Notes

Introduction

1. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 31; d. 3, ll. 18–19.

2. I have based my estimate on the figures in M. Ellman, ‘Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 7 (November 2002), pp. 1151–72. Ellman gives a figure of 18.75 million Gulag sentences between 1934 and 1953, but many Gulag prisoners served more than one sentence in this period. He also gives the following figures for these years: at least 1 million executions; 2 million people in the labour army and other units of forced labour subordinated to the Gulag; 5 million people among the deported nationalities. According to the most reliable estimates, about 10 million people were repressed as ‘kulaks’ after 1928. That gives a total of 36.5 million people; allowing for the duplication of Gulag sentences, an overall figure of 25 million people is reasonable and probably an underestimate.

3. Interview with Elena Dombrovskaia, Moscow, January 2003.

4. MP, f. 4, op. 25, d. 2, ll. 9–10.

5. M. Gefter, ‘V predchuvstvii proshlogo’, Vek XX i mir, 1990, no. 9, p. 29.

6. See e.g. V. Kaverin, Epilog: Memuary (Moscow, 1989); K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990).

7. The literature is enormous, but see e.g. A. Barmine, One Who Survived (New York, 1945); V. Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom: The Personal and Political Life of a Soviet Official (London, 1947); A. Gorbatov, Years off My Life (London, 1964); N. Kaminskaya, Final Judgment: My Life as a Soviet Defence Attorney (New York, 1982); N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope (London, 1989); same author, Hope Abandoned (London, 1990); E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind (New York, 1967); same author, Within the Whirlwind (New York, 1981); L. Bogoraz, ‘Iz vospominanii’, Minuvshee, vol. 2 (Paris, 1986); L. Kopelev, No Jail for Thought (London, 1979); same author, The Education of a True Believer (London, 1980); T. Aksakova-Sivers, Semeinaia khronika, 2 vols. (Paris, 1988); Mikhail Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror (New Jersey, 1995).

8. A. Krylova, ‘The Tenacious Liberal Subject in Soviet Studies’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 1, no. 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 119–46.

9. Again the literature is voluminous, but among the more interesting are: O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’ (Moscow, 1993); A. Raikin, Vospominaniia (St Petersburg, 1993); I. Diakonov, Kniga vospominanii (St Petersburg, 1995); Iu. Liuba, Vospominaniia (St Petersburg, 1998); I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti (1925–53 gg.) (Moscow, 1998); I. Dudareva, Proshloe vsegda s nami: vospominaniia (St Petersburg, 1998); E. Evangulova, Krestnyi put’ (St Petersburg, 2000); K. Atarova, Vcherashnyi den’: vokrug sem’i Atarovykh-Dal’tsevykh: vospominaniia (Moscow, 2001); L. El’iashova, My ukhodim, my ostaemsia. Kniga 1: Dedy, ottsy (St Petersburg, 2001); N. Iudkovskii, Rekviem dvum semeistvam: vospominaniia (Moscow, 2002); E. Vlasova, Domashnyi al’bom: vospominaniia (Moscow, 2002); P. Kodzaev, Vospominaniia reabilitirovannogo spetspereselentsa (Vladikavkaz, 2002); E. Liusin, Pis’mo-vospominaniia o prozhitykh godakh (Kaluga, 2002); A. Bovin, XXvek kak zhizn’: vospominaniia (Moscow, 2003). See also: I. Paperno, ‘Personal Accounts of the Soviet Experience’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 3, no. 4 (Autumn 2002), pp. 577–610.

10.See e.g. S. Fitzpatrick, Stalin’s Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization (New York, 1994); S. Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin’s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941 (Cambridge, 1997); S. Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization (Berkeley, 1997).

11. See e.g., N. Kosterina, Dnevnik (Moscow, 1964); O. Berggol’ts, ‘Bezumstvo predannosti: iz dnevnikov Ol’gi Berggol’ts’, Vremia i my, 1980, no. 57, pp. 270–85; A. Mar’ian, Gody moi, kak soldaty: dnevnik sel’skogo aktivista, 1925–1953 gg. (Kishinev, 1987); M. Prishvin, Dnevniki(Moscow, 1990); E. Bulgakova, Dnevnik Eleny Bulgakovoi (Moscow, 1990); N. Vishniakova, Dnevnik Niny Vishniakovoi (Sverdlovsk, 1990).

12. See e.g. V. Vernadskii, ‘Dnevnik 1938 goda’, Druzhba narodov, 1992, no. 2, pp. 219–39; no. 3, pp. 241–69; same author, ‘Dnevnik 1939 goda’, Druzhba narodov, 1993, nos. 11/12, pp. 3–41; A. Solov’ev, Tetradi krasnogo professora (1912–1941 gg.), Neizvestnaia Rossiia. XX vek, vol. 4 (Moscow, 1993), pp. 140–228; “‘Ischez chelovek i net ego, kuda devalsia – nikto ne znaet”: iz konfiskovannogo dnevnika’, Istochnik, 1993, no. 4, pp. 46–62; Golgofa. Po materialam arkhivno-sledstvennogo dela no. 603 na Sokolovu-Piatnitskuiu Iu. I., ed. V. I. Piatnitskii (St Petersburg, 1993); A. Afinogenov, ‘Dnevnik 1937 goda’, Sovremennaia dramaturgiia, 1993, no. 1, pp. 219–33; no. 2, pp. 223–41; no. 3, pp. 217–39; K. Chukovskii, Dnevnik 1930–1969 (Moscow, 1994); M. Prishvin, ‘“Zhizn’ stala veselei…”: iz dnevnika 1936 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1993, no. 10, pp. 3–21; same author, ‘Dnevnik 1937 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1994, no. 11, pp. 144–71; 1995, no. 9, pp. 155–71; M. Prishvin and V. Prishvin, My s toboi: dnevnik liubvi (Moscow, 1996); A. Kopenin, ‘Zapiski nesumashedshego: iz dnevnika sel’skogo uchitelia’, Rodina, 1996, no. 2, pp. 17–29; Dnevnye zapiski ust’-kulomskogo krest’ianina I. S. Rassukhaeva (1902–1953) (Moscow, 1997); M. Krotova, Bavykinskii dnevnik: vospominaniia shkol’nogo pedagoga (Moscow, 1998); A. Tsember, Dnevnik (Moscow, 1997); V. Sitnikov, Perezhitoe: dnevnik saratovskogo obyvatelia 1918–1931 gg. (Moscow, 1999); E. Filipovich, Ot sovetskoi pionerki do cheloveka-pensionerki: moi dnevniki (Podol’sk, 2000); A. Man’kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov (St Petersburg, 2001); Iu. Nagibin, Dnevnik (Moscow, 2001); N. Lugovskaya, I Want to Live: The Diary of a Soviet Schoolgirl 1932–1937 (Moscow, 2003); M. Shirshova, Zabytyi dnevnik poliarnogo biologa (Moscow, 2003). Extracts from ten diaries were published in translation in V. Garros, N. Korenevskaya and T. Lahusen (eds.), Intimacy and Terror: Soviet Diaries of the 1930s (New York, 1995).

13. The historian Jochen Hellbeck has pioneered the study of Soviet diaries in the 1930s, particularly the diary of Stepan Podlubny, which is reproduced in J. Hellbeck (ed.), Tagebuch aus Moskau, 1931–1939 (Munich, 1996). See also Hellbeck’s discussion of four Soviet diaries from the 1930s in Revolution on My Mind: Writing a Diary Under Stalin (Cambridge, Mass., 2006). Hellbeck’s controversial view is that Soviet citizens in the 1930s thought in Soviet categories because they had no conceptual alternative, and that in their diaries they tried to mould themselves into the New Soviet Person by purging from themselves all non-Soviet elements of their personality (which they experienced as a ‘crisis of the self’). See further: J. Hellbeck, ‘Self-Realization in the Stalinist System: Two Soviet Diaries of the 1930s’, in M. Hildermeier (ed.), Stalinismus vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg: neue Wege der Forschung (Munich, 1998), pp. 275–90. Hellbeck’s view has been heavily criticized, particularly by A. Etkind, ‘Soviet Subjectivity: Torture for the Sake of Salvation?’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 6, no. 1 (Winter 2005), pp. 171–86; and S. Boym in ‘Analiz praktiki sub’ektivizatsii v rannestalinskom obshchestve’, Ab Imperio, 2002, no. 3, pp. 209–418.

14. See e.g. J. Hellbeck, ‘Fashioning the Stalinist Soul: The Diary of Stepan Podlubnyi (1931–1939)’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 44 (1996), pp. 344–73; I.Halfin and J. Hellbeck, ‘Rethinking the Stalinist Subject: Stephen Kotkin’s “Magnetic Mountain” and the State of Soviet Historical Studies’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 44 (1996), pp. 456–63; I. Halfin, Terror in My Soul: Communist Autobiographies on Trial (Cambridge, Mass., 2003); C. Kaier and E. Naiman (eds.),Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia: Taking the Revolution Inside (Bloomington, 2006).

15. This is the main argument of Hellbeck (see the references to his work above).

16. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 49–50.

17. See in particular the two books by Catherine Merridale, Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia (London, 2000) and Ivan’s War: The Red Army 1939–1945 (London, 2005), both partly based on interviews.

18. See e.g. Golos krest’ian: Sel’skaia Rossiia XX veka v krest’ianskikh memuarakh (Moscow, 1996); Sud’ba liudei: Rossiia xx vek. Biografii semei kak ob’ekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia (Moscow, 1996); D. Bertaux, P. Thompson and A. Rotkirch (eds.), On Living through Soviet Russia(London, 2004); V. Skultans, The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia (London, 1998); A. Shternshis, Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939 (Bloomington, 2006). Many books have drawn from interviews, among them notably: N. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System: The Gulag Survivor (New Brunswick, 2002); A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps (London, 2003).

19. The first major oral history was the Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System (329 interviews with Soviet refugees in Europe and the USA carried out in 1950–51). Most of the interviewees had left the Soviet Union between 1943 and 1946, and their views, which were coloured by the experience of living in the West, were consciously anti-Soviet in a way that was not representative of the Soviet population as a whole. Nonetheless, the project resulted in the publication of several sociological books, which influenced the Western view of Soviet daily life during the Cold War: R. Bauer, A. Inkeles and C. Klukhohn, How the Soviet System Works: Cultural, Psychological and Cultural Themes (Cambridge, Mass., 1957); J. Berliner, Factory and Manager in the USSR (Cambridge, Mass., 1958); M. Field, Doctor and Patient in Soviet Russia (Cambridge, Mass., 1958); and A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), which was specifically dedicated to studying ‘how Soviet society impinges on the individual and how he fits into the functioning pattern of Soviet life’ (p. 3). Smaller oral history projects adopting a sociological approach were carried out in the early 1990s by Daniel Bertaux and Paul Thompson (published in Sud’ba liudei and On Living Through Soviet Russia) and by the Moscow School of Social and Economic Science (published in Golos krest’ian). The oral history of the Gulag has been pioneered by the Memorial Society (http://www.memo.ru), although of course the first great oral history of the subject was Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago, 3 vols. (London, 1974–8), which relied heavily on interviews with survivors of the labour camps.

1: Children of 1917 (1917–28)

1. RGALI, f. 3084, op. 1, d. 1389, l. 17; f. 2804, op. 1, d. 45.

2. E. Drabkina, Chernye sukhari (Moscow, 1975), pp. 82–3.

3. S. Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar (London, 2003), p. 61.

4. RGALI, f. 2804, op. 1, d. 22, l. 4; f. 3084, op. 1, d. 1389, l. 3; Drabkina, Chernye sukhari, pp. 23–9; N. Burenin, Pamiatnye gody: vospominaniia (Leningrad, 1961), pp. 150–51.

5. Partiinaia etika: dokumenty i materialy diskussii dvadtsatykh godov (Moscow, 1989), p. 16; M. Gorky, Untimely Thoughts: Essays on Revolution, Culture and the Bolsheviks, 1917–18 (London, 1970), p. 7.

6. Cited in E. Naiman, Sex in Public: The Incarnation of Early Soviet Ideology (Princeton, 1997), pp. 91–2.

7. RGALI, f. 2804, op. 1, dd. 22, 40, 1389; V. Erashov, Kak molniia v nochi (Moscow, 1988), p. 344.

8. O. Figes, A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891–1924 (London, 1996), pp. 752–68.

9. I. Stalin, Sochineniia, 13 vols. (Moscow, 1946–55), vol. 6, p. 248.

10. K. Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia (Cambridge, Mass., 1968), p. 61.

11. L. Kirschenbaum, Small Comrades: Revolutionizing Childhood in Soviet Russia, 1917–1932 (New York, 2001), p. 48.

12. O. Maitich, ‘Utopia in Daily Life’, in J. Bowlt and O. Maitich (eds.), Laboratory of Dreams: The Russian Avant-garde and Cultural Experiment (Stanford, 1996), pp. 65–6; V. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism (Oxford, 1999), pp. 65–8.

13. W. Goldman, Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917–1936 (Cambridge, 1993), p. 107; N. Lebina, Povsednevnaia zhizn’ sovetskogo goroda: normy i anomalii, 1920–1930 gody (St Petersburg, 1999), p. 272.

14. I. Halfin, ‘Intimacy in an Ideological Key: The Communist Case of the 1920s and 1930s’, in same author (ed.), Language and Revolution: Making Modern Political Identities (London, 2002), pp. 187–8.

15. L. Trotsky, Problems of Everyday Life: Creating the Foundations of a New Society in Revolutionary Russia (London, 1973), p. 72; A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), p. 205.

16. Trotsky, Problems of Everyday Life, p. 48.

17. MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 2, 7, 46–62.

18. See O. Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia (London, 2002), pp. 119–30.

19. MSP, f. 3, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 24, 26.

20. MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, l. 15.

21. E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters (London, 1992), pp. 40, 46, 61–2, 101.

22. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism, p. 131.

23. V. Maiakovskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 13 vols. (Moscow, 1955–61), vol. 2, pp. 74–5.

24. V. Dunham, In Stalin’s Time: Middle-Class Values in Soviet Fiction (Durham, 1990), 2. p. 64 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

25. W. Rosenberg (ed.), Bolshevik Visions: First Phase of the Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia, 2 vols. (Ann Arbor, 1990), vol. 1, p. 37 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

26. MM, f. 1, op. 1, dd. 167, 169; f. 12, op. 27, d. 2, ll. 47–54.

27. MSP, f. 3, op. 47, d. 2, ll. 32–3, 59–64; d. 3, ll. 1–6; L.El’iashova, My ukhodim, my ostaemsia. Kniga 1: Dedy, ottsy (St Petersburg, 2001), pp. 191–4.

28. OR RNB, f. 1156, d. 597, ll. 3, 14; IISH, Vojtinskij, No. 11 (Box 3, file 5 /b); VOFA, A. Levidova, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 11; interview with Ada Levidova, St Petersburg, May 2004.

29. OR RNB, f. 1156, d. 576, ll. 4, 12–19; d. 577, l. 1; d. 597, l. 51; VOFA, A. Levidova, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 12.

30. V. Zenzinov, Deserted: The Story of the Children Abandoned in Soviet Russia (London, 1931), p. 27.

31. A. Lunacharskii, O narodnom obrazovanii (Moscow, 1948), p. 445.

32. E. M. Balashov, Shkola v rossiiskom obshchestve 1917–1927 gg. Stanovlenie ‘novogo cheloveka’ (St Petersburg, 2003), p. 33; J. Ceton, School en kind in Sowjet-Rusland (Amsterdam, 1921), p. 3. On work and play in kindergartens see L. Kirschenbaum, Small Comrades: Revolutionizing Childhood in Soviet Russia, 1917–32 (New York, 2001), pp. 120–23.

33. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 1–2; RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 154; L. Holmes, ‘Part of History: The Oral Record and Moscow’s Model School No. 25, 1931–1937’, Slavic Review, 56 (Summer 1997), pp. 281–3; S. Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union 1921–1934(Cambridge, 1979), p. 27; SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Tonen’kii nerv istorii’, ms., p. 16.

34. RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 30, ll. 241–56; d. 51, ll. 113–14; d. 154, ll. 47–8.

35. RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 154, l. 397; d. 155, ll. 5, 8, 9, 15; d. 156, ll. 11–12, 171; d. 157, ll. 98–103.

