir John Bracton, a claim that Parsons 1935 was suspicious about. It appears that Blomefield and Parkin took their information from the Visitations of Norfolk in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which referred to the mother of Geoffrey II (but the wife of Thomas I) as Jane, the daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Bracton. The visitation contains a number of errors but the detail given for Alice’s lineage may be accurate. The identification should be treated with caution. It is not impossible that one of Thomas Boleyn I’s wives may in fact have been the Bracton heiress.

19. Parsons 1935, p. 391.

20. Ibid., p. 398.

21. Visitation of Norfolk, p. 51.

22. Visitation of Kent, p. 181.

23. Parsons 1935, p. 392.

24. Venn 1897, p. 18.

25. Cooper 1860, p. 283.

26. Geoffrey Boleyn’s will (printed in Gurney 1858, p. 832).

27. Loades 2011, p. 12.

28. Parsons 1935, p. 396 discusses Thomas’s will.

29. Cooper 1860, p. 298.

2 Anne Hoo Boleyn & Her Daughters

1. Orridge 1867, p. 181.

2. The Wardens’ Account Book 1435 for the Mercers of London, p. 477.

3. The Wardens’ Account Book 1435–6, p. 485.

4. The Wardens’ Account Book for those years, pp. 517, 527 and 545.

5. Calendar of the Patent Rolls 1461–1467, p. 42 for the 1461 grant. The 1458 grant is contained in Calendar of the Patent Rolls VI for 25 October 1458.

6. Sums received for the admission of apprentices during their term of office (Mercers of London Account Books, p. 565).

7. Calendar of the Fine Rolls XVIII, p. 130.

8. Parsons 1935, p. 395.

9. Acts of the Mercer’s Company 1461 (Lyell and Watney 1936, p. 51).

10. Acts of the Mercer’s Company 1461 (Lyell and Watney 1936, p. 54).

11. Election of Wardens 1452 in Acts of the Mercer’s Company (Lyell and Watney 1936, p. 42).

12. Calendar of the Fine Rolls XIX, p. 195.

13. Warnicke 1995, p. 35.

14. Calendar of the Patent Rolls VI for 28 November 1457, p. 416.

15. Ibid. for 23 August 1458, p. 444.

16. Mate 1998, pp. 32, 35.

17. Gentleman’s Magazine 1855, p. 183 notes that Lord Hoo’s second daughter, also called Anne, was seven at the time of his death in 1455.

18. Testamenta Vetusta I, p. 272. Anne was thirty at the death of her father in 1455.

19. ‘Antiquarian Researches’, Gentlemen’s Magazine 1855, p. 182 and Cooper 1856.

20. Gentleman’s Magazine 1855, p. 183.

21. Registrum Thome Bourgchier for 7 December 1455, p. 173.

22. Mate 1998, p. 32.

23. Geoffrey Boleyn’s will, p. 839.

24. Margaret Paston to John Paston, 5 November 1452? (Gairdner, ed., Paston Letters 182).

25. Geoffrey Boleyn to John Paston Squire, c. 5 December 1460 (Paston Letters 366).

26. Parsons 1935, p. 395.

27. Geoffrey Boleyn’s will, p. 832.

28. Agnes Paston to John Paston, 16 November 1452 (Paston Letters 183).

29. Thomas Howes to John Paston, 13 November 1454 (Paston Letters 223).

30. A Remembrance of the Worshipful Kin and Ancestry of Paston, Born in Paston in Genyngham Soken (Paston Letters vol. I, p. xxi).

31. Sir John Paston to John Paston, March 1467 (Paston Letters, 570).

32. Will of Sir William Boleyn (Testamenta Vetusta II).

33. Anne Heydon’s will (Gurney 1858, p. 827).

34. Parsons 1937, p. 150.

35. John Paston to Sir John Paston, April 1467 (Paston Letters, 573).

36. Geoffrey Boleyn’s will.

37. Blomefield and Parkin 1769, p. 626, the confusion appears to come from PRO C1/254/16: Thomas Fenys, knight, Anne, his wife, and Richard, son and heir of Roger Copley v. William Fayrefax.

38. Visitation of Norfolk 1563 and 1613.

39. Margaret Paston to John Paston, 5 November 1452? (Paston Letters 182).

40. Anne Heydon’s will (Gurney 1858, p. 823).

41. Pedigrees showing the relationship between many of the nobility and gentry, and the blood royal; compiled about the year 1505, p. 314 (Harleian MS 1074) (printed in Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica vol. I, London:1834).

42. Select Cases before the king’s council of the Star Chamber, p. 27.

43. Ibid., p. 27.

44. Blomefield and Parkin 1767, p. 627.

45. Writ of diem clausit extremum issued for ‘Anne Bolane, widow’ in 1485 (Calendar of the Fine Rolls XXI no. 833).

3 The Ormond Inheritance

1. This date is calculated by reference to the date of birth of the couple’s eldest known child, a daughter, Anne, who is commemorated in a memorial brass at Blickling.

