NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations of the organizations mentioned in the notes may be found in the list of abbreviations in the front matter. The notes refer to the black abolitionist papers (BAP) both as a digitized source, in microfilm (with reel numbers) and print editions (with publication information and page numbers).

AHR

American Historical Review

ARCJ

African Repository and Colonial Journal

ASB

The Anti-Slavery Bugle

BAP

Black Abolitionist Papers

BPL

Boston Public Library

CA

Colored American

CU

Columbia University

CWH

Civil War History

DM

Douglass’ Monthly

FDP

Frederick Douglass’ Paper

FJ

Freedom’s Journal

FOM

Friend of Man

GUE

Genius of Universal Emancipation

HSP

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

JAH

Journal of American History

JBS

Journal of Black Studies

JER

Journal of the Early American Republic

JNH

Journal of Negro History

JSH

Journal of Southern History

LC

Library of Congress

MHR

Massachusetts Historical Review

MHS

Massachusetts Historical Society

MVHR

Mississippi Valley Historical Review

NASS

National Anti Slavery Standard

NE

National Era

NEQ

New England Quarterly

NR

National Reformer

NS

North Star

NYHS

New-York Historical Society

PF

Pennsylvania Freeman

PH

Pennsylvania History

PMHB

Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography

S&A

Slavery and Abolition

TAE

The Anti-Slavery Examiner

TASR

The Anti Slavery Record

TE

The Emancipator

TEFA

The Emancipator and Free American

TL

The Liberator

TLP

The Liberty Press

TP

The Philanthropist

VMHB

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography

WMQ

William and Mary Quarterly

INTRODUCTION

1. Andrew Delbanco, The Abolitionist Imagination (Cambridge, Mass., 2012); also see Robin D. G. Kelley, Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston, 2002); Nick Bromell, The Time Is Always Now: Black Thought and the Transformation of US Democracy (New York, 2013).

2. C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Touissant L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York, 1963); Laurent Dubois, “An Enslaved Enlightenment: Rethinking the Intellectual History of the French Atlantic,” Social History 31 (February 2006): 1–14; Edward Rugemer, “Slave Rebels and Abolitionists: The Black Atlantic and the Coming of the Civil War,” Journal of the Civil War Era 2 (June 2012): 179–202.

3. Frederick Cooper, “Elevating the Race: The Social Thought of Black Leaders, 1827–50,” American Quarterly 24 (December 1972): 604–25; Stephen Kantrowitz, More than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829–1889 (New York, 2012), 4; Manisha Sinha, “An Alternative Tradition of Radicalism: African American Abolitionists and the Metaphor of Revolution,” in Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, eds., Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race, and Power in American History (New York, 2007), 9–30.

4. John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002); Ellen Carol DuBois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848–1869 (Ithaca, 1978); Robert H. Abzug, Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination(New York, 1994); Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1967).

5. Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill, 1944); Seymour Drescher, “Capitalism and Slavery: After Fifty Years,” in Heather Cateau and S. H. H. Carrington, eds., Capitalism and Slavery: Fifty Years Later (New York, 2000), 81–98; Seth Rockman, “The Unfree Origins of American Capitalism,” in Cathy Matson, ed., The Economy of Early America: Historical Perspectives and New Directions (University Park, Pa., 2006), 335–61; Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York, 2014); Calvin Schermerhorn, The Business of Slavery and the Rise of American Capitalism, 1815–1860 (New Haven, 2015); Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, Mass., 2014); Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (New York, 2014).

6. Bruce Laurie, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform (Cambridge, Eng., 2005); W. Caleb McDaniel, The Problem of Democracy in the Age of Slavery: Garrisonian Abolitionists and Transatlantic Reform (Baton Rouge, 2013); McDaniel, “The Bonds and Boundaries of Antislavery,” Journal of the Civil War Era 4 (March 2014): 84–104; Thomas Bender, ed., The Antislavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation (Berkeley, 1992).

7. Karen Haltunnen, “Humanitarianism and the Pornography of Pain in Anglo-American Culture,” AHR 100 (April 1995): 303–34; Elizabeth B. Clark, “‘The Sacred Rights of the Weak’: Pain, Sympathy, and the Culture of Individual Rights in Antebellum America,” JAH 82 (September 1995): 463–93; Carol Lasser, “Voyeuristic Abolitionism: Sex, Gender, and the Transformation of Antislavery Rhetoric,” JER 28 (Spring 2008): 83–114; Marcus Wood, Slavery, Empathy, and Pornography (New York, 2002); Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 39; Joseph Yannielli, “George Thompson Among the Africans: Empathy, Authority, and Insanity in the Age of Abolition,” JAH 96 (March 2010): 979–1000; Saidiya V. Hartman, Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America (New York, 1997); Margaret Abruzzo, Polemical Pain: Slavery, Cruelty, and the Rise of Humanitarianism (Baltimore, 2011).

8. Walter Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (Cambridge, Mass., 2013); Robert E. May, Slavery, Race, and Conquest in the Tropics: Lincoln, Douglas, and the Future of Latin America (Cambridge, Eng., 2013); Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill, 2000); James Oakes, The Scorpion’s Sting: Antislavery and the Coming of the Civil War (New York, 2014); James Brewer Stewart, Abolitionist Politics and the Coming of the Civil War (Amherst, Mass., 2005); David Ericson, Slavery in the American Republic: Developing the Federal Government, 1791–1861 (Lawrence, Kan., 2011).

9. W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Black Folk Played in the Reconstruction of Democracy in America, 1860–1880 (New York, 1935); James Oakes, Freedom National: The Destruction of Slavery, 1861–1865 (New York, 2013); Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877(New York, 1988); Amy Dru Stanley, From Bondage to Contract: Wage Labor, Marriage, and the Market in the Age of Slave Emancipation (Cambridge, Eng., 1998); Steven Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge, Mass., 2003).

10. Robin Blackburn, The American Crucible: Slavery, Emancipation and Human Rights (London, 2011); Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge, Eng., 2009); David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Emancipation (New York, 2014).

CHAPTER ONE. PROPHETS WITHOUT HONOR

1. Eric Robert Taylor, If We Must Die: Shipboard Insurrections in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade (Baton Rouge, 2006), 21, 90, 113, 167–68; Sylviane A. Diouf, ed., Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies (Athens, Ohio, 2003); Michael A. Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South (Chapel Hill, 1998), 160, 199–214; Randy J. Sparks, Where the Negroes Are Masters: An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade (Cambridge, Mass., 2014).

2. David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Ithaca, 1966), 111–14; Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (London, 1988), chap. 1; Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern 1492–1800 (London, 1997), 135–37, 150–56; Special Issue on Free Soil, S&A 32 (2011).

3. Bartolomé de las Casas, An Account, Much Abbreviated, of the Destruction of the Indies With Related Texts, Franklin W. Knight, ed. (Indianapolis, 2003); Daniel Castro, Another Face of Empire: Bartolomé de las Casas, Indigenous Rights, and Ecclesiastical Imperialism (Durham, 2007); Alonso de Sandoval, S.J., Treatise on Slavery: Selections from De instuaranda Aethiopum salute, ed. and trans. Nicole von Germeten (Indianapolis, 2008), introduction, 50–59, 66–84; Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture, 169–96; Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, Slavery, Freedom and Abolition in Latin America and the Atlantic World (Albuquerque, 2011), 22–23; Richard Gray, Black Christians and White Missionaries (New Haven, 1990), chap. 1.

4. Roger Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man and a Brother: The Antislavery Crusade of Revolutionary America, 1688–1788 (New York, 1977), 3, 6, 8; Henry J. Cadbury, “An Early Quaker Anti-Slavery Statement,” JNH 22 (October 1937): 488–93; Katherine Gerbner, “‘We Are Against the Traffick of Men-Body’: The Germantown Quaker Protest of 1688 and the Origins of American Abolitionism,” PH 74 (Spring 2007): 149–72; Kenneth L. Carroll, “William Sotheby, Early Quaker Antislavery Writer,” PMHB 89 (October 1965): 416–27; Mary Stoughton Locke, Antislavery in America from the Introduction of African Slaves to the Prohibition of the Slave Trade (1619–1808) (Boston, 1901), 21–40; Brycchan Carey, From Peace to Freedom: Quaker Rhetoric and the Birth of American Antislavery, 1657–1761 (New Haven, 2012).

5. George Fox, To The Ministers, Teachers, and Priests (so called and so Stileing your Selves) in Barbados (London, 1672), 5; G. F. [George Fox], Gospel Family=Order, Being a Short Discourse Concerning the Ordering of Families, Both of Whites, Blacks and Indians (repr., Philadelphia, 1701), 14–17; J. William Frost, ed., The Quaker Origins of Antislavery (Norwood, Pa., 1980), introduction; Edmundson quoted on p. 68; Thomas E. Drake, Quakers and Slavery in America (New Haven, 1950), chaps. 1, 2; Jean R. Soderlund, Quakers and Slavery: A Divided Spirit (Princeton, 1985).

6. Henry J. Cadbury, John Hepburn and His Book Against Slavery, 1715 (Worcester, Mass., 1949), 90–91, 104–5, 117; Elihu Coleman, A Testimony Against the Anti-Christian Practice of Making Slaves of Men (1733; repr., New Bedford, 1825), 22; Benjamin Lay, All Slave-Keepers that Keep the Innocent in Bondage, Apostates . . . (Philadelphia, 1737), 271; James Oliver and Lois E. Horton, In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1700–1860 (New York, 1997), chap. 2; Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker, The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic (Boston, 2000).

7. Cadbury, John Hepburn and His Book Against Slavery, 122, 149, 153; Ralph Sandiford, The Mystery of Iniquity . . . , 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1730), 7–8, 81–86, 100–107; Lay, All Slave-Keepers, 21–22, 229; Roberts Vaux, Memoirs of the Lives of Benjamin Lay and Ralph Sandiford: Two of the Earliest Public Advocates for the Emancipation of the Enslaved Africans (Philadelphia, 1815); David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (Ithaca, 1975), chap. 5; Philip Gould, Barbaric Traffic: Commerce and Antislavery in the 18th Century Atlantic World (Cambridge, Eng., 2003), esp. chap. 1.