36. R. Berg, Sukhovei: vospominaniia genetika (Moscow, 2003), p. 29.

37. A. Mar’ian, Gody moi, kak soldaty: dnevnik sel’skogo aktivista, 1925–1953 gg. (Kishinev, 1987), p. 17; E. Liusin, Pis’mo – vospominaniia o prozhitykh godakh (Kaluga, 2002), pp. 18–19. See further C. Kelly, ‘Byt, Identity and Everyday Life’, in S. Franklin and E. Widdis (eds.), National Identity in Russian Culture: An Introduction (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 157–67.

38. Balashov, Shkola v rossiiskom obshchestve, p. 137.

39. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 8–9; op. 14, d. 3, ll. 24–6; MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 41–2; op. 3, d. 2, l. 24; V. Frid, 58½: zapiski lagernogo pridurka (Moscow, 1996), p. 89.

40. MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, ll. 1, 7; MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 2, ll. 11–12.

41. C. Kelly, ‘Shaping the “Future Race”: Regulating the Daily Life of Children in Early Soviet Russia’, in C. Kaier and E. Naiman (eds.), Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia: Taking the Revolution Inside (Bloomington, 2006), p. 262; Rosenberg, Bolshevik Visions, vol. 2, p. 86; MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, l. 43.

42. Interview with Vasily Romashkin, Norilsk, July 2004.

43. Interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

44. MSP, f. 3, op. 17, d. 2, l. 8.

45. P. Kenez, The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 1917–1929 (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 168–9.

46. N. Vishniakova, Dnevnik Niny Vishniakovy (Sverdlovsk, 1990), pp. 28–9.

47. E. Dolmatovskii, Bylo: zapiski poeta (Moscow, 1982), pp. 22–3.

48. V. Pirozhkova, Poteriannoe pokolenie (St Petersburg, 1998), pp. 46–7.

49. Interview with Vasily Romashkin, Norilsk, July 2004; D. Hoffman, Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Stalinist Modernity (Cornell, 2003), pp. 121–2.

50. M. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror (New Jersey, 1995), pp. 56, 68, 71 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

51. Lebina, Povsednevnaia zhizn’, p. 274.

52. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren, pp. 94–6, 161–2.

53. Stalin, Sochineniia, vol. 6, p. 46; Partiinaia etika, p. 287.

54. M. Rubinshtein, Sotsial’no-pravovye predstavleniia i samoupravleniia u detei (Moscow, 1925), pp. 69–70.

55. Partiinaia etika, p. 329.

56. O. Khakhordin, The Collective and the Individual in Russia: A Study of Practices (Berkeley, 1999), pp. 35–74, 212–28. In a similar manner ‘proletarian consciousness’ required proof of consciousness (ideological commitment to the Party’s cause); it was not enough to be born into the proletariat, for there were many people of working-class origin who had developed a ‘petty-bourgeois’ mentality.

57. L. Schapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (London, 1970), p. 385.

58. See further I. Halfin, ‘From Darkness to Light: Student Communist Autobiography During NEP’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 45 (1997), pp. 210–36; same author, Terror in My Soul: Communist Autobiographies on Trial (Cambridge, Mass., 2003).

59. Khakhordin, The Collective and the Individual in Russia, pp. 123–5.

60. V. Kozlov, ‘Denunciation and Its Functions in Soviet Governance: A Study of Denunications and Their Bureaucratic Handling from Soviet Police Archives, 1944–1953’, Journal of Modern History, 68 (December 1996), p. 867; C. Hooper, ‘Terror from Within: Participation and Coercion in Soviet Power, 1924–64’ (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 2003), p. 13.

61. XIV s’ezd VKP(b): stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow, 1926), p. 600.

62. Ibid., p. 615.

63. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, p. 148.

64. Partiinaia etika, p. 329.

65. Interview with Elena Dombrovskaia, Moscow, January 2003.

66. MSP, f. 3, op. 48, d. 2, ll. 1, 23, 32–4.

67. MSP, f. 3, op. 42, d. 2, ll. 5–6.

68. MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 1, ll. 4–8; d. 2, l. 13.

69. MP, f. 4, op. 12, d. 2, l. 7.

70. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, p. 17.

71. V. Semenova, ‘Babushki: semeinye i sotsial’nye funktsii praroditel’skogo pokoleniia’, in Sud’ba liudei: Rossiia xx vek. Biografii semei kak ob’ekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia (Moscow, 1996), pp. 326–54.

72. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, pp. 14, 15, 16, 27, 40, 78, 145; interview with Elena Bonner, Boston, November 2006.

73. GFA, O. Golovnia, ‘Predislovie k pis’mam’, ms., p. 20; interview with Yevgeniia Golovnia, Moscow, November 2004.

74. Interview with Vladimir Fomin, St Petersburg, September 2003.

75. Interview with Yevgeniia Yevangulova, St Petersburg, March 2004; E. P. Evangulova, Krestnyi put’ (St Petersburg, 2000), pp. 7–9, 36; RGAE, f. 5208, op. 1, d. 28.

76. Interview with Boris Gavrilov, St Petersburg, June 2003.

77. ‘Obydennyi NEP (Sochineniia i pis’ma shkol’nikov 20-x godov)’, in Neizvestnaia Rossia xx vek, vol. 3 (Moscow, 1993), pp. 285–7; HP, 59 A, vol. 5, p. 25; Inkeles and Bauer, The Soviet Citizen, p. 216. See similarly, S. Tchouikina, ‘The “Old” and “New” Intelligentsia and the Soviet State’, in T. Vihavainen (ed.), The Soviet Union–A Popular State? (St Petersburg, 2003), pp. 99–100.

78. Inkeles and Bauer, The Soviet Citizen, p. 223; MSP, f. 3, op. 52, d. 2, l. 19.

79. E. Olitskaia, Moi vospominaniia, 2 vols. (Frankurt, 1971), vol. 2, p. 56; MP, f. 4, op. 8, d. 2, l. 6. See also, MM, f. 12, op. 31, d. 2, ll. 1–2; MSP, f. 3, op. 53, d. 2, ll. 11–12; f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, ll. 1–7.

80. Partiinaia etika, p. 437; Liusin, Pis’mo, p. 11; MP, f. 4, op. 32, d. 4, l. 7.

81. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, pp. 41, 138–9, 200–202.

82. MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 3–4, 7.

83. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 13–15; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 5–6.

84. V. Danilov, Sovetskaia dokolkhoznaia derevnia: naselenie, zemlepol’zovanie, khoziaistvo (Moscow, 1977), p. 31.

85. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 34–5.

86. On the peasant revolution see O. Figes, Peasant Russia, Civil War: The Volga Countryside in Revolution, 1917–1921 (Oxford, 1989).

87. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 8, 104; G. Dobronozhenko, Kollektivizatsiia na Severe, 1929–1932 (Syktyvkar, 1994), pp. 27–8.

88. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 7–8.

89. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 18, 69.

90. MSP, f. 3, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 20, 43–5.

91. VFA, E. Vittenburg, ‘Pamiati P. V. Vittenburga’, ms., p. 4; interviews with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003, September 2004; E. Vittenburg, Vremia poliarnykh stran (St Petersburg, 2002), pp. 44–74.

92. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 351, l. 3; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003.

93. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2613, ll. 7, 13; K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno (Moscow, 1978), p. 65. Family legend has it that Aleksandra blamed Mikhail for the miscarriage of a baby daughter and decided to leave him (interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, June 2003).

94. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360; op. 9, d. 2613, ll. 3, 13.

95. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2698, l. 1.

96. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 31.

97. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 353, l. 38; d. 337, l. 7.

98. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 11; op. 9, d. 1534, l. 31.

99. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 70, l. 103; d. 170, l. 17; op. 9, d. 2613, l. 13; dd. 23, 24.

100. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1533, l. 18; d. 24, l. 16; d. 25, ll. 6, 17, 26; d. 1010, ll. 9–10; Simonov, Segodnia i davno, p. 66.

101. K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), pp. 25–6.

102. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 25, l. 12; d. 1010, ll. 16–19; op. 10, d. 339, l. 11.

103. SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 2.

104. SLFA, ‘Lichnyi listok po uchety kadrov’ (Samuil Laskin); interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003, March 2005.

105. A. Ball, Russia’s Last Capitalists: The NEPmen 1921–1929 (Berkeley, 1987), p. 39.

106. Interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June, November 2003, February, July 2004; interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., pp. 20, 21, 29.

107. Y. Slezkine, The Jewish Century (Berkeley, 2005), p. 217; Vsesoiuznaia perepis’ naseleniia. 1937 g. Kratkie itogi (Moscow, 1991), p. 90.

108. A. Shternshis, Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939 (Bloomington, 2006), pp. 35–43; J. Veidlinger, The Moscow State Yiddish Theatre: Jewish Culture on the Soviet Stage (Bloomington, 2000).

109. Interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June, November 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, p. 19.

110. Interview with Rebekka (Rita) Kogan, St Petersburg, May 2003.

111. I. Slavin, Protsess v Novikakh (Vitebsk, 1920).

112. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Tonen’kii nerv istorii’, ms., p. 11; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, October 2003.

113. Interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, March 2005.

114. A. Barmine, One Who Survived: The Life Story of a Russian Under the Soviets (New York, 1945), pp. 124–5; H. Kuromiya, Stalin’s Industrial Revolution: Politics and Workers, 1928–1932 (Cambridge, 1988), p. 110; RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 157, l. 183.

115. V. Danilov, ‘Vvedenie: sovetskaia derevnia v gody “Bol’shogo terrora”’, in Tragediia sovetskoi derevni: kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie. Dokumenty i materialy v 5 tomakh 1927–1939, 5 vols. (Moscow, 1999–2004), vol. 5: 1937–1939, Part 1, 1937, p. 9; A.Meyer, ‘The War Scare of 1927’, Soviet Union/Union Soviétique, vol. 5, no. 1 (1978), pp. 1–25; S. Fitzpatrick, ‘The Foreign Threat During the First Five Year Plan’, Soviet Union/Union Soviétique, vol. 5, no. 1 (1978), pp. 26–35; Stalin, Sochineniia, vol. 11, pp. 170–72.

116. R. Davies, The Industrialization of Soviet Russia 3: The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–1930 (London, 1989), p. 76; Ball, Russia’s Last Capitalists, pp. 76–7.

117. SLFA, ‘Lichnyi listok po uchety kadrov’ (Samuil Laskin); interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003, March 2005.

118. N. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned (London, 1989), p. 551.

2: The Great Break (1928–32)

1. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 38; d. 3, l. 10.

2. AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N. A. Golovina.

3. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 102–4.

4. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 93.

5. AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N. A. Golovina; MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 69; d. 3, ll. 7–8.

6. GAVO, f. 407, op. 1, d. 98, l. 7.

7. AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N. A. Golovina; MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, l. 9.

8. AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N. A. Golovina.

9. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, l. 11.

10. Tragediia sovetskoi derevni: kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie. Dokumenty i materialy, 5 vols. (Moscow, 1999–2004), vol. 1, pp. 36, 148–50, 228–30, 742; Izvestiia TsK KPSS, 1991, no. 5, pp. 196–202.

11. Cited in M. Lewin, Russian Peasants and Soviet Power: A Study of Collectivization (London, 1968), p. 257.

12. R. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–30 (London, 1989), pp. 198–9; Pravda, 1 September, 10 November, 1929.

13. Pravda, 7 November 1929; I. gStalin, Sochineniia, 13 vols. (Moscow, 1946–55), vol. 12, p. 174.

14. R. Davies, The Socialist Offensive: The Collectivization of Soviet Agriculture, 1929–1930 (London, 1980), p. 111; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni, vol. 1, pp. 702–10, 716–27; M. Hindus, Red Bread: Collectivization in a Russian Village (Bloomington, 1988), p. 246.

15. Davies, The Socialist Offensive, p. 218; V. Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom (New York, 1946), p. 91.

16. M. Vareikis, ‘O partiinom rukovodstve kolkhozam’, Na agrarnom fronte, 1929, no. 8, p. 65; Izvestiia, 19 April 1930; GARK, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2309, l. 6.

17. Davies, The Socialist Offensive, p. 198.

18. M. Fainsod, Smolensk Under Soviet Rule (Cambridge, Mass., 1958), p. 250.

19. R. Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (London, 1986), pp. 120–21; S. Fitzpatrick, Stalin’s Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization (New York, 1994), pp. 54–5.

20. GAVO, f. 22, op. 1, d. 37, l. 41; GARK, f. 136, op. 1, d. 121, l. 153; MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, l. 75; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni, vol. 3, pp. 66–8.

21. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, l. 44.

22. Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, p. 137; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni, vol. 3, p. 15; Lewin, Russian Peasants and Soviet Power, p. 508.

23. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 5, l. 15.

24. MP, f. 4, op. 7, d. 2, l. 39.

25. MP, f. 4, op. 5, d. 2, l. 30.

26. VFA, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 8; Komsomol’skaia pravda, 8 September 1989, p. 2.

27. LFA, ‘Roditeli’, p. 24.

28. A. Zverev, Zapiski ministra (Moscow, 1973), p. 54.

29. L. Kopelev, The Education of a True Believer (London, 1981), p. 235.

30. Tragediia sovetskoi derevni, vol. 1, pp. 8–9; R. Davies and S. Wheatcroft, The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933 (London, 2004), p. 451.

31. Davies, The Socialist Offensive, pp. 442–3; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni, vol. 3, pp. 8–9; Davies and Wheatcroft, The Years of Hunger, pp. 31, 37; Politbiuro i krest’ianstvo: vysylka, spetsposelenie 1930–1940, 2 vols. (Moscow, 2006), vol. 2, p. 43.

32. AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N. A. Golovina; MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 82–101, 122–3; d. 3, ll. 11, 56–8.

33. Hindus, Red Bread, p. 142.

34. E. Foteeva, ‘Coping with Revolution: The Experience of Well-to-do Russian Families’, in D. Bertaux, P. Thompson and A. Rotkirch (eds.), On Living through Soviet Russia (London, 2004), p. 75.

35. Interviews with Olga Ramenskaia (née Zapregaeva) and Galina Petrova, Strugi Krasnye (Pskov oblast), August 2003.

36. RGAE, f. 7486, op. 37, d. 101, ll. 61–2; M. Tauger, ‘The 1932 Harvest and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33’, Slavic Review, vol. 50, no. 1 (Spring 1991); Davies and Wheatcroft, The Years of Hunger, pp. 181–224, 411, 415; Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, pp. 3, 196, 272–3, 441. The charge of genocide is also made by J. Mace, ‘The Man-Made Famine of 1933 in the Soviet Ukraine: What Happened and Why?’, in I. Charny (ed.), Toward the Understanding and Prevention of Genocide: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide (Boulder, 1984), p. 67; and ‘Famine and Nationalism in Soviet Ukraine’, Problems of Communism, vol. 33, no. 3 (May–June 1984), p. 39.

37. For the link between the famine and the introduction of the passport system, in December 1932, see RGASPI, f. 81, op. 3, d. 93, ll. 24–5; f. 558, op. 11, d. 45, l. 109.

38. Fitzpatrick, Stalin’s Peasants, p. 80; Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, p. 237.

39. G. Kessler, ‘The Passport System and State Control over Population Flows in the Soviet Union, 1932–1940’, Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4 (2001), pp. 477–504; D. Shearer, ‘Social Disorder, Mass Repression and the NKVD during the 1930s’, Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4 (2001), pp. 505, 519–20. See also D. Shearer, ‘Elements Near and Alien: Passportization, Policing, and Identity in the Stalinist State, 1932–1952’, Journal of Modern History, vol. 76 (December 2004), pp. 835–81.

40. Tragediia sovetskoi derevni, vol. 3, p. 63; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the SovietCamps (London, 2003), p. 333; GARF, f. 5207, op. 3, d. 49, l. 190; f. 8131, op. 37, d. 137, l. 4.

41. L. Viola, ‘Tear the Evil From the Root: The Children of Spetspereselentsy of the North’, in N. Baschmakoff and P. Fryer (eds.), Modernization of the Russian Provinces, special issue of Studia Slavica Finlandensia, 17 (April 2000), pp. 4, 44, 48–9 (translation of quotation slightly changed for clarity), 51; Politbiuro i krest’ianstvo, p. 47. For more on the ‘special settlements’ see L. Viola, The Unknown Gulag: The Lost World of Stalin’s Special Settlements (Oxford, 2007); N. Werth, Cannibal Island: Death in a Siberian Gulag (Princeton, 2007).

42. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 25–6; d. 3, ll. 12–18, 125.

43. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2; d. 5, ll. 16–17.