2. Richardson 2005, p. 163 states that Margaret’s mother was born in 1430. Watney 1906, p. 48 claims that Thomas Butler’s father’s first wife only died on 3 August 1430 and that he was the third son of the second marriage. However this must be an error as Thomas Butler’s grandmother, who made her will in 1434, referred to him and his two brothers and one sister fondly. Thomas Butler himself, when he made his will in 1515 also referred affectionately to his long-deceased grandmother, indicating that he remembered her. He was therefore most likely born in the mid-1420s.

3. Loades 2011, p. 12 and 31.

4. Butler in his notes to Grace’s Annales Hiberniae, p. 163.

5. TNA PROB 11/18 Earl of Ormond’s will.

6. Grace’s Annales Hiberniae, p. 161.

7. Burke 1866, p. 94.

8. Hunter 1819, p. 147 and Some account of the family of the Butlers, p. 20.

9. Richardson 2005, p. 163.

10. Richardson 2005, p. 163. Lora’s second husband died in January 1495 and she is first recorded as Ormond’s wife in November the following year.

11. Elizabeth was commemorated in a memorial brass at Sheffield church, this is the only reference to her existence (Hunter 1819, p. 147).

12. Will of Joanne, Lady Bergavenny (Testamenta Vetusta I, pp. 224–30).

13. TNA PROB 11/18 Earl of Ormond’s will.

14. Richardson 2005, p. 164.

15. Fenlon 2000, p. 138.

16. TNA PROB 11/18 Earl of Ormond’s will.

17. Bradley and Pevsner 2002, p. 396.

18. Will of Sir William Boleyn (Testamenta Vetusta II, p. 465).

19. Blomefield 1769, p. 627.

20. Warnicke 1995, p. 35.

21. Blomefield 1769, p. 628.

22. Inscription to Anthony Boleyn in Blickling church, transcribed by the author: ‘Here lies Antony Boleyn son of William Boleyn, Knight who died 30 September, 1493 on whose soul God have mercy.’

23. Blomefield 1769, p. 627.

24. Ibid.

25. Warnicke 1995, p. 36.

26. Calendar of the Fine Rolls XXII, p. 324.

27. Calendar of the Patent Rolls 1476–1485, p. 567.

28. Calendar of the Patent Rolls 1476–1485, p. 345.

29. Carte 1851, p. lxxxiii.

30. Will of Sir William Boleyn (Testamenta Vetusta II, p. 465).

31. Carte 1851, p. lxxxiv.

32. Some account of the family of the Butlers, p. 20.

33. BL Harleain MSS 433 f.100b (Horrox and Hammond 1974, p. 274) contains a pardon given to the seventh earl concerning the manor and demonstrates its importance to him.

34. Carte 1851, p. lxxxiv.

35. Will of Thomas, Earl of Ormond TNA PROB 11/18.

36. Thomas Boleyn’s Accounts November–December 1526 (L&P IV, App. 99).

37. Round 1881, p. 85.

38. Some account of the family of the Butlers, p. 21.

39. Carte 1851, p. lxxxiv.

40. Barnard 2000, p. 3.

41. Fenlon 2000, p. 138.

42. Round 1881.

43. Round 1881, p. 87.

44. Margaret Butler to Thomas Boleyn, 1515 (L&P I 5784).

45. L&P III 160.

46. VCH Cambridgeshire, p. 382.

47. Round 1881, p. 87.

48. State Papers II, p. 58 and Norton 2011a, p. 26.

49. State Papers II, pp. 49–50 and Norton 2011a, pp. 26–7.

50. State Papers II, p. 57 and Norton 2011a, p. 27.

51. Wilkinson 2009, p. 46.

52. Round 1881, p. 87.

53. Round 1881, p. 87.

54. Round 1881, p. 88.

55. Calendar of Carew Manuscripts, p. 107.

56. Calendar of Carew Manuscripts, p. 105.

57. Lord Hunsdon’s petition is taken from Round 1886, p. 18.

58. Calendar of Carew Manuscripts, p. 106.

59. Henry Monk to Lady Lisle, 19 July 1538 (Lisle Letters 184).

60. Worcestershire Record Office 705:349/12946/498729.

61. L&P XIV pt I 609.

62. L&P XIV pt I 854.

Part 2 Courtiers: 1485–1526

4 Lusty to Look On, Pleasant, Demure, & Sage

1. A Brief Account of the Noble Family of the Howards in Harleian Miscellany IX, p. 136.

2. Grant 1972, p. 7.

3. Tucker 1964, p. 15.

4. Casady 1975, p. 11.

5. Crawford 2010.

6. A Brief Account of the Descent of the Dukes of Norfolk in Harleian Miscellany IX, p. 136.

7. Crawford 2010.

8. Tucker 1964, p. 16.

9. John Howard’s Accounts in Botfield 1841, p. 149.

10. Ibid., p. 162.

11. Ibid., p. 165.

12. Ibid., p. 168.

13. Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV, p. 156.

