Chapter 1: The Serpent’s Egg

“almost pathologically sensitive about anything concerning the body”: Franz Jetzinger, Hitler’s Youth, London, 1958; August Kubizek, The Young Hitler I Knew, new expanded edition and translation (Barnsley, UK, 2011), p. 163.

“a bolt from the blue”: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (American edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), p. 20.

no chance that he could study painting or architecture: Konrad Heiden, Der Fuehrer: Hitler’s Rise to Power (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1944), pp. 52–54.

with grief as eighteen-year-old Adolf: Eduard Bloch, “My Patient Hitler,” Collier’s Weekly, March 15–22, 1941; and his interview with the OSS, in Hitler Source Book. See also Brigitte Hamann, Hitlers Edeljude. Das Leben des Armenarztes Eduard Bloch (Munich, 2008).

He would tolerate no dissent: Kubizek, The Young Hitler I Knew, p. 78.

did not include mingling or interacting with them: Ibid., pp. 163–64.

not . . . on the brink of starvation or in desperate straits: Jetzinger, Hitler’s Youth, pp. 117, 131–34.

employed to great effect in Nazi propaganda: Brigitte Hamann, Hitlers Wien. Lehrjahre eines Diktators (Munich, 1997), pp. 96–97.

Hitler seemed calm and at peace: Kubizek, The Young Hitler I Knew, p. 94.

“by whom he was persecuted”: Ibid., p. 157.

“ought to be blown up”: Ibid., p. 160.

would not see him again for thirty years: After Hitler disappeared from their Vienna apartment, Kubizek did not meet him again until 1938 when Germany absorbed Austria and Hitler returned to his hometown in glory. Ibid., pp. 246–59.

He had hit rock bottom: Hamann, Hitlers Wien, pp. 208–9, 226–27; Jetzinger, Hitler’s Youth, pp. 131–32; Bradley F. Smith, Adolf Hitler: His Family, Childhood and Youth (Stanford, CA, 1967), pp. 123–24.

Carrying luggage and shoveling snow: He understood the plight of the working class, he claimed imaginatively in a 1934 speech, because “I myself was a laboring man for years in the building trade and had to earn my own bread.” Hitler’s address delivered at the First Congress of German Workers on May 10, 1933, in Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922–August 1939, vol. I (New York, 1969), p. 862. See also Jetzinger, Hitler’s Youth, 131–32; Reinhold Hanisch, “I Was Hitler’s Buddy,” New Republic, April 5, 12, 19, 1939, pp. 193–99, 270–72, 297–300.

found on the library shelves: Hamann, Hitlers Wien, pp. 285–88.

more than a modicum of comfort: Jetzinger, Hitler’s Youth, pp. 132–42.

to be consoled by Hanisch: Hanisch, “I Was Hitler’s Buddy”; Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 69.

a fin de siècle cultural flowering: See Carl Schorske, Fin-de-Siècle Vienna (New York, 1979).

“to help . . . eliminate Jewry”: Quoted in Hamann, Hitlers Wien. For her treatment of Schönerer and Lueger, see p. 337 ff.

the country’s political lexicon: Ibid., p. 334.

“must not become greater Jerusalem”: Lueger quoted in Volker Ullrich, Hitler’s Ascent, 1889–1939 (New York, 2016), p. 44.

“Down with the Terrorism of Jewry”: Ibid., p. 490.

“the entire Marxist worldview”: Kubizek, The Young Hitler I Knew (New York: 2011); Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 37–51.

planned a trip to Munich together: Hanisch, “I Was Hitler’s Buddy,” p. 271.

“but which never left me”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 125.

“for primarily political reasons”: Ernst Günther Schenck, Patient Hitler. Eine medizinische biographie (Düsseldorf, 1989), p. 163.

“by far the most contented of my life”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 126.

physically unfit for military service: Schenck, Patient Hitler, p. 297.

“the good fortune of being permitted to live at this time”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 161.

singlehandedly capturing seven French soldiers: Hitler related the story to American correspondent H. R. Knickerbocker. See Knickerbocker’s Is Tomorrow Hitler’s? (New York, 1941), pp. 31–32. For the many embellishments and outright fabrications of Hitler’s war record in Nazi propaganda, see Thomas Weber, Hitler’s First War, pp. 272–77.

“weakness and narrow-mindedness”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 192–93.

the vicious accusations from the right continued unabated: For details, see Werner T. Angress, “The German Army’s ‘Jüdenzählung’ of 1916-Genesis-Consequences-Significance,” Leo Baeck Yearbook 23 (1978), pp. 117–38.

revolution would engulf the country: Hans Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy (Chapel Hill, 1996), pp. 15–19.

“and shirkers were losing the war”: Ernst Schmidt, Hitler’s closest comrade among the messengers, quoted in John Toland, Adolf Hitler (New York, 1976), p. 70.

“goes on strike against it”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 195.

“than the biggest cannon of the enemy”: Hans Mend, quoted in Alan Bullock, Hitler (New York, 1953), p. 53.

“internationalism will be broken up”: Letter to Josh Popp, his Munich landlord, cited in Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 62.

“damned the war to hell”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 84.

a morbid fear of syphilis: He would return time and again in speeches, private conversations, and in the pages of Mein Kampf to the scourge of prostitution and syphilis, which he attributed to the Jews. Mein Kampf, pp. 246–56.

“not the time for it”: Ibid., p. 160. His sergeant, Max Amann, who would later become Hitler’s business manager and editor, confirmed that Hitler rarely discussed politics during the war.

a pathological obsession by war’s end: See the recollections of Hans Mend from Hitler’s regiment, in Rudolf Olden, Hitler the Pawn (London, 1936), pp. 70–71.

“without spitefulness”: Ignaz Westenkirchner, quoted in Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 66.

“hatred of Jews dated back to that time”: Fritz Wiedemann, Der Mann, der Feldherr werden wollte (Velbert/Kettig, 1964), pp. 33–34.

“his mental instability”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 84.

lacked “the capacity for leadership”: Wiedemann, quoted in Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 67.

“psychopath suffering from hysteria”Thomas Weber, pp. 220–21.

“the shame of indignation”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 250.

“in the world of war he felt at home”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 78.

“for the time being regular pay”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 206.

Chapter 2: Hitler and the Chaos of Postwar Germany

four times the size of the regular army: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 38–42.

Bolshevik terror and counterrevolutionary suppression: Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (New York, 2004), p. 160.

a task he performed with his usual zeal: Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 207–8.

The courses . . . included such offerings: Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris, vol. I (New York, 1998), pp. 121–23.

“immense importance for the future of the German people”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 213.

“a natural orator in your group?”: The instructor was Karl Alexander von Müller, the archconservative historian who later joined the NSDAP. See Müller, Mars und Venus. Erinnerungen, 1914–1919 (Stuttgart, 1954), p. 339, quoted in David Clay Large, Where Ghosts Walked (New York, 1997), p. 128.

“I could ‘speak’ ”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 215.

“and makes them think his way”: Joachim Remak, The Nazi Years (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969), p. 25.

tone down his anti-Semitic rhetoric: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, p. 12.

“removal of the Jews in general”: Hitler’s letter is reproduced in Eberhard Jäckel, ed., Hitler. Sämtliche Aufzeichnungen, 1905–1924 (Stuttgart, 1980), pp. 88–90.

Hitler left underwhelmed: Georg Franz-Willig, Die Hitlerbewegung. Der Ursprung 1919–1922, second edition (Hamburg, 1962), pp. 66–67. Drexler’s account of that meeting and his impressions of Hitler are also found in Jeremy Noakes and Geoffry Pridham, eds., Nazism 1919–1945, vol. I: The Rise to Power (Exeter, UK, 1983), p. 11.

at which Hitler spoke again: Franz-Willig, Die Hitlerbewegung, p. 71.

a new government had to be formed: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 72–74.

The Versailles Treaty and its impact on the fledgling Weimar Republic: Ibid., pp. 87–91.

It was, Hitler charged: Ibid. Such attacks on the hated peace treaty were staples of Hitler’s rhetoric throughout his career.

He had stolen the show: Franz-Willig, Die Hitlerbewegung, pp. 73–74.

“the voice of the people were speaking”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, pp. 105–10.

“only to religious conversion”: Kurt Ludecke, I Knew Hitler (New York, 1937), p. 268.

the “Twenty-five Points”: The Twenty-five Points and the DAP’s original program can be found in Anson Rabinbach and Sander Gilman, eds., The Third Reich Source Book (Berkeley, 2013), pp. 5–6, 12–14.

unrelenting anti-Semitism: Franz-Willig, Die Hitlerbewegung, p. 83.

“There can only be the hard ‘either—or’ ”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 203.

cut from the same cloth as Hitler: Franz-Willig, Die Hitlerbewegung, pp. 67–68.

Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A highly successful forgery, published in pamphlet form in Russia in 1903, claiming the existence of a Jewish conspiracy to ensure world domination. It was widely circulated in Europe before the war and enthusiastically seized upon by German far-right, anti-Semitic circles. By 1921 it was fully exposed as a fraud, though this discovery had little effect on its lingering popularity across Europe. See Benjamin Segel and Richard S. Levy, A Lie and a Libel: The History of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Lincoln, NE, 1995); and Esther Webman, The Global Impact of “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion” (London, 2011).

but because it was revolutionary: Göring, Hanfstaengl recalled, was “not the intellectual type.” In those early postwar years, he was “a complete condottiere, the pure soldier of fortune.” Ernst Hanfstaengl, Hitler: The Memoir of a Nazi Insider Who Turned Against the Führer (New York, 1957), pp. 71–72.

“the orderly life of your respectable burgher”: Ernst Röhm, Die Geschichte eines Hochverräters, quoted in Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 98.

German nationalist and racist: Chamberlain was the author of The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, a pseudo-intellectual work first published in Germany in 1899 that provided a racist, nationalist interpretation of Germany’s past. It was greatly admired by anti-Semites everywhere. Among its many enthusiasts was Adolf Hitler.

seen in a dinner jacket and white tie: Hanfstaengl, Hitler, pp. 42–43.

notably absent: Henry Ashby Turner, Jr., German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler (Oxford, NY, 1985), pp. 47–60.

from anti-Marxist groups abroad: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 188–91.

were collected in celebration of Hitler’s birthday: Borsig soon soured on Hitler after reading the Nazi program and refused to offer further financial support. Thyssen’s contributions were made not directly to the NSDAP but to Ludendorff, who dispensed the funds to different counterrevolutionary groups, including the Nazis. Turner, German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, p. 60.

executing many and murdering others: James Diehl, Paramilitary Politics in the Weimar Republic (Bloomington, IN, 1977), pp. 29–30.

were committed by leftists: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 110.

“when murder could be had for small change”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 113.

the schedule of installments: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 112–13.

“madness, nightmare, desperation and chaos”: Fritz Ringer, ed., The German Inflation of 1923 (London, 1969), p. 144. See also Gerald D. Feldman, The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 1914–1924 (Oxford, NY, 1997); and Carl-Ludwig Holtfrerich, Die Deutsche Inflation 1914–1923 (Berlin, 1980).

“the death of money”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 126.

flock to hear him speak: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 196–98; Large, Where Ghosts Walked, pp. 168–72.

coup swept throughout Munich: Diehl, Paramilitary Politics in the Weimar Republic, p. 143; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, p. 191.

the party had to act: Harold J. Gordon, Jr., Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch, (Princeton, 1962), pp. 241–42.

no time for unilateral moves: Ibid., pp. 246–56.

Kahr’s hand would have to be forced: Ibid., pp. 258–59.

“a revolution by sheer bluff”: Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York, 1953), p. 85.

“with all his medals clinking”: Hanfstaengl, Hitler, p. 97.

training it directly on the audience: David Clay Large, Where Ghosts Walked: Munich’s Road to the Third Reich (New York, 1997), p. 176

“This hall is surrounded”: Adolf Hitler quoted in ibid., p. 177.

“Charlie Chaplin and a headwaiter”: Quoted in ibid., p. 177.

no laughing matter: Otto Gritschneder, Bewährungsfrist für den Terroristen Adolf H. Der Hitler Putsch und die bayerische Justiz (Munich, 1990), p. 14, quoted in Large, Where Ghosts Walked, p. 177.

“cannot now be undone”: Hitler quoted in Gordon, Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch, p. 286.

“every province in Germany”: Hitler, quoted in Large, Where Ghosts Walked, p. 178.

boisterous cries of “Yes, yes!”: Müller, Im Wandel der Zeit, pp. 162–63, quoted in Gordon, Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch, pp. 287–88.

“ditch of some obscure country lane”: Hanfstaengl, Hitler, p. 104.

almost all were armed: Large, Where Ghosts Walked, pp. 185–86.

“for she acquits us”: Hitler’s closing statement in Der Hitler Prozess 1924 Wortlaut der Hauptverhandlung vor dem Volksgericht München I, Teil 4: 19–25. Verhandlungstag, Lothard Grunchmann and Reinhard Weber, eds., p. 159; English translation in Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 206.

“impossible to keep Hitler from talking”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 189.

“an excellent joke for All Fools Day”New York Times, April 1, 1924.

“the Law for the Protection of the Republic”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 188–93.

Chapter 3: On the Fringe, 1925–28

“all the stuff started in there”: Hanfstaengl, Hitler, p. 114.

“made even the smallest disturbance”: H. Kallenbach, Mit Adolf Hitler auf Festung Landsberg (Munich, 1933), quoted in Werner Maser, Hitler’s Mein Kampf (London, 1970), 22–23.

“sat around him like schoolboys”: O. Lurker, Hitler hinter Festungsmauern (Berlin, 1933), quoted in Maser, p. 23.

a shorter, pithier title: Mein Kampf (My Struggle): Maser, Hitler’s Mein Kampf, p. 26.

Rosenberg was in no danger: Wolfgang Horn, Der Marsch zur Machtergreifung; Ian Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I,

to the stabilization crisis of 1924: For details, see Thomas Childers, “Inflation, Stabilization, and Political Realignment in Germany, 1924–1928,” in Gerald D. Feldman et al., eds., Die Deutsche inflation (Berlin, 1982); and Feldman, The Great Disorder, pp. 754–802.

loomed over the negotiations: Feldman, The Great Disorder, p. 821ff.

cooperated and accepted the report: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 172–73.

by the vindictive Allied governments: See J. W. Reichert, ed., Helferrichs Reichstagsreden 1922–1924, pp. 323–24; for the Communist reaction, Die Rote Fahne, March 22, 1924.

all the enemies of the Republic: Childers, “Inflation, Stabilization, and Political Realignment in Germany, 1920–1928,” pp. 409–43.

in the original classical Greek: Peter D. Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983), pp. 30–31.

burgeoning regional stature: Ibid.