44. MP, f. 4, op. 5, d. 2, ll. 37, 38.

45. Politbiuro i krest’ianstvo, pp. 467–553; Viola, The Unknown Gulag, p. 232.

46. MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 5, ll. 2–7.

47. AMILO, M. A. Solomonik, ‘Zapiski raskulachennoi’, ts., pp. 7–34.

48. Pravda, 7 November 1929.

49. AFA, A. M. Alekseyev, ‘Vospominaniia’, p. 18.

50. See e.g. GARF, f. 9414, op. 1, d. 368, l. 115. See also the revealing hindsight comments by Aleksei Loginov, the director of the Gulag mining complex in Norilsk from 1954 to 1957, in A. Macqueen, ‘Survivors’, Granta, 64 (Winter 1998), p. 45.

51. For a classic political interpretation of the Gulag system see R. Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (London, 1992), and same author, Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps (New York, 1978). The economic dimension has been emphasized by M. Jakobson, Origins of the Gulag: The Soviet Prison Camp System, 1917–1934 (Lexington, 1993); G. Ivanova, Gulag v sisteme totalitarnogo gosudarstva (Moscow, 1997); and by several scholars in P. Gregory and V. Lazarev (eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag (Stanford, 2003). For a scholarly account of the Gulag’s early years that combines both these views see O. Khlevniuk, The History of the Gulag: From Collectivization to the Great Terror (New Haven, 2004).

52. Sistema ispravitel’no-trudovykh lagerei v SSSR, 1923–1960. Spravochnik (Moscow, 1998), p. 395; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 31–40.

53. GARF, f. 5446, op. 11 a, d. 555, l. 32; RGASPI, f. 17, op. 3, d. 746, l. 11; Sistema ispravitel’no-trudovykh lagerei v SSSR, p. 38.

54. GARF, f. 9414, op. 1, d. 2920, l. 178; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 62–5; C. Joyce, ‘The Gulag in Karelia, 1929–41’, in Gregory and Lazarev (eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor, p. 166; N. Baron, ‘Conflict and Complicity: The Expansion of the Karelian Gulag, 1923–33’, Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4 (2001), p. 643; A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols. (London, 1974–8), vol. 2, p. 99.

55. MSP, f. 3, op. 19, d. 2, ll. 1–4.

56. GARF, f. 5515, op. 33, d. 11, ll. 39–40; GASO, f. 148, op. 5, d. 26, l. 75.

57. GARF, f. 9414, op. 1, d. 3048, ll. 25–36; V. Shalamov, Vishera: antiroman (Moscow, 1989), p. 23.

58. D. Nordlander, ‘Magadan and the Economic History of the Dalstroi in the 1930s’, in Gregory and Lazarev (eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor, p. 110.

59. V. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales (London, 1994), pp. 368–9. Shalamov arrived at Kolyma in 1937, so much of what he writes about the Berzin period is based on camp legend.

60. MP, f. 4, op. 10, d. 1, ll. 1–4, 14–17.

61. A. Barmine, One Who Survived: The Life Story of a Russian Under the Soviets (New York, 1945), p. 196.

62. C. Ward, Stalin’s Russia (London, 1999), p. 56; A. Smith, I Was a Soviet Worker (London, 1937), p. 43.

63. Interviews with Lydia Pukhova, St Petersburg, May, October 2004.

64. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 23–4, 26, 29; d. 3, ll. 20, 63–70.

65. Y. Druzhnikov, Informer 001: The Myth of Pavlik Morozov (London, 1997), pp. 45–6, 155–6; C. Kelly, Comrade Pavlik: The Rise and Fall of a Soviet Boy Hero (London, 2005), 2. p. 66.

66. Druzhnikov, Informer, pp. 19–20, 30–31, 42, 114, 152; Kelly, Comrade, pp. 13, 94. Kelly (who has seen the secret police file) doubts that there was a trial of Morozov. In her view, Pavlik’s denunciation was fabricated by the police and the press (pp. 251–8).

67. Kelly, Comrade, pp. 26–72.

68. Druzhnikov, Informer, pp. 9–11; Kelly, Comrade, p. 14.

69. Kelly, Comrade, p. 156 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

70. See ibid., pp. 22, 26–9, 169–71.

71. M. Nikolaev, Detdom (New York, 1985), p. 89.

72. V. Danilov, Sovetskaia dokolkhoznaia derevnia: naselenie, zemlepol’zovanie, khoziaistvo (Moscow, 1977), p. 25; P. Kenez, The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 1917–1929 (Cambridge, 1985), p. 186; Ocherki byta derevenskoi molodezhi (Moscow, 1924), pp. 10–12.

73. Interviews with Nina Gribelnaia, St Petersburg, March, June, October 2004; AFSBTO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo F. Z. Medvedeva.

74. Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, p. 295; Fitzpatrick, Stalin’s Peasants, p. 256.

75. Vskhody kommuny, 19 December 1932; K. Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia (Cambridge, Mass., 1968), p. 308 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

76. A. Mar’ian, Gody moi, kak soldaty: dnevnik sel’skogo aktivista, 1925–53 (Kishinev, 1987), pp. 55, 71, 78–9.

77. Cited in Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia, p. 140.

78. A. Shternshis, Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture, 1923–1939 (Bloomington, 2006), p. 61. My thanks to Anna Shternshis for making available a transcript of the interview with Sofia G.

79. V. Baevskii, ‘Syn kulaka i vrag naroda: A. T. Tvardovskii v Smolenske v 1937 g.’, in Stalinizm v rossiiskoi provinstii: smolenskie arkhivnye dokumenty v pochtenii zarubezhnykh i rossiiskikh istorikov (Smolensk, 1999), p. 256.

80. Istoriia sovetskoi politicheskoi tsenzury (Moscow, 1997), p. 109; Baevskii, ‘Syn kulaka’, pp. 255–8.

81. I. Tvardovskii, ‘Stranitsy perezhitogo’, Iunost’, 1988, no. 3, pp. 14, 18.

82. Ibid., p. 23.

83. Ibid., p. 26.

84. Ibid., p. 27.

85. E. Iaroslavskii (ed.), Kak provodit’ chistku partii (Moscow, 1929), p. 10.

86. See S. Fitzpatrick, ‘The Problem of Class Identity in NEP Society’, in S. Fitzpatrick, A. Rabinowitch and R. Stites (eds.), Russia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture (Bloomington, 1991), pp. 21–33.

87. G. Alexopoulos, ‘Portrait of a Con Artist as a Soviet Man’, Slavic Review, vol. 57, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 774–90. See further, S. Fitzpatrick, ‘Making a Self for the Times: Impersonation and Imposture in 20 th Century Russia’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 2, no. 3 (Summer 2001), pp. 469–87; and same author, Tear off the Masks! Identity and Imposture in Twentieth-Century Russia (Princeton, 2005).

88. E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters (London, 1992), p. 317.

89. S. Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s (Oxford, 1999), pp. 118–38.

90. Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia, pp. 141–2. See further Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, p. 133.

91. B. Engel and A. Posadskaya-Vanderbeck, A Revolution of their Own: Voices of Women in Soviet History (Boulder, 1997), pp. 29–32 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

92. Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia, p. 143; N. Novak-Decker (ed.), Soviet Youth: Twelve Komsomol Histories (Munich, 1959), p. 99.

93. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 6.

94. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 3.

95. K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), pp. 29–30.

96. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 5.

97. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka, p. 32.

98. Ibid., p. 33.

99. Ibid., pp. 35–6.

100. W. Leonhard, Child of the Revolution (London, 1957), p. 143.

101. J. Hellbeck, ‘Fashioning the Stalinist Soul: The Diary of Stepan Podlubnyi (1931–1939)’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 44 (1996), pp. 350, 353–5 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

102. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, l. 22.

103. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 31; d. 3, ll. 18–19.

104. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 38.

105. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 84.

106. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 119–20.

3: The Pursuit of Happiness (1932–6)

1. SLFA, letter from Fania and Sonia Laskina to Gavril Popov, 18 May 1990; M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 31; interviews with Fania Laskina and Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, July 2004, March 2005.

2. T. Colton, Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis (Cambridge, Mass., 1995), pp. 214, 270ff.

3. RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 93, l. 2; Colton, Moscow, pp. 280, 327.

4. RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 6, l. 24; d. 87, l. 5.

5. RGALI,, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 94, l. 55; D. Neutatz, Die Moskauer Metro: Von den ersten Planen bis zur Grossbaustelle des Stalinismus (1897–1935), Beitrage zur Geschichte Osteuropas 33 (Vienna, 2001), pp. 173, 181–2; Colton, Moscow, p. 257; Pravda, 20 May 1935, p. 3.

6. RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 97, ll. 17–18.

7. RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 87, l. 87; d. 90, ll. 20–21; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003.

8. E. Zaleski, Planning for Economic Growth in the Soviet Union, 1918–1932 (Chapel Hill, 1971), p. 120; N. Lampert, The Technical Intelligentsia and the Soviet State: A Study of Soviet Managers and Technicians 1928–1935 (London, 1979), p. 71; S. Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union 1921–1934 (Cambridge, 1979), pp. 199–200; R. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–30 (London, 1989), pp. 134–5.

9. A good sampling of these letters can be found in Obshchestvo i vlast’ 1930-e gody: povestvovanie v dokumentakh (Moscow, 1998) and Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents, edited by L. Siegelbaum and A. Sokolov (New Haven, 2000).

10. See L. Viola, Peasant Rebels Under Stalin: Collectivization and the Culture of Peasant Resistance (Oxford, 1996); same author, ‘Popular Resistance in the Stalinist 1930s: Soliloquy of a Devil’s Advocate’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 1, no. 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 45–69; J. Rossman, ‘The Teikovo Cotton Workers’ Strike of April 1932: Class, Gender and Identity Politics in Stalin’s Russia’, Russian Review, vol. 56, no. 1 (January 1997), pp. 44–69.

11. Interviews with Lev Molotkov, St Petersburg, May 2003; Zinaida Belikova, St Petersburg, October 2003; MUFA, A. Golovanov, ‘Tetradki’, ms., p. 16.

12. TsKhDMO, f. 1, op. 23, d. 1265, l. 43.

13. J. Arch Getty and O. Naumov, The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932–1939 (New Haven, 1999), pp. 52–4.

14. Ibid., p. 126.

15. S. Fitzpatrick, The Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia (Ithaca, 1992), pp. 160–61; same author, Education and Social Mobility, pp. 178, 246.

16. A. Man’kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov (St Petersburg, 2001), pp. 82–3.

17. Stalinism as a Way of Life, pp. 124–5 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

18. L. Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed (New York, 1972), pp. 136, 138.

19. J. Gronow, Caviar with Champagne: Common Luxury and the Ideals of the Good Life in Stalin’s Russia (Oxford, 2003), p. 36; Fitzpatrick, The Cultural Front, p. 224.

20. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 120, d. 138, ll. 78–9.

21. D. Hoffman, Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Stalinist Modernity (Ithaca, 2003), pp. 126, 131; N. Timasheff, The Great Retreat: The Growth and Decline of Communism in Russia (New York, 1946), pp. 317–18. On the ideological role of kul’turnost’ (‘cultured life’) in the 1930s: V. Volkov, ‘The Concept of Kul’turnost’ : Notes on the Stalinist Civilizing Process’, in S. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Stalinism: New Directions (London, 2000), pp. 210–30.

22. L. Trotsky, Problems of Everyday Life: Creating the Foundations of a New Society in Revolutionary Russia (London, 1973), p. 98.

23. K. Gerasimova, ‘Public Privacy in the Soviet Communal Apartment’, in D. Crowley and S. Reid (eds.), Socialist Spaces: Sites of Everyday Life in the Eastern Bloc (Oxford, 2002), p. 210; V. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism (Oxford, 1999), p. 78.

24. S. Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s (Oxford, 1999), pp. 150–55; K. Clark, The Soviet Novel: History as Ritual (Chicago, 1981), p. 115; J. Brooks, ‘Revolutionary Lives: Public Identities in Pravda during the 1920s’, in S. White (ed.), New Directions in Soviet History (Cambridge, 1992), p. 34; Timasheff, The Great Retreat, pp. 199–200, 202; C. Kelly, Comrade Pavlik: The Rise and Fall of a Soviet Boy Hero (London, 2005), p. 158.

25. Interview with Marina Ivanova, St Petersburg, March 2004.

26. I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 15–17.

27. J. Barber, ‘The Worker’s Day: Time Distribution in Soviet Working-Class Families, 1923–36’, paper presented to the Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham, 1978.

28. Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed, p. 156.

29. MFA, L. Makhnach, ‘Oskolki bylogo s vysoty nastoiashchego’, ms., pp. 2–5; interviews with Leonid Makhnach, Moscow, March, July 2004.

30. MFA, L. Makhnach, ‘Otets’, ms., pp. 2–4.

31. MFA, Vladimir to Maria Makhnach, 29 November 1935.

32. GFA, O. Golovnia, ‘Predisloviia k pis’mam…’ ms., pp. 3–4, 6, 12, 14, 47.

33. GFA, O. Golovnia, ‘Mezhdu kratovym i otdykhom’, ms., p. 1; ‘Predisloviia k pis’mam’, ms., p. 31; A. Golovnia, ‘Dnevnik’; interviews with Yevgeniia Golovnia, Moscow, March, July, October 2004.

34. GFA, ‘Predisloviia k pis’mam…’, ms., pp. 40–43, 58–61.

35. Ibid., p. 51.

36. E. Osokina, Za fasadom ‘stalinskogo izobiliia’. Raspredelenie i rynok v snabzhenii naseleniia v gody industrializatsii, 1927–41 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 128, 134; Man’kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov, p. 272. See also Gronow, Caviar with Champagne, pp. 126–7.

37. A. Ledeneva, Russia’s Economy of Favours: Blat, Networking and Informal Exchange (Cambridge, 1998); Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, p. 63.

38. Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, p. 46.

39. S. Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization (Berkeley, 1997), pp. 161, 171, 175–6, 477.

40. N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope (London, 1989), p. 135.

41. See e.g. MSP, f. 3, op. 36, d. 2, ll. 3–9.

42. MSP, f. 3, op. 44, d. 2, l. 57.

43. The following section is based on interviews with thirty-seven residents of communal apartments during the 1930s. See the List of Interviews.

44. K. Gerasimova, ‘Public Privacy in the Soviet Communal Apartment’, p. 208; V. Semenova, ‘Ravenstvo v nishchete: simvolicheskoe znachenie “kommunalok”’, in Sud’ba liudei: Rossiia xx vek. Biografii semei kak ob’ekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia (Moscow, 1996), p. 374.

45. K. Gerasimova, ‘Public Spaces in the Communal Apartment’, in G. Rittersporn, M. Rolfe and J. Behrends (eds.), Public Spheres in Soviet-Type Societies (Sonderdruck, 2003), p. 167; I. Utekhin, Ocherki kommunal’nogo byta (Moscow, 2001), pp. 148–9.

46. Interviews with Aleksei Iurasovsky, Moscow, March, June 2005.

47. P. Messana, Kommunalka. Une histoire de l’Union soviétique à travers l’appartement communautaire (Paris, 1995), pp. 16–17. See also R. Berg, Sukhovei. Vospominaniia genetika (Moscow, 2003), p. 140.

48. SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Mamlin, pp. 1–7.

49. Interview with Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005.

50. Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005.

51. Interview with Ninel Reifshneider, Moscow, April 2005.

52. MSP, f. 1, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 65–6; op. 23, d. 2, l. 93; Berg, Sukhovei, p. 141; interview with Elena Baigulova, St Petersburg, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Mamlin, p. 4.

53. Gerasimova, ‘Public Spaces’, pp. 185–6.

54. Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005.

55. V. Semystiaha, ‘The Role and Place of Secret Collaborators in the Informational Activity of the GPU-NKVD in the 1920s and 1930s (on the Basis of Materials of the Donbass Region)’, Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4 (2001), pp. 231–44. See also P.Holquist, “‘Information is the Alpha and Omega of Our Work”: Bolshevik Surveillancein its Pan-European Context’, Journal of Modern History, 69 (September 1997), pp. 415–50.

56. Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005; M. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror (New Jersey, 1995), p. 144.

57. Interview with Natalia Grigoreva, St Petersburg, May 2005.

58. Interview with anonymous, Moscow, March 2003.

59. Interview with Yevgeniia Moiseyenko, St Petersburg, September 2005.

60. Interview with Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, G. E. Mamlina, p. 6.

61. Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005; interview with Yevgeniia Moiseyenko, St Petersburg, September 2005; MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 71–2.

62. Gerasimova, ‘Public Privacy’, p. 224.

63. Interviews with Inna Shikheyeva (Gaister), Moscow, May 2005; Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005; Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; Maia Rodak, Moscow, October 2004; Tatiana Vasileva, St Petersburg, May 2005; Elena Baigulova, St Petersburg, May 2005.