14. Botfield 1841, p. 184.

15. Collier 1844, p. 135.

16. Ibid., p. 352.

17. Ibid., pp. 115 and 146.

18. Ibid., pp. 225 and 514.

19. Botfield 1841, p. 225.

20. Ibid., p. 260.

21. Collier 1844, pp. 275–76.

22. Ibid., p. 275.

23. Crawford 2010.

24. Volkes 1988, p. 7.

25. Ibid., p. 7.

26. L&P VI, App. 2.

27. Collier 1844, p. 147.

28. Ibid., p. 218.

29. Botfield 1841, p. 285.

30. Ibid., p. 503.

31. Tucker 1964, p. 26.

32. Ibid., p. 26.

33. Volkes 1988, p. 12.

34. Ibid., p. 15.

35. Ibid., p. 16.

36. Ibid., p. 16.

37. Tucker 1964, p. 14.

38. Volkes 1988, p. 20.

39. Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York, p. 99.

40. Ibid., p. 9.

41. Ibid., pp. 79 and 94.

42. Volkes 1988, p. 29.

43. Ibid., p. 30.

44. Ibid., p. 30.

45. Tucker 1969, p. 333.

46. Ibid., p. 335.

47. Ibid., p. 343.

48. Skelton 1931, pp. 424–25.

49. Ibid., p. 426.

50. Ibid., p. 426.

51. John Husee to Lady Lisle, 23 June 1537 (Lisle Letters IV 856).

52. John Husee to Lady Lisle, 29 June 1537 (Lisle Letters IV 884).

53. Thomas Warley to Lady Lisle, 14 April 1536 (Lisle Letters III 673).

54. Loades 2011, p. 14.

55. Calendar of the Close Rolls Henry VII Vol. II, p. 179.

56. L&P XI 17.

57. L&P I 3196, 3370 and 3460 for example give details of the embassy.

58. L&P I 3370.

59. L&P I 3402.

60. L&P I 4237 and 4307.

61. Volkes 1988, p. 40.

62. Samman 1988 Appendix IV lists a number of members of the Boleyn family as participating in court masques and tournaments.

63. Blomfield 1893, p. 18.

64. L&P XI 17.

65. Weir 2011, p. 12 claims that the memorial at Penshurst to Thomas Boleyn includes the date ‘1520’. In fact no date is marked and it is simply implausible that the eldest son of Sir Thomas Boleyn could have survived to adulthood with no mention at all being made of him in contemporary records.

66. Cavendish’s Metrical Visions in Norton 2011a, p. 227.

67. Anne Boleyn to her father (Norton 2011a, p. 25).

68. L&P X 838, 947 and 956.

69. L&P VI 180.

70. L&P VI 584.

71. L&P VI 1468.

5 Three Lady Boleyns at Court

1. Harris 2001, p. 257.

2. Weir 2011, p. 29.

3. Examination of Thomas Smyth, July 1536 (L&P XI 48).

4. Blomefield, pp. 54–5.

5. Oosterwijk 2000, p. 64.

6. James is referred to only as James Boleyn in a number of documents from early in Henry VIII’s reign, such as commissions of the peace from 1511 (L&P I 1714) and 1512 (L&P I 3426).

7. Loades 2011, p. 17 states that James was knighted in 1520. This appears to be taken from James’s entry in Bindoff 1982. However, Bindoff took the date from Leonard 1970, p. 309. Upon reviewing Leonard’s work there is no source given for the actual date of the knighthood, merely a source showing him as a knight in November 1520. However, as set out below, he was actually already referred to as a knight in December 1516.

8. L&P II 1204.

9. L&P II 2735.

10. L&P X 912.

11. L&P II 3489.

12. L&P III 491.

13. Lincolnshire Pedigrees III, p. 952.

14. Banks 1844, p. 452.

15. Tempest 1937, p. 173.

16. Ibid., p. 172 and Lincolnshire Pedigrees III, p. 954.

17. Tempest 1937, p. 173.

18. Ibid., p. 173.

19. Norton 2011b.

20. Lincolnshire Pedigrees III, p. 954.

21. Blomfield, p. 627.

22. L&P I 82.

23. For example, Ives 2005, p. 14 in his definitive biography of Anne Boleyn and Somerset 1984, p. 13 in her still highly useful study of ladies-in-waiting.

24. L&P I 1549.

25. Harris 2001, p. 257.

26. Lestrange Accounts, p. 430.

27. Lestrange Accounts, p. 483.

28. Harris 2001, p. 257.

29. Casady 1975, p. 14.

30. Casady 1975, p. 16.

31. The Field of the Cloth of Gold: List of Noble Persons who Accompanied Henry VIII in June 1520 (Rutland Papers, p. 37).

32. L&P VI 923.

33. The Reeds of Oatlands and their relationship to the Blount and Amadas families are discussed in Norton 2013a (forthcoming).

34. Norton 2011b.

35. Elton 1976.

36. Sander 1877, p. 24.

37. Samman 1988 App. IV.

38. Weir 2011.

39. ‘The Justes of the Moneths of May and June’ in Hazlitt 1866.