“for or against the Jews”: “Aus dem Schulbuch der Marxisten,” Völkisch coalition leaflet, 1924, Bundesarchiv (BA) ZSg. I, 45/13, and “Zu den Stadtverordnetenwahl,” Völkisch leaflet, 1924, BA, ZSg. I, 45/14.

onset of the Great Depression in 1929: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, pp. 30–31.

manage events from the confines of prison: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 228–29.

the rudderless party to disintegrate: Heiden, Der Fuerher, p. 251.

“the country of his birth”New York Times, December 20, 1924.

stormed out of the meeting: Horn, p. 165ff.

“allied with or supportive of them”Völkischer Beobachter, February 26, 1925.

“world pestilence and scourge, the Jew”: Adolf Hitler, Reden, Schriften, Anordnungen, vol. I, pp. 14ff, 28.

collapse of German democracy: Wolfgang Horn, Der Marsch zur Machtergreifung (Düsseldorf, 1980), pp. 216–18; see also Peter Fritzsche, Rehearsals for Fascism (New York and Oxford, 1990).

owing allegiance to him personally: Diehl, Paramilitary Politics in the Weimar Republic, pp. 158–60; Peter Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone (Munich, 1989), pp. 39–40.

an instrument for political agitationHitler. RSA, vol. 2, p. 9.

never offered a response of any kind to his old comrade: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 48–52.

“from your personal friendship”: See Ernst Röhm, Die Memoiren des Stabschef Röhm (Saarbrücken, 1934), p. 160.

“those worms around him”: Kurt Ludecke, I Knew Hitler (New York, 1937), p. 287.

the vast majority in the north: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, p. 41.

“move an audience by his very personality”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 285.

most visible Nazi leader in the country: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, p. 270.

rather than a follower: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, p. 38.

“to bring about the national revolution”: Strasser’s Reichstag speech, November 25, 1925, quoted in ibid., p. 42.

“thus national suicide”: February 14, 1926, Hitler. RSA, vol. I, pp. 294–95.

“to see you in this company”: Joseph Goebbels, Tagebücher 1924–25, I/II, February 14, 1926, p. 55.

been so wrong about Hitler: Horn, Der Marsch zur Machtergreifung, p. 241.

firmly under Hitler’s control: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. I, pp. 55–56.

“the greater man, the political genius”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, I/II, April 13, 1926, p. 73.

executing the party’s campaign directives: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, pp. 68–73.

“and after that Germany”: Ludecke, I Knew Hitler, pp. 234–35.

“repeat them over and over”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 179–84.

so too should the National Socialists: Ibid., p. 230.

the Propaganda Leadership in Munich: NS Rundschreiben, March 20, 1926, HA/70/1529.

assault on the surrounding countryside: Joseph Goebbels, “Neue Methoden der Propaganda,” Nationalsozialistische Briefe, August 15, 1926.

propaganda and campaign strategy: Dietrich Orlow, The History of the Nazi Party (Pittsburgh, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 112–26.

forms of agitational activity: “Propaganda,” Munich 1927, BA/NS12/40.

a rough form of local entertainment: E. Stark, Moderne Politische Propaganda, Propagandaschriften der NSDAP, Heft 1, BA, NSD 12/1. For the impact of such Nazi activities at the local level, see William Sheridan Allen, The Nazi Seizure of Power (Chicago, 1965).

not so out of bounds after all: See Rudy Koshar, Social Life, Local Politics, and Nazism: Marburg, 1880–1935 (Chapel Hill, 1986).

grandiosity in Nuremberg: See Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml, and Hermann Weiss, eds., Enzyklopädie des National Sozialismus, expanded edition (Munich, 2007), p. 445.

nothing to discourage it: Hanfstaengl, Hitler, pp. 131–32.

“the symbol of a great mission”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 3.

“the heart of a people”: Ibid., pp. 106–7.

required to subscribe: Memorandum of May 7, 1928, to “alle Gau und selbstständige Ortsgruppen der NSDAP,” HA/24A/1758; Oran Hale, The Captive Press in the Third Reich, pp. 40–42.

The first national election since 1924: See Gerhard Paul, Aufstand der Bilder. Die NS-Propaganda vor 1933, Bonn, 1990, pp. 61–69.

“the revolution is fine by us”: J. Goebbels, “Why Do We Want to Join the Reichstag?,” Der Angriff, April 30, 1928.

but right-of-center DVP: See Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 217–67.

ideological framework of National Socialism: Childers, “Interest and Ideology. Anti-System Politics in the Era of Stabilization, 1924–1928,” in Gerald D. Feldman, ed., Die Nachwirkungen der Inflation auf die deutsche Geschichte, 1921–1933 (Munich, 1985), pp. 1–20.

searching for political alternatives: Childers, “Inflation, Stabilization, and Political Realignment in Germany, 1920–1928,” pp. 409–43.

“the course of political events”: BA, R 43, Vol. 528.

Chapter 4: Into the Mainstream

“disappear and are forgotten”Völkischer Beobachter, May 31, 1928.

need for a shift in emphasis: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, pp. 64–68.

rural landowning population: Thomas Childers, The Nazi Voter (Chapel Hill, 1983), pp. 127–28.

promising foundation on which to build: Ibid.

fallow periods between elections: Ibid.

against the proposed settlement: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 278–82.

occupied center stage throughout: “Wahlaufruf der NSDAP,” Reichstags-Handbuch, V. Wahlperiode, Berlin, 1930; Gottfried Feder, “Betrachtungen zum Youngplan,” Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte, (NSHF), Heft 6, September 1930, pp. 249–56; “Das Dritte Versailles, leaflet of the Reichausschuss für das Deutsche Volksbegehren,” BA, ZSg. 1, 83/2; “Sklaverei Bedeutet der Pariser Tributplan,” BA, ZSg. I, 83/4.

“so-called better classes are seen”: Police Report to the Hanoverian Interior Minister, quoted in Childers, The Nazi Voter (Chapel Hill, 1983), p. 130.

majority government of the Weimar era: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, p. 282.

for the approaching battle: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 135–38.

the party’s campaign directives: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism (London, 1983); and Paul, Aufstand der Bilder (Bonn, 1990), pp. 64–68.

“a man who burns like a flame”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 289.

had reached the boiling point: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, p. 61.

“but lets things happen”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, March 16, 1930.

“Forever putting things off!”: Ibid., June 29, 1930.

had resolved itself: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, pp. 165–71.

“country with propaganda material”: Nazi Propaganda circular of August 5, 1930, NSDAP Hauptarchiv (HA), 701/1529.

coordinating the party’s propaganda activities: Goebbels, Tagebücher, March 18, 1932.

“parties of enslaving capitalism”: Paul, Aufstand der Bilder, pp. 95–99.

closely monitored and coordinated: RPL circular of July 4, 1932, Nationalsozialistisches Hauptarchiv (NSDAP HA)/15/289; RPL circular of April 2,1932, NSDAP HA/15286.

serve the party well in the following campaigns: Childers, The Nazi Voter, p. 138.

“to expedite the death of this system”: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, p. 76.

“these miserable Twenty-Five Points”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 410.

“have never seen before”: Paul, Aufstand der Bilder, pp. 91, 283.

he didn’t trust Stennes: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 24, 1930.

“Stennes is a traitor”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 30 and September 1, 1930.

their fighting spirit essential: Ibid., September 1, 1930.

ready to erupt again at any moment: Ralf Georg Reuth, Goebbels (San Diego, 1993), pp. 118–19.

“judgment day for the Young parties”: Childers, The Nazi Voter, p. 317.

“joy and fighting spirit”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, September 15, 1930, p. 239.

“the pestilence of Jewish department stores”: Hans Buchner, “Die sozialkapitalistischen Konsumvereine,” Nationalsozialistische Bibliothek (1929), pp. 42–59; also Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 151–52; and “Gewerbetreibende, Handwerker,” Der Angriff, May 7, 1928.

the Nazis claimed, had been fulfilled: “An den deutschen Bauern,” Der Angriff, May 7, 1928; “Bauern!,” NS leaflet, Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv (BHStA), Abt. V, F 9.

less class bound, more dangerous: The consensus in the recent literature is reflected in Childers, The Nazi Voter; Richard Hamilton, Who Voted for Hitler? (Princeton, 1982); and Jürgen Falter, Hitlers Wähler (Munich, 1991).

yielded the same desolate view: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 180–81.

“hunger, misery, and slavery”: “Der Youngverrat der Marxisten,” Der Angriff, July 7, 31, 1930.

“tradition of class conflict”: See, for example, “Ein Wort an die KPD-Proleten!” “Bürger und Proletarier,” and “Wo steht die Arbeiter Jugend!,” all in Der Angriff, August 24, 1930; July 21, 1930; and July 3, 1930.

“Jews in the German Fatherland”: Report of the Polizeiverwaltung Bocholt, September 1, 1930, to the Regierungspräsident; also Landrat Lüdinghause an Regierungspräsidenten, August 30, 1930, Staatsarchiv Münster, Nationalsozialismus, VII-67, Bd. 1.

Christianity and the Catholic Church: Klaus Schölder, Die Kirchen und das Dritte Reich, vol. 1 (Frankfurt, 1977), pp. 167–69.

This would prove to be a tall order: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 188–91.

Brüning’s emergency rule: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 357–63.

parliamentary government in Germany: Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, pp. 275–76; Bracher, Auflösung, p. 373.

the story and the official interpretation: Report on Nazi activities in Westphalia, Polizeipräsident Bochum an Regierungspräsidenten, September 11, 1930, Westphalisches Staatsarchiv, Münster, XII-67, Bd. 1. See also Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, 117–18.

into the Valhalla of Nazi heroes: Jay W. Baird, To Die for Germany (Bloomington, IN, 1990), pp. 73–90.

pitch-perfect propaganda for the party: Ibid., pp. 83–84.

There would be no Nazi Putsch: Horn, Der Marsch zur Machtergreifung, pp. 330–34.

“heads will roll”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, pp. 405–6.

“against the sentiments of the SA”: Stennes, quoted in Peter Langerich, Die Braunen Bataillone, p. 110.

party bosses in Munich and their local functionaries: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 102–3, 109–12.

“party has had to go through”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, February 1 and March 31, 1931.

“Supreme Leader of your SA, Adolf Hitler”Hitler. RSA, p. 258.

episode continued to simmer: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 349–50.

“but a band of rough fighters”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 250; Longerich, Die braunen Bataillonen, pp. 109–10, 147–48.

by year’s end, 260,000: See Röhm, Memoiren des Stabschefs Röhm; and Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone.

administering it to the patient: See William L. Patch, Jr., Heinrich Brüning and the Dissolution of the Weimar Republic (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

too little, too late: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 396–97.

they were apt to throw rocks: Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich (New York, 2000), pp. 137–38.

a membership of almost 1.5 million: Martin Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers. Grundlegung und Entwicklung seiner inneren Verfasung (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1971), pp. 49–52. See also Michael Kater, The Nazi Party (Oxford, 1983).

“intensify our propaganda work”Rundschreiben Gau Rheinland, May 9, 1931, Landesarchiv Koblenz, 403/16734.

Goebbels gloated: Goebbels, Tagebücher, December 11, 13, and 14, 1930.

nostalgic yearning, hardly existed: See Erich Weitz, Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy (Princeton, 2009).

“in the Jewish backwash”: Hitler’s views of art, and especially modern art, which he branded as reflections of Jewish-Bolshevist influence, are reflected most vividly in two similar speeches given in March 1933 and at the Nuremberg party rally in September 1934. See Norman H. Baynes, The Speeches of Adolf Hitler: April 1922–August 1938 (Oxford, 1946, reissued in New York, 1968), pp. 568; 569–92.

opportunity for national exposure: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 310–11.

in traditional conservative circles: Ibid., pp. 356–57.

in fact, all private property: Boxheim Documents, Ibid.

“the blood plans of Hessen”Vorwärts, November 26, 1931.

“to take an illegal step”: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 424–25.

this remained a mystery: Turner, German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, pp. 213–14.

leadership of the state: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, p. 342.

seemed one of calculated ambiguity: Ibid., p. 180ff.

Nazi economic thinking: Full text of the Düsseldorf speech in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. 1, pp. 88–114; reactions of the industrialists present in Turner, German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, 210–19; and Bullock, Hitler, pp. 161–63.

especially the DNVP and DVP: Turner, German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, p. 21ff.

loans or direct contributions: Ibid. Local reports on funding in Staatsarchiv, Münster, August 28 and 30, 1930, Landrat Ludwingshausen to Regional President; Police report on NS meeting in Coesfled (1931) to Regional President; Police report on NS Wahlversammlung in Beckum, September 9, 1930; Landrat report on Nazi activities in Ludwighausen, September 10, 1930; “Arbeiter sieht eure Führer,” Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv (BHstA), A, F 11-NS 1930.

Chapter 5: Making Germany Great Again

“We must give it to him”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 30, 1932.

“Hitler is hesitating too long”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, February 20 and 22, 1932.

“End it now!”: Sonderschreiben der RPL an alle Gaue und Gaupropagandaleitungen, February 20, 1932.

“Poor Hindenburg”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, February 3 and 12, 1932.

would evaluate them: Paul, Aufstand der Bilder, pp. 70–79.

No detail was to be ignored: See the RPL communiqué for the fall Reichstag campaign, HA/14/263, and the RPL circulars of March 1, 1932, HA/15/287; July 4, 1932, NSDAP HA/12/288; and June 16, 1932, HA/15/289.

He also carried a revolver: Hanfstaengl, Hitler, p. 176.

well-choreographed appearances: See, for example, descriptions of Hitler’s Deutschlandflug in Paul, Aufstand der Bilder, pp. 204–10, and Hanfstaengl, Hitler, p. 178.

It was time for new leadership: “Wer Hindenburg wählt, wählt Brüning,” NS leaflet, HA/15/287.

“Evening should find us joyful”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, March 13, 1932.

“In that he is great”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, March 14, 1932.