64. Interviews with Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005; Inna Shikheyeva (Gaister), Moscow, May 2005; Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Gavrilova, pp. 6–7; G. E. Mamlina, p. 12; MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 64–5.

65. SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, A. A. Dobriakova, pp. 5–8.

66. Interview with Aleksei Iurasovsky, Moscow, March 2005. See also E. A. Skriabina, Stranitsy zhizni (Moscow, 1994), p. 84.

67. Interviews with Inna Shikheyeva (Gaister), Moscow, May 2005; Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005; Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; Maia Rodak, Moscow, October 2004; Tatiana Vasileva, St Petersburg, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Gavrilova, p. 7; E. V. Mamlin, p. 12.

68. Utekhin, Ocherki, pp. 94–5, 151, 153, 166; interview with Galina Markelova, St Petersburg, June 2004. See also MM, f. 12, op. 7, d. 2, ll. 12–15; TsGASP, f. 7384, op. 42, d. 343, ll. 421–4.

69. N. Lebina, Povsednevnaia zhizn’ sovetskogo goroda: normy i anomalii, 1920–1930 gody (St Petersburg, 1999), p. 195; interview with Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005.

70. Interviews with Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; Inna Shikheyeva (Gaister), Moscow, May 2005.

71. K. Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge (London, 1991), pp. 184, 219. See also A. Kelly, ‘In the Promised Land’, New York Review of Books, vol. 48, no. 19 (29 November 2001), from which I have drawn for this paragraph.

72. N. Patolichev, Ispytaniia na zrelost’ (Moscow, 1977), p. 170.

73. V. Petrov, Byt derevni v sochineniiakh shkol’nikov (Moscow, 1927); T. Egorov, Kem khotiat byt’ nashi deti? Sbornik detskikh pisem dlia ottsov (Moscow and Leningrad, 1929); G. Petelin, Dadim slovo shkol’niku (Moscow, 1931).

74. MSP, f. 3, op. 47, d. 2, l. 7.

75. R. Orlova, Vospominaniia o neproshedshem vremeni (Ann Arbor, 1983), p. 30.

76. Izvestiia, 14 July 1935, p. 2; A. Tertz, On Socialist Realism (New York, 1960), p. 78; Soviet Writers’ Congress, 1934: The Debate of Socialist Realism and Modernism (London, 1977), p. 157; S. Fitzpatrick, The Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia (Ithaca, 1992), p. 217; W. Leonhard, Child of the Revolution (London, 1957), 2. p. 22.

77. N. Kaminskaya, Final Judgment: My Life as a Soviet Defence Attorney (New York, 1982), pp. 18–21.

78. The Correspondence of Boris Pasternak and Olga Freidenberg, 1910–1954 (New York, 1982), p. 154; N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope: A Memoir (London, 1989), p. 115.

79. L. Kopelev, No Jail for Thought (London, 1975), pp. 11–13.

80. Leonhard, Child of the Revolution, p. 81.

81. D. Shearer, ‘Social Disorder, Mass Repression and the NKVD During the 1930s’, Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4 (2001), pp. 505–34; P. Hagenloh, “‘Socially Harmful Elements” and the Great Terror’, in S. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Stalinism: New Directions (London, 2000), pp. 286–308.

82. RGALI, f. 1604, op. 1, d. 21, l. 32; A. Avdeenko, ‘Otluchenie’, Znamiia, no. 3 (1989), p. 11.

83. C. Ruder, Making History for Stalin: The Story of the Belomor Canal (Gainesville, Fl., 1998), p. 50; G. Smith, D. S. Mirsky: A Russian-English Life, 1890–1939 (Oxford, 2000), p. 209; Avdeenko, ‘Otluchenie’, p. 18; Belomorsko-baltiiskii kanal imeni Stalina: istoriia stroitel’stva 1931–1934 gg. (Moscow, 1934).

84. A. Starkov, Mikhail Zoshchenko: sud’ba khudozhnika (Moscow, 1990), p. 139.

85. S. and B. Webb, Soviet Communism: A New Civilization?, 2 vols. (London, 1935), vol. 2, p. 591; Ivan Chukhin, Kanalo-armeitsy: istoriia stroitel’stva Belomorkanala v dokumentakh, tsifrakh, faktakh, fotografiiakh, svidetel’stvakh ychastnikov i ochevidtsev (Petrozavodsk, 1990), p. 37.

86. Ruder, Making History for Stalin, pp. 56–9.

87. Avdeenko, ‘Otluchenie’, p. 8; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 944, ll. 6, 14.

88. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339; d. 360, ll. 33, 35–6. On Simonov and Pudovkin: K. Simonov, ‘O Vsevolode Illarionoviche Pudovkine’, in Pudovkin v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov (Moscow, 1989), pp. 274–81.

89. K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), pp. 39–41.

90. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 34; Simonov, Glazami, pp. 39, 41, 45.

91. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 1, ll. 13–14, 60; d. 848, l. 5; op. 10, d. 360, ll. 34–5.

92. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 4.

93. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 36.

94. RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 1; d. 16, ll. 5, 12.

95. N. Tipot (Sokolova), ‘Dnevnik’, private archive.

96. RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 15, ll. 23–7; d. 16, ll. 7–8; f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2606, l. 6; op. 10, d. 339, l. 11; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

97. L. Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov. Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva (Moscow, 1985), pp. 18, 35; A. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov vblizi i na rasstoianii (Moscow, 1987), pp. 9, 10; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 71.

98. Simonov, Glazami, pp. 42–5; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 25, l. 13; d. 1010, ll. 16–19, 25.

99. Simonov, Glazami, pp. 46–7.

100. Ibid., pp. 48–9.

101. Ibid., p. 47.

102. TsGAIPD, f. 1278, op. 1, d. 439869, l. 4.

103. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Tonen’kii nerv istorii’, ms., pp. 16–17, 30; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, September 2003.

104. I. Slavin, Vreditel’stvo na fronte sovetskogo ugolovnogo prava (Moscow, 1931), p. 76; SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Put’ na plakhu’, ms., p. 29.

105. I. Slavin, ‘K voprosu o prinuditel’nykh rabotakh bez soderzhaniia pod strazhei’, Ezhenedel’nik sovetskoi iustitsii, 1922, no. 36; ‘Proizvodstvennye tovarishcheskie sudi i revoliutsiia’, Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1931, no. 7; ‘Nekotorye voprosy praktiki proizvodstvenno-tovarishcheskikh sudov’, Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1932, nos. 5–6.

106. SPbF ARAN, f. 229, op. 1, d. 100, ll. 44–5.

107. TsGAIPD, f. 1816, op. 2, d. 5095, l. 66.

108. SPbF ARAN, f. 229, op. 1, d. 93, ll. 4, 6; d. 100, l. 67; d. 120, ll. 7–12; d. 122, ll. 6–10; SFA, ‘Put’ na plakhu’, pp. 79–81; interviews with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June, October, 2003; TsGAIPD, f. 563, op. 1, d. 1467, l. 117.

109. S. Wheatcroft, ‘The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 48, no. 8 (1996), pp. 1338–40.

110. Interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003; E. Vittenburg, Vremia poliarnykh stran (St Petersburg, 2002), pp. 106–12.

111. I. Flige, ‘Osoblag Vaigach’, Vestnik Memoriala, no. 6 (St Petersburg, 2001), pp. 12–19.

112. VFA, letter from Zinaida to Veronika and Valentina Vittenburg, 26 August 1933.

113. Interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003.

114. Interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, September 2004.

115. VFA, ‘Sotsdogovor ambulatornogo vracha sanotdela vaigachskoi ekspeditsii NKVD Vittenburg Z.I. ot 2 marta 1933’; letter from Zinaida to Veronika and Valentina Vittenburg, undated [1935]; interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, September 2004.

116. Interviews with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003, September 2004; VFA, letter from Zinaida to Yevgeniia Vittenburg, 3 November 1935; ‘Dnevnik v pis’makh P. V. Vittenburga docheri Evgenii’, p. 54; Vittenburg, Vremia poliarnykh stran, p. 134.

117. VFA, letter from Pavel to Yevgeniia Vittenburg, 13 September 1936; ‘Dnevnik v pis’makh P. V. Vittenburga docheri Evgenii’, ms., p. 7.

118. MM, f. 1, op. 4, Trudovaia kniga; f. 12, op. 9, d. 2.

119. MM, f. 12, op. 2, d. 2, l. 13; d. 3, l. 43.

120. S. Rosefield, ‘Stalinism in Post-Communist Perspective: New Evidence on Killings, Forced Labour and Economic Growth in the 1930s’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 48, no. 6 (1996), p. 969.

121. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, ll. 1–14; d. 5, ll. 1–5, 12–15; Pravda, 3 November 1929, p. 5;

122. P. Broué, Trotsky (Paris, 1988), p. 638.

123. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 5, ll. 10, 19.

124. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 4 (citations from the letters can be found by their date).

125. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, ll. 21, 59.

126. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, l. 58.

127. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, l. 50.

128. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, l. 52.

129. MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 5, ll. 7, 8, 21, 25–6.

130. Stalin’s Letters to Molotov, edited by L. Lih, O. Naumov and O. Khlevniuk, translated by C. Fitzpatrick (New Haven, 1995), p. 200.

131. RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 23–35.

132. RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 25, l. 10.

133. RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 31, l. 9.

134. RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 13.

135. RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 29, l. 44.

4: The Great Fear (1937–8)

1. Pravda, 31 January 1932; Golgofa. Po materialam arkhivno-sledstvennogo dela no. 603 na Sokolovu-Piatnitskuiu Iu. I., ed. V. I. Piatnitskii (St Petersburg, 1993), p. 42.

2. Ibid., pp. 8–9.

3. V. Piatnitskii, Zagovor protiv Stalina (Moscow, 1998), p. 198.

4. Golgofa, p. 9.

5. J. Haslam, ‘Political Opposition to Stalin and the Origins of the Terror, 1932–1936’, Historical Journal, vol. 29, no. 2 (June 1986), p. 412. See also same author, ‘The Soviet Union, the Comintern and the Demise of the Popular Front, 1936–39’, in H. Graham and O. Preston (eds.), The Popular Front in Europe (London, 1987), pp. 152–60; K. McDermott, ‘Stalinist Terror in the Comintern: New Perspectives’, Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 30, no. 1 (January 1995), pp. 111–30.

6. The Diary of Georgi Dimitrov, 1933–1949 (New Haven, 2003), p. 110; McDermott, ‘Stalinist Terror’, p. 118.

7. B. Starkov, ‘The Trial That Was Not Held’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 46, no. 8 (1994), p. 1303.

8. Golgofa, pp. 20, 21, 24; interviews with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

9. Golgofa, pp. 62–3.

10. Ibid., pp. 25, 39–40.

11. Ibid., pp. 26, 34; interviews with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

12. M. Ellman, ‘Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 7 (November 2002); H. Kuromiya, ‘Accounting for the Great Terror’, Jahbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 53 (2005), p. 88; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps (London, 2003), pp. 516, 519. The figures for 1929–32 are from V. Popov, ‘Gosudarstvennyi terror v sovetskoi Rossii. 1923–1953 gg.’, Otechestvennyi arkhiv, 1992, no. 2, p. 28.

13. J. Getty, Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933–1938 (Cambridge, 1985).

14. P. Solomon, Soviet Criminal Justice Under Stalin (Cambridge, Mass., 1996), chap. 5; O. Khlevniuk, ‘The Politburo, Penal Policy and “Legal Reforms” in the 1930s’, in P. Solomon (ed.), Reforming Justice in Russia, 1864–1996: Power, Culture, and the Limits of Legal Order (Armonk, 1997), pp. 190–206.

15. J. Getty, ‘“Excesses Are Not Permitted”: Mass Terror and Stalinist Governance in the Late 1930s’, Russian Review, 61 (2002), no. 1, pp. 113–38.

16. S. Fitzpatrick, ‘Varieties of Terror’, in same author (ed.), Stalinism: New Directions (London, 2000), p. 258. For a similar view: B. McLoughlin and K. McDermott, ‘Rethinking Stalinist Terror’, in same authors (eds.), Stalin’s Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union(New York, 2003), pp. 1–18.

17. O. Khlevniuk, ‘The Reasons for the “Great Terror”: The Foreign Political Aspect’, Annali della Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, vol. 34 (1998), pp. 163 ff.; same author, ‘The Objectives of the Great Terror, 1937–38’, in J. Cooper, M. Perrie and E. Rees (eds.), Soviet History, 1917–1953: Essays in Honour of R. W. Davies (London, 1995), pp. 158–76. See also H. Kuromiya, ‘Accounting for the Great Terror’, upon which I have drawn for the following paragraphs.

18. Kuromiya, ‘Accounting for the Great Terror’, p. 94; S. Payne, The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism (New Haven, 2004), p. 309.

19. S. Allilueva, Twenty Letters to a Friend (London, 1967), pp. 88–9; J. Getty and O. Naumov, The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932–1939 (New Haven, 1999), pp. 157, 256–7.

20. V. Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom (London, 1947), p. 213.

21. V. Rogovin, Partiia rasstreliannykh (Moscow, 1997), pp. 487–9; Reabilitatsia. Kak eto bylo, 3 vols. (Moscow, 2000–2004), vol. 1, p. 30; O. Suvenirov, Tragediia RKKA, 1938–1938 (Moscow, 1998), p. 315.

22. Istochnik, 1994, no. 3, p. 80; N. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers (London, 1971), p. 283; M. Jansen and N. Petrov, Stalin’s Loyal Executioner: People’s Commissar Nikolai Ezhov, 1895–1940 (Stanford, 2002), pp. 89, 201.

23. F. Chuev, Sto sorok besed s Molotovym (Moscow, 1991), pp. 390, 413; Piatnitskii, Zagovor protiv Stalina, p. 65; Kuromiya, ‘Accounting for the Great Terror’, p. 96.

24. Tragediia sovetskoi derevni: kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie. Dokumenty i materialy, 5 vols. (Moscow, 1999–2004), vol. 5: 1937–1939, Part 1, 1937, pp. 32, 33, 46, 54, 387; Kuromiya, ‘Accounting for the Great Terror’, pp. 92–3.

25. N. Petrov and A. Roginskii, ‘“Pol’skaia operatsiia” NKVD 1937–1938 gg.’, inL. Eremina (ed.) Repressii protiv poliakov i pol’skikh grazhdan (Moscow, 1996), pp. 40–43. On the ‘national operations’ as a form of ‘ethnic cleansing’ see T. Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939 (Ithaca, 2001), pp. 328–43.

26. V. Garros, N. Korenevskaya and T. Lahusen (eds.), Intimacy and Terror (New York, 1995), p. 357.

27. Interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

28. R. Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia (New Haven, 1996), pp. 72–7.

29. V. Frid, 58½: zapiski lagernogo pridurka (Moscow, 1996), p. 91.

30. Interview with Viacheslav Kolobkov, St Petersburg, May 2004.

31. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind (New York, 1967), pp. 21–2.

32. E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters (London, 1992), p. 263.

33. MP, f. 4, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 2, 25; op. 5, d. 5, ll. 3–4; L.Il’ina, Moi otets protiv NKVD (St Petersburg, 1998), pp. 16–21.

34. MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 35–40, 116–17.

35. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Tonen’kii nerv istorii’, ms., pp. 9–13.

36. R. Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (London, 1992), pp. 75, 87, 89, 127.

37. V. Bronshtein, ‘Stalin and Trotsky’s Relatives in Russia’, in T. Brotherstone and P. Dukes (eds.), The Trotsky Reappraisal (Edinburgh, 1992), pp. 8–15.

38. Getty and Naumov, The Road to Terror, pp. 486–7; Chuev, Sto sorok besed, p. 415.

39. Golgofa, p. 29.

40. See also MSP, f. 3, op. 34, d. 2; MP, f. 4, op. 16, dd. 2, 3.

41. Golgofa, pp. 31, 34, 35–6, 43, 45; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, August 2005.

42. Golgofa, p. 37.

43. M. Prishvin, ‘Dnevnik 1937 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1995, no. 9, p. 168.

44. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 256; M. Prishvin and V. Prishvin, My s toboi. Dnevnik liubvi (Moscow, 1996), p. 13.