40. Norton 2011.

41. ‘The Countess of Wiltshire, Died 1538 – by W.M.L.’ in Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica vol. II fourth series 1908, pp. 246–47.

42. Margaret of Austria to Thomas Boleyn (Norton 2011a, p. 25).

43. L&P I 5483 and 5484.

6 Mary Boleyn, Royal Mistress

1. Hall’s Chronicle, pp. 567–69.

2. L&P I 3348.

3. Brantôme, p. 368.

4. Wilkinson 2009, p. 39.

5. Brantôme, pp. 9, 102 and 169.

6. L&P X 181.

7. Weir 2011, p. 85.

8. Sander, p. 24.

9. Russell 1969 contains a contemporary account of the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

10. Norton 2011b.

11. Hoskins 1997.

12. Weir 2011, p. 114.

13. L&P III 2074 no. 5.

14. L&P III 2297.

15. Norton 2011b sets out the evidence for Elizabeth Tailboys’s paternity, which is strongly in favour of the assertion that Elizabeth Blount’s daughter was also the king’s child.

16. Bundesen 2008, p. 76.

17. Ibid., p. 77.

18. Varlow 2007.

19. Bundesen 2008, p. 73.

20. Naunton, p. 10.

21. Deuteronomy 33:22.

22. Genesis 49:17 and 49:9.

23. Bundesen 2008, p. 76.

24. Hoskins 1997.

25. Ibid.

26. Norton 2011b.

27. Hoskins 1997.

28. Rowley-Williams 1998, pp. 154–55.

29. BL Add. MSS. 12060.

30. Cavendish’s Metrical Visions (Norton 2011a, pp. 253–4).

31. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 162.

32. ‘The parcels of stuff here being written being the Lady Rochford’s. And they do remain a chest being in the chamber over the kitchen’ transcribed in Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 298.

33. L&P X 1251 (William Foster to Cromwell, 1536).

34. Dedication to A New Year’s Angelical Salutation by Thomas Aquine quoted from Madden, p. cxxviii.

35. Fox 2007, pp. 36 and 39.

36. L&P IV App. 99 Thomas Boleyn’s Accounts (Nov.–Dec. 1526).

37. Lady Rochford to Thomas Cromwell (Norton 2011a, p. 253).

38. Thomas Boleyn to Cromwell (Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 163).

39. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 156.

40. Sander, pp. 32–3.

Part 3 Queen Anne Boleyn: 1526–1536

7 The King’s New Love

1. Wyatt 1825, pp. 182–83.

2. Sander 1877, p. 25.

3. Wyatt 1825, p. 183.

4. Anne’s relationship with Henry Percy is described in Cavendish 1825.

5. Printed in Singer 1825, p. 250.

6. Wriothesley’s Chronicle, p. 41.

7. Wyatt 1825, p. 184.

8. Wyatt 1975, p. 90.

9. Wyatt 1825, p. 185.

10. Wyatt 1975, p. 7.

11. The quotes from Henry’s letters are all taken from Norton 2011a.

12. L&P IV App. 206 (Du Bellay to Montmorency, 6 October 1528).

13. L&P IV App. 99 (Thomas Boleyn’s Accounts Nov.–Dec. 1526).

14. L&P IV 1939.

15. Wyatt 1825, p. 188.

16. Wyatt 1825, p. 187.

17. Wood vol. II letter 7.

8 Anne Boleyn & the King’s Great Matter

1. Herbert 1649, p. 226.

2. Wyatt 1825, p. 188.

3. Chapuys to Charles V, 1 January 1530 (Norton 2011a, p. 110–11).

4. Chapuys to Charles V, 10 May 1530 (Norton 2011a, p. 105).

5. Chapuys to Charles V, 1 October 1532 (Norton 2011a, pp. 124–25).

6. Anne Boleyn to Stephen Gardiner, 4 April 1529 (Norton 2011a, pp. 77–8).

7. L&P IV 187.

8. Thomas Heneage to Cardinal Wolsey, 3 March 1528 (Ellis 1846, pp. 132–33).

9. L&P VI 1468 (Depositions of Elizabeth Barton).

10. Wood II, p. 75.

11. L&P IV App. 9.

12. Chapuys to Charles V, 31 January 1530, 6 February 1530 and 14 May 1530 (all Norton 2011a).

13. Chapuys to Granville, 11 July 1532.

14. Chapuys to Charles V, 13 November 1530 (Norton 2011a, p. 109).

15. For example in her letter to Lady Wingfield.

16. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 157.

17. Lady Rochford’s 1536 inventory (Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 298).

18. List of plate, apparel and jewels which were Lady Rochford’s (Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 299).

19. Items received into the Royal Wardrobe after Lady Rochford’s death (Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 300).