“wagered beyond his means”: Ernst Hanfstaengl, Zwischen Weissem und Braunem Haus (Munich, 1970), pp. 270–71.

“I will lead it”Völkischer Beobachter, March 14, 1932.

to precisely these groups: RPL circular, March 3–23, 1932, HA/16/290.

“for the emergency decrees”: See the “Anordnung für die 2. Wahlgang und die kommende Preussenwahl),” Reg. Münster, Abt. N11, Nr. 67, Bd. 3, Staatsarchiv Münster.

series of leaflets: BA/NSD 13/7.

“to show me wrong”: “Mein Programm,” April 2, 1932; full text in Hitler. RSA, vol. 1, p. 2.

a half million people: Otto Dietrich, Mit Hitler an die Macht. Persönliche Erlebnisse mit meinem Führer (Munich, 1934), pp. 65–70.

“a springboard for the Prussian elections”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, April 11, 1932, p. 259.

“the war of 1914–1918”: Delmer, who was the Berlin correspondent of the London Daily Express, spoke fluent German and in 1932 managed to gain Hitler’s trust. Why Hitler allowed him such close access remained a mystery to Delmer. Sefton Delmer, Trail Sinister, vol. I (London, 1961), p. 153.

varied sorts made the rounds: Almost all of what is known about Hitler’s relationship with Geli is based on speculation and innuendo, especially the testimony Otto Strasser, a bitter enemy of Hitler’s, gave to the OSS in 1943 and in his book, Hitler und ich (Constance, 1948). See also Ronald Hayman, Hitler and Geli (New York, 1998).

well into the Third Reich: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 352–55. See also Heike B. Görtemaker, Eva Braun: Life with Hitler (New York, 2011).

“and you belong to me”Hitler. RSA, pp. 54–56.

“against centralization and godlessness”: RPL circular to Prussian Gauleitungen, April 2, 1932, in HA/15/286; and circular of the Wahlpropagandaleitung Bayern, April 1932, HA/30/576.

a Nazi majority was in sight: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 208–9.

“agrarian Bolshevism”: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 431–33.

put to productive use: Ibid., pp. 428–29.

to be all too true: André François-Poncet, The Fateful Years: Memoirs of a French Ambassador in Berlin, 1931–1938, translation, Howard Fertig (New York, 1972), p. 23.

“We’re all very happy”: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, p. 367; Goebbels, Tagebücher, May 30, 1932.

“the iron roofs of latrines”: Christopher Isherwood, The Berlin Stories (New York, 1935), 2008 edition, p. 86.

“Bloody Sunday” came as a shock: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, p. 442.

“from power once and for all”: Denkschrift der RPL zur Reichstagswahl 1932, June 18, 1932, in HA/15/289.

humiliating international oppression?Hitler. RSA, vol. 8, p. 8.

developed at headquarters: Bernard Köhler, “Arbeitsbeschaffung in Politik und Propaganda,” Unser Wille und Weg, Heft 10 (1932), p. 303.

political plight on target: Michael Geyer, “Reichswehr, NSDAP and the Seizure of Power,” in Peter D. Stachura, ed., The Nazi Machtergreifung (London, 1983), p. 111.

storms of applause: Hitler speech, Eberswalde, July 26, 1932, Hitler. RSA, vol. 8, pp. 274–75.

country’s popular picture press: See “Die Rassenfrage ist der Schüssel zur Weltgeschichte” from the Illustriert Beobachter, December 10, 1932.

“of this Jew Republic”: “Das Heckerlied.” See also Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 121–22; and Eberhard Frommann, Die Lieder der NS-Zeit, Untersuchungen zuer nationalsozialistischen Liederpropaganda von den Anfängen bis zum Zweiten Weltkrieg (Cologne, 1999).

appeared with regularity: BA, NSD, 13/7.

“Jewish religion up to contempt”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 7, 1932, p. 101; and Christian T. Barth, Goebbels und die Juden (Paderborn, 2003), pp. 56–77.

and there is much truth to that: Allen, The Nazi Seizure of Power, p. 71.

“but quickly burns out”: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 267.

“and contradictory currents”: “Der völkischer Block,” NS circular, February 8, 1923, BA, ZSg I, 45/13.

have been posed ten years later: Thomas Childers, “The Middle Classes and National Socialism,” in David Blackbourn and Richard Evans, eds., The German Bourgeoisie: Essays on the Social History of the German Middle Class from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Century(London, 1991), pp. 318–37.

elements of the working class: Falter, Hitlers Wähler, pp. 198–230; Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 243–49.

a work in progress: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 258–61. The Gauleiter’s report of March 15, 1932, is found in BA/NS22/105.

between thirty and forty: Only the Communists could match the NSDAP’s youthful character. See Martin Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers. Grundlegung und Entwicklung seiner inneren Verfassung, second edition, 1971, pp. 49–50.

the League of German Girls: In 1932 the BdM claimed nine thousand members. Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and Nazi Politics (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987), p. 112. See also Michael Kater, Hitler Youth, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), pp. 70–112.

trying to stay afloat: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 224–28.

emancipation from emancipation: Julia Sneeringer, Winning Women’s Votes (Chapel Hill, 2002).

“the spoken or written word”: Hildegard Passow, “Die propagandistische Erfassung und Bearbeitung der Frau,” Unsere Wille und Weg, Heft 5, May 1932; and the guidelines for the organization and work of women’s groups in East Prussia, “Richtlinien für die Organisation und Arbeit der Frauengruppen,” May 1930, Geheime Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz (GStAB), Berlin, XXHA, Rep. 240, B 31.

searching for alternatives: Childers, The Nazi Voter, p. 259ff; Helen Boak, “ ‘Our Last Hope’: Women’s Votes for Hitler—A Reappraisal,” German Studies Review 12 (1989), pp. 289–310.

“Now action!”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 1, 1932.

Chapter 6: The Nazis Hit a Wall

“be a terrible setback”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 8, 1932.

“are carried from office”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, July 6, 1932.

“the purpose of the exercise”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 8, 1932.

“one iron in the fire”: Ibid.

“a grotesque absurdity”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 13, 1932.

“his oath and his conscience”: Full text in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. 3, p. 152.

“has come to naught”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, August 13, 1932.

“ ‘Next time I won’t vote’ ”: Tätigskeitsbericht der RPL, August 1932, BA/55/38; BA, Sammlung Schumacher/382.

violence to unparalleled heights: Richard Bessel, Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism (New Haven, 1984).

“was possible is our duty”: Ibid.

“has no rights at all”: Hitler. RSA, Berlin speech, August 29, 1932.

stumbled off that line: Bessel, Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism, pp. 75–96.

“The elections have no value”: Stimmungsbericht der RPL, BA/NS22/347.

“demand an act of deliverance”: National Archives (NA), Series T-81, Reel 1, frames 11565, Untergruppe Ostholstein, September 24, 1932; and 105001, Untergruppe Baden, September 22, 1932. For a vivid description of the desperate financial situation of many Storm Troopers, see Jeremy Noakes, The Nazi Party in Lower Saxony, 1921–1933 (Oxford, 1971), pp. 182–85.

“debased in this way”: NA-T81, 106209, Gruppe Mitte, Dessau, September 22, 1932; and NA-T81, 105199, Untergruppe München-Oberbayern, September 22, 1932. See also the report of Untergruppe Magdeburg-Anhalt, September 22, 1932, NA-T081, 105212.

“the wavering middle class”: RPL Communiqué, October 27, 1932, HA/14/263.

hardly do to alienate them: “Bemerkungen zur Propaganda für den Reichstagswahlkampf, undated, NA-T-81, 11427–432.

“and that is Hitler and the NSDAP”: RPL Streng vertrauliche Information, No. 11, October 20, 1932, BA 26/263.

“they’d have been lost forever”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, November 2, 1932.

“and that one must therefore vote NSDAP”: RPL Communiqué, October 20, 1932, HA/14/263.

Crowds were smaller: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. 3, pp. 169–74.

“allow them to take it away from us again”Hitler. RSA, speech in Königsberg, October 17, 1932.

“the old momentum”: See Childers, The Nazi Voter, p. 210; For Goebbels’s concern about the party’s flagging energy, see RPL communiqué of October 20, HA/14/263.

“throw into the fray”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, November 1, 1932, Aufzeichnunen, Teil 1, p. 267.

“word of another defeat”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, November 6, 1932, Aufzeichnungen, Teil 1, p. 172.

“We have suffered a blow”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, November 6, 1932.

“the events of that day”Stimmungsbericht, November 1932.

“found an enthusiastic audience”: Stimmungsbericht der RPL, November 1932, BA/NS22/I.

reversal of roles since the spring and summer: Ibid.

“bourgeois masses had to follow”: Ibid.

“our movement will deliver”: Kreisbefehl of November 9, 1932, Heilsberg, Ostpreussen, in Geheime Staatsarchiv, Berlin (GStA)/JA XX/Re/240/C50a-c.

“working class must cease”: Stimmungsbericht der RPL, November 1932, BA/NSA22/1.

than to the National Socialists: Childers, The Nazi Voter, pp. 184–85.

“we find trouble, conflicts, and dissension”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, November 10, 1932.

to the Storm Troopers: Stimmungsbericht der RPL, November 1932, BA, NS 222.

“rather than out of ideological conviction”: Tätigkeitsbericht der RPL, November 1932, BA/NS22.

“urgently demand a revolutionary act”: Report of the Bavarian Staatsministerium, November 9, 1932, HA/24A/1759.

“by no means wavered”: Ibid.

over time was tenuous at best: Goebbels, Tagebücher, April 25, 1932.

“all the consequences this implies”: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, p. 486.

“a house painter in Bismarck’s chair”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 276.

The situation, he lamented, was a disaster: Hans Frank, Im Angesicht des Galgens: Deutung Hitlers und seiner Zeit auf Grund eigener Erlebnisse (Munich, 1953), p. 108.

“not to bring it about”: John Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 280; also Peter Stachura, Gregor Strasser, pp. 288–90.

“leaving Germany for a considerable period”: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, pp. 113–14.

“deserves it, too”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Teil I/Aufzeichnungen, 1924–1941, September 2, 1932, pp. 298–99.

“with a pistol within three minutes”: Ibid., p. 297.

“all our work will have been done for nothing”: Ibid., December 8, 1932, p. 295.

“ ‘Give something to the wicked Nazis!’ ”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 500.

“Now we must act!”: Stimmungsbericht der RPL, November 1932.

“hopes have completely failed”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Teil I/Aufzeichnungen, 2, December 23, 1932, p. 314. Adding to Goebbels’s depression was a serious illness of his wife, Magda. His political and personal worries are tightly interwoven in his diary entries from this period.

Chapter 7: The Impossible Happens

“has been repulsed”: “Ein Jahr deutscher Politik,” Frankfurter Zeitung, January 1, 1933.

country’s industrial and financial elites: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 499–504.

marriage of convenience: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 6, 1933, p. 99; background to the meeting in Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, pp. 511–15.

“Bravo! We can use him”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 6, 1933, p. 99; and Franz von Papen, Memoirs (London, 1952), pp. 225–29.

“committed another blunder”: Turner, Hitler’s Thirty Days to Power, p. 50.

“it can still be victorious”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, March 1, 1933, Teil I/Aufzeichnungen, p. 326.

“most seem convinced”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 10, 1933, p. 103.

“Down with Marxism”: Paul, Aufstand der Bilder, pp. 109–10.

all the countries in Europe: “Adolf Hitlers Neujahrsbotschaft,” December 31, 1932, in Hitler. RSA, vol. 3, p. 297.

“the life of a people is constructed”: Ibid.

“The masses . . . were delirious”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 8, 1933, p. 101.

“did his speech stir interest”Lippische Landeszeitung, quoted in Hitler. RSA, vol. 3, January 12, 1933, p. 352.

beyond suspicion: Anordnung December 14, 1932, Hitler. RSA, vol. 3, pp. 261–65.

“but fanatical apostles”: Denkschrift über die inneren Gründe für die Verfügungen zur Herstellung einer erhöhten Schlagkraft der Bewegung, December 15, 1932, pp. 273–78.

“But he will pay for this”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Aufzeichnungen, January 31 and 14, 1933, p. 325.

“Everything now hangs on Lippe”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16, 1933.

the trouble was far from over: Longerich, Die Braune Bataillone, pp. 163–64; and Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 523.

“it has paid off after all”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 16, 1933, p. 107.

“impaled on the tip of his sword”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, pp. 523–25; Jutta Ciolek-Kümper, Wahlkampf in Lippe, Munich, 1976; Berliner Tageblatt as quoted in Turner, Hitler’s Thirty Days to Power, p. 65.

“have slaughtered him”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 17, 1933, p. 108.

“and achieve results”: Stachura, Gregor Strasser and the Rise of Nazism, p. 115.

the meeting ended inconclusively: Kershaw, Hitler: A Biography (New York, 2010), pp. 250–51.

“be eating out of my hand”: Turner, Hitler’s Thirty Days to Power, p. 86.

asunder at a critical juncture: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 163–64; and Conan Fischer, Stormtroopers (London, 1983), p. 210.

have to find ways to economize: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 6, 1933, p. 99.

securing a loan for the party in the United States: Turner, Hitler’s Thirty Days to Power, p. 71.

Papen would be the best alternative: Ibid., pp. 116–17.

he had no intention of naming Hitler chancellor: Ibid., p. 130.

“to the strength of his party”Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 496.

seen him in such a state: Joachim von Ribbentrop, The Ribbentrop Memoirs (London, 1954), pp. 24–26.

produce Hitler at eleven: Ibid., pp. 25–26.

arranged for the following morning: Ibid., pp. 24–26.

minister of the interior in Prussia: Papen, Memoirs, p. 239; and The Ribbentrop Memoirs, p. 25.

“so far into a corner he’ll squeal”: Turner, Hitler’s Thirty Days to Power, p. 147.

“in your underpants to avoid arrest”: Duesterberg, Der Stahlhelm und Hitler (Wolfenbüttel/Hanover, 1949), pp. 38–39.

“the tug of war [for power] begins”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 29, 1933, p. 118.

“Is Papen honest? Who knows”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Aufzeichnungen, Teil 1, January 30, 1933, p. 355.

a showdown with army troops: Goebbels, TagebücherSämtliche Fragmente. Teil I, Aufzeichnungen, January 30, 1933, pp. 356–57.