45. MP, f. 4, op. 25, d. 2, ll. 9–10.

46. MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 9.

47. MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 18, 37.

48. E. Gerstein, Moscow Memoirs (London, 2004), p. 79.

49. MM, f. 12, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 15–16.

50. MM, f. 12, op. 7, d. 2, l. 23.

51. Gerstein, Moscow Memoirs, p. 214.

52. MP, f. 4, op. 8 .d. 2, l. 22.

53. MM, f. 12, op. 28, d. 2, ll. 12, 35–6.

54. GFA, O. Golovnia, ‘Dom na Vasil’evskoi’, ms., pp. 2–3.

55. Prishvin, ‘Dnevnik 1937 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1995, no. 9, p. 158.

56. A. Man’kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov (St Petersburg, 2001), p. 144.

57. Prishvin, ‘Dnevnik 1937 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1995, no. 9, p. 165.

58. For a different view of the role of diary-writing see the works of Jochen Hellbeck cited in the Introduction.

59. ‘ “Zhizn’ stala veselei…” Iz dnevnika 1936 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1993, no. 10, p. 4;. M. Prishvin, ‘Dnevnik 1937 goda’, Oktiabr’, 1994, no. 11, p. 144; same author, Sobranie sochinenii, 8 vols. (Moscow, 1986), vol. 8, p. 473.

60. J. Hellbeck, Revolution on My Mind: Writing a Diary Under Stalin (Cambridge, Mass., 2006), pp. 304–5, 306, 308–9, 311–22; RGALI, f. 2172, op. 3, d. 5, l. 249.

61. E. Evangulova, Krestnyi put’ (St Petersburg, 2000), pp. 68, 81, 83.

62. Man’kov, Dnevniki, p. 59.

63. Prishvin and Prishvin, My s toboi, pp. 22–3, 35, 37.

64. MM, f. 12, op. 25, d. 2, l. 136; Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom, p. 448; Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia, p. 71. A lower figure of 10,000 informers for Moscow in 1930 is given by an OGPU official cited in G. Agabekov, GPU: zapiski chekista (Moscow, 1931). See also V. Semystiaha, ‘The Role and Place of Secret Collaborators in the Informational Activity of the GPU-NKVD in the 1920s and 1930s (on the Basis of Materials of the Donbass Region)’, Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4 (2001), pp. 231–44.

65. On these low-level networks of informers see C. Hooper, ‘Terror from Within: Participation and Coercion in Soviet Power, 1924–64’ (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 2003), pp. 154–64.

66. K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), p. 50.

67. W. Leonhard, Child of the Revolution (London, 1957), pp. 100–102.

68. Frid, 58½, pp. 160–61.

69. MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 2, ll. 25–7; d. 5, ll. 8–9.

70. O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’ (Moscow, 2002), p. 172.

71. TsAODM, f. 369, op. 1, d. 161, ll. 1–2.

72. Interviewed in The Hand of Stalin (Part 2), October Films, 1990.

73. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’, pp. 19–20.

74. Cited in Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia, p. 154.

75. MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 3–4, 63–5.

76. Interview with Lev Molotkov, St Petersburg, May 2003.

77. N. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System: The Gulag Survivor (New Brunswick, 2002), p. 216; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), p. 32.

78. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 222; V. Kozlov, ‘Denunciation and Its Functions in Soviet Governance: A Study of Denunciations and Their Bureaucratic Handling from Soviet Police Archives, 1944–1953’, Journal of Modern History, vol. 68, no. 4 (December 1996), p. 875. On apartments see V. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism (Oxford, 1999), pp. 113–17.

79. MSP, f. 3, op. 36, d. 2, ll. 3, 13–14; d. 3, ll. 4–6.

80. Simonov, Glazami, pp. 55, 62.

81. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 5, ll. 65–7; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

82. RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 12, ll. 28–9; d. 13, l. 10; interview with Semyon Vorovsky, Moscow, June 2005.

83. RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 242, ll. 6–8; f. 618, op. 3, d. 27, ll. 5–14.

84. RGALI, f. 653, op. 1, d. 1087, l. 4.

85. RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 226, l. 72.

86. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 437, ll. 1–7.

87. RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 15, l. 23.

88. RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 12, l. 13.

89. E. Dolmatovskii, Bylo: zapiski poeta (Moscow, 1982); interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

90. RGALI, f. 1812, op. 1, d. 96, l. 7.

91. RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 265, l. 34.

92. A. Granovsky, All Pity Choked: The Memoirs of a Soviet Secret Agent (London, 1952), p. 101.

93. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 90–92.

94. A. Gorbatov, Years off My Life (London, 1964), pp. 103–4.

95. Conquest, The Great Terror, pp. 203–4. It may be that part of Iakir’s motives may have been to save his family (who were all later shot or sent to camps).

96. F. Beck and W. Godin, Russian Purge and the Extraction of Confession (London, 1951), p. 86.

97. S. Vilenskii (ed.), Till My Tale is Told (London, 1999), pp. 124–6.

98. Interviewed in The Hand of Stalin (Part 2), October Films, 1990.

99. Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom, p. 206. See further: S. Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin’s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941 (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 131–5; Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia, pp. 143–6.

100. Interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

101. MM, f. 12, op. 21, d. 2, ll. 28–9; op. 32, d. 2, l. 17.

102. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 32–5, 49–50.

103. VFA, letter from Pavel to Yevgeniia Vittenburg, [February] 1937.

104. TsMAMLS, f. 68, op. 1, d. 76, l. 77; d. 124, l. 19; d. 141, l. 88.

105. N. Kaminskaya, Final Judgment: My Life as a Soviet Defence Attorney (New York, 1982), p. 19.

106. MM, f. 12, op. 23, d. 2, ll. 37–8.

107. Simonov, Glazami, pp. 54–5.

108. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’, p. 11.

109. DetiGULAGa 1918–1956, Rossiia XX vek. Dokumenty (Moscow, 2002), pp. 272–3.

110. O. Khlevniuk, ‘The Objectives of the Great Terror, 1937–1938’, in D. Hoffman (ed.), Stalinism (London, 2003), p. 98; Jansen and Petrov, Stalin’s Loyal Executioner, pp. 187–8, 192.

111. SLFA, Mark Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 41.

112. Simonov, Glazami, p. 59.

113. V. Shentalinsky, The KGB’s Literary Archive (London, 1993), pp. 186–7.

114. RGALI, f. 1712, op. 1, d. 21, l. 4, op. 4, d. 8, l. 37.

115. RGALI, f. 1712, op. 3, d. 13, l. 1.

116. GARF, f. 5446, op. 82, d. 66, ll. 287–8. See also L. Siegelbaum and A. Sokolov (eds.), Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents (Yale, 2000), pp. 237–41.

117. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’, pp. 77–8.

118. P. Solomon, Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin (Cambridge, 1996), p. 234.

119. M. Shreider, NKVD iznutri: zapiski chekista (Moscow, 1995), p. 42.

120. Ibid., p. 91.

121. Ibid., pp. 104–5.

122. Ibid., p. 120.

123. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, p. 304.

124. A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols. (London, 1974–8), vol. 2, p. 637.

125. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’, pp. 11–12.

126. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, l. 93.

127. MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 42–3.

128. MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 6–10, 39–41, 45–9; d. 3, ll. 1–6.

129. Golgofa, pp. 30, 32, 35; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, August 2005.

130. MSP, f. 3, op. 18, d. 1, l. 1; d. 2, ll. 2–3, 7–10.

131. MP, f. 4, op. 25, d. 2, ll. 7–8, 13–16, 18, 19, 21–2, 26–30.

132. See e.g. MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2; MP, f. 4, op. 4, d. 2; V. Shapovalov (ed.), Remembering the Darkness: Women in Soviet Prisons (Lanham, 2001), pp. 228–9; N. Ulanovskaia and M. Ulanovskaia, Istoriia odnoi sem’i (New York, 1982), p. 135.

133. MM, f. 12, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 16–20.

134. O. Liubchenko, ‘Arbat 30, kvartira 58’, Istochnik, 1993, nos. 5–6, pp. 26–9.

135. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Tonen’kii nerv istorii’, ms., p. 31; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

136. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, pp. 254–5 (where Bonner mistakenly names the school director as Klavdia Vasileevna); interview with Elena Bonner, Boston, November 2006.

137. Interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, September 2004.

138. MSP, f. 3, op. 46, d. 2, ll. 17–18, 42–3.

139. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, l. 53.

140. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 23–5, 37.

141. MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 169 (Sofia to Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, 16 October 1937).

142. GARF, f. 7523, op. 123, d. 202, ll. 16–19.

143. GARF, f. 5446, op. 26, d. 105, ll. 35–6.

144. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’, pp. 60–63.

145. MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 37–8.

146. MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, l. 24.

147. The Diary of Nina Kosterina (London, 1972), pp. 35, 44, 53, 85, 163, 165.

148. M. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror (New Jersey, 1995), pp. 334–5.

149. MSP, f. 3, op. 10, d. 1, l. 1; d. 3, ll. 7, 10–11.

150. Golgofa, pp. 41, 46, 53–4; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

151. Golgofa, pp. 33, 42.

152. Ibid., pp. 41–2.

153. Interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005. She was receiving psychiatric help from May 1938 (see Golgofa, p. 88).

154. Golgofa, pp. 42–3, 58.

155. Ibid., pp. 57, 100.

156. Ibid., pp. 52, 61; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

157. L. Razgon, True Stories (London, 1997), p. 131.

158. Starkov, ‘The Trial’, p. 1307.

159. Lubianka. Stalin iglavnoe upravlenie gosbezopasnosti NKVD, 1937–1938 (Moscow, 2004), p. 544.

160. Golgofa, p. 80.

161. Ibid., pp. 83–4.

162. Ibid., p. 99.

163. Interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

164. Golgofa, pp. 114–16.

5: Remnants of Terror (1938–41)

1. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 7–10.

2. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 5. See similarly MM, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 40–41.

3. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 10.

4. MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, l. 10.

5. MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, ll. 6, 11, 31–2, 54, 59, 62–3, 65.

6. MSP, f. 3, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 6, 10, 25–6.

7. For the first-born children assuming adult roles in single-parent families see MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 39–40; op. 13, d. 2, ll. 42–4.

8. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 11–12, 40; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 36–8, 41–7, 50, 53–4, 187.

9. MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 3–4, 24–6, 34–5.

10. See S. Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin’s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941 (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 131–2.

11. MM, f. 1, op. 3, d. 905 (25 January 1939).

12. See in particular MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 5401; op. 3, d. 5923; f. 12, op. 25, d. 2; op. 31, d. 2.

13. MM, f. 1, op. 3, d. 905 (25 August 1940); f. 12, op. 3, d. 2, l. 31.

14. L. Siegelbaum and A. Sokolov (eds.), Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents (Yale, 2000), p. 401.

15. GMPIR, f. 2, nos. 51291–1345; VS 11026; f. 6, VS 1937, VS 1937 VS 1938.

16. MM, f. 12, op. 22, d. 1, l. 1; d. 2, ll. 5–6, 14.

17. MSP, f. 3, op. 40, d. 2, ll. 10, 22; d. 5 (20 May 1940).

18. MSP, f. 3, op. 40, d. 2, ll. 7, 18, 24, 34–5.

19. MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 71–2.

20. MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 1; d. 2, ll. 25–7.

21. GARF, f. 5207, op. 3, d. 49, l. 190; d. 56, l. 18.

22. A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps (London, 2003), p. 300.

23. MSP, f. 3, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 1, 3, 14, 20–21.

24. MM, f. 12, op. 27, d. 2, ll. 4, 72.

25. MSP, f. 3, op. 13, d. 2, ll. 4–6, 21–4.

26. MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 10, 41; d. 4, l. 25.

27. MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 37–8.

28. MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 20, 39–40.

29. M. Nikolaev, Detdom (New York, 1985), pp. 48–9, 89.

30. Ibid., pp. 42, 65, 101.

31. Ibid., pp. 77–9, 126; interview with Viktoriia Shweitser (Mikhail Nikolaev’s widow), Moscow, July 2004.

32. MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, l. 16; d. 4, l. 21.

33. MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, l. 68.

34. MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 127–30.

35. E. P. Evangulova, Krestnyi put’ (St Petersburg, 2000), pp. 59, 69, 75, 77, 81.

36. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Na vesakh nadezhdy i otchaianiia’, ms., p. 1.

37. MSP, f. 3, op. 42, d. 2, l. 23; d. 3, ll. 1–2.

38. MP, f. 4, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 10, 14, 32, 63–4.

39. MSP, f. 3, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 39, 61, 62, 63–4, 72.

40. Lynne Viola, ‘Tear the Evil From the Root: The Children of Spetspereselentsy of the North’, in Natalia Baschmakoff and Paul Fryer (eds.), Modernization of the Russian Provinces, special issue of Studia Slavica Finlandensia, 17 (April 2000), pp. 60–61.

41. MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 11, 16, 50, 52, 65, 76; d. 5, ll. 22–3.

42. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 14.

43. Interviews with Oksana Kozmina (Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Goncharova (Moscow, 1986), Inna Ilina (Moscow, 1988), Lydia Violina (Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Babaeva (Moscow, 1988); GFA, interviews with Sergei Barinov (Akmolinsk, 1988); Leninskaia smena, 2 June 1988, p. 2; M. Shreider, NKVD iznutri: zapiski chekista (Moscow, 1995), p. 117. See further A. Kukushkina, Akmolinskii lager’ zhen ‘izmennikov rodiny’. Istoriia i sud’by (Karaganda, 2002).

44. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 4, 45, 51.

45. A. Applebaum, Gulag, p. 234; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 47–8.

46. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Na vesakh nadezhdy i otchaianiia’, ms., pp. 6–7.

47. Interview with Oksana Kozmina, Moscow, 1988.

48. The most detailed discussion of the trusties is in A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols. (London, 1974–8), vol. 2, pp. 251–91.

49. MM, f. 12, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 1, 18.

50. H. Volovich, ‘My Past’, in S. Vilenskii (ed.), Till My Tale is Told: Women’s Memoirs of the GULAG (Bloomington, 1999), pp. 260–64.

51. Applebaum, Gulag, p. 293.

52. Interviews with Oksana Kozmina (Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Goncharova (Moscow, 1986), Inna Ilina (Moscow, 1988), Lydia Violina (Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Babaeva (Moscow, 1988), Mikhail Iusipenko (Akmolinsk, 1988).

53. On this see Solzhenitsyn, Gulag, vol. 2, pp. 229–34; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 285–91.

54. MIFA, Tina Mikheladze, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., pp. 1–8; interview with Vakhtang Mikheladze, Moscow, April 2003.

55. MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, ll. 10–12, 40–41, 83–91.

56. GFA, Oksana Golovnia, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., pp. 5–7.

57. GFA, letter from Anatoly to Liuba Golovnia, 22 June 1940; letters from Polina Eisner to Liuba Golovnia, 11 December 1940, 22 March 1941.

58. GFA, Oksana Golovnia, ‘Predislovie k pis’mam’, ms., p. 42; Polina Eisner (Ivanova), ‘Avtobiografiia’ (February 1942); interview with Oksana Kozmina, Moscow, 1988; letters from Anatoly to Liuba Golovnia, 23 July 1939; 1 March, 27 March, 3 April 1940.

59. Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003.

60. RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 14, ll. 26–7.

61. RGALI, f. 631, op. 2, d. 453, l. 21; f. 2897, op. 1, d. 114; A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia (Nizhny Novgorod, 1999), pp. 35–6, 49; interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, Yevgeniia Laskina to Aleksandra Ivanisheva, 8 September 1939; Konstantin Simonov to Yevgeniia Laskina, August 1939.

62. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 93, l. 20.

63. J. Colvin, Nomonhan (London, 1999), pp. 169–75.

64. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 480, l. 106; op. 6, d. 170, l. 46; op. 10, d. 339, l. 11; K. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny (Moscow, 1999), p. 295.

65. G. Roberts, ‘The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany’, Soviet Studies, vol. 44, no. 1 (1992), pp. 57–78; R. Overy, The Dictators: Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia (London, 2004), p. 486.

66. C. Merridale, Ivan’s War: The Red Army 1939–45 (London, 2005), p. 44.

67. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, ll. 44–6; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), p. 67; Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 292–3.

68. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 297–8.

69. Konstantin Simonov v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov (Moscow, 1984), pp. 18–20.

70. N. Pushnova, Valentina Serova (Moscow, 2003), pp. 10, 298–9; interview with Maria Simonova, Moscow, March 2004.

71. Pushnova, Valentina Serova, pp. 48–9.

72. Ibid., p. 96.

73. Interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, July 2004.

74. Pushnova, Valentina Serova, p. 115; M. Simonova, ‘Ia pomniu’, Ogonek, 1993, no. 6, pp. 22–3; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003.