20. Cardinal du Bellay, 18 June 1528 (Norton 2011a, p. 78).

21. Cardinal du Bellay, 18 June 1528 and 30 June 1528 (Norton 2011a, pp. 78–9).

22. Henry’s letters are all printed in Norton 2011a.

23. Letter 9 (Norton 2011a, p. 43).

24. Henry’s correspondence with Wolsey regarding Wilton is printed in St Clare Byrne 1968, pp. 77 and 79).

25. Anne’s letters to Wolsey are printed in Norton 2011a.

26. Wyatt 1825, p. 203.

27. Letter 13 Norton 2011a, p. 45.

28. L&P IV 2207.

29. Herbert 1649, p. 231.

30. Campeggio to Salviarti, 28 October 1528 (St Clare Byrne 1968, p. 86).

31. L&P IV 2577.

32. Cavendish records Catherine’s speech and conduct. He also recounts Wolsey’s fall.

33. Life of Fisher, pp. 65–6.

34. L&P IV 2177.

35. L&P V 591.

36. Cranmer to Archdeacon Hawkins, 17 June 1533 (Williams 1967, p. 722).

37. Harpsfield 1878, p. 234.

9 Anne the Queen

1. Chapuys to Charles V, 22 March 1531 (Norton 2011a).

2. Latymer 1990 recounts Anne’s religious beliefs.

3. Dowling 1984, p. 36.

4. Guy 1982 and Chapuys to Charles V, 14 February 1531.

5. Chapuys to Charles V, 31 March 1533 (Norton 2011a).

6. Bray 1994, p. 79.

7. Cranmer to Archdeacon Hawkins, 17 June 1533 (Williams 1967, p. 720).

8. Chapuys to Charles V, 16 April 1533.

9. Chapuys to Charles V, 29 May 1533.

10. Wynkyn de Worde 1903, p. 11.

11. Chapuys to Charles V, 29 May 1533.

12. L&P VI 584.

13. L&P VI 613 Sir Edward Baynton to Lord Rochford, 9 June 1533.

14. The Coronation pageants are from Udall 1903.

15. L&P VI 266.

16. L&P VI 613.

17. Chapuys to Charles V, 30 July 1533.

18. Chapuys to Charles V, 3 September 1533.

19. Chapuys to Charles V, 10 September 1533.

20. Chapuys to Charles V, 10 September 1533.

21. Latymer 1990, p. 63 and Chronicle of Henry VIII, p. 42.

22. George Taylor to Lady Lisle, 27 April 1534.

23. L&P VII 366.

24. Norton 2011a, pp. 150–51.

25. L&P X 450.

26. L&P IX 566.

27. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 1592.

28. Privy Purse Expenses of Princess Mary, pp. 7, 51, 82 and 97.

29. Ibid., p. 143.

30. Ibid., p. 49.

31. Ibid., p. 11.

32. Ibid., p. 13.

33. Ibid., pp. 17 and 25.

10 Princess Mary & the Queen’s Aunts

1. Remley 1994, p. 43.

2. Whitaker 1929, p. 206.

3. Blomefield 1806, pp. 264–5.

4. Ibid., p. 266.

5. Remley 1994, p. 43.

6. Blomefield 1806, p. 26.

7. Norfolk Visitation (see Shelton). Thomas Shelton was still serving at the Tower at the time of his death in 1595 (Whitaker 1929, p. 207).

8. Burke 1832, p. 118.

9. Armstrong 1781, p. 77.

10. Harris 2002, p. 133.

11. The East Anglian I, pp. 126 and 141.

12. Will of Dame Alice Clere TNA PROB 11/27.

13. Harris 2002, p. 133.

14. Chronicle of Henry VIII.

15. William Kingston to Lord Lisle, 18 April 1534.

16. L&P VI 472.

17. Chapuys to Charles V, 15 September 1533.

18. Chapuys to Charles V, 10 October 1533.

19. Chapuys to Charles V, 3 November 1533.

20. Chapuys 16 December 1533.

21. Chapuys 23 December 1533.

22. Chapuys 27 December 1533.

23. Chapuys 11 February 1534.

24. L&P VII 1129 (Dr William Butt to Cromwell, 2 September 1534).

25. L&P VIII 263.

26. Privy Purse Expenses of Princess Mary, p. 143.

27. Ibid. pp. 7, 8 and 54.

28. Ibid. pp. 84 and 73.

29. Ibid., p. 184.

30. Ibid. pp. 42 and 54.

31. Ibid., p. 120.

32. Ibid., p. 97.

33. Chapuys 21 February 1534.

34. Chapuys 30 March 1534.

35. Chapuys 22 April 1534.

36. Chapuys 14 May 1534.

37. For example in two recent works on Henry’s mistresses, one believed the mistress was Margaret (Jones 2009, p. 241) and the other Mary (Hart 2009, p. 121).