“then the great moment will be here”: Ibid.

to suppress an imminent coup d’état: Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy, p. 526.

“establish a military dictatorship”: Toland, Hitler, pp. 288–90.

“may retire at any moment”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 289.

“forward with God!”: Ibid., pp. 290–91; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 421–23; Otto Meissner, Staatssekretär unter Ebert, Hindenburg, und Hitler (Hamburg, 1950), pp. 269–70.

“like a dream, a fairy tale”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, January 31, 1933, p. 120.

“the greatest demagogue in world history”: Larry Eugene Jones, “ ‘The Greatest Stupidity of My Life.’ Alfred Hugenberg and the Formation of the Hitler Cabinet, January 1933,” Journal of Contemporary History, 27 (1992), pp. 63–87.

“burst into a vast clamor”: François-Poncet, The Fateful Years, p. 48.

“Germany has awakened”: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, January 30, 1933, p. 358.

“for what you have done”: Ernst Deuerlein, ed., Der Aufstieg der NSDAP in Augenzeugenberichten (Düsseldorf, 1968), p. 418.

Chapter 8: Seizing Power

“the road to freedom for the German people”: Der Angriff, January 31, 1933.

so little had changed: “Four Die in Reich in Party Clashes,” New York Times, February 2, 1933.

“Government led by National Socialist”New York Times, January 1, 1933.

“. . . Hitler may attempt to undertake”: “Centrists Demand Hitler Make Clear His Cabinet, Policy,” New York Times, February 1, 1933.

“the support of the German people”: Quoted in “Sees Hitler Facing Fall,” New York Times, February 1, 1933.

and big agriculture Alfred Hugenberg: Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 314.

“will now come to Hitler’s followers”: Quoted in New York Times, January 31, 1933.

“not fighting for ourselves but for Germany!”: Full text of Hitler’s address in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, pp. 232–35.

that was no choice at all: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 441–44.

“ ‘legal’ harassment of opposing parties”: Karl Dietrich Bracher, Die nationalsozialistische Machtergreifung, pp. 91–94.

official in the Interior Ministry: Hans Buchheim, Anatomie des SS Staates, vol. I, Munich, 1967, pp. 34–36.

with Nazis and hard-line conservatives: Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, pp. 89–91.

“for following the new course”: Göring’s instructions quoted in Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. I, pp. 219–20.

“before the final election”: Turner, Big Business, p. 330.

“for the next hundred years”: Turner, Big Business, p. 331.

naming him Reich minister of economics: Turner, German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, pp. 329–31.

did not seem at all far-fetched: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, 2, III, entry of February 22, 1933.

Now they were the law: Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, p. 95.

“no other idea shall be expressed through it”: Helmut Heiber, ed., Goebbels Reden, 1971, pp. 87, 89, 106; quoted in Reuth, Goebbels, p. 177.

“our huge demonstrations”: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, 2, I, entry of February 3, 1933, p. 365.

“ ‘stuff shut your lying Jewish mouths’ ”: Goebbels speech, NS Newsreel, February 10, 1933.

“And Germany will triumph”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, pp. 244–50.

“the real balance of power”: Viktor Klemperer, I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1933–1941 (New York: Random House, 1998), p. 4.

imminent Communist uprising: Bracher, Die nationalsozialistische Machtergreifung, pp. 123–24.

“with an iron fist!”: Delmer, Trail Sinister, pp. 187–88.

“This is a madhouse”: Rudolf Diels, Lucifer ante Portas (Stuttgart, 1950), pp. 192–93.

and fellow travelers were arrested: Ibid.

“beyond the legal limits otherwise proscribed”Akten der Reichskanzlei. Regierung Hitler, 1933–1938, Teil I1933/34 (Boppard, 1983), pp. 132–33.

“we must crush Communism out of existence”: Delmer, Trail Sinister, p. 194.

It remains a plausible case: Benjamin Carter Hett, a historian and attorney, has presented the most recent and strongest case for the Nazis having set the fire, in his Burning the Reichstag (New York, 2014). Writing almost as a prosecutor in a criminal case, Hett argues that the Nazis were, in fact, the arsonists.

“Göring has set everything in motion”: Goebbels, TagebücherI, 2, February 27, 1933, p. 383.

their own feverish fantasies: See Fritz Tobias, The Reichstag Fire (New York, 1964); and Hans Mommsen, “Van der Lubbe und sein Weg in den Reichstag—der Ablauf der Ereignisse,” in Uwe Beck et al., eds., Reichstagsbrand. Aufklärung einer historischen Legend (Munich/Zurich, 1986), pp. 33–57.

show trial of the first order: Bracher, Machtergreifung, pp. 123–24.

beheaded in January 1934: Werner Maser, Hermann Göring. Hitlers janusköpftiger Paladin. Die politische Biographie (Berlin, 2000), p. 168. Here Maser draws on Die neue Weltbühne, Nr. 28, July 13 1933, p. 863.

no matter how insignificant, to the regime: Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, p. 103.

murdered in a forest near Berlin: Diels, Lucifer ante Portas, p. 304.

“one day they were just there”: Ibid., p. 257.

“everyone trembles, keeps out of sight”: Klemperer, I Will Bear Witness, vol. II, diary entries of March 10 and 17, 1933, pp. 6–7.

to cast their ballots publicly: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, pp. 562–63.

“Everything else sinks to insignificance”: Goebbels, Tagebücher2/III, March 6, 1933, p. 140.

“the united will of the National Socialists”: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 564.

throwing a single master switch: Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 381.

a growing source of concern: Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, pp. 144–50; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 469–70.

“acting consciously against the regime”: Hitler’s remarks, March 10, 1933, Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 263.

had read him correctly: Diels, Lucifer ante Portas, p. 269.

“the more powerful of the two personages”: François-Poncet, The Fateful Years, p. 62.

“old glory and young strength”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 272.

overcrowding in the prisons: Karola Fings, “The Public Face of the Camps,” in Jane Caplan and Nicholaus Wachsmann, eds., Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany (New York, 2010), pp. 110–11.

The first of these installations: On the early camps, see Robert Gellately, Backing Hitler (Oxford, 2001), pp. 51–53; and Fings, “The Public Face of the Camps,” in Caplan and Wachsmann, eds., Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, pp. 114–15.

relations with the Vatican: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 283.

“in and of itself, limited”: Ibid., p. 285.

on an almost daily basis: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, p. 170.

was intended to go on indefinitely: “Boycott Manifesto Includes 11 Orders,” New York Times, May 29, 1933.

“declaration of economic warfare” against Germany: See Goebbels’s diary notes on the boycott from March 26 to April 2, 1933, Goebbels, Tagebücher, I, 2, pp. 398–401.

“enemies of the people and cunning slanderers”Völkischer Beobachter, quoted in Saul Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I: The Years of Persecution, 1933–1939 (New York, 1997), p. 22.

was classified a Jew: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 27–28.

beleaguered Jewish community: Ibid., pp. 29–30.

“opposition of the November system”: Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, p. 209.

“completely in our hands”: Notes from March 24, 1933, Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, 2, I, p. 397.

on into the night: Hitler’s remarks in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, pp. 311–16.

“won’t be able to hold out for long”: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen I, 2, entry of April 17, p. 408.

the number had doubled: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 462–63.

in short, was to be a Nazi church: See Doris L. Bergen, Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich (Chapel Hill, 1996); Victoria Barnett, For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest Against Hitler (Oxford, 1992). See also J. S. Conway, The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933–1945 (London, 1968). For a useful summary, see Richard Steigmann Gall, “Religion and the Churches,” in Jane Caplan, ed., Nazi Germany (Oxford, 2008), pp. 146–67.

It was July 14, Bastille Day: See Klaus Scholder, Die Kirchen und das Dritte Reich, vol. I (Frankfurt a.M., 1977), pp. 482–525.

Chapter 9: Consolidation of Power

“if it must be!”: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 178–81.

joined since the March 5 election: Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, pp. 252–53.

“blood week of Köpernick”: Richard Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 360.

“had never witnessed such horror”: Diels, Lucifer ante Portas, pp. 254–55.

“understands nothing about business”: Hans-Adolf Jacobsen and Werner Jochmann, eds., Ausgewählte Dokumente zur Geschichtge des Nationalsozialismus, 1933–1945 (Bielefeld, 1961), p. 2.

“lies in the foreign press”: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 182–83.

in Prussia sharply reduced: Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, pp. 260.

“as the Führer wishes”: Jeremy Noakes and Geoffry Pridham, eds., Nazism 1919–1945, vol. 2, State, Economy and Society, 1933–1939 (Exeter, 1984), p. 529.

to be snooping around for atrocity stories: Karl Dietrich Bracher, Die nationalsozialistische Machtergreifung (Frankfurt, 1962), pp. 190–202.

confusion streaming behind him: Ibid.

came in February and March 1933. See Beatrice and Helmut Heiber, eds., Die Rückseite des Hakenkreuzes. Absonderliches aus den Akten des “Dritten Reiches” (Munich, 1993), pp. 123, 125–26.

and the public was impressed: Adam Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 42–47.

“with equal thoroughness”: Baynes, The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. II, pp. 1049–53.

“while maintaining its honor”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 365.

“the hiss of a traveling bullet”: Ibid., p. 392.

“so why be a martyr?”: Klemperer, I Will Bear Witness, vol. I, diary entries of November 2 and November 11, pp. 40–41.

“Nazifying society was progressing”: New Beginning was an organization of the Socialist left that had sought to bring about a common front between the KPD and SPD in the last years of the Weimar Republic. It maintained a network of cells that submitted monthly reports on life in the Third Reich from 1933 to 1936. Those reports are collected in Bernd Stöver, ed., Berichte über die Lage in Deutschland. Die Meldungen der Gruppe Neu Beginnen aus dem Dritten Reich, 1933–1936 (Bonn, 1996), p. 2.

elements of the working class: New Beginning’s Report for February 1934, in ibid., p. 51.

his successor follow his footsteps: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands, 1934–1940, Erster Jahrgang 1934 (Frankfurt a. M., 1989), pp. 54–55. Between 1934 and 1940 the Socialist underground organization smuggled reports on life inside Nazi Germany to the SPD’s exiled leadership in Prague and later Paris. The reports from all around Germany blended insightful, hardheaded realism with a generous admixture of wishful thinking. These valuable reports are collected in four volumes under the title Deutschland-Berichte der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands, 1934–1940.

refrain in local political discourse: Ian Kershaw, The “Hitler Myth: Image and Reality in the Third Reich (New York, 1987), pp. 83–86.

“until our final goal is reached”: Meissner, Staatssekretär unter Ebert, Hindenburg, und Hitler (Hamburg, 1950), p. 363.

“They’ll never have a new idea”: Klaus P. Fischer, Nazi Germany: A New History (New York, 1995), pp. 285–86; Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers, pp. 251–52.

broke into stormy applause: Papen’s remarks are found in Joachim Päzold, Franz von Papenein deutsches Verhängnis (Munich, 1995), pp. 208–18.

open to a change of government: Delmer, Trail Sinister, p. 233.

“the slightest attempt at sabotage”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, pp. 463–64; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, p. 510.

sternly reinforced that position: See Sefton Delmer, Trail Sinister, pp. 233–34; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 510–11.

to carry out the operation: Longerich, Die braunen Bataillone, pp. 194–95.

“revolutionary agitation from below”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. 1 January 25, 1934, p. 466.

“has put his own head in a noose”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 466.

on that long murderous night: Ibid., p. 469ff.

no idea that anything unusual was taking place: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 345.

It was not safe in the capital today: Ibid., p. 341; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 515.

he could only mutter“crazy”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 340.

“circles of pretentious characters”: This account was the first to be issued by the Nazis on the events of June 30. Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 473.

“My Führer, my Führer”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 345.

made retroactively legal: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 481.

“having to overcome a difficult crisis”: Ibid., p. 500.

“makes itself guilty”: Ibid., p. 501.

“it is itself supreme justice”: Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience (New York, 1988), p. 98. For a full exposition of Schmitt’s defense of Hitler’s actions, see Schmitt’s “Der Führer schützt das Recht”: zur Reichstagsrede Adolf Hitlers von 13. Juli 1934, translated in Rabinbach and Gilman, eds., The Third Reich Source Book, pp. 63–67.

“extremely unfavorable response”: See, for example, the police report for July 1934 on the negative reaction of the population in Catholic Münster, Joachim Kuropka, Meldungen aus Münster 1924–1944 (Münster, 1992), p. 151.

A similar telegram went to Göring: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 480. Hindenburg was no doubt enormously relieved to see the SA throttled, but the laudatory text of the telegram, some believe, was composed by an aide.

“the traitors and mutineers”: Blomberg quoted in Kershaw, Hitler, vol. 2, p. 512.

lost 40 percent of its troops: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, p. 517.

“a brave soldier for this oath”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 509.

Chapter 10: The People’s Community

“become the source of artistic intuition”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, pp. 13–14, 279.

“a revival and resurrection of German art”: Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. I, p. 569.

four thousand works had been banned in that year alone: Richard Evans, The Third Reich in Power, pp. 158–59.

Mozart’s Italian librettist was of Jewish origin: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 133–34.

DancersGerman Modern Dance and the Third Reich (New York, 2003).

Inspired by the Nazis: For treatments of Weimar’s challenge to traditional values, see Eric D. Weitz, Weimar Germany: Promises and Tragedy (Princeton, 2007); Peter Gay, Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider (New York, 1968); Walter Laqueur, Weimar: A Cultural History (New York, 1974); John Willett, Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New Sobriety, 1917–1933(New York, 1978); and Lilian Karina and Marion Kant, Tanz unter dem Hakenkreuz. Eine Dokumentation (Berlin, 1999), pp. 122–44, Fritz Böhme quote, p. 135.

mounted in sixteen different cities: Frederic Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics (London, 2002), p. 153ff.

seized seventeen thousand pieces of forbidden art: Jonathan Petropoulos, Art as Politics in the Third Reich (Chapel Hill, 1994), pp. 55–56.

architects, Paul Ludwig Troost and Albert Speer: Eric Michand, The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany (Palo Alto, 2004), pp. 110–11.

“hard-earned money and displayed as art”: Fritz Kaiser, Führer durch die Ausstellung Enartete Kunst, in Joseph Wulf, ed., Die Bildenden Künste im Dritten Reich, pp. 358–60.

a freak show: Jonathan Petropoulos, Art as Politics in the Third Reich, pp. 51–58; Frederic Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics, pp. 152–54.