6: ‘Wait For Me’ (1941–5)

1. MFA, L. Makhnach, ‘Oskolki bylogo s vysoty nastoiashchego’, ms., pp. 1–14; Vladimir to Maria Makhnach, November 1941; TsAODM, f. 3, op. 52, d. 27, l. 21.

2. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 6; K. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny (Moscow, 1999), pp. 6–17.

3. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 51–2; SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 55.

4. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 4, d. 5, ll. 7, 58. For more on the development of Simonov’s ideas about the Terror during the wars years: A. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov vblizi i na rasstoianii (Moscow, 1987), pp. 88–9. On the legacy of the Terror in the Soviet armed forces: E. Seniavskaia, ‘Dukhovnyi oblik frontovogo pokoleniia: istoriko-psikhologicheskii ocherk’, Vestnik MGU: Istoriia, 1992, no. 4, pp. 39–51; M. von Hagen, ‘Soviet Soldiers and Officers on the Eve of the German Invasion: Toward a Description of Social Psychology and Political Attitudes’, in R. Thurston and B. Bonwetsch (eds.), The People’s War: Responses to World War II in the Soviet Union (Urbana, 2000), pp. 193 ff.

5. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp, 17–21, 53, 121, 409–11.

6. Moskva voennaia 1941–1945: memuary i arkhivnye dokumenty (Moscow, 1995), p. 475; C. Merridale, Ivan’s War: The Red Army 1939–1945 (London, 2005), p. 84; Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, p. 50.

7. Moskva voennaia, p. 478; R. Bidlack, ‘The Political Mood in Leningrad During the First Year of the Soviet–German War’, Russian Review, vol. 59, no. 1 (January 2000), pp. 101–11; G. Bordiugov, ‘The Popular Mood in the Unoccupied Soviet Union: Continuity and Change during the War’, in The People’s War, pp. 59–60; M. Gorinov, ‘Muscovites’ Moods, 22 June 1941 to May 1942’, in The People’s War, pp. 119–20.

8. V. Shapovalov (ed.), Remembering the Darkness: Women in Soviet Prisons (Lanham, Maryland, 2001), pp. 150–51; MSP, f. 3, op. 35, d. 1, l. 1; d. 2, l. 34.

9. R. Overy, Russia’s War (London, 1997), p. 94.

10. E. Maksimova, Deti voennoi pory (Moscow, 1988), pp. 235–308; Merridale, Ivan’s War, p. 216.

11. Interviews with Iurii Streletsky, St Petersburg, May 2003, February 2004.

12. J. Dunstan, Soviet Schooling in the Second World War (Basingstoke, 1997), p. 82; J. Barber and M. Harrison, The Soviet Home Front, 1941–1945: A Social and Economic History of the USSR in World War II (London, 1991), p. 128.

13. MSP, f. 3, op. 3, d. 2, ll. 14–15, 34–42; d. 3, l. 28.

14. MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 9, 53, 88, 165.

15. MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 11, 46.

16. Moskva voennaia, pp. 478, 481.

17. Ibid., pp. 149, 152.

18. K. Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, 12 vols. (Moscow, 1979–87), vol. 1, p. 171. I have borrowed from the translation by Mike Munford (www.simonov.co.uk).

19. Interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, February 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September 2003; SLFA, Sonia Laskina’s papers; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 41.

20. N. Pushnova, Valentina Serova: krug otchuzhdeniia (Moscow, 2003), pp. 150–52, 161–5; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2788, l. 1.

21. A. Todd and M. Hayward (eds.), Twentieth-Century Russian Poetry (London, 1993), pp. 623–4 (translated by L. Yakovleva).

22. L. Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov. Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva (Moscow, 1985), pp. 66–7, 71, 78–9; L. Pushkarev, Po dorogam voiny: vospominaniia fol’kloristafrontovika (Moscow, 1995), pp. 56–7; B. Pankin, Chetyre Ia Konstantina Simonova (Moscow 1999), p. 80; Poslednie pis’ma s fronta. Sbornik, 5 vols. (Moscow, 1992), vol. 3 (1943), p. 257.

23. RGALI. f. 1814, op. 1, d. 765, l. 9.

24. Pushkarev, Po dorogam voiny, pp. 31, 57–8.

25. On this see Merridale, Ivan’s War, pp. 93, 208, 272–4.

26. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 8, d. 93, ll. 61–2.

27. Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 1, pp. 129–32.

28. Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov, pp. 38–9, 70–72; same author, Pamiat’ trudnoi godiny. Velikaia otechestvennaia voina v russkoi literature (Moscow, 2000, pp. 47–9; Autobiographical Statements in Twentieth-Century Russian Literature (Princeton, 1990), p. 13; R. Stites, ‘Soviet Russian Wartime Culture: Freedom and Control, Spontaneity and Consciousness’, in The People’s War, p. 175; V. Dunham, In Stalin’s Time: Middle-Class Values in Soviet Fiction (Durham, 1990), pp. 70–71; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 772, l. 362.

29. L. Lazarev, Shestoi etazh. Kniga vospominaniia (Moscow, 1999), pp. 202–3.

30. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1532, l. 4; d. 775, l. 1; interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June and September 2003; Pushnova, Valentina Serova, pp. 181–2, 290; T. Okunevskaia, Tat’ianin den’ (Moscow, 1998), pp. 119–20.

31. See e.g. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 765, ll. 15, 66, 68, 77.

32. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1530, l. 2; d. 1533, ll. 29–30.

33. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2768, l. 10; d. 1, l. 1; d. 1533, ll. 18–19; d. 2768, l. 15.

34. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1, l. 3.

35. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1533, l. 19.

36. N. Ivanova, ‘Konstantin Simonov “Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia”’, Znamia, 1997, no. 7; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 8; interview with Aleksei Simonov, London, May 2004; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

37. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, l. 17; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September 2003; Lazarev, Shestoi etazh, p. 213.

38. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, pp. 9–10; A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia (Nizhny Novgorod, 1999), pp. 22–4; SLFA, Zhenia Laskina to Vladimir Lugovskoi, 28 August 1943; Sonia Laskina to Vladimir Lugovskoi, 21 August 1943; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1812, ll. 1–2.

39. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 20; K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno (Moscow, 1978), p. 321; E. Dolmatovskii, Bylo: zapiski poeta (Moscow, 1982), p. 58 (also RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, l. 2).

40. Krasnaia zvezda, 28 August 1941, p. 1; 7 November 1941, p. 4; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 993, l. 37; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), p. 87.

41. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 550–51.

42. Ibid., pp. 17–21.

43. Merridale, Ivan’s War, pp. 134–8.

44. R. McNeal, Stalin: Man and Ruler (London, 1988), p. 241; R. Parker, Moscow Correspondent (London, 1949), pp. 21–2.

45. Pushkarev, Po dorogam voiny, p. 60; E. Seniavskaia, Chelovek na voine. Istorikopsikhologicheskie ocherki (Moscow, 1997), pp. 47–8; Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov, p. 68; Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, p. 68; Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 1, pp. 105–7; A. Werth, Russia at War 1941–1945 (London, 1964), p. 412. Werth is mistaken about the play’s final words. The phrase he quotes appears earlier in the play.

46. K. Simonov, Pis’ma o voine, 1943–1979 (Moscow, 1990), p. 110.

47. D. Samoilov, Podennye zapisi, 2 vols. (Moscow, 2002), vol. 1, p. 140; ‘Zaveshchanie zhivym (pis’ma s fronta)’, Sovetskaia Rossiia, 9 May 1991.

48. Seniavskaia, ‘Dukhovnyi oblik’, p. 49; V. Kondrat’ev, ‘Ne tol’ko o svoem pokolenii. Zametki pisatelia’, Kommunist, 1997, no. 7, p. 122.

49. S. Conze and B. Fieseler, ‘Soviet Women as Comrades-in-Arms: A Blind Spot in Soviet History’, in The People’s War, p. 212.

50. Interviews with Rebekka (Rita) Kogan, St Petersburg, June, November 2003.

51. A. Chuyanov, Stalingradskii dnevnik, 1941–1943 (Volgograd, 1968), p. 209; Konstantin Simonov rasskazyvaet (Moscow, 1981), p. 106.

52. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 125, d. 190, l. 16.

53. D. Glantz, The Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1944: 900 Days of Terror (London, 2001), pp. 75–6.

54. The classic statement of this influential theory is E. Shils and M. Janowitz, ‘Cohesion and Disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 1948, no. 12, pp. 280–315.

55. E. Seniavskaia, Frontovoe pokolenie 1941–1945: istoriko-psikhologicheskoe issledovanie (Moscow, 1995), p. 86; same author, ‘Dukhovnyi oblik’, pp. 46–7; C. Merridale, Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia (London, 2000), p. 279.

56. R. Overy, Russia’s War (London, 1998), p. 197.

57. J. Erickson, The Road to Berlin (London, 1983), p. 40.

58. V. Zemskov, ‘Ukaz ot 26 Iunia 1940 g. (Eshche odna kruglaia data)’, Raduga, 1990, no. 6, p. 47.

59. MP, f. 4, op. 15, d. 2, ll. 7–9; d. 3, l. 2.

60. MP, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 26–8.

61. E. Bacon, The Gulag at War: Stalin’s Forced Labour System in the Light of the Archives (London, 1994), p. 144; L. Borodkin and S. Ertz, ‘Coercion versus Motivation: Forced Labor in Norilsk’, in Paul Gregory and Valery Lazarev (eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag(Stanford, 2003), p. 78.

62. S. Ertz, ‘Building Norilsk’, in The Economics of Forced Labor, pp. 127–50; O vremeni, o Noril’ske, o sebe… Vospominaniia, 5 vols. (Moscow, 2001–6), vol. 3, p. 12; Borodkin and Ertz, ‘Coercion versus Motivation’, pp. 77, 86–8.

63. MM, f. 12, op. 18, d. 2, l. 27.

64. Interviews with Vasilina Dmitruk, Vera Pristupa, Maria Treimanis (née Fishchuk), Norilsk, July 2004.

65. Interview with Anna Darvina, Norilsk, July 2004.

66. Interview with Semyon Golovko, Norilsk, July 2004.

67. MM, f. 2, op. 5 (‘Khranit’ vechno!’, ms.).

68. RGALI, f. 3084, op. 1, d. 1390, ll. 1, 13; MSP, f. 3, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 19–21, 36–7; d. 4, ll. 15–16; interviews with Natalia Babailova, Severodvinsk, March and November 2005; interview with Nina Sazhnova, Saratov, November 2004; interview with Nina Levina, Krasnoiarsk, August 2005.

69. N. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned (London, 1989), p. 252; B. Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago (London, 1958), p. 453; O. Ivinskaia, V plenu vremeni: gody c B. Pasternakom (Moscow, 1972), p. 96.

70. Kondrat’ev, ‘Ne tol’ko o svoem pokolenii’, p. 224.

71. M. Gefter, ‘Stalin umer vchera…’, in Inogo ne dano (Moscow, 1988), p. 305; VFA, A. Levidova, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 118.

72. H. Smith, The Russians (London, 1976), p. 369; V. Kondrat’ev, ‘Paradoks frontovoi nostal’gii’, Literaturnaia gazeta, 9 May 1990, p. 9.

73. Interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

74. P. Blake and M. Hayward (eds.), Dissonant Voices in Soviet Literature (New York, 1962), pp. 164–7 (translated by Walter Vickery).

75. On the collapse of the Party’s ideological training centres in the war see R. Brody, Ideology and Political Mobilization: The Soviet Home Front During World War II (Pittsburgh, 1994), pp. 24–6.

76. Merridale, Ivan’s War, p. 141; Werth, Russia at War, p. 943; Pravda, 24 June 1944, p. 2; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; MSP, f. 3, op. 30, d. 2, l. 23.

77. Smith, The Russians, p. 370.

78. MM, f. 12, op. 25, d. 2.

79. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 46–53, 87–90; d. 3, ll. 27–33.

80. MP, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 10, 34–7.

81. V. Pirozhkova, Poteriannoe pokolenie (St Petersburg, 1998), p. 154.

82. TsAODM, f. 1870, op. 3, d. 1, ll. 15–17; d. 3, ll. 33–4.

83. MM, f. 12, op. 21, d. 2, ll. 31–2.

84. E. Zubkova, Russia After the War: Hopes, Illusions and Disappointments, 1945–1957 (London, 1998), p. 17; ‘Voina, kotoruiu ne znali: iz dnevnika, prokommentirovannogo samym avtorom 45 let spustia’, Sovetskaia kul’tura, 5 May 1990, p. 4; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

85. M. Prishvin, Sobranie sochinenii, 8 vols. (Moscow, 1986), vol. 8, pp. 392, 435–6; VFA, A. Levidova, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 119; S. Gus’kov, Esli ostanus’ zhiv (Moscow, 1989), p. 215; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

86. GARF, f. 9041, op. 2, d. 202, l. 8; RGASPI, f. 558, op. 11, d. 868, l. 56; f. 17, op. 122, d. 122, ll. 27–30; Pravda, 11 September 1989.

87. GARF, f. 7253, op. 16, d. 79, l. 173; Merridale, Ivan’s War, pp. 292–3.

88. Seniavskaia, ‘Dukhovnyi oblik’, pp. 49–50.

89. T. Dunmore, Soviet Politics 1945–53 (London, 1984), p. 129; Zubkova, Russia After the War, p. 94; Bordiugov, ‘The Popular Mood’, pp. 66, 68.

90. MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 41–2, 46, 57–8.

91. MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 30–34, 74–8, 98.

92. Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 9 .p. 639.

93. SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 72.

94. Pravda, 27 June 1945.

95. Chelovek v istorii. Rossiia–XX vek: sbornik rabot pobeditelei (Moscow, 2002), p. 293.

96. See Merridale, Ivan’s War, pp. 232–4.

97. Kondrat’ev, ‘Ne tol’ko o svoem pokolenii’, pp. 112–16; same author, ‘Paradoks frontovoi nostal’gii’.

98. MSP, f. 3, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 5–6.

99. MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 1942; d. 1944; f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 12–15, 68–9.

100. MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 1944.

101. MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 1944; f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 27, 29, 69.

102. MM, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 32–3.

103. MM, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 34, 71–2, 85.

7: Ordinary Stalinists (1945–53)

1. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 64–89.

2. E. Zubkova, Russia After the War: Hopes, Illusions and Disappointments, 1945–1957 (London, 1998), pp. 20–21, 38; Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei (St Petersburg, 2005), p. 130.

3. M. Heller and A. Nekrich, Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present (London, 1986), pp. 472–3; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 387, l. 4; d. 389, l. 10.

4. Zubkova, Russia After the War, pp. 11, 40. A lower rate of mortality (1.5 million deaths) is given by M. Ellman, ‘The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24 (September 2000), p. 615.

5. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 13, 19–20, 24–6, 76–9.

6. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 117, d. 530, ll. 37–8.

7. ‘Iz suzhdenii sovetskikh liudei o poslevoennykh problemakh i o zhizni v SSSR’, Istoriia otechestva v dokumentakh, 1945–1993 (Moscow, 1995), p. 17.

8. I. Ehrenburg, The War, 1941–45 (London, 1964), p. 124; R. Service, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia (London, 1997), p. 299 (quotation altered for clarity); A. Mikoian, Tak bylo: razmyshleniia o minuvshem (Moscow, 1999), pp. 513–14.

9. Interview with Marianna Gordon, St Petersburg, October 2003.

10. Interview with Valentina Aleksandrova, St Petersburg, December 2003.

11. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 125, d. 424, ll. 58–71. On these groups see J. Fürst, ‘Prisoners of the Self? Political Opposition Groups in Late Stalinism’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 3 (2002), pp. 353–75; H. Kuromiya, “‘Political Youth Opposition in Late Stalinism”: Evidence and Conjecture’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 55, no. 4 (2003), pp. 631–8.

12. MSP, f. 3, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 53, 59.

13. MSP, f. 3, op. 47, d. 2, ll. 21, 31, 35, 38, 55.

14. See N. Tumarkin, The Living and the Dead: The Rise and Fall of the Cult of World War II in Russia (New York, 1994), p. 104; L. Lazarev, Pamiat’ trudnoi godiny. Velikaia otechestvennaia voina v russkoi literature (Moscow, 2000), pp. 61–3.