38. Latymer 1990, p. 63.

39. Lisle Letters V 1086.

40. Norton 2011b.

41. Norton 2013b (forthcoming).

42. Wotton 1771, p. 76.

43. Visitation of Norfolk, p. 322.

44. Blomefield 1806, p. 267.

45. Norfolk Lists, p. 12.

46. Norfolk Lists, p. 75.

47. TNA PROB 11/44.

48. L&P XII pt II 1187.

49. Mary’s parents married in 1512 and she may have been born as late as 1520 (Remley 1994, p. 43).

50. For example, Hart 2009, p. 122.

51. Latymer 1990, p. 63.

52. Quoted from Heale 1995, p. 301, but with modernised spelling.

53. Hart 2009, p. 127.

54. Kingston to Cromwell, letter 1 (Norton 2011a, p. 246).

55. Chapuys to Charles V, 9 January 1536.

56. Crawford 2002, pp. 179–80.

57. Chapuys 21 January 1536.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid.

60. Chapuys 29 January 1536.

11 The Fall of the Boleyns

1. Chapuys to Charles V, 10 February 1536.

2. Chapuys to Charles V, 29 January 1536.

3. Chapuys to Charles V, 10 February 1536.

4. Wyatt 1825, p. 208.

5. Chapuys to Charles V, 25 February 1536.

6. Chapuys to Charles V, 1 April 1536.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. L&P X 275.

10. Chapuys to Charles V, 21 April 1536.

11. Constantine 1831.

12. Wriothesley’s Chronicle, p. 36.

13. Warnicke 1989, p. 134.

14. Lisle Letters IV 836.

15. L&P X 912.

16. TNA PROB 11/44 Will of Sir James Boleyn.

17. Letter 3 (Norton 2011a, p. 247).

18. Burnet 1865, p. 318.

19. William Kingston to Cromwell letter 1 (Norton 2011a, p. 246).

20. Letter 3 (Norton 2011a, p. 247).

21. Letter 2 (Norton 2011a, p. 246).

22. Fraser 2002.

23. Burnet 1865, p. 316.

24. Burnet 1865, p. 316.

25. Norton 2011a, pp. 253–54.

26. 1536 inventory transcribed in Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 298.

27. List of plate, apparel and jewels which were Lady Rochford’s (transcribed in Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 299).

28. William Kingston to Cromwell, letter 2 (Norton 2011a, p. 246).

29. Strype 1822, pp. 462–63.

30. Norton 2011a, pp. 227–28.

31. Warnicke 1989, pp. 216–20.

32. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 161.

33. Lady Rochford to Cromwell (Norton 2011a, pp. 252–53).

34. L&P XI 17.

35. Spelman 1977, p. 71.

36. Walker 2002, p. 17.

37. John Husee to Lady Lisle.

38. Ales.

39. William Kingston to Cromwell, letter 1 in Norton 2011a, p. 246.

40. L&P X 838 (Bishop of Faenza to Mons. Ambrogio, 10 May 1536) and L&P X 947 (Dr Ortiz to the Empress, 23 May 1536).

41. L&P X 956.

42. Manuscript account of Anne’s trial (Norton 2011a, p. 249).

43. L&P X 362–63.

44. Chronicle of Calais, p. 46.

45. Constantine 1831.

46. Hall’s Chronicle, p. 819.

47. Potuguese account of Anne’s death (Norton 2011a, p. 265).

48. De Carles (Norton 2011a, p. 264).

Part 4 The Last Boleyn Women: 1536–1603

12 After Anne

1. L&P XI 48.

2. L&P XII pt I 317.

3. Bindoff 1982 for the 1553 settlement.

4. TNA PROB 11/44 Will of Sir James Boleyn.

5. Bindoff 1982.

6. Blomefield, p. 627.

7. PROB 11/27 Will of Alice Clere.

8. Armstrong 1781, p. 77.

9. Blomefield 1806, p. 267.

10. L&P XIV pt I 854.

11. L&P XI 17.

12. L&P XI 926 (Thomas Boleyn to Cromwell, 31 October 1536).

13. L&P XI 41.

14. Lisle Letters IV 884.

15. Lisle Letters III 673.

16. L&P XII pt I 580 and 722.

17. Lisle Letters V 1086.

18. Lisle Letters V 1137 (Thomas Warley to Lady Lisle, 7 April 1538).

19. Lisle Letters V 1139 (John Husee to Lady Lisle, 9 April 1538).

20. Lisle Letters V 1086.

21. Lisle Letters V 1194 (Henry Monk to Lady Lisle, 19 July 1538).

22. Lisle Letters V 1408 (John Husee to Lord Lisle, 12 May 1539).

23. Wilkinson 2009, p. 170.

24. Weir 2011, p. 210.

25. L&P XII pt I 822.

26. L&P XIV pt I 854.

27. L&P XV 611 (nos 22 and 23).

28. Wilkinson 2009, p. 173.

29. L&P XVIII pt I 623 no. 66.

30. Weir 2011, p. 229 states that Mary left a will but this is incorrect. Married women could own no property themselves in Tudor England and, thus, had nothing to leave, even if they had been able to make a legally valid testament.