“their last opportunity to see modern art”New York Times, August 6, 1937.

“the ever-open jaws of the perpetrators of these atrocities”: Karl Heinz Schmeer, Die Regie des öffentlichen Lebens im Dritten Reich (Munich, 1956), p. 109.

performed a service for the Reich: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, vol. 4, November 5, 1937, p. 392.

bound for extinction is impossible to knowFrankfurter Zeitung, February 27, 1938, in Wulf, Die bildenden Künste im Dritten Reich, p. 364.

burned in the courtyard of a Berlin fire station: Petropoulos, Art as Politics in the Third Reich, pp. 51–58.

“big-city night clubs and international bordellos”Der SA-Mann, September 18, 1937, quoted in George L. Mosse, Nazi Culture (New York, 1966), pp. 50–52.

“conquer the soul of the nation”: “Erobert die Seele der Nation,” in “Goebbels Spricht.” Reden aus Kampf und Sieg (Oldenburg, 1933), pp. 74–75.

Nazism’s core values: Anselm Faust, “Professoren für die NSDAP. Zum politischen Verhalten der Hochschullehrer 1932/33,” in Manfred Heinemann, Erziehung und Schulung im Dritten Reich, Teil 2. Hochschulen, Erwachsenbildung (Stuttgart, 1980), pp. 31–49.

including eleven Nobel laureates: Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, pp. 422–26.

“it just doesn’t exist anymore”: Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich: A Social History of the Third Reich, 1933–1945 (New York, 1971), p. 309.

encountered problems finding positions: Laqueur, Weimar, p. 257.

assault on “the Weimar system”: Geoffrey J. Giles, “The Rise of the National Socialist Students Association and the Failure of Political Education in the Third Reich,” in Peter D. Stachura, The Shaping of the Nazi State (London, 1978), pp. 160–85. See also Anselm Faust, Der Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Studentenbund: Studenten und Nationalsozialismus in der Weimarer Republik, 2 vols. (Düsseldorf, 1973).

“their thinking in the German spirit”: Anselm Faust, “Die Hochschulen und der ‘undeutsche Geist’: Die Bücherverbrennungen am 10. Mai 1933 und ihre Vorgeschichte,” in Hermann Haarmann, Walter Huder, and Klaus Siebenhaar, eds., “Das war ein Vorspiel nur . . .” Bücherverbrennung Deutschland 1933: Voraussetzungen und Folgen, Berlin and Vienna, 1983, pp. 31–50.

disappeared into the bonfire: Philip Metcalfe, 1933 (New York, 1988), pp. 121–23.

it had come to thisNeuköllner Tageblatt, May 12, 1933, quoted in Albert Wucher, Die Fahne Hoch. Das Ende der Republik und Hitlers Machtübernahme. Ein Dokumentarbericht (Munich, 1963), pp. 210–12; see also Philip Metcalfe’s vivid account in his 1933, pp. 121–24.

the low quality of their educational preparedness: Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 402.

“the schools but the nation as a whole”: Wucher, Die Fahne Hoch, p. 209.

to political reliability tests: Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 399.

more than five million by the close of 1934: Kater, Hitler Youth, p. 19.

“I will create the New Order”: Quoted in David G. Williams, The Hitler Youth, self-published, 2014.

“to die for Germany”: The Jungvolk swearing-in pledge of ten-year-old boys. April 20, 1936, The Hitler Youth. Prelude to War. The History On Nazi indoctrination of youth, see Burleigh and Wippermann, The Racial State, pp. 199–241, and Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, pp. 131–62.

“never be free for the rest of their lives”: Hitler speaking to the Reichstag in December 1938, quoted in H. W. Koch, The Hitler Youth: Origins and Development, 1922–1945 (New York: Cooper Square Press, 1975), p. 127.

activities cut into study time: Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, pp. 402–6.

teacher and student, priest and parishioner: W. Klosse, Generation im Gleichtritt (Oldenburg, 1964); and Koch, The Hitler Youth, pp. 127–30.

“the loss of parental rights and personal freedom”: Sopade, Deutschland-Bericht, December 1938, pp. 1400–1401.

“began to envy the childless”: Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 237.

League of German Girls (BdM): See Michael Kater, The Nazi PartyA Social Profile of Members and Leaders (Oxford, 1989), and his Hitler Youth (Cambridge, MA, 2006).

young women became pregnant: New Beginning’s monthly report for June/July 1934, in Stöver, ed., Berichte über die Lage in Deutschland, p. 209.

“Baldur, squeeze me”: Kater, Hitler Youth, pp. 73–85; Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 356ff.

“that the man’s world can be formed and can grow”: Hitler speech, September 8, 1934, in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 532.

an official national holiday: See Karen Hausen, “Mother’s Day in the Weimar Republic,” in Renate Bridenthal, Atina Grossmann, and Marion Kaplan, eds., When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany (New York, 1984), pp. 131–33; also Irmgard Weyrather, Muttertag und Mutterkreuz. Der Kult um die “deutsche Mutter” im Nationalsozialismus (Frankfurt am.M., 1993).

removed from higher administrative posts in education: Ute Frevert, Women in German History: From Bourgeois Emancipation to Sexual Liberation (New York, 1989), p. 219.

policy toward women and the family: Ibid., pp. 217–18; and Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland, pp. 177–83. See also Jill Stephenson, Women in Nazi Germany (London, 2001), and her earlier The Nazi Organization of Women (London, 1981). The most succinct treatment of Nazi women’s organizations can be found in Stephenson, “The Nazi Organization of Women 1933–1939,” in Peter Stachura, ed., The Shaping of the Nazi State (London, 1978), pp. 186–209.

“the woman stands up for the family”: Mosse, Nazi Culture, pp. 39–40.

“is a comrade, a fellow combatant”: Hanns Anderlahn, Gegner erkannt! Kampferlebnisse der SA (Munich, 1937), pp. 60–63, quoted in ibid., p. 31.

“more useful than lipstick in promoting health”: Report in the Frankfurter Zeitung, June 1, 1937, quoted in ibid., p. 43.

were working outside the home than in 1933: Frevert, Women in German History, pp. 218–19.

not welcome in Nazi factory gatherings: Report of the Frankfurter Zeitung, August 11, 1933, cited in Mosse, Nazi Culture, p. 45.

until the collapse of the Third Reich: Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland, p. 197.

“every year at the party rally in Nürnberg”: “ ‘Did You Hear the One About Hitler?,’ ” Spiegel Online, August 30, 2006. See also F. K. M. Hillenbrand, Underground Humor in Nazi Germany, 1933–1945 (London: Routledge, 1995); and Rudolph Herzog and Jefferson Chase, Dead Funny: Telling Jokes in Hitler’s Germany (Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, reprint, 2012).

families could not afford: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 148–49.

by 1939 it was one in two: Ibid.

including swimming pools: Shelley Baranowski, Strength Through Joy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 55–56. See also Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich (New York, 1970), pp. 94–95.

beyond the borders of the Third Reich: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 94–95.

availed themselves of KdF trips: Baranowski, Strength Through Joy, pp. 48–50; and Wolfgang König, Volkswagen, Volksempfänger, Volksgemeinschaft, pp. 192–219.

“the German worker whom we show to the world”: Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution, p. 105.

“with a depressing [economic] situation”: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. II, pp. 352–53.

during the Third Reich was made in 1960: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 148–50; also König, Volkswagen, Volksempfänger, Volksgemeinschaft, pp. 151–91.

“there will be no more ‘good days’ in Germany”: Hans-Jochen Gamm, Der Flusterwitz im Dritten Reich. Mündliche Dokumente zur Lage der Deutschen während des Nationalsozialismus (Munich, 1990), p. 57.

“ball with the swastika in a toy shop”: Klemperer, I Will Bear Witness, diary entries for March 22 and March 30, 1933, pp. 9–10.

a new people’s community supported by all: Peter Fritzsche, Life and Death in the Third Reich (Cambridge, MA, 2008), pp. 20–23.

“need only inquire at the local party office”: Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 111.

transcending the now irrelevant boundaries of class: On the political significance of National Socialist Holidays, see Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics, pp. 100–7.

a sea of Storm Troopers and Hitler Youth: Ibid., pp. 65–66.

every year down to the outbreak of the war: Franz Janke, Die braune Gesellschaft. Ein Volk wird Formatiert (Stuttgart, 1997), pp. 370–77; and Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics, pp. 104–6.

class and region had disappeared: Franz Janke, Die braune Gesellschaft, p. 143ff.

the figure had plunged to 500,000: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 47–48. See also Harold James, The German Slump: Politics and Economics, 1924–1936 (Oxford, 1986); and Richard J. Overy, The Nazi Economic Recovery, 1932–1938 (London, 1982).

and relied heavily on such denunciations: Robert Gellately, The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933–1945 (Oxford, 1990). See also his article “The Gestapo and German Society: Political Denunciations in the Gestapo Case Files,” Journal of Modern History, 60 (1988), pp. 654–94.

foundation of the Nazi system of terror: For the early development of the concentration camp system, see Nikolaus Wachsmann, The History of the Nazi Concentration Camps (New York, 2015).

“which twisted and blighted all human relations”: Erik Larson, In the Garden of the Beast (New York, 2011), p. 223.

“watch for the telephone and speak in whispers”: Ibid., p. 236.

was the slogan of one group: Kater, Hitler Youth, p. 137.

“We’re the fighting Navajos”: Petlev Peukert, Die Edelweisspiraten: Protestbewegungen jugendlicher Arbeiter im Dritten Reich. Eine Dokumentation (Cologne, 1985), p. 71; and Evans, The Third Reich in Power, pp. 244–45.

“disintegration of the youth”: Detlev Peukert, Volksgenossen und Gesellschaftsfremde, pp. 173–218, quote from p. 183; and Kater, Hitler Youth, pp. 113–66.

caution when dealing with the Church: See the Gestapo reports and assorted correspondence from the predominantly Catholic area around Münster in Westphalia for 1934–37, in Joachim Kuropka, ed., Meldungen aus Münster 1924–1944 (Münster, 1992), pp. 427–501; also Jeremy Noakes, “The Oldenburg Crucifix Struggle of November 1936,” in Stachura, ed., The Shaping of the Nazi State, pp. 210–33.

a revival of the Nordic “blood soul”: Rosenberg’s The Myth of the Twentieth Century, published in 1930, was a ferocious assault on Christianity, especially the Catholic Church. The book was little read, even within National Socialist circles, and Rosenberg was widely ridiculed by many in the party’s elite, but it represented a clarion call to arms against both Protestantism and Catholicism and was roundly condemned by both. Rosenberg was also perhaps the most vociferous purveyor of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Joachim C. Fest, The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership (Boston: Da Capo, 1999), pp. 163–74. Rosenberg’s Myth provoked Cardinal Clemens von Galen to write a closely argued pamphlet against the book that was widely disseminated in Germany. It was only a small step from there to his open denunciation of the regime’s euthanasia program. Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 451.

it was widely circulated nonetheless: Sopade, Deutschland-Bericht, July 1935, report from Rheinland-Westfalen, pp. 571–72.

“The time for the cross is now over”: Sopade, Deutschland-Bericht, June 1935, report from Southern Bavaria, pp. 674–75.

all across Germany on Palm Sunday, March 21, 1937: Guenter Lewy, The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany (New York, 1964). See Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wippermann, The Racial State, 1933–1945 (Cambridge, UK, 1991), pp. 152–53.

“the premature hymns of the enemies of Christ”: “Mit brennender Sorge,” Rome, 1938.

“but the law of the German people”: Evans, The Third Reich in Power, pp. 244–45.

its oppressive intervention in everyday life: Ian Kershaw, Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich, 1933–1945 (Oxford, 1983), p. 223.

ran into trouble almost immediately: See Richard Steigmann-Gall, “Religion and the Churches, in Caplan, ed., Nazi Germany, pp. 146–67.

liberated by the Americans in spring 1945: Ibid.; and Scholder, Die Kirchen und das Dritte Reich, pp. 701–42.

“I can promise them”Hitler’s Table Talk, from July 11–12, 1941, and February 8, 1942, pp. 6–7, 30.

Nazis closed the Catacombe: Peter Jelavich, Berlin Cabaret (Cambridge, MA, 1993), pp. 236–37.

“You are compromised beyond repair”: Milton Mayer, They Thought They Were Free: The Germans, 1933–45 (Chicago, 1955), pp. 167–72.

“The revolution that we have made”: Helmut Heiber, ed., The Early Goebbels Diaries (London, 1962).

Chapter 11: A Racial Revolution

under different—“Aryan”—management: Heiden, Der Fuehrer, p. 587.

the lower reaches of German society: David Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution (New York, 1966), p. 55.

“died out from blood poisoning”: Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 286–90.

“the total victory of the former”: Ibid., p. 296.

“hence worthy of existence”: Ibid., p. 327.

the first task of National Socialism: Ibid., pp. 325–26.

found among the party’s militants and the SA: Fritzsche, Life and Death in the Third Reich, pp. 90, 105–6.

regional variations existed: Hermann Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich (London, 1992), pp. 97–98.

“confronted with a concrete solution”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, p. 28.

“we’re from Prenzlau”: Fritzsche, Life and Death in the Third Reich, p. 78.

or a legal guardian: Robert E. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 1988), pp. 46–49.

“the use of force is permissible”: Burleigh and Wippermann, The Racial State, p. 137.

the new order of things: Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p. 104.

fall into one of these categories: Fritzsche, Life and Death in the Third Reich, pp. 87–88.

such appeals were successful: Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp. 72–73, 102–4.

“never have been born at all”Hitler’s Table Talk, 1941–1944, entry of August 29, 1942, p. 675. For a partial list of test questions, see Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, pp. 138–39. Convinced that the brilliance of the Führer should be recorded for posterity, Bormann had begun transcribing Hitler’s dinner and luncheon conversations. A Bormann aide unobtrusively took notes, which were then typed out, and read by Bormann to eliminate any possible faux pas or embarrassing comments.

first six months of pregnancy: Giesela Bock, Zwangssterilisation im Nationalsozialismus. Studien zur Rassenpolitik und Frauenpolitik (Opladen, 1986), pp. 230–46; and Burleigh and Wippermann, The Racial State, p. 140.

lead to compulsory sterilization: Fritzsche, Life and Death in the Third Reich, pp. 80–81.