8. Christopher Hill, The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (New York, 1972); John Donoghue, “‘Out of the Land of Bondage’: The English Revolution and the Atlantic Origins of Abolition,” AHR 115 (October 2010): 943–74; Richard Baxter, A Christian directory, or, A summ of practical theologie . . . (London, 1673), 557–60; Thomas Tryon, Friendly Advice to the Gentleman Planters of the East and West Indies in Three Parts (London, 1684), 75–224; James G. Basker, ed., Amazing Grace: An Anthology of Poems About Slavery, 1660–1810 (New Haven, 2002), 25; Philippe Rosenberg, “Thomas Tryon and the Seventeenth-Century Dimensions of Antislavery,” WMQ 61 (2004): 609–42; Kim F. Hall, “‘Extravagant Viciousness’: Slavery and Gluttony in the Works of Thomas Tyron,” in Philip D. Beidler and Gary Taylor, eds., Writing Race Across the Atlantic World (New York, 2005), 93–112; David Waldstreicher, “Benjamin Franklin, Religion, and Early Antislavery,” in Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, eds., The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2007), 162–73.

9. Morgan Godwyn, The Negros and Indians Advocate, Suing for their Admission into the Church: or A Persuasive to the Instructing and Baptizing of the Negros and Indians in our Plantations (London, 1680), 3–5, 7, 9–86, 164–65; Alden T. Vaughn, Roots of American Racism: Essays on the Colonial Experience (New York, 1995), chap. 3; Sylvia R. Frey and Betty Wood, Come Shouting to Zion: African American Protestantism in the American South and British Caribbean to 1830 (Chapel Hill, 1988), chap. 2.

10. Thomas Bacon, Two Sermons Preached to a Congregation of Black Slaves (London, 1749); John Bell, “An Epistle to Friends (1741),” in Frost, ed., Quaker Origins of Antislavery, 134–37; Samuel Davies, The Duty of Christians to Propagate their Religion among Heathens, Earnestly Recommended to the Masters of Negroe Slaves in Virginia(London, 1758); Travis Glasson, “‘Baptism Does Not Bestow Freedom’: Missionary Anglicanism, Slavery, and the Yorke–Talbot Opinion,” WMQ 67 (April 2010): 279–318; John C. Van Horne, ed., Religious Philanthropy and Colonial Slavery: The American Correspondence of the Associates of Dr. Bray, 1717–1777 (Urbana, 1985); Jeffrey H. Richards, “Samuel Davies and the Transatlantic Campaign for Slave Literacy in Virginia,” VMHB 111 (2003): 333–78; Harry S. Stout, The Divine Dramatist: George Whitefield and the Rise of Modern Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, 1991), 197–99; Terry L. Myers, “Benjamin Franklin, the College of William and Mary, and the Williamsburg Bray School,” Anglican and Episcopal History 368 (2010); Maurice Jackson, Let This Voice Be Heard: Anthony Benezet, Father of Atlantic Abolitionism (Philadelphia, 2009), 2–9.

11. Cotton Mather, A Good Master Well Served (Boston, 1696); Mather, The Negro Christianized: An Essay to Excite and Assist the Good Work, the Instruction of Negro-Servants in Christianity (Boston, 1706), 19; Mather, Rules for the Society of Negroes. 1693 (Boston, 1714); Christopher Cameron, “The Puritan Origins of Black Abolitionism in Massachusetts,” Historical Journal of Massachusetts (Summer 2011): 78–107; Lorenzo J. Greene, The Negro in Colonial New England, 1620–1776 (New York, 1942), 263–87; William D. Piersen, Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst, Mass., 1998), 40, 50–59; Craig Steven Wilder, Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America’s Universities (New York, 2013), 123, 190–91.

12. [Samuel Sewall], The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial (Boston, 1700), 1–3; Locke, Antislavery in America, 15–18; Mel Yazawa, ed., The Diary and Life of Samuel Sewall (Boston, 1988), 3; Mark A. Peterson, “The Selling of Joseph: Bostonians, Antislavery, and the Protestant International, 1689–1733,” MHR 4 (2002): 1–22.

13. John Saffin, A Brief and Candid Answer to a Late printed Sheet, Entitled, The Selling of Joseph (Boston, 1701); George H. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts (New York, 1866), 89–97, 112, 251–56; Abner C. Goodell Jr., “John Saffin and His Slave Adam,” Transactions 1892–94, vol. 1 of Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts (Boston, 1895), 87–112; Lawrence W. Towner, “The Sewall–Saffin Dialogue on Slavery,” WMQ 21 (January 1964): 40–52; “Early Negro Petitions for Freedom,” in Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1950), 1:1–4; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 30; Sandiford, Mystery of Iniquity, 28.

14. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 64–68; Graham Russell Hodges and Alan Edward Brown, eds., “Pretends to be Free”: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey (New York, 1994); Harvey Jackson, “The Darien Antislavery Petition of 1739 and the Georgia Plan,” WMQ 34 (1977): 618–31; Jackson, “Hugh Bryan and the Evangelical Movement in Colonial South Carolina,” WMQ 43 (October 1986): 594–614; Jill LePore, New York Burning: Liberty, Slavery and Conspiracy in Eighteenth-Century Manhattan (New York, 2005); Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:4–5; Peter Wood, Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion (New York, 1974), chap. 12; Jane G. Landers, “The Atlantic Transformations of Francisco Menéndez,” in Lisa A. Lindsay and John Wood Sweet, eds, Biography and the Black Atlantic (Philadelphia, 2014), 209–23; Allan Gallay, “The Origins of Slaveholders’ Paternalism: George Whitefield, the Bryan Family, and the Great Awakening in the South,” JSH 53 (August 1987): 369–94.

15. Lay, All Slave-Keepers, 32–40, 44–45, 87, 93, 178; Carey, From Peace to Freedom, 164–76.

16. [John Woolman], A Journal of the Life, Gospel Labours, and Christian Experiences of that Faithful Minister of Jesus Christ John Woolman, in The Works of John Woolman in Two Parts, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1775), 15–16, 64–65, 91–95, 120; Vincent Brown, Slave Revolt in Jamaica, 1760–1761: A Cartographic Narrative (2012)http://revolt.axismaps.com/project.html; Mike Heller, ed., The Tendering Presence: Essays on John Woolman (Wallingford, Pa., 2003); Carey, From Peace to Freedom, 207–19.

17. [John Woolman], Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes Recommended to the Professors of Christianity of every Denomination First printed in the Year 1754, in The Works of John Woolman, 253, 262; Woolman, Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes. Recommended to the Professors of Christianity, of every Denomination Part Second (Philadelphia, 1762), 8, 12, 29–30, 52; “A Plea for the Poor or A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich,” in Phillips P. Moulton, ed., The Journal and Major Essays of John Woolman (New York, 1971), 238–72; James Proud, ed., John Woolman and the Affairs of Truth: The Journalist’s Essays, Epistles, and Ephemera (San Francisco, 2010), 62–86; Thomas P. Slaughter, The Beautiful Soul of John Woolman, Apostle of Abolition (New York, 2008), 269–71; Geoffrey Plank, John Woolman’s Path to the Peaceable Kingdom: A Quaker in the British Empire (Philadelphia, 2012), chap. 5; Ellen M. Ross, “‘Liberation Is Coming Soon’: The Radical Reformation of Joshua Evans (1731–1798),” in Brycchan Carey and Geoffrey Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition (Urbana, 2014), 15–28.

18. George S. Brookes, Friend Anthony Benezet (Philadelphia, 1937), chap. 6, 475–77; Frost, ed., Quaker Origins of Antislavery, 167–69; James G. Basker, ed., Early American Abolitionists: A Collection of Anti-Slavery Writings, 1760–1820 (New York, 2005), 9–15; David L. Crosby, “Anthony Benezet’s Transformation of Anti-Slavery Rhetoric,” S&A 23 (2002): 39–58; Maurice Jackson, “Anthony Benezet: Working the Antislavery Cause inside and outside of ‘The Society,’” in Carey and Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition, 106–19.

19. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 80–81, 90–91, 95–96; Jonathan D. Sassi, “Africans in the Quaker Image: Anthony Benezet, African Travel Narratives and Revolutionary-Era Antislavery,” Journal of Early Modern History 10 (2006): 95–130; Roger A. Bruns, “Anthony Benezet’s Assertion of Negro Equality,” JNH 56 (1971): 230–38; Maurice Jackson, “The Social and Intellectual Origins of Anthony Benezet’s Antislavery Radicalism,” PH 66 (Special Issue, 1999): 86–112; Nancy Slacom Hornick, “Anthony Benezet and the African’s School: Toward a Theory of Full Equality,” PMHB 99 (1975): 399–421.

20. Granville Sharp, A Representation of the Injustice and Dangerous Tendency of Tolerating Slavery; Or, Of Admitting the Least Claim of Private Property in the Persons of Men, in England . . . (London, 1769); Prince Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, Esq. . . . (London, 1820), chap. 4; Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves(New York, 2005), 43–51; Steven M. Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery (Cambridge, Mass., 2005); Mark S. Weiner, “New Biographical Evidence on Somerset’s Case,” S&A 23 (April 2002): 121–36; Sue Peabody, “There Are No Slaves in France”: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancient Regime (New York, 1996), 57–71, 88–94, 97–105.

21. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 193–99, 262–67, 269–70, 302–6; Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, 39–43, 95–104; Granville Sharp, The Law of Retribution; or, a Serious Warning to Great Britain and her Colonies . . . (London, 1776), 1–3, 11–57, 176, 206–7, 262–63, 300–316, appendix 1, An Essay on Slavery . . . (first published in Burlington, N.J., 1773); Sharp, The Just Limitation of Slavery in the Laws of God, compared with the Unbounded Claims of the AFRICAN TRADERS and BRITISH AMERICAN SLAVEHOLDERS (London, 1776), 2–3, 10–12, 33–50, 54–55; Sharp, The Law of Passive Obedience, or Christian Submission to Personal Injuries . . . (London, 1776), 7–20; Sharp, The Law of Liberty, or Royal Law, by which all Mankind Shall be Judged! Earnestly Recommended to the Serious Consideration of all Slaveholders and Slavedealers (London, 1776), esp. 5–10, 30–34, 48–49; E. C. P. Lascelles, Granville Sharp and the Freedom of Slaves in England (London, 1928); Christopher Leslie Brown, Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism (Chapel Hill, 2006), chap. 3.