31. Surrey’s Epitaph for Thomas Clere (Surrey, pp. 62–3).

32. Ibid.

33. Blomefield 1806, p. 266.

34. Heale 1995, p. 301.

35. Quoted from Heale 1995, p. 313. I have modernised the spelling.

36. Remley 1994, p. 47.

37. Remley 1994, p. 54.

38. Remley 1994, p. 57.

39. Remley 1994, p. 45.

40. Blomefield 1806, pp. 92–3.

41. Alexander Ales in Norton 2011a.

42. Colwell 1888, p. 310.

43. Lady Bryan to Cromwell (Falkus 1974, p. 88).

44. The Second Act of Succession is printed in Williams 1967, p. 452–54.

45. Mary to Henry VIII, 21 July 1536 (L&P XI pp. 70–1).

13 The Notorious Lady Rochford

1. Fox 2007, pp. 219–21.

2. Jane’s letter to Cromwell in Norton 2011a, p. 253.

3. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 165.

4. Cromwell to Lord William Howard and Stephen Gardiner, October 1537 (Merriman 1902, p. 96).

5. Hall 1904, p. 313.

6. The deposition is printed in Strype vol. I pt II 1822, pp. 462–63.

7. Hall 1904, p. 313.

8. Wriothesley’s Chronicle, pp. 121–22.

9. Richard Hilles to Henry Bullinger, 10 May 1542 (Robinson 1846, p. 227).

10. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, p. 10.

11. Catherine Howard to Thomas Culpepper (Crawford 2002, p. 210).

12. Fox 2007, p. 289.

13. Cavendish’s Metrical Visions (Norton 2011a, p. 254).

14. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, p. 10.

15. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, 12 November 1542 (Bath Manuscripts, pp. 9–10).

16. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, p. 9.

17. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, p. 9.

18. Richard Hilles to Henry Bullinger, 10 May 1542 (Robinson 1846, p. 226).

19. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, p. 10.

20. The details that emerged of Catherine’s childhood came from the later examinations of members of the duchess’s household, which have been calendared in L&Ps.

21. ‘The Confession of the Queen Katherine Howard’, November 1541 (in Bath Manuscripts, pp. 8–9).

22. Wriothesley’s Chronicle, p. 131.

23. Examination of Queen Katherine Howard, p. 9.

24. Fox 2007, p. 299.

25. Richard Hilles to Henry Bullinger, 10 May 1542 (Robinson 1846, p. 226).

26. CSP VI pt I 207.

27. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 179.

28. CSP VI pt I 209.

29. Rowley-Williams 1998, p. 182.

30. CSP VI pt I 209.

31. CSP VI pt I 232.

32. CSP VI pt I 209.

33. Hall 1904, p. 314.

34. Minutes of the Privy Council, 11 December 1541 (Nicolas 1837, p. 282).

35. L&P XVII 34.

36. The Bill of Attainder of Queen Katherine Howard (in Williams 1967, p. 488).

37. Wriothesley’s Chronicle, p. 133.

38. L&P XVII 100.

39. Wriothesley’s Chronicle, p. 134.

40. CSP VI pt I 232.

41. Hall 1904, p. 314.

42. L&P XVII 100.

43. CSP VI pt I 232.

44. Letter 147 (Ellis vol. II).

14 Boleyn Daughters

1. Bundesen 2008, p. 82.

2. Household Expenses of Princess Elizabeth, p. 35.

3. Ibid., p. 39.

4. Ibid., p. 39.

5. Princess Elizabeth to Catherine, Lady Knollys, 1553 (Wood vol. II 1846, p. 280).

6. Household expenses of Princess Elizabeth, p. 35.

7. Burke and Burke 1841, p. 292.

8. Bundesen 2008, p. 77.

9. L&P 18 pt I 832.

10. Bundesen 2008, p. 78.

11. Papers Relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, letter 3.

12. Varlow 2007.

13. Ibid.

14. L&P XVIII pt I 483.

15. L&P XVIII pt II 269.

16. Wood vol. II 1846, pp. 176–77.

17. Williams 1967, pp. 452–56 prints the third Act of Succession.

18. Catherine’s earlier relationship with Seymour is noted in a letter to him written by her in 1547 (printed in Crawford 2002, p. 222).

19. CSP 9 123–4.

20. John Fowler’s Deposition (in Nichols 1862, pp. cxv–cxvi).

21. Quoted from Seymour 1972, p. 216.

22. Wood 1846, pp. 191–92.

23. APC II 238.

24. APC II 2511.

25. Thomas Seymour’s conduct with Elizabeth is taken from the Examination of Katherine Ashley on 2 February 1549 and Katherine Ashley’s final Handwritten Deposition, late February 1549 (in Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, pp. 25–6 and 29–30) and The Confession of Katherine Ashley (Haynes 1740, pp. 99–100).