“Hope for as many children as possible”: Claudia Koonz, “Eugenics, Gender, and Ethics in Nazi Germany: The Debate about Involuntary Sterilization, 1933–1936,” in Childers and Caplan, eds., Reevaluating the Third Reich, pp. 70–71.

“preservation of high-grade germ plasma”: Hermann Paull, “Deutsche Rassenhygiene: Ein Gemeinverständliches Gespräch über Vererbungslehre, Eugenik, Familie, Sippe, Rasse und Volkstum,” in C. A. Starke, Erbegesundheitspflege und Wappenkunde, Part II (Berlin 1934), pp. 17–21; and Mosse, ed., Nazi Culture, pp. 35–38.

race, eugenics, and preventive medicine: Michael Kater, Doctors Under Hitler (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), pp. 54–59.

organically grown vegetables and whole wheat bread: See Robert E. Proctor, The Nazi War Against Cancer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

new lifestyle for the Volksgemeinschaft: Hitler’s Table Talk, pp. 114–15, 230–31, 360–61.

awaiting admission were processed: Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p. 65.

offering courses in the subject: Ibid., pp. 79–81.

Aryan, Germanic, and Nordic peoples: See, for example, Dr. H. Meinshausen, Erziehung zum Dritten Reich. Reden und Aufsätze (Berlin, 1934).

“engaged in by the Jews of your acquaintance?”: From Jakob Graf, Familienkunde und Rassenbiologie für Schüler, second edition (Munich 1935), pp. 107–14, 115, quoted in Mosse, Nazi Culture, pp. 80–81.

to create “a new moral order”: Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p. 110.

“The healthy preserve the Volk”: For examples, see Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, pp. 118–20.

staffed by 3,600 workers: Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp. 87–89.

to deal with racial affairs: Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p. 115.

a nationwide program of euthanasia: Burleigh and Wippermann, The Racial State, p. 142; Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp. 181–82.

No visitations were permitted: Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 284.

Genetically Determined Illness: Burleigh and Wippermann, Life and Death in the Third Reich, pp. 142–50. See also Michael Burleigh, Death and DeliveranceEuthanasia in Germany 1900–1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

victims in Germany and beyond: See Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill, 1995).

30,000 had received decorations for bravery: Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 284.

by the close of 1938, there were none: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 283–84.

“whose idea is Bolshevism”: Ibid., p. 182.

many who were not committed Nazis: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 108–9.

thrown into the street: Report of the Stapostelle Regierungsbezirk Köln, March 4, 1935, in Otto Dov Kulka and Eberhard Jäckel, eds., Die Juden in den geheimen NS-Stimmungsberichten, 1933–1945 (Düsseldorf, 2004), p. 122.

would no longer be admitted to theaters: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, reports from September 1935, pp. 1021, 1027, 1031.

“this persecution of the Jews”: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, September 1935, pp. 1028–29.

well-ordered, and happy Germany: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 180–81.

Hitler’s long-cherished ideas: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 109–11.

his or her impending blunder: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. II, p. 533.

the honor of reading out the text: Ibid., pp. 531–37.

Aryan women of child-bearing age: Cornelie Essner, Die “Nürnberger Ge-setze” oder Die Verwaltung des Rassenwahns, 1933–1945 (Paderborn, 2002).

Führer about the details: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. II, p. 538.

quarter Jews at 25,000 to 130,000: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 150–51.

Wannsee Conference in January 1942: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 121–23; and Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, p. 152. For the many contradictions and perplexities arising from the Nuremberg Laws, see Friedländer, ibid., pp. 148–49. For Wannsee, see chapter 16 of this book.

“at least one of the partners”: For the unanticipated complexities of Nazi racial policy, see Robert Procter, Racial Hygiene, pp. 64–125; and Michael Burleigh, The Racial State, pp. 44–199.

without first being sentenced in court: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, p. 125.

“Aryan customers entering Jewish businesses”: Report of the Stapostelle Breslau, May 5, 1935, in Kulka and Jäckel, Die Juden in den geheimen NS-Stimmungsberichten, p. 129.

warnings against frivolous denunciations: Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, pp. 108–15; Robert Gellately, The Gestapo and German Society.

to slip back into the German mainstream: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, p. 116; Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 112–13.

“to speak like that in public”: Quoted in Marion Kaplan, From Dignity to Despair (New York, 1998), p. 21.

their position deteriorated: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 123–24.

to have a passable knowledge of Hebrew: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 197–99.

“but with poison gas”: Michael Wildt, Die Judenpolitik des SD 1935 bis 1938 (Munich, 1995), pp. 66–67; also in Susanne Heim, “Deutschland muss ihnen ein Land ohne Zukunft. Die Zwangsemigration der Juden, 1933–1938,” in Beiträge zur Nationalsozialistischen Gesundheits und Sozialpolitik, vol. 11, Arbeitsemigration und Flucht (Berlin, 1993).

“None of it should remain”: Barth, Goebbels und die Juden, pp. 110–17.

“left the population perpetually on edge”: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, Report for September 1938, pp. 913–32.

to add Israel or Sara to their names: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 98–99.

It worked: Karl Dietrich Bracher, Schulz, and Wolfgang Sauer, Die nationalsozialistische Machtergreifung, part I, Bracher, Stufen der Machtergreifung (Frankfurt a.M., 1974 ed.), pp. 80–81.

nonetheless to Heydrich and the SD: Burleigh, The Third Reich, pp. 321–32.

“Nobody wants them”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, p. 94.

“for incompetent party members”: Peter Longerich, HolocaustThe Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews (Oxford, 2010), p. 109.

“our tragedy and that of the 12,000”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, p. 268.

“chased like an animal”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 502.

“sizzled with white-hot fury”: Peter Longerich, Joseph Goebbels. Eine Biographie (Munich, 2010), p. 394ff; Barth, Goebbels und die Juden, p. 132.

action of an enraged nation: Peter Longerich, Der ungeschriebene Befehl. Hitler und Weg zur “Endlösung” (Munich, 2001), p. 61ff; Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 109–13.

“difficult diplomatic situation”: Uwe Dietrich Adam, “Wie Spontan war der Pogrom?,” in Walter H. Pehle, ed., Der Judenpogrom 1938: Von der “Reichskristallnacht” zum Völkermord (Frankfurt, 1988), pp. 74–80; also Goebbels’s diary entry from November 10, 1938, in Goebbels, Tagebücher, I. Aufzeichnungnen, 1923–1944, vol. VI, p. 80.

watching but not intervening: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol I., pp. 277–78.

a train that would take them to Dachau: Simon Ackermann file, Leo Baeck Institute, New York.

“and had to pay”: Sally Schlesinger File, Leo Baeck Institute, New York.

in Hitler’s good graces: Reuth, Goebbels, pp. 224–25, 239–40; and Longerich, Joseph Goebbels, pp. 389–96.

“sixty percent of the population thought like this”: Report of the mayor, Borgentreich, November 17, 1938, ibid., p. 322.

in the regime’s overall Jewish policy: Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 114–17.

“it will have to be tackled”: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. II,pp. 565–66.

“I would not wish to be a Jew in Germany tonight”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, p. 283.

“on the Jewish question to be undertaken”: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. II, p. 565.

the effects of the Great Depression: Konrad Kwiet, “Gehen oder Bleiben. Die deutschen Juden am Wendepunkt,” in Pehle, ed., Der Judenpogrom 1938, pp. 132–45.

“practical purposes been realized”: Heinz Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich. Die geheimen Lageberichte des Sicherheitsdienstes der SS, vol. II, Berlin, 1984, pp. 20–21.

“a country without a future”: Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 316.

Chapter 12: Courting Disaster

“their side to do the same”: Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. II, pp. 1049–53.

withdrawal from the League of Nations: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I, p. 36.

forfeit its strategic advantage: Hitler’s “Proclamation to the German People,” October 14, 1933, in Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. II, p. 1091.

“be so mad as to want a war”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, p. 392.

Hitler gladly endorsed: Wilhelm Deist, “Die Aufrüstung der Wehrmacht,” in Wilhelm Deist et al., Das Deutsche Reich un der Zweite Weltkrieg, vol. I (Stuttgart, 1979), pp. 400–409; and Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, p. 676.

Hitler meanwhile continued: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, pp. 613–34.

an immense program of rearmament: Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, vol. II (New York, 2000), p. xxxviii.

Lebensraum in the East: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. I.

“the preservation of peace”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, p. 656.

“with such enthusiasm”: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, 1935, p. 279.

“strengthened its army by 30 percent”: Ibid., pp. 115–17.

The Stresa Front was dead: Hans-Henning Abendroth, “Deutschlands Rolle im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg,” in Manfred Funke, ed., Hitler, Deutschland und die Mächte (Düsseldorf, 1978), pp. 471–88; and Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, Nationalsozialistische Aussenpolitik, 1933–1938 (Frankfurt a.M.), pp. 421–28.

“its creed” was “world revolution”: Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. II, pp. 1287–88.

and then a withdrawal: See Kershaw, Hitler, vol. I, pp. 587–89. Also Max Braubach, Der Einmarsch deutscher Truppen in die entmilitarisierte Zone am Rhein im März 1936 (Cologne/Opladen, 1956).

resounded through the crowded chamber: Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. II, p. 1297.

“no territorial claims to put forward in Europe”: Ibid., pp. 1298–1300.

“with the assurance of a sleepwalker”Völkischer Beobachter, March 14, 1936.

could really be true: For the largely favorable response of American visitors, see Shirer, Berlin Diary, pp. 65–66.

“the rulers of Jewish Bolshevism”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, pp. 180, 184.

Germany’s growing global influence: Jacobsen, Nationalsozialistische Aussenpolitik, pp. 424–34.

“even for vital imports”: Shirer, Berlin Diary, p. 35.

“offices of the party and state”: Joachim Kuropka, ed., Meldungen aus Münster1924–1944 (Münster, Germany, 1992), pp. 16–162.

other armored vehicles: Evans, The Third Reich in Power, pp. 354–57.

services purchased by the Reich: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 206–7.

“a cancerous shadow on our politics”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Aufzeichnungen, vol. 4, November 4, 1937, p. 390.

for the good of the nation: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 219–30.

complications for economic planning: Ibid., pp. 209–11.

“of the preparations being made”: Ibid., pp. 210–13.

were encouraged to do the same: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Aufzeichnungen, vol. 4, pp. 319–23; and Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, 1937, p. 9.

“nourishment for the war psychosis”: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, vol., 4, See report of February 1937, pp. 9–20.

“I am completely happy”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, Aufzeichnungen, vol.3, entry of September 29, 1937.

“ ‘when and how’ ”: Hossbach’s firsthand account, referred to historically as the Hossbach Memorandum, is reproduced in Friedrich Hossbach, Zwischen Wehrmacht und Hitler, 1934–1938 (Göttingen, 1965), pp. 181–89.

“the Führer to reverse a decision”The Ribbentrop Memoirs, p. 79.

was the pistol: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, p. 53.

submitted his resignation: Ibid., pp. 51–53.

Hitler turned to replace Neurath: Evans, The Third Reich in Power, pp. 644–45.

his new foreign minister brilliant: François-Poncet, The Fateful Years, p. 212.

“considers itself a German state”: Kurt Schuschnigg, Austrian Requiem (London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1947), p. 7.

and skilled workforce into the Four Year Plan: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 245–46.

to broach the topic with Schuschnigg: Papen, Memoirs, pp. 406–9.

“Then you’ll see something”: Schuschnigg, Austrian Requiem, pp. 11–19.

“the Agreement goes into effect”: Ibid., pp. 24–25.

“there was little room for any hope”: Ibid., p. 27.

“to serve the interests of both countries”: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, p. 72.

“its fate, and its world view”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, pp. 1031–32.

“ ‘What do we get out of it?’ ”: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, March 15, 1938.

“ruthlessness by force of arms”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, pp. 1039–49.

the modus operandi of Nazi diplomacy: Schuschnigg, Austrian Requiem, pp. 43, 45–46.

He had spoken for ten minutes: Ibid., pp. 51–52.

“I believe I have now fulfilled it”: David Faber, Munich, 1938: Appeasement and World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008), pp. 140–42.

“my homeland into the German Reich”: Ibid., pp. 146–47.

colossal building projects in Berlin and Nuremberg: Jens-Christian Wagner, “Work and Extermination in the Concentration Camps,” in Caplan and Wachsmann, eds., Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, pp. 130–31.

The violence of the rampaging Nazi: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 135–44.

fluttered from steeple after steeple: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, p. 81.

“no war because of Austria”: Sopade, Deutschland-Bericht, 1938, pp. 263–64.

“and wear down their power of resistance”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 464–66.

at this point an isolated minority: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 101–4.

the Reich stood on the brink of war: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, p. 1124.

deeply ambivalent about Hitler’s course of action: Sopade, Deutschland-Bericht 1938, p. 930.

and the offensive was unrelenting: Shirer, Berlin Diary, pp. 126, 134–35.

“German Volksgenossen (people’s commander) in Czechoslovakia: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, pp. 1158–59.

“matters into my own hands”: Paul Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter (New York, 1950), p. 92.

“when he had given his word”: Ibid., p. 94.

“we found ourselves alone”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 478.

“he would intervene at once”: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, p. 96.

and the Czechs as “war mongers”: Ibid., pp. 102–3.

“will go get it for ourselves”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, pp. 1187–92.

down in his chair thoroughly spent: Leo Amery, My Political Life, vol. III, The Unforgiving Years, 1929–1940, p. 276; and Shirer, Berlin Diary, p. 142.

“by next Monday we will all be at war”: Faber, Munich, 1938, pp. 370–71.

“are dead set against war”: Shirer, Berlin Diary, September 27, 1938; and Faber, Munich, 1938, p. 380.

“in a war on her account”: Faber, Munich, 1938, p. 378.

clouded by his “blind hatred against England”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, September 29, 1938, 6, Teil I, p. 119.

a “hugger-bugger affair”: Faber, Munich, 1938, p. 405.

“and we were allowed to go”: Ibid., pp. 412–13.

“means peace in our time”: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, p. 112.

“and Daladier, outside their hotels”: Ibid., pp. 113–14.

“things cannot go on like this”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. 2, Hitler comments November 19, 1938, pp. 1245–46.