22. Anthony Benezet, Some Historical Account of Guinea . . . (Philadelphia, 1771), 78, 117; Anthony Benezet and John Wesley, Views of American Slavery (repr., New York, 1969), 71–104; Jackson, Let This Voice Be Heard.

23. Brookes, Friend Anthony Benezet, 207–472; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 139–41, 267–69, 308–16, 379–84; Anthony Benezet, Short Observations on Slavery, Introductory to some Extracts from the writing of the Abbé Raynal, on that important Subject (Philadelphia, 1781), 12; dated to 1783 by David L. Crosby, ed., The Complete Antislavery Writings of Anthony Benezet, 1754–1783 (Baton Rouge, 2013), 243; L. H. Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, vol. 1, 1761–1792 (Princeton, 1951), 80.

24. Henry Louis Gates Jr., ed., “Race,” Writing, and Difference (Chicago, 1986), introduction; Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass., 1993); David Scott, Conscripts of Modernity: The Tragedy of Colonial Enlightenment (Durham, 2004); Laura Doyle, Freedom’s Empire: Race and the Rise of the Novel in Atlantic Modernity, 1640–1940 (Durham, 2008), 3–15.

25. J. Mira Seo and John Quinn, eds., The Complete Works of Juan Latino, the First Black Poet (Forthcoming), with permission to cite from Mira Seo; V. B. Spratlin, Juan Latino, Slave and Humanist (New York, 1938); Baltasar Fra Molinero, “Juan Latino and His Racial Difference,” Black Africans in Renaissance Europe (2005), 326–44; Lisa Voigt, Writing Captivity in the Early Modern Atlantic: Circulations of Knowledge and Authority in the Iberian and English Worlds (Chapel Hill, 2009), 33–34.

26. Burchard Brentjes, Anton Wilhelm Amo: der schwarze Philosoph in Halle (Leipzig, 1976); Reginald Bess, “A. W. Amo: First Great Black Man of Letters,” JBS 19 (June 1989): 387–93; Marilyn Sephocle, “Anton Willhelm Amo,” JBS 23 (December 1992): 182–87; Andrej Krause, “Anton Wilhelm Amo’s Ontology,” Philosophia Africana 12 (Fall 2009): 141; Grant Parker, trans. and ed., The Agony of Asar: A Thesis on Slavery by a Former Slave, Jacobus, Elisa Johannes Capitein, 1717–1747 (Princeton, 2001); Henri Grégoire, An Enquiry Concerning the Intellectual and Moral Faculties, and Literature of Negroes, ed. Graham Russell Hodges (Armonk, N.Y., 1997), 76–77, 85–90.

27. Thomas Bluett, Some Memoirs of the Life of Job, the Son of Solomon the High Priest of Boonda in Africa . . . (London, 1734); Philip D. Curtin, ed., Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade (Madison, 1967), chap. 1; Paul Edwards and James Walvin, Black Personalities in the Era of the Slave Trade (Baton Rouge, 1983), 211–17; [William Dodd], The African Prince, Now in England to Zara at His Father’s Court (London, 1749); [Dodd], Zara at the Court of Annamaboe to the African Prince, Now in England (London, 1749); Randy J. Sparks, The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass., 2004).

28. Lucy Terry Prince, “Bars Fight,” in Vincent Carretta, ed., Phillis Wheatley: Complete Writings (New York, 2001), 199–200; Frances Smith Foster, Written by Herself: Literary Production by African American Women, 1746–1892 (Bloomington, 1993), 23–30; David R. Proper, “Lucy Terry Prince: ‘Singer of History,’” Contributions in Black History9 (1990–92): 187–214; Sharon M. Harris, Executing Race: Early American Women’s Narratives of Race, Society and the Law (Columbus, 2005), 150–84; Gretchen Holbrook Gerzina, Researched with Anthony Gerzina, Mr. and Mrs. Prince: How an Extraordinary Eighteenth-Century Family Moved Out of Slavery and into Legend (New York, 2008).

29. Dorothy Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837 (Boston, 1971), 522–28; Karen A. Weylar, “Race, Redemption and Captivity in A Narrative of the Lord’s Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant, a Black, and Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings and Surprizing Deliverance of Briton Hammon, a Negro Man,” and Robert Desrochers Jr., “‘Surprizing Deliverance’?: Slavery and Freedom, Language, and Identity in the Narrative of Briton Hammon, ‘A Negro Man,’” in Vincent Carretta and Philip Gould, eds., Genius in Bondage: Literature of the Early Black Atlantic (Lexington, Ky., 2001), 43–45, 153–74.

30A NARRATIVE OF THE Most Remarkable Particulars in the LIFE of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw . . . (Bath, Eng., 1772), 37–39; Henry Louis Gates Jr., The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (New York, 1988), 132–42.

31. Henry J. Cadbury, “Negro Membership in the Society of Friends,” JNH 21 (April 1936): 151–213; James D. Essig, The Bonds of Wickedness: American Evangelicals Against Slavery, 1770–1808 (Philadelphia, 1982), chaps. 1, 2; Dee E. Andrews, The Methodists and Revolutionary America, 1760–1800: The Shaping of an Evangelical Culture(Princeton, 2005), esp. chap. 5; Albert J. Raboteau, “The Slave Church in the Era of the American Revolution,” in Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman, eds., Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution (Charlottesville, Va., 1983), 193–213; Mechal Sobel, Trabelin’ On: The Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith (Princeton, 1979); Jon Sensbach, Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World(Cambridge, Mass., 2005), esp. 85–158.

32. Nathan O. Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity (New Haven, 1989); Eddie Glaude Jr., Exodus! Religion, Race, and Nation in Early Nineteenth-Century Black America (Chicago, 2000); Joanna Brooks, American Lazarus: Religion and the Rise of African-American and Native American Literatures (New York, 2003), introduction, 93; Catherine Adams and Elizabeth H. Pleck, Love of Freedom: Black Women in Colonial and Revolutionary New England (New York, 2010), 6–8; Erik R. Seeman, “‘Justise Must Take Plase’: Three African Americans Speak of Religion in Eighteenth-Century New England,” WMQ 56 (April 1999): 393–414; Peter H. Wood, Strange New Land: Africans in Colonial America (New York, 1996), 90; J. William Harris, The Hanging of Thomas Jeremiah: A Free Black Man’s Encounter with Liberty (New Haven, 2009), 72–78, 84–86.

33. [Margaretta Matilda Odell], Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, A Native African and a Slave Also, Poems By a Slave, 3d ed. (Boston, 1838); Henry Louis Gates Jr., The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America’s First Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers (New York, 2003); John C. Shields, “Phillis Wheatley’s Struggle for Freedom in Her Poetry and Prose,” in The Collected Works of Phillis Wheatley (New York, 1988), 229–70; William H. Robinson, “On Phillis Wheatley and Her Boston,” in Phillis Wheatley and Her Writings (New York, 1984), 3–69; David Grimsted, “Anglo-American Racism and Phillis Wheatley’s ‘Sable Veil,’ ‘Length’ned Chain,’ and “Knitted Heart,’” in Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds., Women in the Age of the American Revolution (Charlottesville, Va., 1989), 338–444; Julian D. Mason, ed., The Poems of Phillis Wheatley, enl. ed. (Chapel Hill, 1989), 1–34; Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia; written in the year 1781, Somewhat Corrected and Enlarged in the Winter of 1782 (London, 1787), 257; Vincent Carretta, Phillis Wheatley: Biography of a Genius in Bondage (Athens, Ga., 2011).

34. Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study (Cambridge, Mass., 1982); Vincent Brown, The Reaper’s Garden: Death and Power in the World of Atlantic Slavery (Cambridge, Mass., 2008); [Odell], Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, 12–20; Carretta, Phillis Wheatley, 34–35, 40, 70, 75, 87; William H. Robinson, “On Phillis Wheatley’s Poetry,” in Phillis Wheatley and Her Writings (New York: Garland, 1984), 87–126; John C. Shields, “Phillis Wheatley’s Subversive Pastoral,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Summer 1994): 631–47.

35. [Odell], Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, 21–22; James G. Basker, ed., American Antislavery Writings: Colonial Beginnings to Emancipation (New York, 2012), 49; Carretta, Phillis Wheatley, 13, 223–24; Winthrop Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill, 1968), chap. 6.

36. Oscar Wegelin, Jupiter Hammon, American Negro Poet: Selections from His Writings and a Bibliography (Miami, 1969), 7–28, 33, 42; Sondra A. O’Neale, Jupiter Hammon and the Biblical Beginnings of African-American Literature (Metuchen, N.J., 1993), introduction.

37. Carretta, ed., Phillis Wheatley, 59–60, 141–43, 148–49, 150, 153–54, 156–57, 161, 162; R. Lynn Matson, “Phillis Wheatley—Soul Sister?” Phylon 33 (Fall 1972): 222–30; Carretta, Phillis Wheatley, 44, 107.

38. Carretta, Phillis Wheatley, 40, 93, 153; Dwight A. McBride, Impossible Witnesses: Truth, Abolitionism, and Slave Testimony (New York, 2001), chap. 4; Charles W. Akers, “‘Our Modern Egyptians’: Phillis Wheatley and the Whig Campaign Against Slavery in Revolutionary Boston,” JNH 60 (July 1975): 397–410; Phillip M. Richards, “Phillis Wheatley and Literary Americanization,” American Quarterly 44 (June 1992): 163–91.

39. [Odell], Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, 9–10, 24–29, 37; Carretta, Phillis Wheatley, 10, 89, 150, 152, 172–202; Frank Shuffleton, “On Her Own Footing: Phillis Wheatley on Freedom,” in Carretta and Gould, eds., Genius in Bondage., 175–89; Henry Weincek, An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves and the Creation of America(New York, 2003), 205–14; Vincent Carretta and Ty M. Reese, eds., The Life and Letters of Philip Quaque: The First African Anglican Missionary (Athens, Ga., 2010), introduction, 111–16; Margot Minardi, Making Slavery History: Abolitionism and the Politics of Memory in Massachusetts (New York, 2010): 100–101.

CHAPTER TWO. REVOLUTIONARY ANTISLAVERY IN BLACK AND WHITE

1. William C. Nell, The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution . . . (Boston, 1855), 14–18; Charles R. Foy, “Seeking Freedom in the Atlantic World, 1713–1783,” Early American Studies (Spring 2006): 46–77; James Oliver and Lois E. Horton, In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1700–1860 (New York, 1997): 51–54; Stephen Kantrowitz, More than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829–1889 (New York, 2012), chap. 5.