26. Life of Jane Dormer, pp. 86–7.

27. Gordon, p. 44.

28. Lady Tyrwhit’s Deposition from Strickland 1844, pp. 112–13.

29. CSP 9 332 and APC II, 22 and 24 February 1549.

30. Proctor 1902, p. 239.

31. Vita Mariae Angliae Reginae.

32. Printed in Marcus, Mueller and Rose, p. 41.

33. Chronicle of Queen Jane, pp. 70–1.

34. Garrett 1966, p. 211.

35. Wood 1846, p. 279.

36. Garrett 1966, p. 211.

37. Garrett 1966, p. 211.

38. Peck 1941, pp. 163, 167 and 174.

39. Varlow 2007.

40. Rodriguez-Salgado and Adams 1984.

15 The Last Boleyn Woman

1. Hayward 1840, p. 6.

2. Camden 1970, p. 24.

3. Ibid., p. 17.

4. Richard Mulcaster’s account of Elizabeth’s Coronation (Loades 2002, p. 102).

5. Bundesen 2008, p. 86.

6. Ibid., p. 98.

7. Wilson 1923, p. 10.

8. Bundesen 2008.

9. Elizabeth’s first speech before Parliament, 10 February 1559 (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, pp. 58–60).

10. Report by Thomas Pope of Elizabeth’s answer to a Marriage Proposal from the King of Sweden (Paper 753) (Knighton 1998, p. 331).

11. Somerset 1991, p. 96.

12. Count of Feria to Philip II, 18 April 1559 (Loades 2002, p. 124).

13. Williams 1992, p. 80.

14. Camden 1970, p. 52.

15. Ibid., p. 52.

16. Dudley Knollys, who died in infancy.

17. Camden 1970, p. 53.

18. Count of Feria to Philip II, 18 April 1559 (Loades 2002, p. 125) and Alvarez de Quadra, Bishop of Aquila to Philip II, 31 January 1562 (Loades 2002, p. 125).

19. Hayward 1840, p. 7.

20. Alvarez de Quadra, Bishop of Aquila, to Philip II, 25 October 1562 (Loades 2002, p. 126).

21. Elizabeth to Mary, Queen of Scots, 24 February 1567 (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, p. 116).

22. Camden 1970, p. 68.

23. Ibid., p. 89.

24. Papers Relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, letter 2, 16 July 1568.

25. Papers Relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, letter 3.

26. Ibid.

27. Levien 1863, p. 43.

28. Ibid., p. 44.

29. Papers Relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, letter 5.

30. Ibid., letter 3.

31. Ibid., letter 3.

32. Ibid., letter 5.

33. Ibid., letter 17.

34. Mr White to Sir William Cecil, 26 February 1568 [1569 under modern dating] (Haynes 1740, p. 510).

35. Papers Relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, letter 17.

36. Ibid., p. 510.

37. Haynes, p. 509.

38. Papers Relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, letter 19.

39. Sir Thomas Gargrave to the Council, 2 November 1569 (Green 1871, p. 94).

40. Camden 1970, p. 115.

41. John Lee to Lord Burghley, 2 April 1572 (Green 1871, p. 391).

42. Account of the execution of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, 2 June 1572 (Green 1871, p. 396).

43. Thomas, Earl of Sussex to Lord Burghley, 10 April 1571 (Green 1871, p. 343).

44. Dispatch of Sir Thomas Smith and Sir Henry Killigrew, 8 January 1572 (Loades 2002, p. 163).

45. ‘On Monsieur’s Departure’ by Elizabeth I (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, p. 302).

46. Elizabeth to Alençon, c. December 1579 – January 1580 (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, p. 243).

47. Wilson 1923, p. 124.

48. Camden 1970, p. 136.

49. Somerset 1991, p. 127.

50. Ibid., p. 129.

51. Camden 1970, p. 263.

52. Ibid., p. 283.

53. Ibid., p. 290.

54. Elizabeth to James VI, 14 February 1587 (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, p. 296).

55. Camden 1970, p. 312.

56. Ibid., p. 320.

57. Elizabeth’s Armada speech to troops at Tilbury, 9 August 1588 (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, p. 326).

58. Camden 1970, p. 328.

59. Perrett 1942, p. 14.

60. Norton 2011b.

61. Secretary Cecil to Essex, 26 July 1597 (Green 1869, p. 473).

62. Somerset 1991, p. 534.

63. Examination of Sir John Davies, 10 February 1601 (Green 1869, p. 548).

64. Letter to Vincent Hussey, 11 February 1601 (Green 1869, p. 550).

65. Speech by the Lord Keeper in the Star Chamber, 13 February 1601 (Green 1869, p. 554).

66. Letter by Vincent Hussey, 11 February 1601 (Green 1869, p. 550).

67. Account of the execution of the Earl of Essex at 8 a.m. in the Tower, 25 February 1601 (Green 1869, p. 594).

68. Elizabeth’s Golden Speech, 30 November 1601 (Marcus, Mueller and Rose 2002, p. 340).

69. Anthony Rivers to Giacomo Creleto, Venice, 9 March 1603 (Green 1870, p. 298).

70. Henry Garney to Thomas Lancaster, 9 March 1603 (Green 1870, p. 298).

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