Chapter 13: Early Success

“. . . recognize your common enemy!”: Baynes, ed., Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. II, pp. 740–41.

“the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, p. 1449.

“The day of reckoning has come”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 510.

“I shall go down in history as the greatest German”: Ibid., pp. 516–17; and Bullock, Hitler, pp. 430–31.

“war is inevitable”: Sopade, Deutschland-Berichte, 1939, p. 284.

“all support in their power”: Bullock, Hitler, p. 444.

to isolate Poland diplomatically: Jeremy Noakes and Geoffrey Pridham, eds., Nazism, 1919–1945, vol. III, Foreign Policy, War and Racial Extermination (Exeter, 1988), pp. 735–36.

“two fully equipped divisions in the field?”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, p. 1555.

was widely viewed as already allied with Great Britain: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, p. 128; Goebbels quoted in Jeffrey Herf, The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust (Cambridge, MA, 2006), p. 54.

composed by the “charlatan from Washington”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, 6, I, April 17 and 18, 1939, p. 319. The text of Roosevelt’s letter is found in Domarus, Hitler Speeches, vol. III, pp. 1548–50.

and he renounced that as well: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, pp. 1574–75.

It was a bravura performance: See Shirer’s firsthand account of the scene in the Reichstag, Shirer, Berlin Diary, pp. 165–67.

“what a dwarf is a man like Roosevelt”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, 6, I, April 19, 1939, p. 332.

Its purpose was to intimidate the West: Text in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, pp. 1612–15.

“not to be for 80,000,000 people”: Hitler’s remarks, in Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. 3, pp. 736–38.

“ ‘I’ve got them! I’ve got them’ ”: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 223.

“Pursuit until complete annihilation”: Norman Rich, Hitler’s War Aims (New York, 1978), vol. I, p. 129.

translated into a military alliance: Christopher Thorne, The Approach of War, 1938–39 (New York, 1967).

the Corridor must be resolved without delay: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, pp. 141–45.

to work for moderation in Warsaw: Ibid., p. 144.

made a sustained military effort impossible: Ibid., pp. 145–46.

“a calamity without parallel in history”: Ibid., pp. 145–46, 148.

“for the sake of one city”: Sopade, Deutschland-Bericht 1939, pp. 190–92.

The Poles must accept this condition: Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 562–63; and Nevile Henderson, The Failure of a Mission (London, 1944).

They were prepared to fight: Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 563, 566–67.

“I had done everything to maintain peace”: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, pp. 154–55.

reinforcing the Führer’s gambling instincts: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 90–91.

a completely abnormal person: Bullock, A Study in Tyranny, p. 487.

“ ‘Idiots, have I ever told a lie in my life?’ ”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, pp. 1700–1707.

self-defense against a rapacious Poland: Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 566–67.

“with a population so dead set against it”: Shirer, Berlin Diary, p. 191.

“never be another November 1918 in German history”: The full text of Hitler’s speech is found in Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, pp. 1750–56.

“exist between Great Britain and Germany”: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, pp. 156–57.

He was correct: Ibid., pp. 156–58.

“I saw them at Munich”: David Faber, Munich, 1938: Appeasement and World War II (New York, 2010).

in both the East and West: See François-Poncet, The Fateful Years, pp. 175–76.

It was a rout: Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich at War (New York, 2009), pp. 4–5.

executed and deposited in mass graves: Mazower, Hitler’s Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe (New York, 2008), pp. 100–101; and Timothy Snyder, BloodlandsEurope Between Hitler and Stalin (New York, 2008), pp. 287, 298.

and 130,000 wounded: Evans, The Third Reich at War, p. 7.

“win the Lebensraum we need”: Max Hastings, Inferno: The World at War, 1939–1945 (New York, 2012), p. 18.

“Final Solution” to the “Jewish problem” in Europe: Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 134–47.

with a German governor: After the invasion of the Soviet Union, the frontiers of the General Government were extended to include Radom and Galicia.

roughly half were murdered by the militias: Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 14–15.

murdered nearly 200 people: Snyder, Bloodlands, pp. 126–27.

to compose the country’s intelligentsia: Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, 78–79.

settlers imported from the Baltic: Ibid., pp. 92–93.

murdered 560 Jews in the vicinity: Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 67.

beyond the providence of local army commanders: Ibid., p. 70.

“a one year prison sentence”The Halder War Diary, 1939–1942, eds. Charles Burdick and Hans-Adolf Jacobsen (Presidio, CA, 1988), September 10, 1939, pp. 52–53.

“how such things can go unpunished”: General Alexander Ulex, infantry general, quoted in Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, p. 158; Blaskowitz, quoted p. 159.

civilians while trudging eastward: Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, pp. 68–69.

the ideologically trained SS: Saul Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, The Years of Extermination, 1939–1945 (New York, 2008), pp. 26–27; Martin Broszat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik, 1939–1945 (Stuttgart, 1961), pp. 19–20.

photographs and sent them home: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, pp. 27–28.

“judenrein” (free of Jews): Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 152–54.

Chapter 14: Hitler Turns West

would be a catastrophe: Ernest R. May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York, 2000), p. 22.

“ground forces cannot be expected”: Franz Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. I, p. 118.

“He would have them shot”: Ibid., p. 78.

an immediate attack in the West: May, Strange Victory, p. 222.

nothing came of their plans: Peter Hoffmann, Widerstand, Staatsstreich, Attentat, pp. 74–130; and May, Strange Victory, pp. 217–28.

static warfare of the Great War: May, Strange Victory, pp. 216–17.

reinforcements and defeated: See Erich von Manstein, Lost Victories (Presidio, 1958, 1985 edition), pp. 94–126.

“wishes me to attain my goals”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, p. 1876.

“when we have won”: Hitler address, November 23, 1939, in ibid., p. 1887.

commenced immediately: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 381–85.

ports of Calais, Bolougne, and DunkirkThe Halder War Diary, May 17–18, 1940, pp. 147–51.

The Germans readily accepted: Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 127–31.

“in the twenty-two years hence”: Shirer, Berlin Diary, pp. 422–23.

He would never see Paris again: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 236–37.

“France’s gravediggers”: Herf, The Jewish Enemy, p. 68.

still mired in the mud of the Great War: May, Strange Victory, pp. 256.

“the greatest and most glorious victory of all time”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, p. 2042.

“except when he gave his word”: John Wheeler-Bennett, The Nemesis of Power: The German Army and Politics 1918–1945 (London, 1954), p. 461.

“He wants to keep on fighting alone”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, June 19, 1940, pp. 180–81.

“and stockjobbers” wanted this war: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. III, p. 2062.

“state of war against Germany”: Domarus, ed., Hitler Speeches, vol. II, July 16, 1937.

“and the democracies and plutocracies”: Herf, The Jewish Enemy, p. 60.

“what the German people want”: Goebbels quoted in Ibid., pp. 66, 70.

out in front of Hitler and the Nazi leadership: See John Lukacs, The Duel: The Eighty-Day Struggle Between Hitler and Churchill (New York, 1991), pp. 173–76.

“unwilling to ‘choose the way to peace’ ”The Halder War Diary, July 13, p. 227.

for an invasion of Britain: Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 139–45.

subdue the Royal Air Force in five weeks: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 309–10.

underestimated their importance: Williamson Murray, Luftwaffe (Baltimore: National Nautical & Aviation Publishing Co. of America), p. 52. For more on the course of the Battle of Britain and the ensuing Blitz, see Richard Overy, The Air War, 1939–1945 (Stein & Day, 1980), pp. 30–37.

Chapter 15: The Crusade Against Judeo-Bolshevism

White Russia, and the Baltic StatesThe Halder War Diary, July 31, 1940, p. 244ff.

no better in the spring: Ibid., December 5, 1940, p. 297.

“Russian tanks are poorly armored”: Ibid. Also Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, vol. 4, Der Angriff auf die Sowjetunion, pp. 191–202.

“will come crashing down”: Alan Clark, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941–1945 (New York, 1965), p. 43.

the Führer had other ideas: Walter Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, 1939–45 (Novato, CA), p. 138.

“of no great importance”The Halder War Diary, December 5, 1940, pp. 293–94.

understood the thrust of his remarks: Brauchitsch instructed army commanders that “the troops must be clear that the struggle will be carried out from race to race (von Rasse zu Rasse) and proceed with necessary severity.” Ibid., March 30, 1941, p. 346.

to operate from the same script: Helmut Krausnick, “Kommisarbefehl und ‘Gerichtsbarkeiterlass Barbarossa’ in neuer Sicht,” in Vierteljahreshefte zur Zeitgeschichte, 2 (1977), p. 628ff.

told a very different story: In the autumn of 1939 Soviet forces under General Georgy Zhukov soundly defeated the Japanese in a major tank battle that ended Japanese ambitions in the north.

every fifth man in the Army: Heinz Guderian, Panzer Leader (New York, 1996), p. 151.

“The world,” Hitler said, “will hold its breath”: Anthony Beevor, Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege, 1942–1943 (New York, 1998), p. 12.

what it needed as it moved along: Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 324–25.

“many of them Jews, would starve”: Götz Aly and Susanne Heim, Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction (Princeton, 2002), pp. 234–42; Longerich, Holocaust, p. 181.

“also Muscovite nationalism, of their centers”The Halder War Diary, July 8, 1941, p. 458.

had attacked Western Europe in the summer of 1940: Gerhard Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History World War II (Cambridge, UK, 1994), pp. 193–94.

“I am going to see the Marx Brothers”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 659–66.

the solitary inmate in Germany’s Spandau Prison, in 1987: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 338–69.

heard throughout the Berghof: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 239.

“Hitler,” Goebbels recorded in his diary, “is completely shaken”: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, Teil 1, May 14, 1941, p. 640.

“be the second man after the Führer”: Goebbels, TagebücherAufzeichnungen, Teil I, May 1, 1941, pp. 640–41.

“to be disposed of by arms”: English translation in Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933–1945 (seventh edition, New York, 1981), p. 165. See also Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, pp. 134–35.

“every active or passive resistance”: Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, p. 166.

“just atonement on Jewish subhumanity”: Quoted in Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, pp. 164, 166, 167.

the Einsatzgruppen on the ground: Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 221–23; Hermann Graml, “Hitler und die Befehle an die Einsatzgruppen im Sommer 1941,” in Eberhard Jäckel und Jürgen Rohwer, Der Mord an die Juden im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Entschlussbildung und Verwirklichung (Stuttgart, 1985), p. 88ff. Also Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, p. 169.

in intensity as the war progressed: Jürgen Förster, “The German Army and the Ideological War Against the Soviet Union,” in Gerhard Hirschfeld, ed., The Policies of Genocide: Jews and Soviet Prisoners of War in Nazi Germany (London, 1986), pp. 15–29; Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 196–205.

“for many more weeks to come”The Halder War Diary, July 3, 1941, pp. 446–47.

claimed 95,000 victims by December 1: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 170–71.

were shot in a single day: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, pp. 1098–99.

already descending into the pit: Ibid., pp. 1100–101.

murder of 700,000 Jews: Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York, 1985), pp. 108–9.

“in another killing operation”: OKWA Wehrwirtschaftsund Rüstungsamt Stab 1a Tridrnrtivhy über Besuch im Abschnitt der Heeresgruppe Mitte, July 21, 1941, in Kulka and Jäckel, Die Juden in den geheimen NS-Stimmungsberichten, 1933–1945, p. 451.

with which he had been involved: Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, pp. 131–33.

across German-occupied Eastern Europe: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, p. 1138.

not informed about the casualties: Gestapo report, June 26, 1941, in H. Boberach, Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 7, p. 2044.

“and thirdly exploit it”: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, p. 405.

a German “garden of Eden”: Hitler monologue, July 27, 1941, in Hitler’s Table Talk, pp. 15–16.

German empire into the future: Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, pp. 204–11.

but to Himmler’s SS: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 406–7.

spoke openly about it with foreign statesmen: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, pp. 272–82.

Jewish plutocrats and Bolsheviks who controlled both: Herf, The Jewish Enemy, pp. 97–99.

whose jurisdiction would be affected: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, pp. 237–38; Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, pp. 80–81; and Robert Gerwarth, Hitler’s Hangman: The Life of Heydrich (New Haven, 2011), pp. 197–98.

“German space by the end of the year”: Gerwarth, Hitler’s Hangman, pp. 204–5.

all of whom were doomed to a short hopeless future: Moorehouse, Berlin at War, pp. 162–65.

marched into nearby woods and shot: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, pp. 266–67.

“clusters of sparse trees stretching to the horizon”: Gottlob Herbert Bidermann, In Deadly Combat: A German Soldier’s Memoir of the Eastern Front (Lawrence, KS, 2000), pp. 13–18.

“horse drawn equipment reminiscent of World War I”: Ibid., p. 15.

their primary operational objectives: Omer Bartov, Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis and War in the Third Reich (New York, 1991), p. 36. See also Catherine Merridale, Ivan’s War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939–1945 (New York, 2006).

dangers lurked everywhere around them: Kenneth Slepyan, Stalin’s Guerrillas: Soviet Partisans in World War II (Lawrence, KS, 2006), especially pp. 15–59.

“wounded men caught in the flames”: Clark, Barbarossa, pp. 138–39.

“anyone who doesn’t give us a straight look”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, p. 200.

“the greatest field commander of all times”: Beevor, Stalingrad, pp. 28–29.

“put a damper on all higher headquarters”The Halder War Diary, July 20, 1941, p. 482.

“the Russians simply put up another dozen”: Ibid., August 11, 1941, p. 506.

overall manpower of 3,200,000: Bartov, Hitler’s Army, pp. 37, 38, 43–44.

“will not be available to us again”The Halder War Diary, November 23, 1941, p. 562.

“demolished in fourteen days”: Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II, p. 267.

“a scourge which will eventually be intolerable”: Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, p. 183.

a distant third in Hitler’s thinking: Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 189–90.

“the absurdity of Hitler’s orders”: Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, p. 185.

“zigzag course caused by his successive orders”The Halder War Diary, August 22, 1941, p. 515.

“You can’t deny that”: Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, p. 189.

operational by the late fall: Overy, The Air War, pp. 49–51.

“have suffered heavy losses”The Halder War Diary, August 10, p. 505.

“distant end is not yet in view”: Gestapo report of August 31, 1941, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 11, p. 4146.

more than were lost to combat wounds: Beevor, Stalingrad, p. 40.

bombing of western German cities: Gestapo report of January 5, 1942, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 9, p. 3120.

highest rate coming among junior combat officersThe Halder War Diary, pp. 38–39.