2. David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (Ithaca, 1975); Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution, 1789–1848 (London, 1962); for a corrective, see Jeremy Adelman, “An Age of Imperial Revolutions,” AHR 113 (April 2008): 319–40.

3. Manisha Sinha, “To ‘Cast Just Obliquy’ on Oppressors: Black Radicalism in the Age of Revolution,” WMQ 64 (January 2007): 149–60; Douglas R. Egerton, Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America (New York, 2009).

4. Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 2004); Robin Blackburn, “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution,” WMQ 63 (October 2006): 643–74; Sibylle Fischer, Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Durham, 2004).

5. Roger Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man and a Brother: The Antislavery Crusade of Revolutionary America, 1688–1788 (New York, 1977), 226, 239; David Freeman Hawke, Benjamin Rush: Revolutionary Gadfly (Indianapolis, 1971), 104–9; Srividhya Swaminathan, “Developing the West Indian Proslavery Position after the Somerset Decision,” S&A 24 (2003): 40–60; John Locke, Of Civil Government: Two Treatises (repr., London, 1924); Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract (Ithaca, 1997); C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: From Hobbes to Locke (London, 1962); Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (New York, 1975); Duncan J. MacLeod, Slavery, Race and the American Revolution (Cambridge, Eng., 1974); Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, 1999).

6. Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), 232–46; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 104, 112, 128–29, 188, 239, 273, 335; James G. Basker, ed., American Antislavery Writings: Colonial Beginnings to Emancipation (New York, 2012), 46–48; Jacob Green, Observations on the Reconciliation of Great Britain and the Colonies, ed. Larry L. Gerlach (Trenton, 1976), 29.

7. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 338–39, 376–79, 385–86; James Lynch, “The Limits of Revolutionary Radicalism: Tom Paine and Slavery,” PMHB 123 (July 1999): 177–99.

8. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 273, 335, 293–302.

9. Ibid., 316–37, 340–48, 358–65; Kenneth P. Minkema, “Jonathan Edwards on Slavery and the Slave Trade,” WMQ 54 (October 1997): 823–34; Robert L. Ferm, Jonathan Edwards the Younger, 1745–1801: A Colonial Pastor (Grand Rapids, 1976), 93–95; Kenneth P. Minkema and Harry S. Stout, “The Edwardsean Tradition and the Antislavery Debate, 1740–1865,” JAH 92 (June 2005): 47–74.

10The Works of Samuel Hopkins, D.D. . . . (Boston, 1854), 1:114–38; Catherine A. Brekus, Sarah Osborn’s World: The Rise of Evangelical Christianity in Early America (New Haven, 2013); Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 290–93; J. William Frost, ed., The Quaker Origins of Antislavery (Norwood, Pa., 1980), 257–58; Edmund S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan: A Life of Ezra Stiles, 1727–1795 (New Haven, 1962); Oliver Wendell Elsbree, “Samuel Hopkins and His Doctrine of Benevolence,” NEQ 8 (December 1935): 534–50; David S. Lovejoy, “Samuel Hopkins: Religion, Slavery, and the Revolution,” NEQ 40 (June 1967): 227–43.

11The Works of Samuel Hopkins, D.D. . . . (Boston, 1854), 2:549, 569, 571, 576, 589; Joseph A. Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregational Ministry, and Reform in New England Between the Great Awakenings (Grand Rapids, 1981), 128–31.

12. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 475–86; Basker, ed., American Antislavery Writings, 50–51; François Furstenberg, “Atlantic Slavery, Atlantic Freedom: George Washington, Slavery, and Transatlantic Abolitionist Networks,” WMQ 68 (April 2011): 247–86; Richard Price, Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution . . . (Dublin, 1785), 83–84.

13. F. Nwabueze Okoye, “Chattel Slavery as the Nightmare of the American Revolutionaries,” WMQ 37 (January 1980): 3–28; An American, An Essay in Vindication of the Continental Colonies of America, from a Censure of Mr. Adam Smith . . . (London, 1764), 9–16, 29–46; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 107–11; Basker, ed., American Antislavery Writings, 39–45; Louis W. Potts, Arthur Lee: A Virtuous Revolutionary (Baton Rouge, 1981), 27–30; David Waldstreicher, Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery and the American Revolution (New York, 2004).

14. [Thomas Jefferson], A Summary View of the Rights of British America . . . (Williamsburg, Va., 1774), 17; Sidney Kaplan and Emma Nogrady Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770–1800 (Washington, 1973), 26; Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997); David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence: A Global History (Cambridge, Mass., 2007).

15. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 222; Henry Mayer, A Son of Thunder: Patrick Henry and the American Republic (New York, 1986), 166–70; Gregory D. Massey, “The Limits of Antislavery Thought in the Revolutionary Lower South: John Laurens and Henry Laurens,” JSH 63 (August 1997): 495–530; Basker, ed., American Antislavery Writings, 96–97; Milton E. Flower, John Dickinson Conservative Revolutionary (Charlottesville, Va., 1983); Andrew Levy, The First Emancipator: The Forgotten Story of Robert Carter, the Founding Father Who Freed His Slaves (New York, 2004); William W. Freehling, “The Founding Fathers and Slavery,” AHR 77 (1972): 81–93; Paul Finkelman, Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (New York, 1996), chap. 5; Paul Stephen Clarkson, Luther Martin of Maryland (Baltimore, 1970); Patricia Bradley, Slavery, Propaganda and the American Revolution (Jackson, Miss., 1998).

16. John R. Howe Jr, “John Adams’ View of Slavery,” JNH 49 (July 1964): 201–6; David Waldstreicher, ““The Origins of Antislavery in Pennsylvania: Early Abolitionists and Benjamin Franklin’s Road Not Taken,” in Richard Newman and James Mueller, eds., Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia: Emancipation and the Long Struggle for Racial Justice in the City of Brotherly Love (Baton Rouge, 2011), 45–65; Ron Chernow, Alexander Hamilton (New York, 2004), 210–16; Walter Stahr, John Jay (New York, 2005), 236–39; Daniel C. Littlefield, “John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation and Slavery,” New York History 81 (2000): 91–96; R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered(New York, 2009).

17. Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 1:6–7.

18. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 200, 260–62; The Appendix: or, Some Observations on the Expediency of the Petition of the Africans living in Boston &c . . . (Boston, 1773), 1–14; Massachusetts Spy, June 21, 1775; Christopher Cameron, To Plead Our Own Cause: African Americans in Massachusetts and the Making of the Antislavery Movement(Kent, Ohio, 2014).

19. Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:7, 9, 12–13; Kaplan and Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence, 12, 29; George Livermore, An Historical Research Respecting the Opinions of the Founders of the Republic on Negroes as Slaves, as Citizens, and as Soldiers (Boston, 1863), 116–17; Thomas J. Davis, “Emancipation Rhetoric, Natural Rights and Revolutionary New England: A Note on Four Black Petitions in Massachusetts, 1773–1777,” NEQ 57 (1989): 248–64.

20. Kaplan and Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence, 26–27; Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:9–12; Sinha, “To ‘Cast Just Obliquy’ on Oppressors,” 151–53.

21. Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:7–8, 9–10; Kaplan and Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence, 15.

22. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 338–39; Massachusetts Spy, February 10, 1774.

23. Timothy Mather Cooley, Sketches of the Life and Character of the Rev. Lemuel Haynes . . . (New York, 1837), viii, 28, 69; John Saillant, Black Puritan, Black Republican: The Life and Thought of Lemuel Haynes, 1753–1833 (New York, 2003).

24. Richard D. Brown, “‘Not Only Extreme Poverty, but the Worst Kind of Orphanage’: Lemuel Haynes and the Boundaries of Racial Tolerance on the Yankee Frontier, 1770–1820,” NEQ 75 (March 2002): 509; Richard Newman, ed., Black Preacher to White America: The Collected Writings of Lemuel Haynes, 1774–1833 (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1990), 12; Ruth Bogin, “‘The Battle of Lexington’: A Patriotic Ballad by Lemuel Haynes,” WMQ 42 (October 1985): 499–506.

25. “Liberty Further Extended,” in Newman, ed., Black Preacher to White America, 17–20, 22–24; Ruth Bogin, “‘Liberty Further Extended’: A 1776 Antislavery Manuscript by Lemuel Haynes,” WMQ 40 (January 1983): 85–105; Rita Roberts, “Patriotism and Political Criticism: The Evolution of Political Consciousness in the Mind of a Black Revolutionary Soldier,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Summer 1994): 569–88.

26. Cooley, Life and Character of the Rev. Lemuel Haynes, 89, 93, 124, 317; “Liberty Further Extended,” 29–30; John Saillant, “Slavery and Divine Providence in New England Calvinism: The New Divinity and a Black Protest, 1775–1805,” NEQ 68 (December 1995): 584–608.

27A Sermon on the Present Situation of the Affairs of America and Great-Britain Written By a Black . . . (Philadelphia, 1782), 1–5, 9, 10–11.

28. Newman, ed., Black Preacher to White America, 32, 43–62, 175–200; Sondra A. O’Neale, Jupiter Hammon and the Biblical Beginnings of African-American Literature (Metuchen, N.J., 1993), 84, 99–100, 102–3, 171–73.

29. Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker, The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic (Boston, 2000), chap. 7; Gary B. Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America (New York, 2005), 45–62; Sylvia Frey, Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age (Princeton, 1991); Michael Mullin, Africa in America: Slave Acculturation and Resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736–1831 (Urbana, 1992), chap. 9; Richard B. Sheridan, “The Jamaican Slave Insurrection Scare of 1776 and the American Revolution,” JNH 61 (July 1976): 290–308; Peter H. Wood, “‘Liberty Is Sweet’: African American Freedom Struggles in the Years Before White Independence,” in Alfred F. Young, ed., Beyond the American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism (DeKalb, Ill., 1993), 149–84; J. William Harris, The Hanging of Thomas Jeremiah: A Free Black Man’s Encounter with Liberty (New Haven, 2009).

30. Christopher Leslie Brown and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age (New Haven, 2006); Jane G. Landers, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions (Cambridge, Mass., 2010); Benjamin Quarles, “Lord Dunmore as Liberator,” WMQ 15 (October 1958): 494–507; Michael A. McDonnell, The Politics of War: Race, Class and Conflict in Revolutionary Virginia (Chapel Hill, 2007), 139–44; Alan Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence (Chicago, 2012), 15–37; Cassandra Pybus, Epic Journeys of Freedom: Runaway Slaves of the American Revolution and Their Global Quest for Liberty (Boston, 2006), chap. 1.