15. Pravda, 10 February 1946; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps (London, 2003), p. 415.

16. R. Overy, Russia’s War (London, 1997), pp. 304–7.

17. A. Danilov and A. Pyzhikov, Rozhdenie sverkhderzhavy: SSSR v pervye poslevoennye gody (Moscow, 2001), p. 108.

18. GARF, f. 9401, op. 2, d. 234, ll. 148, 153; d. 199, l. 392; S. Fitzpatrick, ‘Postwar Soviet Society: The “Return to Normalcy”, 1945–1953’, in S. Linz (ed.), The Impact of World War II on the Soviet Union (Totowa, 1985), pp. 143–5.

19. P. Gregory, ‘An Introduction to the Economics of the Gulag’, in P. Gregory and V. Lazarev (eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag (Stanford, 2003), pp. 14, 16; G. Alexopoulos, ‘Amnesty 1945: The Revolving Door of Stalin’s Gulag’, Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 2 (Summer 2005), p. 274; Y. Gorlizki and O. Khlevniuk, Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945–1953 (Oxford, 2004), pp. 130–31, 268–71.

20. For a good example of a family reunited in Norilsk see the Kuznetsova-Babailova archive in MSP, f. 3, op. 22, dd. 2–5.

21. MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2.

22. MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2.

23. L. Borodkin and S. Ertz, ‘Coercion versus Motivation: Forced Labor in Norilsk’, in Gregory and Lazarev (eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor, pp. 102–3.

24. V. Dunham, In Stalin’s Time: Middle-Class Values in Soviet Fiction (New York, 1976).

25. N. DeWitt, Education and Professional Employment in the USSR (Washington, 1961), pp. 606–7, 638–9.

26. A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society (Cambridge, Mass. 1959), pp. 289, 326–7.

27. C. Miłosz, The Captive Mind (London, 1953), pp. 55, 57.

28. Interviews with Irina Aleksandrova, St Petersburg, May, November 2003.

29. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 44–5.

30. MFA, L. Makhnach, ‘Oskolki bylogo s vysoty nastoiashchego’, ms., p. 76.

31. MSP, f. 3, op. 34, d. 2, l. 4. See also MM, f. 12, op. 32, d. 2, ll. 77–8.

32. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 32–3.

33. MP, f. 4, op. 13, d. 2, ll. 37–8, 39, 42–3, 56.

34. Interviews with Iurii Streletsky, St Petersburg, May 2003, February 2004.

35. PFA, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., pp. 17, 22–4; interviews with Tatiana Elagina, Moscow, May, October 2003 (name changed on the request of the informant).

36. MP, f. 4, op. 7, d. 2, ll. 3, 7, 11–12, 26, 28, 39–40.

37. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 45; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), p. 82; A. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov vblizi i na rasstoianii (Moscow 1987), p. 103.

38. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 346.

39. K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno (Moscow, 1978), pp. 143–4; N. Pushnova, Valentina Serova (Moscow, 2003), pp. 215–16.

40. K. Chukovskii, Dnevnik, 1901–1969, 2 vols. (Moscow, 2003), vol. 2, p. 210; RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 1004, l. 150; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, p. 116.

41. Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

42. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 343, l. 1; N. Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ‘Novom mire’ (Moscow, 1999), p. 7; L. Fink, Konstantin Simonov (Moscow, 1979), pp. 220, 235, 251, 274.

43. L. Chukovskaia, Sochineniia v 2 tomakh (Moscow, 2000), vol. 2, pp. 182, 186, 216. Simonov was accused of a similarly dictatorial manner as the editor of Literaturnaia gazeta (see RGASPI, f. 558, op. 11, d. 878, l. 55).

44. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 229, ll. 16, 20; Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ‘Novom Mire’, p. 16; B. Pankin, Chetyre Ia Konstantina Simonova (Moscow, 1999), pp. 19, 23, 35–5; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

45. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2590, ll. 1, 2. On Portugalov in Kolyma see the touching reminiscences about him by Varlam Shalamov in RGALI, f. 2596, op. 2, d. 133, ll. 1–10.

46. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, p. 136. On Smeliakov: Sluzhili dva tovarishcha: kniga o zhizni kinodramaturgov Dunskogo i Frida (Moscow, 2002), pp. 592–5.

47. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 454, ll. 43, 45; d. 643, ll. 1–2; op. 9, d. 1812, l. 4.

48. I. Berlin, ‘Meetings with Russian Writers in 1945 and 1956’, in Personal Impressions (Oxford, 1982), pp. 160–61; N. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned (London, 1989), p. 375.

49. G. Carleton, The Politics of Reception: Critical Constructions of Mikhail Zoshchenko (Evanston, 1998), pp. 231–2.

50. ‘Doklad t. Zhdanova o zhurnalakh Zvezda i Leningrad’, Novyi mir, 1946, no. 9, pp. iv–xix.

51. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 104–7; RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 229, l. 21.

52. Simonov, Segodnia i davno, pp. 337–8; A. Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by (Moscow, 1991), p. 235.

53. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 331, ll. 1–2; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 118–20, 137, 141; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

54. SLFA, ‘K.M.’, two-part film on DVD, comments by Benedikt Sarnov in Part 1, at twenty-six minutes; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

55. B. Schwarz, Music and Musical Life in Soviet Russia, 1917–1970 (London, 1972), pp. 208, 218; Gorlizki and Khlevniuk, Cold Peace, pp. 35–8; Zubkova, Russia After the War, pp. 119–23.

56. H. Salisbury, American in Russia (New York, 1955), pp. 16–20, 38; G. Ivanova, ‘Poslevoennye repressii i Gulag’, in Stalin i kholodnaia voina (Moscow, 1998), p. 255.

57. J. Brent and V. Naukov, Stalin’s Last Crime: The Doctors’ Plot (London, 2003), p. 96.

58. ‘Evreiskii antifashistskii komitet’, Izvestiia TsK KPSS, 1989, no. 12, p. 40; Reabilitatsiia: politicheskie protsessy 30–50-kh godov (Moscow, 1991), p. 326.

59. Cited in A. Weiner, Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution (Princeton, 2001), p. 195.

60. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2645, ll. 3–4, 9, 18; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, pp. 3, 77, 94; G. Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina. Vlast’ i antisemitizm (Moscow, 2001), pp. 319 ff.

61. A. Gerasimov, ‘Za sovetskii patriotism v iskusstve’, Pravda, 10 February 1949; N. Gribachev, ‘Protiv kosmopolitizma i formalizma v poezii’, Pravda, 16 February 1949; T. Khrennikov, ‘Burzhuaznye kosmopolity v muzykal’noi kritike’, Kul’tura i zhizn’, 20 February 1949; ‘Do kontsa razoblachit’ kosmopolitov-antipatriotov’, Pravda, 26–27 February 1949; L.Bol’shakov, ‘Razgromit’ burzhuaznyi kosmopolitizm v kinoiskusstve’, Pravda, 3 March 1949; etc.

62. Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina, pp. 334–5; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, pp. 185, 188–91; RGASPI, f. 83, op. 1, d. 5, ll. 92–5.

63. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 237, ll. 13–15. See also RGASPI, f. 77, op. 4, d. 73, ll. 7–11; Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ‘Novom Mire’, p. 19.

64. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 118, d. 229, l. 17.

65. N. Tipot (Sokolova), ‘Dnevnik’, private archive. On Sofronov and Simonov as rivals to succeed Fadeyev see the thoughts of Borshchagovsky in A. Borshchagovskii, Pustotelyi monolit (Moscow, 2002), pp. 133–4.

66. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 19 (‘Vospominaniia o kampanii po bor’be s kosmopolitizmom’, ts., 1976); Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, p. 214.

67. See e.g. K. Simonov, ‘Zadachi sovetskoi dramaturgii i teatral’naia kritika’, Pravda, 27–8 February 1949 (where the Sartre and Miller quotation comes from); same author, ‘Zadachi sovetskoi dramaturgii i teatral’naia kritika’, Literaturnaia gazeta, 5 March 1949.

68. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 226, ll. 1–6; d. 229, l. 30; Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina, pp. 339–40.

69. Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, pp. 19, 35–6, 49, 187, 200, 204, 215, 223, 272, 278–9; interview with Aleksandr Borshchagovsky, Moscow, November 2003.

70. Borschagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, pp. 266, 279; interview with Aleksandr Borshchagovsky, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 4, l. 4.

71. Interview with Aleksandr Borshchagovsky, Moscow, November 2003; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, pp. 4, 240.

72. Ibid., pp. 261–2.

73. See A. Kozhevnikov, ‘President of Stalin’s Academy: The Mask and Responsibility of Sergei Vavilov’, Isis, vol. 87, no. 1 (March 1996), pp. 18–50; N. Tolstoi (ed.), Brat’ia Nikolai i Sergei Vavilovy (Moscow, 1991); M. Popovsky, The Vavilov Affair (Hamden, 1984); S. Ivanovich Vavilov: ocherki i vospominaniia (Moscow, 1991). Vavilov acted surreptitiously against official decisions and his opposition went unnoticed for many years –perhaps one reason why he was maligned as a ‘lackey president of the Academy of Sciences’ by Solzhenitsyn: A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols. (London, 1974–8), vol. 2, p. 638.

74. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 237, ll. 14–15; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1365, l. 1; f. 2203, op. 1, d. 333, l. 1; f. 631, op. 16, d. 90; f. 2203, op. 1, d. 333, l. 5; d. 336, l. 11; interview with Nina Arkhipova, Moscow, November 2003; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, p. 321.

75. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, dd. 70, 173; d. 170, l. 17; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, July 2004.

76. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 500.

77. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 126–8; Fink, Konstantin Simonov, p. 229.

78. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 563; op. 4, d. 10; op. 9, d. 5, ll. 69–70; RGASPI, f. 82, op. 2, d. 1458, l. 49; f. 558, op. 11, d. 806, l. 164; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 128–31.

79. Ibid., pp. 135–7.

80. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 809, ll. 1–6; Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, pp. 88–9; Simonov, Segodnia i davno, pp. 609–10.

81. K. Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, 12 vols. (Moscow, 1979–87), vol. 12, p. 41.

82. Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 454, ll. 28–41.

83. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 185–9.

84. See Gosudarstvennyi antisemitizm v SSSR: ot nachala do kul’minatsii, 1938–1953 (Moscow, 2005), pp. 27–61.

85. Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by, p. 267.

86. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 13, 52; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 72–3, 78–9, 257.

87. MM, f. 2, op. 5, d. 3; f. 12, op. 30, d. 2, l. 27.

88. Interviews with Mark Epshtein, St Petersburg, June and October 2003.

89. SLFA, various documents; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1533; RGASPI, f. 495, op. 199, d. 207 (Zaidler).

90. A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia (Nizhny Novgorod 1999), p. 61.

91. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1541, l. 36; d. 1770, l. 2.

92. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia, pp. 59–61.

93. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2581.

94. Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina, pp. 619–26.

95. Interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June 2003, July 2004; interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, Iakov Kharon to Sonia Laskina, 8 March 1954; Yevgeniia to Sonia Laskina, 28 May 1954.

96. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 454, l. 32; op. 10, d. 92, l. 37; RGASPI, f. 17, op. 133, d. 390, ll. 81–4; d. 389, ll. 158–63; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003. For evidence of Simonov’s authorship of the letter of 24 March see Nash sovremennik, 1999, no. 1, p. 206.

97. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 189–204.

98. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 802, l. 95.

99. RGASPI, f. 17, op. 119, d. 452, ll. 4–6; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 220–22; Fink, Konstantin Simonov, p. 112.

100. Brent and Naukov, Stalin’s Last Crime, pp. 9, 129, 176, 184; SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., p. 86; Zubkova, Russia After the War, p. 137.

101. S. Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar (London, 2003), p. 568.

102. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 223–7.

103. Ibid., p. 229.

104. RGALI, f, 1814, op. 4, d. 10, l. 5.

105. SLFA, M. Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ms., pp. 87–8.

106. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 13, 30.

107. MP, f. 4, op. 23, d. 2, l. 15.

108. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned, p. 385.

109. MM, f. 12, op. 9, d. 2, l. 67.

110. MP, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, l. 46; op. 5, d. 2, l. 12.

111. MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, l. 31.

112. A. Knight, Beria: Stalin’s First Lieutenant (Princeton, 1993), p. 185; A. Lokshin, “‘Delo vrachei”: “Otkliki trudiashchikhsia”’, Vestnik evreiskogo universiteta v Moskve, 1994, no. 1, pp. 52–62.

113. MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 43–4.

114. Interview with Zinaida Belikova, St Petersburg, May 2003.

115. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika, p. 175.

116. Sluzhili dva tovarishcha, p. 357; MM, f. 12, op. 30, d. 2, l. 22; O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’ (Moscow, 2002), p. 201.

117. See Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 435–53.

118. A. Makarova, ‘Noril’skoe vosstanie. Mai-avgust 1953 goda’, ms.; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 437, 440; MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 74–5, 89, 91.

119. MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 34, 48; f. 1, op. 1, d. 1925, ll. 11–30.

120. MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, l. 92; MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 18; d. 3, ll. 20–22; interview with Vasilina Dmitruk, Norilsk, July 2004.

121. On the similarly moderate demands of the uprising in the Kengir division of the Steplag special camp in Kazakhstan in May–June 1954 see S. Barnes, “‘In a Manner Befitting Soviet Citizens”: An Uprising in the Post-Stalin Gulag’, Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 4 (Winter 2005), pp. 823–50.

122. MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 98, 101.

123. Istoriia stalinskogo gulaga: konets 1920-kh–pervaia polovina 1950-kh godov. Sobranie dokumentov v semi tomakh, vol. 6, Vosstaniia, bunty i zabastovski zakliuchennykh (Moscow, 2004), pp. 320–413; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 441–2; interview with Semyon Golovko, Norilsk, July 2004.

8: Return (1953–6)

1. SLFA, Spravka MVD, 11 November 1955; Yevgeniia to Sonia Laskina, 8 September 1955, 5 October 1955; interview with Fania Laskina, September 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, November 2003.

2. Reabilitatsiia: kak eto bylo. Dokumenty prezidiuma TsKPSS i drugie materialy: mart 1953–fevral’ 1956 (Moscow, 2000), p. 213.

3. SLFA, Sonia Laskina to Dmitry Shepilov, 4 June 1955; V. Frid, 58½: zapiski lagernogo pridurka (Moscow, 1996), pp. 358–9.

4. Y. Gorlizki and O. Khlevniuk, Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945–1953 (Oxford, 2004), p. 131; D. Shepilov, Neprimknuvshii (Moscow, 2001), p. 267; A. Knight, Beria: Stalin’s First Lieutenant (Princeton, 1993), pp. 209–10; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), pp. 246–7.

5. V. Naumov, ‘Repression and Rehabilitation’, in W. Taubman, S. Khrushchev and A. Gleason (eds.), Nikita Khrushchev (New Haven, 2000), pp. 90–91; SLFA, Sonia Laskina to Dmitry Shepilov, 4 June 1955; Konstantin Simonov to Yevgeniia Laskina, 24 September 1955.

6. N. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament, translated and edited by S. Talbott (Boston, 1974), p. 79; A. Hochschild, The Unquiet Ghost: Russians Remember Stalin (London, 1994), p. 223; N. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System: The Gulag Survivor (New Brunswick, 2002), pp. 90–93.

7. SLFA, Yevgeniia to Sonia Laskina, 16 September 1955; Vladimir Lugovskoi to Yevgeniia Laskina, 20 July 1956; Maia Bykova to Yevgeniia Laskina, 25 December 1974; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, June 2003.

8. E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters (London, 1992), pp. 89–90, 328, 330–31; interview with Elena Bonner, Boston, November 2006.

9. Compare this with the memoirs of the dissident Liudmila Alekseyeva, who recalls that her moral distancing from the Soviet regime was similarly influenced by her reading of Herzen and by the example of the Decembrists: L. Alexeyeva and P. Goldberg, The Thaw Generation: Coming of Age in the Post-Stalin Era (Boston, 1990), pp. 34–5.

10. MSP, f. 3, op. 33, d. 2, ll. 33, 39.

11. MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, l. 47.

12. MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 132, 166.

13. MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 26–7, 89–90, 134.

14. MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, l. 38.

15. MSP, f. 3, op. 35, d. 2, ll. 40–54.

16. MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 2, ll. 27, 29.

17. MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 3, ll. 1–5.

18. MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 2, ll. 31.

19. MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 2, ll. 36, 47, 52, 54.

20. B. Okudzhava, ‘Devushka moei mechty’, in Izbrannye proizvedeniia v dvukh tomakh (Moscow, 1989), vol. 2, pp. 283–94.

21. MP, f. 4, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 9, 28.

22. MSP, f. 3, op. 38, d. 2, ll. 19, 36.

23. MM, f. 12, op. 29, d. 2, l. 20.

24. SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Tonen’kii nerv istorii’, ms., p. 17; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

25. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 23–4, 43–5.