“discussion was out of the question”: H. R. Trevor-Roper, The Last Days of Hitler, fourth edition, New York, 1962, p. 72.

more serious than officially communicated: Gestapo report of January 5, 1942, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 9, pp. 3120–21.

delusional imagination was doomed to failure: Manstein, Lost Victories, pp. 276–77.

and the Soviet Union—were savedDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, vol. 4, pp. 600–605; Beevor, Stalingrad, pp. 42–43.

“has never been conquered in 3,000 years”: Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, p. 442.

Chapter 16: Holocaust and Total War

“as free of Jews as the Reich is”: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, pp. 1126–27.

had been settled in only ninety minutes: Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 305–10.

got under way almost immediately: Ibid., p. 313ff.

a Star of David had been installed on the roof: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, pp. 1146–47.

“only the occasional head or arms stick out”: Kurt Gerstein quoted in Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, pp. 1151–53.

the largest murder campaign of the Holocaust: Saul Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews 1939–1945: The Years of Extermination (New York, 2007), pp. 479–80. By December 1942, 1,274,166 Jews had perished in the camps of Operation Reinhard.

“as much between individuals as between peoples”Hitler’s Table Talk, January 27, 1942, evening, p. 260.

“only by eliminating the Jews”: Ibid., February 22, 1942, evening, p. 332.

“unswerving champion and spokesman of a radical solution”: Louis P. Lochner, ed., The Goebbels Diaries, 1942–1943 (New York, 1948), March 27, 1942, pp. 147–48.

“the most elementary principles of National Socialism”: Reports of SD Aussenstelle Minden, December 6 and 12, 1941, in Kulka and Jäckel, eds., Die Juden in den geheimen NS-Stimmungsberichte 1933–1945, pp. 476–77; and Report of the Stapostelle Bremen, November 11, 1941, in ibid., p. 471.

only two and one third million: Longerich, Joseph Goebbels, pp. 541–42.

The Jews, Goebbels claimed, were behind the attack: Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 275–80.

strategy of area bombing: Max Hastings, Bomber Command (London, 1980), pp. 1–34.

devastation and industrial man-hours lost: Tami Davis Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, pp. 200–201.

“to destroy one industrial city after another”: Gestapo report of July 27, 1942, in Boberach, Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 11, p. 4006.

“attrition whose distant end is not yet in view”: Gestapo report of August 31, 1942, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 11, p. 4146.

even the sober Halder agreed: Clark, Barbarossa, p. 209.

forces moving south across the Don: After the war General Kleist claimed that “the Fourth Panzer Army . . . could have taken Stalingrad without a fight at the end of July but was diverted to help me in crossing the Don. I did not need its aid, and it simply got in the way and congested the roads that I was using.” Clark, Barbarossa, p. 209.

“ ‘All of us feel that the end, victory, is near’ ”: Ibid., p. 21.

“That’s what the Russians need, to stop them resisting”: Ibid., p. 218.

“the desire for an end to the war soon”: Gestapo report, September 3, 1942, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 11, p. 4164.

“only a few very small places left not captured”: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, p. 842.

for Hitler’s ambitions in the East: Beevor, Stalingrad, p. 398.

“rise up, and storm burst forth!”: W. A. Boelcke, ed., Wollt Ihr Den Totalen Krieg? Die geheimen Goebbels-Konferenzen, 1939–1943 (Munich, 1969).

“of the Columbus House they would have done it”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 735.

the regime was ebbing away: Kershaw, The “Hitler Myth,” pp. 192–98.

the people’s faith in the regime was badly shaken: Ibid., pp. 180–89.

the Führer and his people began to loosen: Ibid., pp. 169–99.

the shrunken, blackened corpse of her child: Richard Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War over Europe, 1940–1945 (New York, 2014), pp. 259–62; and especially Hans Nossack, The End: Hamburg, 1943 (Chicago, 2004).

never “straighten all that out again”: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 370; see Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed, pp. 144–48.

“the Jews will destroy the German people”: Rudolf Höss, quoted in Pridham and Noakes, eds., Nazism, vol. III, pp. 1175–76.

a smoothly functioning European-wide industrial operation: Graml, Antisemitism in the Third Reich, pp. 181–83.

“has never been written and can never be written”: Noakes and Pridham, eds., Nazism, vol. III, p. 1199.

Untermenschen (subhumans) all: See Longerich, The Holocaust; Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. II; Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews; and Yehuda Bauer, A History of the Holocaust (New York, 1982).

“in undisputed possession of the initiative”: Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 312.

Chapter 17: Apocalypse

weighed heavily on the home front: Gestapo report, March 16, 1944, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 16, p. 6412.

“to strengthen the defenses in the West”: Reprinted in Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, p. 400.

only Hitler could release them: Ibid., pp. 408–9.

somewhere between the Scheldt and the Seine: Ibid., pp. 434–37; Weinberg, A World at Arms, pp. 681, 684–85.

was staggeringon the cusp of defeat: Weinberg, A World at Arms, pp. 700–702; and Cornelius Ryan, A Bridge Too Far (New York, 1974).

not in the end political in nature: See Arno Klönne, “Jugendprotest und Jugendopposition. Von der HJ-Erziehung zum Cliquenwesen der Kriegszeit,” in Broszat, Fröhlich, and Grossmann, Bayern in der NS-Zeit, pp. 589–620; and Detlev Peukert, Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life (New Haven, 1989).

paranoia flourished: Ian Kershaw, The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944–1945 (New York: Penguin, 2011), pp. 207–46.

one step ahead of the Gestapo: See Shareen Brysac, Resisting Hitler: Mildred Fish-Harnack and the Red Orchestra (Oxford, 2000); Anne Nelson, Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends who Resisted Hitler (New York, 2009); and Peter Hoffmann, The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945 (Toronto, 1996).

were arrested and sent to Dachau: Regierungsbericht, Munich, June 7, 1944, in BHSTA, MA 106 695.

“the National Socialist Party and its dictatorship”: Toby Axelrod, Hans and Sophie Scholl: German Resisters of the White Rose (New York, 2001); and Ulrich Chaussey and Franz Josef Miller, eds., The White Rose: The Resistance by Students Against Hitler, 1942/43 (Munich, 1991).

“Manifesto of the Munich Students”: See Ulrich Chaussy and Gerd R. Ueberschär, eds., “Es lebe die Freiheit!,” Die Geschichte der Weissen Rose und ihrer Mitglieder in Dokumente und Berichten (Munich: Fischer Verlag, 2013).

could convince the Führer to step aside: For an analysis of the various plans for a post-Hitler government, see Hans Mommsen, “The Social Views and Constitutional Plans of the Resistance,” in Hermann Graml et al., The German Resistance to Hitler (London, 1967), pp. 55–147.

Hitler and his regime must go: Peter Hoffmann, The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945 (MIT Press, 1977), and Peter Hoffmann, The German Resistance to Hitler (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988).

participants in the plot to kill the Führer: Thomas Childers, “The Kreisau Circle and the Twentieth of July,” in David Large, ed., Killing Hitler (Cambridge, UK), pp. 104–17.

would support it at the appropriate time: Hoffmann, The History of the German Resistance; see also his Stauffenberg (Toronto, 2008).

Again he carried a bomb: For the most detailed account of the plot and Stauffenberg’s role in it, see Peter Hoffmann, Widerstrand, Staatsstreich, Attentat (Munich, 1970).

about Freisler’s outrageous conduct: Evans, The Third Reich at War, p. 643; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 691–93.

“we would have won long ago”: Ibid., p. 687.

He chose suicide: Ibid., p. 733.

“nothing else matters”: Evans, The Third Reich at War, p. 638.

touted as the “Speer miracle”: Richard Bessell, Nazism and War (London, 2004), pp. 127–29. See also Richard Overy, War and Economy in the Third Reich (New York, 1994), pp. 268–71.

Hitler favorite, became a public darling: Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 552–89.

total munitions production fell by 55 percent: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy, vol. VI, p. 143; Anthony Beevor, The Fall of Berlin 1945 (New York, 2002), p. 162.

was literally running on empty: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy, vol. VI, p. 12.

assembly areas or soldiers at the front: See Alfred C. Mierzejewski, The Collapse of the German War Economy, 1944–1945: Allied Air Power and the German National Railway (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), pp. 124–76.

in January 1945, to 28,000 in March: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy, vol. X, p. 127.

“break in Germany’s war morale”: Goebbels, Tagebücher, March 22, 1945, vol. 15, Part II, p. 569.

people whispered in scorn: Kershaw, The Hitler Myth: Image and Reality in the Third Reich (Oxford, 1987), pp. 169–99.

impede the Allied advance in the West: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, The Effects of Strategic Bombing on German Morale, vol. II, pp. 44–45.

it was simply too late: Report of the Regierungspräsident, December 11, 1944, BHSTA, MA 106 696.

“delivered over to the whims of the enemy”: Gestapo report, July 14, 1944, in Boberach, ed., Meldungen aus dem Reich, vol. 17, pp. 6650–51.

that fear had become a grim reality: Report of the Regierungspräsident München-Oberbayern, December 7, 1944, and Regensburg, March 10, 1945, both in BHSTA, MA 106 695 and MA 106 696.

“has increasingly come in for criticism”: District report for Regensburg, March 10, 1945, BHSTA MA 106 696. See a similar report for München-Oberbayern, November 8, 1944, BHSTA MA, 106 695.

“ ‘but in spite of National Socialism’ ”: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, The Effects of Strategic Bombing on German Morale, vol. I, p. 51.

“Hitler to thank for all this misery”: Schedule B Interviews, Numbers 61294 and 61154, National Archives, RG 23.

to keep weary Germans at their jobs: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, The Effects of Strategic Bombing on German Morale, vol. I, pp. 14–15.

“to get a little food cooked”: Schedule B, Interview Number 61890k, NARA, USSB, RG 23.

“Bleib übrig!” (Survive!): Beevor, The Fall of Berlin 1945, p. 2.

They were overruled by Hitler: Weinberg, A World at Arms, pp. 765–71.

At Malmedy that distinction was erased: Gerald F. Linderman, The World Within War: America’s Combat Experience in World War II (New York, 1997), pp. 135–36.

the last desperate gasp of the Third Reich: Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 657–58; see also Anthony Beevor, The Ardennes 1944: The Battle of the Bulge (New York, 2015).

by the failure of the Ardennes offensive: Nicolaus von Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, 1937–1945 (Frankfurt, 1980), p. 398.

“it was a burning corpse”: Klemperer, I Will Bear Witness, vol. II, pp. 409–10.

“were little more than roaming death squads”: Stephen G. Fritz, Endkampf: Soldiers, Civilians and the Death of the Third Reich (Lexington, KY, 2004), pp. 190–91.

“Many consider the war already lost”: Report of the Regierungspräsident Regensburg, February 9, 1945, BHSTA, BA-MA.

“undermining military operations”: Fritz, Endkampf, pp. 117, 191.

would be ruthlessly “exterminated”: “Für Freiheit und Ehre,” Fritz Wächter, Gauleiter, in Regensburger Kurier. Amtliche Tageszeitung des Gaues Bayreuth der NSDAP, February 6, 1945.

were from Volkssturm personnel: Fritz, Endkampf, p. 191.

“hesitation in carrying out this action”: Childers, “ ‘Facilis descensus averni est.’ The Bombing of Germany and Issue of German Suffering,” Central European History, vol. 38, no. 1, 2005, pp. 75–105.

villages from needless destruction: For the uprisings in Ochsenfurt and Bad Windsheim and the role of women in those events, see Fritz, Endkampf, pp. 120, 142.

Not a shot was fired: This account is taken largely from Ruckdeschel’s postwar trial in Adelheid L. Rüter-Ehlermann, C. F. Rütter, et al., eds., Justiz und NS-Verbrechen: Sammlung deutscher Strafurteile wegen nationalsozialistischer Tötungsverbrechen, 1945–1966 (Amsterdam and Munich, 1968–1998), pp. 236–51. Also see Hildebrand Troll, “Aktionen zur Kriegsbeendigung im Frühjahr 1945,” in Martin Broszat, Elke Fröhlich, and Anton Grossmann, eds., Bayern in der NS Zeit. Herrschaft und Gesellschaft im Konflikt, vol. IV (Munich, 1981), pp. 645–84; and Kershaw, The End, pp. 324–26.

It was a moment of high symbolism: Fritz, Endkampf, pp. 174–75.

then the giant camp at Bergen-Belsen in Germany: Longerich, Holocaust, pp. 410–16.

“death marches” from concentration camps, large and small: Kershaw, The End, pp. 331–36.

repeating in sheer disbelief, “Frei? Frei?”: Colonel Donald Downard, quoted in Sam Dann, ed., Dachau, 29 April 1945: The Rainbow Liberation Memoirs (Lubbock, TX, 1998), p. 74.

Guderian was sacked in March: Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 412–14.

“April will be the turning point for us”: The Grand Alliance did not collapse, as Hitler predicted it would, but this is what passed for good news in the Führerbunker in April 1945. Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 860–61.

Time was running out: Beevor, The Fall of Berlin, 1945.

frivolity seemed out of place under the circumstances: Traudl Junge, Bis zur letzten Stunde. Hitlers Sekretärin erzählt ihr Leben (Munich, 2002), p. 177.

“the mission I set for the nation”: Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 870.

“I called it the Isle of the Departed”: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 598.

if he had no future, neither did they: Ibid., p. 800ff.

“empty, burned out, lifeless”: Ibid., pp. 605–6.

whose grip on reality was tenuous: Toland, Adolf Hitler.

“to end their lives at this historic site”: Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 607.

his pistol lay at his feet: There are many accounts of these last few hours of Hitler’s life. I have drawn on Junge, Bis zur letzten Stunde, pp. 165–206; Kershaw, Hitler, vol. II, pp. 827–28; Toland, Adolf Hitler, pp. 881–91; and still very useful, Trevor-Roper’s The Last Days of Hitler, pp. 255–89.

a world without Hitler, without National Socialism: Junge, Bis zur letzten Stunde, p. 193.

10,000 of whom died, mostly by suicide: Anonymous, A Woman in Berlin: Eight Weeks in the Conquered City (New York, 2005); and Beevor, The Fall of Berlin 1945, p. 326ff.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!