31. George H. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts (New York, 1862), 4–7; Moore, Historical Notes on the Employment of Negroes in the American Army of the Revolution (New York, 1866), 243–50; Nell, Colored Patriots, 20–21; William Lloyd Garrison, “The Loyalty and Devotion of Colored Americans in the Revolution and War of 1812,” in The Negro Soldier: A Select Compilation (Boston, 1861); Livermore, Historical Research, 92–97, 110, 111–13, 153; Gary Nash, The Forgotten Fifth: African Americans in the Age of Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 2006), 7–15; Margot Minardi, Making Slavery History: Abolitionism and the Politics of Memory in Massachusetts (New York, 2010), 51–52, 56–58; Peter M. Bergman and Jean McCarroll, eds., The Negro in the Continental Congress (New York, 1969), 1:4–5.

32. Nell, Colored Patriots, 24–25, 50–51, 126–28, 167–71, 198–99; Moore, Historical Notes, 15–22; Livermore, Historical Research, 114–16, 117–28; Lorenzo Greene, “Some Observations on the Black Regiment of Rhode Island in the American Revolution,” JNH 37 (January 1952): 142–72; Kaplan and Kaplan, The Black Presence, 64–69; Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom (Westport, Conn., 1975), 1:328; Benjamin Quarles, “The Revolutionary War as a Black Declaration of Independence,” in Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman, eds., Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution (Charlottesville, Va., 1983), 283–301; John Wood Sweet, Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730–1830 (Baltimore, 2003), 197–209, 215–21; Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists, 98–111; Henry Weincek, An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves and the Creation of America (New York, 2003), 242–48; Dubois, Avengers of the New World, 67.

33. McDonnell, The Politics of War, 261, 282, 338, 417, 475–77, 486–87; Gregory D. Massey, John Laurens and the American Revolution (Columbia, S.C., 2000); Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists, 73–94, 120–21, 168–73.

34. Nell, Colored Patriots, 23, 166–71, 175, 198–99; Moore, Historical Notes, 7–15, 23–24; Foner, History of Black Americans, 1:329–40; Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists, 108, 284; Michael Lee Lanning, African Americans in the Revolutionary War (New York, 2005); Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1961), 60–67, 158–81; Eric Grundset, Briana L Diaz, Hollis L Gentry, Jean D Strahan, Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War; A Guide to Service, Sources and Studies, 2d ed. (Washington, 2008); Julie Winch, A Gentleman of Color: The Life of James Forten (New York, 2002), chap. 2; Charles Foy, “Freedom in Revolutionary Philadelphia: James Forten and Stephen Decatur’s Prize Negroes,” manuscript in author’s possession; Minardi, Making Slavery History, 63–69; Mark J. Sammons and Valerie Cunningham, Black Portsmouth: Three Centuries of African-American Heritage (Durham, N.H., 2004): 68–70.

35. Gerald Horne, The Counter-Revolution of 1776: Slave Resistance and the Origins of the United States of America (New York, 2014); Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists, 128–51; Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863 (Chapel Hill, 1999), chap. 5; Philip Ranlet, “The British, Slaves, and Smallpox in Revolutionary Virginia,” JNH 84 (Summer 1999): 217–26; George Liele, “An ACCOUNT of Several Baptist Churches, consisting chiefly of NEGRO SLAVES: particularly of one at Kingston, in JAMAICA; and another at Savannah in GEORGIA,” in Vincent Carretta, ed., Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth Century (Lexington, Ky., 1996), 325–29; John W. Davis, “George Liele and Andrew Bryan, Pioneer Negro Baptist Preachers,” JNH 3 (April 1918): 119–27.

36. David George, “An Account of the Life of Mr. DAVID GEORGE, from Sierra Leone in Africa . . . ,” and Boston King, “Memoirs of the Life of BOSTON KING, a Black Preacher,” in Carretta, ed., Unchained Voices, 333, 352–53; Herbert Aptheker, The Negro in the American Revolution (New York, 1940), 20; Lathan Algerna Windley, A Profile of Runaway Slaves in Virginia and South Carolina from 1730 through 1787 (New York, 1995); Landers, Atlantic Creoles, chap. 1; Cassandra Pybus, “Jefferson’s Faulty Math: The Question of Slave Defections in the American Revolution,” WMQ 62 (April 2005): 243–64; Bergman and McCarroll, eds., The Negro in the Continental Congress, 1:86–88, 96, 99, 106, 117, 120, 124–35, 138–39; Nash, The Unknown American Revolution, 339, 435.

37. Pybus, Epic Journeys of Freedom, chap. 4; Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution (New York, 2006): 93–156; Graham Russell Hodges, ed., The Black Loyalist Directory: African Americans in Exile After the American Revolution (New York, 1996), introduction; Boston King, “Memoirs,” 356; Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists, 178–206; Maya Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles: American Loyalists and the Revolutionary World (New York, 2011).

38. Prince Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, Esq. . . . (London, 1820), part 3; Mary Beth Norton, “The Fate of Some Black Loyalists of the American Revolution,” JNH 58 (October 1973): 402–26; Schama, Rough Crossings, part 2; James W. St. G. Walker, The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783–1870 (1976; repr., Toronto, 1992); Ellen Gibson Wilson, The Loyal Blacks (New York, 1976); George, “An Account,” 340; King, “Memoirs,” 363; Cassandra Pybus, “Henry ‘Harry’ Washington (1750s–1790s): A Founding Father’s Slave,” in Karen Racine and Beatriz G. Mamigonian, eds., The Human Tradition in the Atlantic World, 1500–1850(Lanham, Md., 2010), 101–16; Catherine Hall, Macaulay and Son: Architects of Imperial Britain (New Haven, 2012); Alexander X. Byrd, Captives and Voyagers: Black Migrations Across the Eighteenth-Century British Atlantic World (Baton Rouge, 2008), 124.

39. C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Touissant L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York, 1963); Laurent Dubois, “The Revolutionary Abolitionists of Haiti,” in Richard Bessel, Nicholas Guyatt, and Jane Rendall, eds., War, Empire and Slavery, 1770–1830 (New York, 2010), 44–60; Nick Nesbitt, Universal Emancipation: The Haitian Revolution and the Radical Enlightenment (Charlottesville, Va., 2008); Blackburn, “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution,” 672.

40. Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789–1804: A Brief History with Documents (Boston, 2006), 69, 84, 116, 120–25, 129–32, 189–90, 192–93, 196; Dubois, Avengers of the New World, 298–300; John D. Garrigus, Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue (New York, 2006); Carolyn E. Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below (Knoxville, 1990); Jeremy D. Popkin, You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery (Cambridge, Eng., 2010); Florence Gauthier, “The Role of the Saint-Domingue Deputation in the Abolition of Slavery,” in Marcel Dorigny, ed., The Abolitions of Slavery: From Léger Félicité Sonthonox to Victor Schoelcher, 1793, 1794, 1848 (New York, 2003), 169–79; Touissant Louverture, The Haitian Revolution, Nick Nesbitt, ed., with introduction by Jean-Bertrand Aristide (London, 2008), 28; Madison Smartt Bell, Touissant Louverture: A Biography (New York, 2007); Philippe R. Girard, The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Touissant Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801–1804 (Tuscaloosa, 2011).

41. Laurent Dubois, “An Enslaved Enlightenment: Rethinking the Intellectual History of the French Atlantic,” Social History 31 (February 2006): 4–7; J. R. Oldfield, Transatlantic Abolitionism in the Age of Revolution: An International History of Anti-Slavery, c. 1787–1820 (Cambridge, Eng., 2013), 17–18; Marie Jean de Caritat, “Reflections on Negro Slavery,” in Lynn Hunt, ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History (Boston, 1996), 55–57; Mercer Cook, “Julien Raimond,” JNH 26 (April 1941): 139–70; John D. Garrigus, “Opportunist or Patriot? Julien Raimond (1744–1801) and the Haitian Revolution,” S&A 48 (April 2007): 1–27; Marcel Dorigny, “Mirabeau and the Société des Amis des Noirs: Which Way to Abolish Slavery?,” in Dorigny, ed., The Abolitions of Slavery, 121–32; Eloise Ellery, Brissot de Warville: A Study in the History of the French Revolution (Boston, 1915), chap. 8.

42. Marcel Dorigny, “The Abbé Grégoire and the Société des Amis des Noirs,” and Alyssa Goldstein Sepinwall, “Exporting the Revolution: Grégoire, Haiti and the Colonial Laboratory, 1815–1827,” in J. D. Popkin and R. H. Popkin, eds., The Abbé Grégoire and His World (Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2000), 27–69; Ruth F. Necheles, The Abbé Grégoire, 1787–1831: The Odyssey of an Egalitarian (Westport, Conn., 1971).

43. Thomas Clarkson, The True State of the Case, Respecting the Insurrection at St. Domingo (Ipswich, 1792), 2–8; Earl Leslie Griggs and Clifford H. Prato, eds., Henri Christophe and Thomas Clarkson: A Correspondence (New York, 1968); Robert Isaac Wilberforce and Samuel Wilberforce, eds., The Correspondence of William Wilberforce(London, 1840), 1:357–63, 366–95; Henry Brougham, A Concise Statement of the Question Regarding the Abolition of the Slave Trade (London, 1804); Brougham, An Inquiry into the Colonial Policies of the European Powers, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1803); David Geggus, “Haiti and the Abolitionists: Opinion, Propaganda and International Politics in Britain and France, 1804–1838,” in David Richardson, ed., Abolition and Its Aftermath: The Historical Context, 1790–1816 (London, 1986), 113–40.

44. Marcus Rainsford, An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti . . . (London, 1805), x, 103, 210–11, 364, 371, 376; Marlene Daut, “Un-Silencing the Past: Boisrond-Tonnerre, Vastey, and the Re-Writing of the Haitian Revolution,” South Atlantic Review 74 (Winter 2009): 35–64; Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (Boston, 1995).