26. GFA, letter from Anatoly to Liuba Golovnia, 5 December 1940; O. Golovnia, ‘Predislovie k pis’mam’, ms., p. 70; L. Golovnia-Babitskaia, ‘Predsmertnye zapiski’, ms., p. 4; A. Bachinskii, ‘Zhizn’, liubov’ i smert’ Anatoliia Golovni’, Stolitsa S, 17 January 1997; interview with Yevgeniia Golovnia, Moscow, July 2004.

27. MSP, f. 3, op. 46, d. 3, l. 43; MM, f. 12, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 34–5.

28. M. Nikolaev, Detdom (New York, 1985), p. 96; interviews with Viktoriia Shweitser, Moscow, July 2004; Amherst, November 2006.

29. O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’ (Moscow, 2002), p. 153.

30. Ibid., pp. 154–5.

31. On this see D. Field, ‘Communist Morality and Meanings of Private Life in Post-Stalinist Russia, 1953–64’ (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1996). On youth culture: J. Fürst, ‘The Importance of Being Stylish: Youth, Culture and Identity in Late Stalinism’, in same author (ed.), Late Stalinist Russia: Society between Reconstruction and Reinvention (London, 2006), pp. 209–30.

32. MM, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 78, 79–80, 85, 97.

33. MFA, L. Makhnach, ‘Otets’, ms., pp. 3–8; interview with Leonid Makhnach, Moscow, July 2004.

34. MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 24.

35. L. El’iashova, “‘Kak zhit”? O zhizni Sof’i Mikhailovny Firsovoi’, Sankt-Peterburgskii Universitet, no. 22 (3489), 20 October 1998, p. 24; Frid, 58½, p. 389; Sluzhili dva tovarishcha: kniga o zhizni kinodramaturgov Dunskogo i Frida (Moscow, 2002), p. 146.

36. MM, f. 12, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 12–14, 17–19.

37. MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, ll. 37–41, 83–6; d. 3, l. 2.

38. MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 16, 29, 35, 50, 53, 59.

39. MM, f. 1, op. 1, dd. 841, 2676; f. 12, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 59–80.

40. GFA, N. Iznar, ‘Avtobiografiia’; Natalia Iznar to Elena Abezgauz, undated.

41. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2581, ll. 28–36.

42. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 229, ll. 15, 17, 18, 21, 32, 47, 48.

43. MM, f. 2, op. 1, d. 45, l. 1105; A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols. (London, 1974–8), vol. 3, p. 455.

44. A. Applebaum, ‘After the Gulag’, New York Review of Books, vol. 49, no. 16 (24 October 2002), p. 41.

45. MP, f. 4, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 10–13.

46. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System, pp. 30–31; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps (London, 2003), p. 460; C. Hooper, ‘Terror from Within: Participation and Coercion in Soviet Power, 1924–64’ (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 2003), p. 377.

47. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. 3, p. 451.

48. RGASPI, f. 560, op. 1, d. 37, l. 487.

49. MM, f. 2, op. 1, d. 29 (Anatolii Brat [Zhukov], ‘Zhutkie gody’).

50. MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 28.

51. MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 28–30, 39–40.

52. MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, l. 124.

53. MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, l. 29.

54. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 26.

55. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put’, pp. 207–8.

56. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 46.

57. MP, f. 4, op. 43, d. 2, l. 2.

58. MSP, f. 3, op. 46, d. 2, ll. 51–4; d. 3, ll. 49–50.

59. TsAFSB, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo I. V. Slavina (P-51969); ‘Delo reabilitatsii’ (N 4 N 012826/55); SFA, I. Slavina, ‘Put’ na plakhu’, ms., pp. 3–6, 103; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

60. MSP, f. 3, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 15, 30–31; d. 3, ll. 34–5. See also MSP, f. 3, op. 38, d. 2, ll. 23–6; MM, f. 12, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 28–30.

61. L. Chukovskaia, Zapiski ob Anne Akhmatovoi, 3 vols. (Paris, 1980), vol. 2, p. 137.

62. MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 60–67, 131–3.

63. MSP, f. 2, op. 51, d. 2, ll. 3–7.

64. MM, f. 12, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 18–23.

65. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 66–8; d. 3, ll. 54–5.

66. I. Sherbakova, ‘The Gulag in Memory’, in L. Passerini (ed.), International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 1: Memory and Totalitarianism (Oxford, 1992), p. 114 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

67. See A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society (Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

68. N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope (London, 1989), p. 48.

69. Ibid., p. 49.

70. Vokrug Fadeeva: neizvestnye pis’ma, zametki i dokumenty (Moscow, 1996), pp. 12, 122; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 5, l. 30; V. Kaverin, Epilog: memuary (Moscow, 2002), pp. 313–24.

71. Izvestiia TsK KPSS, 1990, no. 10, p. 147.

72. On Fadeyev’s kindness see K. Chukovskii, Dnevnik, 1901–69, 2 vols. (Moscow, 2003), vol. 2, pp. 282–3; A. Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud’by (Moscow, 1991), p. 21; and the letter by Akhmatova to Fadeyev on 10 March 1956 in which she thanked him for his efforts to release her son Lev Gumilyov from a Siberian labour camp (‘You have been more kind and sympathetic than anybody in these frightful years’)in Vokrug Fadeeva, p. 161.

73. RGALI, f. 618, op. 16, d. 88, l. 16.

74. Literaturnaia gazeta, 17 July 1954, pp. 2–3; 20 July 1954, pp. 2–3.

75. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 248–53; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

76. Pravda, 4 July 1954, p. 3.

77. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, ll. 21–2. On the public response to the novel see D. Kozlov, ‘Naming the Social Evil: The Readers of Novyi mir and Vladimir Dudintsev’s Not by Bread Alone, 1956–1959’, in P. Jones (ed.), The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: A Social and Cultural History of Reform in the Khrushchev Era (London, 2005), pp. 80–98.

78. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 15; K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno (Moscow, 1978), p. 78; A za mnoiu shum pogoni: Boris Pasternak i vlast’. Dokumenty 1956–72 (Moscow, 2001), pp. 89–90.

79. L. Lazarev, Shestoi etazh: kniga vospominaniia (Moscow, 1999), p. 201.

80. Reabilitatsiia: kak eto bylo, pp. 349–51; W. Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (London, 2003), pp. 270, 272, 274, 278.

81. Reabilitatsiia: kak eto bylo, pp. 5–6; Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 273–4.

9: Memory (1956–2006)

1. W. Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (London, 2003), pp. 282–3.

2. P. Jones, ‘From the Secret Speech to the Burial of Stalin: Real and Ideal Responses to De-Stalinization’, in same author (ed.), The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: A Social and Cultural History of Reform in the Khrushchev Era (London, 2005), p. 47.

3. L. Alexeyeva and P. Goldberg, The Thaw Generation: Coming of Age in the Post-Stalin Era (Boston, 1990), p. 4.

4. MM, f. 12, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 47, 78.

5. MSP, f. 3, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 21–2.

6. MP, f. 4, op. 26, d. 2, ll. 12–14.

7. MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 14, 62–4.

8. MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 36–41.

9. MSP, f. 3, op. 19, d. 2, ll. 5, 24–33.

10. MP, f. 4, op. 19, d. 2, ll. 26–7, 41–5; d. 3, l. 1; d. 4, ll. 1–3.

11. I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953 (Moscow, 1998), pp. 266–7; MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 31–2, 76.

12. MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 25; MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 23; MM, f. 12, op. 30, d. 2, ll. 36–8.

13. V. Shalamov, ‘Dry Rations’, in Kolyma Tales (London, 1994), p. 43; MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, l. 45. See also: op. 1, d. 2, ll. 33–4; op. 36, d. 2, ll. 7–9.

14. C. Merridale, Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia (London, 2000), p. 21.

15. C. Garland (ed.), Understanding Trauma: A Psychoanalytical Approach (London, 1998), pp. 4–5; D. Laub, ‘Truth and Testimony: The Process and the Struggle’, in C. Caruth (ed.), Trauma: Explorations in Memory (Baltimore, 1995), pp. 61–75.

16. MSP, f. 3, op. 15, d. 3, l. 1.

17. Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Nina Arkhipova, Moscow, November 2003.

18. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1538; V. Pushnova, Valentina Serova (Moscow, 2003), pp. 258–84; interview with Maria Simonova, Moscow, March 2004.

19. Pushnova, Valentina Serova, p. 322; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 775, l. 1.

20. Interview with Maria Simonova, Moscow, March 2004; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 775, l. 1.

21. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 18; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September 2003.

22. SLFA, Yevgeniia Laskina to Aleksei Simonov, 28 August 1957; Mark Laskin, ‘Vospominaniia’, ts., p. 15; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10 .d. 342, l. 20; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, July 2004; A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia (Nizhny Novgorod, 1999), pp. 42, 44–5, 148.

23. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2199, l. 2.

24. SLFA, Aleksei Simonov to Yevgeniia Laskina, 19 August 1956; Aleksei Simonov to Konstantin Simonov, 24 October 1956; Konstantin to Aleksei Simonov, 31 August 1956.

25. SLFA, Yevgeniia Laskina to Aleksei Simonov, 26 September 1956; Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia, p. 67; Aleksei to Konstantin Simonov, 7 February 1957.

26. Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, Aleksei Simonov, Diary, 23 December 1956; Aleksei Simonov to Vladimir Dudintsev, 13 December 1956; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, ll. 15–17, 22.

27. K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia (Moscow, 1990), p. 12; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 2, d. 127, ll. 2–3, 8.

28. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 12.

29. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 13.

30. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, l. 17.

31. V. Kondrat’ev, ‘Ne tol’ko o svoem pokolenii. Zametki pisatelia’, Kommunist, 1997, no. 7, p. 122.

32. Interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

33. K. Simonov, Sto sutok voiny (Smolensk, 1999); same author, Raznye dni voiny: dnevnik pisatelia, 2 vols. (Moscow, 1977–8).

34. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 11, ll. 1–21; op. 8, d. 58, l. 98.

35. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, dd. 2590, 681, 1857.

36. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia, pp. 147–55. The cuts, which amounted to sixty typed pages, immediately appeared in samizdat, and were included in foreign editions of the novel from 1969. The complete version of the novel first came out in the Soviet Union in 1973. See R. Pevear’s ‘Introduction’, and his notes on the text in his translation of M. Bulgakov, The Master and Margarita (London, 1997), pp. vii–xix.

37. Interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September, November 2003, February 2004.

38. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 376, ll. 20–21; Konstantin Simonov v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov (Moscow, 1984), p. 291; N. Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ‘Novom Mire’ (Moscow, 1999), pp. 32–3.

39. L. Lazarev, Shestoi etazh: kniga vospominaniia (Moscow, 1999), pp. 208, 210; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; Simonov, Sto sutok voiny, pp. 550–54; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 5, l. 63; op. 9, d. 19 (‘Vospominaniia o kampanii po bor’be s kosmopolitizmom’, ts., 1976).

40. K. Simonov and I. Ehrenburg, V odnoi gazete: reportazhi i stati 1941–1945 (Moscow, 1979); Lazarev, Shestoi etazh, pp. 201–2.

41. A. Solzhenitsyn, The Oak and the Calf: Sketches of Literary Life in the Soviet Union (London, 1980), p. 299.

42. Interview with Viktor Erofeev, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Andrei Erofeev, Moscow, April 2004; interview with Nina Arkhipova, Moscow, November 2003; D. Gillespie, ‘Metropol”, The Literary Encyclopedia, 19 November 2005.

43. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 7–8.

44. Ibid. Fragments of the memoirs were first published in the journal Znamia in 1988, no. 3, pp. 3–66; no. 4, pp. 49–121; no. 5, pp. 69–96.

45. See e.g. A. Mikoian, Tak bylo: razmyshleniia o minuvshem (Moscow, 1999), p. 589 (‘Of course we bear a great responsibility. But we must understand the circumstances in which we worked. There was a lot we did not know, we believed, but in any case there was simply nothing we could change.’)

46. Lev Razgon, True Stories (London, 1997), pp. 21–34.

47. Interview with Ivan Korchagin, Akmolinsk, September 1988.

48. IFA, ‘Kommentarii k pis’mam’, ts., 1988; Mikhail Iusipenko to M. Zelder, 29 December 1988; Mikhail Iusipenko to Sergei Barinov, 18 August 1988; interview with Oksana Kozmina, Moscow, 1988.

49. MM, f. 1, op. 2; f. 2, op. 5; f. 12, op. 9, dd. 2, 3.

50. On the relationship between memory and narrative see V. Skultans, The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia (London, 1998).

51. Alexander Dolgun’s Story: An American in the Gulag (New York, 1975), p. 4.

52. I. Sherbakova, ‘The Gulag in Memory’, in L. Passerini (ed.), International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 1: Memory and Totalitarianism (Oxford, 1992), pp. 112–13 (translation slightly altered for clarity).

53. See e.g. MSP, f. 3, op. 42, d. 3, ll. 1–24.

54. M. McAuley, Soviet Politics 1917–1991 (Oxford, 1992), pp. 56–7.

55. On the Gulag memoir as a literary genre see Leona Toker, Return from the Archipelago: Narratives of Gulag Survivors (Bloomington, 2000).

56. E. Ginzburg, Into the Whirlwind (London, 1968); Within the Whirlwind (London, 1981).

57. C. Merridale, Ivan’s War: The Red Army 1939–1945 (London, 2005), p. 334; A. Applebaum, ‘The Real Patriotic War’, New York Review of Books, vol. 53, no. 6 (6 April 2006), pp. 16, 18.

58. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 201.

59. O vremeni, o Noril’ske, o sebe: vospominaniia, 5 vols. (Moscow, 2001–4); A. Macqueen, ‘Survivors’, Granta, 64 (Winter 1998), p. 39.

60. Interview with Vasily Romashkin, Norilsk, July 2004.

61. Interview with Olga Iaskina, Norilsk, July 2004. This paragraph is based on interviews with over fifty people in Norilsk during July 2004. See the List of Interviews in Sources.

62. Moscow News, 4 March 2005.

63. Mikhail Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror (New Jersey, 1995), pp. 97–8.

64. MP, f. 4, op. 13, d. 2, l. 18.

65. MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 64–7.

66. MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 67–71.

67. On this phenomenon in general see H. Krystal, Massive Psychic Trauma (New York, 1968); D. Wardl, Memorial Candles: Children of the Holocaust, London, 1992; N. Burchardt, ‘Transgenerational Transmission in the Families of Holocaust Survivors in England’, in D. Bertaux and P. Thompson (eds.), International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 2: Between Generations: Family Models, Myths and Memories (Oxford, 1993), pp. 121–37. For details of an interesting pilot study of these issues carried out by the psychologist Marina Gulina among children brought up by survivors of the siege of Leningrad, see ‘Malen’kii prints v blokadnom Leningrade: psikhoanaliticheskoe issledovanie’, Sankt-Peterburgskii Universitet, no. 9 (3698), 5 May 2005, pp. 32–5.

68. MSP, f. 3, op. 11, d. 1, ll. 1–2; d. 2, ll. 53–60, 74–84.

69. MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, l. 63; interview with Vladimir Korsakov, St Petersburg, May, October 2003.

70. Interviews with Aleksei Iurasovsky, Moscow, July 2004, October 2005.

71. MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 36–7, 44–7; MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, l. 91.

72. MP, f. 4, op. 26, d. 2, ll. 6–8; op. 3, d. 2, l. 37.

73. MP, f. 12, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 75–6.

74. MP, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, l. 23; op. 17, d. 2, l. 52.

75. MP, f. 12, op. 17, d. 2, ll. 52–3.

76. B. Slutskii, Sud’ba. Stikhi raznykh let (Moscow, 1990), p. 40.

77. See e.g. MP, f. 4, op. 5, d. 2, l. 20; op. 24, d. 2, ll. 70–73. Some oral historians have argued that under Vladimir Putin’s authoritarian government, after 2000, the Russians became ‘socialized into reticence’, as they had been in the Soviet period, and that, compared to the early 1990s, they were ‘reluctant to give candid interviews’ (D. Bertaux, P. Thompson and A. Rotkirch (eds.), On Living Through Soviet Russia (London, 2004), pp. 8–9).

78. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 52–4.

79. MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 41–5, 59–64, 76, 85–9, 93, 119; d. 3, ll. 34, 39–40, 45–6. Antonia died in December 2006.

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