45. Julius S. Scott, “The Common Wind: Currents of Afro-American Communication in the Era of the Haitian Revolution” (Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1986); David Geggus, “The Influence of the Haitian Revolution on Blacks in Latin America and the Caribbean,” in Nancy Priscilla Naro, ed., Blacks, Coloureds and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America (London, 2003), 38–59; Alfred N. Hunt, Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (Baton Rouge, 1988), 26–30; Landers, Atlantic Creoles, 148–59; Matt D. Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion and the Struggles Against Atlantic Slavery (Chapel Hill, 2006); see chapters by Matt D. Childs, Aline Helig, and Marixa Lasso in David Geggus, ed., The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World (Columbia, S.C., 2001); Anne Eller, “‘All would be equal in the effort’: Santo Domingo’s ‘Italian Revolution,’ Independence and Haiti, 1809–1822,” Journal of Early American History 1 (2011): 105–41; Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, Slavery, Freedom, and Abolition in Latin America and the Atlantic World (Albuquerque, 2011), chap. 3; Ada Ferrer, “Haiti, Free Soil, and Antislavery in the Revolutionary Atlantic,” AHR 117 (February 2012): 40–66.

46. Ashli White, Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic (Baltimore, 2010), chap. 4; Robert Alderson, “Charleston’s Rumored Slave Revolt of 1793,” in Geggus, ed., The Impact of the Haitian Revolution, 93–111; James Sidbury, “Saint Domingue in Virginia: Ideology, Local Meanings, and Resistance to Slavery, 1790–1800,” JSH 63 (August 1997): 540–43; Douglas R. Egerton, Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802 (Chapel Hill, 1993); Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill, 2000), 15.

47. Daniel Rasmussen, American Uprising: The Untold Story of America’s Largest Slave Rebellion (New York, 2011), 102; Junius Rodriguez, “Rebellion on the River Road: The Ideology and Influence of Louisiana’s German Coast Slave Insurrection of 1811,” in John R. McKivigan and Stanley Harrold, eds., Antislavery Violence: Sectional, Racial, and Cultural Conflict in Antebellum America (Knoxville, 1999), 65–88; Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South (Cambridge, Mass., 2005), 106–17; Douglas R. Egerton, He Shall Go Out Free: The Lives of Denmark Vesey (Madison, 1999); Ira Berlin, “Documents: After Nat Turner: A Letter from the North,” JNH 55 (1970): 144–51; Aptheker, A Documentary History, 1:53–57.

48. Tim Matthewson, “Abraham Bishop, ‘The Rights of Black Men,’ and the American Reaction to the Haitian Revolution,” JNH 67 (1982): 148–54; McLeod is quoted in Hunt, Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America, 92; White, Encountering Revolution, 207–10; David Brion Davis, Revolutions: Reflections on American Equality and Foreign Liberations (Cambridge, Mass., 1990), 49–54.

49. Donald R. Hickey, “America’s Response to the Slave Revolt in Haiti, 1791–1806,” JER 2 (Winter 1982): 361–79; Ronald Angelo Johnson, Diplomacy in Black and White: John Adams, Toussaint Louverture and Their Atlantic World Alliance (Athens, Ga., 2014); Gordon S. Brown, Touissant’s Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution (Jackson, Miss., 2005); Tim Matthewson, A Proslavery Foreign Policy: Haitian American Relations during the Early Republic (Westport, Conn., 2003); Garry Wills, “Negro President”: Jefferson and the Slave Power (New York, 2003), chap. 2; Michael Zuckerman, Almost Chosen People: Oblique Biographies in the American Grain(Berkeley, 1993), chap. 6; Dubois and Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 161; Rayford W. Logan, The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with Haiti, 1776–1891 (Chapel Hill, 1941); Arthur Scherr, “Jefferson’s ‘Cannibals’ Revisited: A Closer Look at His Notorious Phrase,” JSH 67 (May 2011): 251–82.

50. Hunt, Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America, chap. 2; Kenneth Roberts and Anna M. Roberts, eds., Moreau de St. Méry’s American Journey (1793–1798) (New York, 1947); François Furstenberg, When the United States Spoke French: Five Refugees who Shaped a Nation (New York, 2014); White, Encountering Revolution, 126–33, 174, 180–202; NYMS, NYHS, vol. 7, May 18 1791–February 13, 1807, pp. 13, 141; vol. 10, March 11, 1807–July 8, 1817, p. 6; Reflections on Slavery, with Recent Evidence on its Inhumanity Occasioned by the Melancholy Death of Romain, A French Negro, by Humanitas (Philadelphia, 1803); Kimberly S. Hangar, Bounded Lives, Bounded Spaces: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1763–1803 (Durham, 1997), 167; Caryn Cosse Bell, Revolution, Romanticism and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana, 1718–1868 (Baton Rouge, 1997); Sara E. Johnson, The Fear of French Negroes: Transcolonial Collaboration in the Revolutionary Americas (Berkeley, 2012); Rebecca J. Scott and Jean M. Hebrad, “Rosalie of the Poulard Nation: Freedom, Law, and Dignity in the Era of the Haitian Revolution,” in Lisa A. Lindsay and John Wood Sweet, eds, Biography and the Black Atlantic (Philadelphia, 2014), 248–67; Diane Batts Morrow, Persons of Color and Religious at the Same Time: The Oblate Sisters of Providence, 1829–1860 (Chapel Hill, 2002).

51. Hannah Sawyer Lee, Memoir of Pierre Touissant, Born a Slave in St. Domingo, 2d rev. ed. (Sunbury, Pa., 1992); Arthur Jones, Pierre Touissant (New York, 2003); Susan Branson and Leslie Patrick, “Étrangers dans un Pays Étrange: Saint-Domingan Refugees of Color in Philadelphia,” in Geggus, ed., The Impact of the Haitian Revolution, 199, 202.

52. White, Encountering Revolution, 145; John H. Bracey Jr. and Manisha Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty-First Century, Volume One—To 1877 (Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2004), 68–73; Sara C. Fanning, “The Roots of Early Black Nationalism: Northern African Americans’ Invocations of Haiti in the Early Nineteenth Century,” S&A 28 (April 2007): 61–85; Mitch Kachun, “Antebellum African Americans, Public Commemoration, and the Haitian Revolution: A Problem of Historical Mythmaking,” JER 26 (Summer 2006): 249–69; Prince Saunders, Haytian Papers: A Collection of the Interesting Proclamations and Other Official Documents, Together with some Account of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the Kingdom of Hayti (Boston, 1818), 81.

53. Jeremiah Gloucester, An Oration Delivered on January 1, 1823 in Bethel Church on the Abolition of the Slave Trade (Philadelphia, 1823), 10; GUE, August 1825; September 12, 1825; Winch, A Gentleman of Color, 161, 210; Chris Dixon, African America and Haiti: Emigration and Black Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 2000), 31.

54. Winston James, The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799–1851 (New York, 2010), 5–25, 131–34; Monroe Fordham, “Nineteenth-Century Black Thought in the United States: Some Influences of the Santo Domingo Revolution,” JBS 6 (December 1975): 115–26; Maurice Jackson and Jacqueline Bacon, eds., African Americans and the Haitian Revolution: Selected Essays and Historical Documents (New York, 2010).

CHAPTER THREE. THE LONG NORTHERN EMANCIPATION

1. Sidney Kaplan and Emma Nogrady Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770–1800 (Washington, 1973), 246.

2. Arthur Zilversmit, The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North (Chicago, 1967); Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman, “Philanthropy at Bargain Prices: Notes on the Economics of Gradual Emancipation,” Journal of Legal Studies 3 (June 1974): 377–401.

3. Mary Stoughton Locke, Antislavery in America from the Introduction of African Slaves to the Prohibition of the Slave Trade (1619–1808) (Boston, 1901), 67–69; Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 46–52, 78–83; J. William Frost, ed., The Quaker Origins of Antislavery (Norwood, Pa., 1980), 238–46; Thomas E. Drake, Quakers and Slavery in America (New Haven, 1950), chap. 4; Roger Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man and a Brother: The Antislavery Crusade of Revolutionary America, 1688–1788 (New York, 1977), 493–502; Peter M. Bergman and Jean McCarroll ed., The Negro in the Continental Congress (New York, 1969), 1:96.

4. Leslie Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 (Chicago, 2003); Edgar J. McManus, Black Bondage in the North (Syracuse, 1973); John Wood Sweet, Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730–1830 (Baltimore, 2003), 61; James A. Rawley, The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History(New York, 1981), 264–330; Robert E. Desrochers Jr., “Slave-For-Sale Advertisements and Slavery in Massachusetts, 1704–1781,” WMQ 59 (July 2002): 623–64.

5. George H. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts (New York, 1866), 111–15; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 105–7, 429–32; Christopher Cameron, “The Puritan Origins of Black Abolitionism in Massachusetts,” Historical Journal of Massachusetts (Summer 2011): 92–98; James J. Allegro, “‘Increasing and Strengthening the Country’: Law, Politics, and the Antislavery Movement in Early-Eighteenth-Century Massachusetts Bay,” NEQ 75 (March 2002): 5–23; Emily Blanck, “The Legal Emancipations of Leander and Caesar: Manumission and the Law in Revolutionary South Carolina and Massachusetts,” S&A 28 (August 2007): 235–54; Blanck, “Seventeen Eighty-Three: The Turning Point in the Law of Slavery and Freedom in Massachusetts,” NEQ 75 (March 2002): 27–28; Robert H. Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts (Florence, Mass., 2009), 168, 211, 233.

6. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 429–32; Harvey Amani Whitfield, The Problem of Slavery in Early Vermont, 1777–1810: Essay and Primary Sources (Barre, Vt., 2014), 13–39; Locke, Antislavery in America, 80; Gary Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America (New York, 2005), 282; Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley, 221.

7. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery, 148–54, 182–95; Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 112–13; Elaine MacEacheren, “Emancipation of Slavery in Massachusetts: A Reexamination 1770–1790,” JNH (October 1970): 302–3; Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley, 217.

8. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery, 211–21; Robert M. Spector, “The Quock Walker Cases (1781–83)—Slavery, Its Abolition, and Negro Citizenship in Early Massachusetts,” JNH 53 (January 1968): 12–32; William O’Brien, “Did the Jennison Case Outlaw Slavery in Massachusetts?” WMQ 17 (April 1960): 219–41; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 474–75; John D. Cushing, “The Cushing Court and the Abolition of Slavery in Massachusetts: More Notes on the ‘Quock Walker Case,’” American Journal of Legal History 5 (April 1961): 139–40; cf. Margot Minardi, Making Slavery History: Abolitionism and the Politics of Memory in Massachusetts (New York, 2010), 16–20; Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley, 216; Emily Blanck, Tyrannicide: Forging an American Law of Slavery in Revolutionary South Carolina and Massachusetts (Athens, Ga., 2014).

9. Warren Billings, “The Cases of Fernando and Elizabeth Key: A Note on the Status of Blacks in Seventeenth-Century Virginia,” WMQ 30 (July 1973): 464–74; Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery, 210–11; Chester W. Gregory, “Black Women in Pre-Federal America,” in Mabel E. Deutrich and Virginia C. Purdy, eds., Clio Was a Woman: Studies in the History of American Women(Washington, 1980), 53–70; Blanck, Tyrannicide, 101–2; Catherine Adams and Elizabeth H. Pleck, Love of Freedom: Black Women in Colonial and Revolutionary New England (New York, 2010), 127–29.

10. Arthur Zilversmit, “Quok Walker, Mumbet, and the Abolition of Slavery in Massachusetts,” WMQ 25 (October 1968): 614–24; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 468–69; Harold W. Felton, Mumbet: The Story of Elizabeth Freeman (New York, 1970); Blanck, “Seventeen Eighty-Three,” 38–42; Adams and Pleck, Love of Freedom, 139–48; Richard E. Welch, Theodore Sedgwick, Federalist: A Political Portrait (Middletown, Conn., 1965), 51–52, 102, 249; Nash, The Unknown American Revolution, 409; The Practicability of the Abolition of Slavery: A Lecture Delivered to the Lyceum in Stockbridge, February 1831 (New York, 1831), 14–18; Minardi, Making Slavery History, 125–30.

11. John H. Bracey Jr. and Manisha Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty-First Century, Volume One—To 1877 (Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2004), 56–57; Roy E. Finkenbine, “Belinda’s Petition: Reparations for Slavery in Revolutionary Massachusetts,” WMQ 64 (January 2007): 95–104; Adams and Pleck, Love of Freedom, 167–76; C. S. Manegold, Ten Hills Farm: The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North (Princeton, 2010), 154–55, 236; Sharon M. Harris, Executing Race: Early American Women’s Narratives of Race, Society and the Law (Columbus, 2005), chap. 2.

12. Paul Cuffe and John Cuffe, Petition to the Massachusetts General Court, February 10, 1780, Cuffe Papers, New Bedford Library, and Letter from Paul Cuffe and John Cuffe to the Selectmen in the Town of Dartmouth, April 24, 1781, BAP; Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery, 196–98; Sheldon H. Harris, Paul Cuffe: Black America and the African Return (New York, 1972), 33–37.

13. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 384–85; Edward Needles, An Historical Memoir of the Pennsylvania Society, for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1848), 14–17; James G. Basker, ed., Early American Abolitionists: A Collection of Antislavery Wrtings, 1760–1820 (New York, 2005), 79–80; Gary B. Nash and Jean Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and Its Aftermath (New York, 1991), 80, 113–30; Kirsten Sword, “Remembering Dinah Nevil: Strategic Deceptions in Eighteenth-Century Antislavery,” JAH 97 (September 2010): 315–43.

14. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 445–50; Needles, An Historical Memoir, chap. 3; Nash and Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees, 41–46; Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 124–37.

15. Nash and Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees, 139–41, 203–4; Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia’s Free Black Community, 1720–1840 (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), 63–65; Kaplan and Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence, 30–31; “To ‘Mr. Printer’ by ‘Cato,’” Postscript to the Freeman’s Journal, September 21, 1781.

16. Needles, An Historical Memoir, chap. 4; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 510–15; Basker, ed., Early American Abolitionists, 99; Nash and Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees, 115–27; Nash, The Unknown American Revolution, 411–13; Richard S. Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic (Chapel Hill, 2002), 4–5, 23–31.

17. Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 118–24; David Menschel, “‘Abolition Without Deliverance’: The Law of Connecticut Slavery, 1784–1848,” Yale Law Journal 111 (October 2001): 183–222; Sweet, Bodies Politic, 247–48, 252, 257–59.

18Life of James Mars, A Slave Born and Sold in Connecticut. Written by Himself (Hartford, 1864), 4, 21–25; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 365–69; Joanne Pope Melish, Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780–1860 (Ithaca, 1998), 57–64, 68–73.

19. James B. Hedges, The Browns of Providence Plantation: Colonial Years (Cambridge, Mass., 1951), 72, 79–83; The Works of Samuel Hopkins, D.D. . . . (Boston, 1854), 2:43–48; Joseph A. Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement (Washington, 1981), 133–41; Constitution of a Society for Abolishing the Slave-Trade With Several Acts of the Legislatures of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode-Island for that Purpose (Providence, 1789); Charles Rappleye, Sons of Providence: The Brown Brothers, the Slave Trade, and the American Revolution (New York, 2006); Mack Thompson, Moses Brown: Reluctant Reformer (Chapel Hill, 1962), 105; Sweet, Bodies Politic, 246, 260–62.

20. Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 117; Dinah Mayo-Bobee, “Servile Discontents: Slavery and Resistance in Colonial New Hampshire, 1645–1785,” S&A 30 (September 2009): 339–60; Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley, 218.

21. Robin L. Einhorn, American Taxation, American Slavery (Chicago, 2006); David Waldstreicher, Slavery’s Constitution: From Revolution to Ratification (New York, 2009); George William Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union: Slavery, Politics, and the Constitution in the Early American Republic (Chicago, 2010); Staughton Lynd, Class Conflict, Slavery and the United States Constitution (Indianapolis, 1967); Paul Finkelman, Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (New York, 1996), chaps. 1–3; William W. Freehling, The Reintegration of American History: Slavery and the Civil War (New York, 1994), chap. 2; Howard A. Ohline, “Republicanism and Slavery: Origins of the Three-Fifths Clause in the United States Constitution,” WMQ 28 (October 1971): 563–84; Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States Government’s Relations to Slavery (New York, 2001), chap. 2.

22. Gordon S. Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 (New York, 1972), 510–13; John P. Kaminski, ed., A Necessary Evil? Slavery and the Debate over the Constitution (Madison, 1995), 70–77, 116–17, 128–29, 147–8, 150, 152–53, 166–67, 172–75; Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 520–21, 529–31; Gary B. Nash, Race and Revolution(Madison, 1990), 142–43; David Waldstreicher, Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery and the American Revolution (New York, 2004), 232–35; David Freeman Hawke, Benjamin Rush: Revolutionary Gadfly (Indianapolis, 1971), 345, 360–63; Locke, Antislavery in America, 86–87; Frost, ed., The Quaker Origins of Antislavery, 259; Henry Mayer, A Son of Thunder: Patrick Henry and the American Republic(New York, 1986), 433–34; Robin L. Einhorn, “Patrick Henry’s Case Against the Constitution: The Structural Problem with Slavery,” JER 22 (2002): 549–73; Jeff Broadwater, George Mason: Forgotten Founder (Chapel Hill, 2006).

23. David N. Gellman, Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery and Freedom, 1777–1827 (Baton Rouge, 2006), chap. 3; David N. Gellman and David Quigley, eds., Jim Crow New York: A Documentary History of Race and Citizenship, 1777–1877 (New York, 2003), 25–32; Patrick Rael, “The Long Death of Slavery,” in Ira Berlin and Leslie Harris, eds., Slavery in New York(New York, 2005), 111–46.

24. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man, 504–6; Minutes of the First Meeting of Individuals to Form the Society for the Manumission of Slaves and Protecting Such of them as have been or May be Liberated, January 25, 1785, 4 February [1785], 10 [February 1785], Report of Committee on Resolutions Affecting Members of the Society Holding Slaves ND, Records of the New York Manumission Society, NYHS, vol. 7, May 18 1791–February 13 1807, pp. 144–45, 148–49, 157; Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery, 56; Gellman, Emancipating New York, chap. 4; Gellman and Quigley, eds., Jim Crow New York, 33–38; Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863 (Chapel Hill, 1999), 166–68; Rob Weston, “Alexander Hamilton and the Abolition of Slavery in New York,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 18 (January 1994): 31–45; Daniel C. Littlefield, “John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery,” New York History 87 (January 2000): 91–132; Nancy Isenberg, Fallen Founder: The Life of Aaron Burr (New York, 2007).

25. Gellman, Emancipating New York, chap. 6; Shane White, “Impious Prayers: Elite and Popular Attitudes Towards Blacks and Slavery in the Middle Atlantic States, 1783–1810,” New York History 67 (July 1986): 261–83; Sondra A. O’Neale, Jupiter Hammon and the Biblical Beginnings of African-American Literature (Metuchen, N.J., 1993), 230–41; Craig Wilder, In the Company of Black Men: The African Influence on African American Culture in New York City (New York, 2001), 64–71.

26. Philip S. Foner and Robert James Branham, Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900 (Tuscaloosa, 1998), 20–26; Anna Bustill Smith, “The Bustill Family,” JNH 10 (October 1925): 638–44; Henry J. Cadbury, “Negro Membership in the Society of Friends,” JNH 21 (April 1936): 189–94.

27. Shane White, Somewhat More Independent: The End of Slavery in New York City, 1770–1810 (Athens, Ga., 1991), chap. 5; Graham Russell Hodges and Alan Edward Brown, “Pretends to be Free”: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey (New York, 1994); Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery, 68–70; Carter G. Woodson, Negro Orators and Their Orations (New York, 1925), 14–25.

28. Woodson, Negro Orators, 25–30; Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill, 1968), 8–9, 37–40.

29The Constitution of the New-York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, and Protecting Such of Them as Have Been, or May Be, Liberated. Revised, October, 1796 (New York, 1796); A Discourse Delivered April 12, 1797 . . . By Samuel Miller A.M. . . . (New York, 1797), 9–14, 15, 23–26, 27, 30–32.

30A Discourse, Delivered April 11, 1798 . . . By E. H. Smith . . . (New York, 1798), 5–8, 11–12, 15–16, 23–25; White, Somewhat More Independent, 167, 185; James E. Cronin, ed., The Diary of Elihu Hubbard Smith, 1771–1798 (Philadelphia, 1973).

31. Letter from Wm. Hamilton a black man to his excellency John Jay Esqr Governor of the State of New York, 8 March 1796, John Jay Papers, CU; Gellman and Quigley, eds., Jim Crow New York, 52–55, 67–72; Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 200–214; Melish, Disowning Slavery, 76; Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley, 218–19; Menschel, “Abolition Without Deliverance,” 183–222; Edward Raymond Turner, “The Abolition of Slavery in Pennsylvania,” PMHB 36 (1912): 139.

32. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man and Brother, 440–43, 456–59; Larry R. Gerlach, ed., New Jersey in the American Revolution, 1763–1783: A Documentary History (Trenton, 1975), 437–40; Simeon Moss, “The Persistence of Slavery in a Free State,” JNH 35 (1950): 289–314; Hodges, Root and Branch, chap. 3; Hodges and Brown, eds.,” Pretends to be Free”; Graham Russell Hodges, Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North: African Americans in Monmouth County, New Jersey, 1665–1865 (Madison, 1997), 114–16, 124–36.

33The Constitution of the New Jersey Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Burlington, N.J., 1793); Marion Thompson Wright, “New Jersey Laws and the Negro,” JNH 28 (April 1943): 156–99; Locke, Antislavery in America, 82; Zilversmit, The First Emancipation, 140–46, 152–53, 173–76, 184–89, 192–99; Romer, Slavery in the Connecticut Valley, 220; James J. Gigantino II, The Ragged Road to Abolition: Slavery and Freedom in New Jersey, 1775–1865 (Philadelphia, 2015).

34. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man and Brother, 470–71; Hilda Justice, comp., Life and Ancestry of Warner Mifflin . . . (Philadelphia, 1905), 38–40; The Defence of Warner Mifflin . . . (Philadelphia, 1796), 4, 18; Stephen B. Weeks, Southern Quakers and Slavery: A Study in Institutional History (Baltimore, 1896), chap. 9; A. Glenn Crothers, Quakers Living in the Lion’s Mouth: The Society of Friends in Northern Virginia, 1730–1865 (Gainesville, Fla., 2012), 58–60; Michael L. Nicholls, “‘The Squint of Freedom’: African-American Freedom Suits in Post-Revolutionary Virginia,” S&A 20 (August 1999): 47–62; “Documents: Manumission Papers of Free People of Color of Petersburg, Virginia, Deeds of Emancipation of Negroes Freeing Negroes,” JNH 4 (October 1928): 534–38; Eva Sheppard Wolf, Race and Liberty in the New Nation: Emancipation in Virginia from the Revolution to Nat Turner’s Rebellion (Baton Rouge, 2006), chaps. 1–3.

35. Bruns, ed., Am I Not a Man and Brother, 389, 465–67, 506–9; The Constitution of the Virginia Society, for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Richmond, 1795); Kaminski, ed., A Necessary Evil, 24–26, 269; James D. Essig, The Bonds of Wickedness: American Evangelicals Against Slavery, 1770–1808 (Philadelphia, 1982), chap. 3; Frederika Teute Schmidt and Barbara Ripel Wilhelm, “Early Proslavery Petitions in Virginia,” WMQ 30 (1973): 133–46; Lacy K. Ford, Deliver Us from Evil: The Slavery Question in the Old South (New York, 2009), 23–26; Henry Wiencek, An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America (New York, 2003): 321–24.

36Notes on the State of Virginia; written in the year 1781, Somewhat Corrected and Enlarged in the Winter of 1782 (London, 1787), 250–58, 262–65, 298–301; Peter S. Onuf, The Mind of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville, Va., 2007), part 4; Onuf, “‘To Declare Them a Free and Independent People’: Race, Slavery, and National Identity in Jefferson’s Thought,” JER 18 (Spring 1998): 1–46; Jordan, White Over Black, chap. 12; Bruce Dain, A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 26–39; Alexander Boulton, “The American Paradox: Jeffersonian Equality and Racial Science,” American Quarterly 47 (September 1995): 467–92; “Forum: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings Redux,” WMQ 57 (January 2000): 121–210; Annette Gordon-Reed, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (Charlottesville, Va., 1997); Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family (New York, 2008).

37. Gilbert Imlay, A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America . . . (London, 1797), 222–31; Wil Verhoeven, Gilbert Imlay: Citizen of the World (London, 2008); An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species . . . By the Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith (Philadelphia, 1787); Jordan, White Over Black, 517–21; Louis Ruchames, ed., Racial Thought in America, vol. 1, From the Puritans to Abraham Lincoln, A Documentary History (Amherst, Mass., 1969), 197–99, 218–25; Dain, A Hideous Monster of the Mind, chap. 2.

38. Finkelman, Slavery and the Founders, chap. 6; William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854 (New York, 1990), 1:121–31, 138–43; Gary Wills, “Negro President”: Jefferson and the Slave Power (New York, 2003), chap. 1; Gary B. Nash and Graham Russell Gao Hodges, Friends of Liberty: Thomas Jefferson, Tadeusz Kościuszko and Agrippa Hall, A Tale of Three Patriots, Two Revolutions, and a Tragic Betrayal of Freedom in the New Nation (New York, 2008), 162–70, 213–45; Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South (Cambridge, Mass., 2005); Lucia Stanton, “‘Those who Labor for my Happiness’: Thomas Jefferson and His Slaves,” in Peter Onuf, ed., Jeffersonian Legacies(Charlottesville, Va., 1993), 147–80; Henry Wiencek, Master of the Mountain: Thomas Jefferson and His Slaves (New York, 2012), chaps. 1–4; Peter Onuf, “Thomas Jefferson, Missouri, and the ‘Empire of Liberty,’” in James P. Ronda, ed., Thomas Jefferson and the Changing West(Albuquerque, 1997), 111–53.

39. Gary B. Nash, The Forgotten Fifth: African Americans in the Age of Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 2006), chap. 2; Nash, Race and Revolution, 43–48, 146–50; [Jeremy Belknap], Queries respecting the introduction, progress and abolition of Slavery in Massachusetts (Boston, 1795); St. George Tucker, A Dissertation on Slavery with a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of it, in the State of Virginia (Philadelphia, 1796); Jordan, White Over Black, 457; Philip Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia,” WMQ 55 (1998): 531–56; Paul Finkelman, “The Dragon St. George Could Not Slay: Tucker’s Plan to End Slavery,” 1213–43, and Michael Kent Curtis, “St. George Tucker and the Legacy of Slavery,” 1157–1212, William and Mary Law Review 47 (2006), http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/wmlr/vol47/iss4/5; Alan Taylor, The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia, 1772–1832 (New York, 2013), 85–102, 106–10; Douglas R. Egerton, Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802 (Chapel Hill, 1993), 152–62.

40Constitution of the Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief of Free Negroes, and Others, Unlawfully held in Bondage (Baltimore, 1789); Constitution of the Chester-Town Society, for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief of Free Negroes, and Others, Unlawfully held in Bondage (Baltimore, 1791); William Pinckney, Speech of William Pinckney, Esq., in the House of Delegates of Maryland, at their Session in November 1789 (Philadelphia, 1790); George Buchanan, An Oration Upon the Moral and Political Evil of Slavery . . . (Baltimore, 1793), 6–11; T. Stephen Whitman, The Price of Freedom: Slavery and Manumission in Baltimore and Early National Maryland (Lexington, Ky., 1997), chaps. 4, 5; Barbara Jeanne Fields, Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland During the Nineteenth Century (New Haven, 1985), 141–65, 241; Constitution of the Delaware Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and for the Relief and Protection of Free Blacks and People of Colour, Unlawfully Held in Bondage, or Otherwise Oppressed (Wilmington, 1801); Patience Essah, A House Divided: Slavery and Emancipation in Delaware, 1638–1865 (Charlottesville, Va., 1996), chap. 2; Monte Calvert, “The Abolition Society of Delaware, 1801–1807,” Delaware History 10 (1963): 295–321; William H. Williams, Slavery and Freedom in Delaware, 1639–1865 (Wilmington, Del., 1996), 141–65, 241.

41. Essig, The Bonds of Wickedness, 74–78, 84–88, 117–19; Locke, Antislavery in America, 42–44, 119–23, 170, 183; David Rice, Slavery Inconsistent with Justice and Good Policy . . . (New York, 1812), 17–21, 28–29; Asa Martin, The Antislavery Movement in Kentucky Prior to 1850 (Louisville, Ky., 1918); Martin, “The Anti-Slavery Societies of Tennessee,” Tennessee Historical Magazine 1 (1915): 261–80; Lowell H. Harrison, The Antislavery Movement in Kentucky (Lexington, Ky., 1978), 18–25; Alice Dana Adams, The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in America, 1808–1831 (Williamstown, Mass., 1973), 34–38; Ford, Deliver Us from Evil, 38–46.

42. Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:13–14; Douglas R. Egerton, Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America (New York, 2009), 158–59; Kevin T. Barksdale, The Lost State of Franklin: America’s First Secession (Lexington, Ky., 2009); John Hope Franklin, The Free Negro in North Carolina, 1790–1860 (Chapel Hill, 1943), 41–45.

43. Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 196–212; Jed Handelsman Shugerman, “The Louisiana Purchase and South Carolina’s Reopening of the Slave Trade in 1803,” JER 22 (Summer 2002): 263–90; James A. McMillin, The Final Victims: Foreign Slave Trade to North America, 1783–1810 (Columbia, S.C., 2004); Lewis Dupré, An Admonitory Picture and a Solemn Warning . . . (Charleston, S.C., 1810), esp. 19–24, 34–41; Adams, The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery, 30–31.

44. Leon Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790–1820 (Chicago, 1961), 18–19, 31; Finkelman, Slavery and the Founders, chap. 4; Paul Finkelman, “The Kidnapping of John Davis and the Adoption of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793,” JSH 56 (August 1990): 397–422; Stanley Harrold, Border War: Fighting Over Slavery before the Civil War (Chapel Hill, 2010), 21–23; Matthew Mason, Slavery and Politics in the Early American Republic (Chapel Hill, 2006), 17–18; Fehrenbacher, The Slave-holding Republic, chap. 7.

45The Works of Samuel Hopkins, D.D. . . . (Boston, 1854), 2:613–24; The Defence of Warner Mifflin, 21–24; James O’Kelly, Essay on Negro Slavery (Philadelphia, 1789); Essig, The Bonds of Wickedness, 81; Buchanan, An Oration, 12–16; Melish, Disowning Slavery, 150–62.

CHAPTER FOUR. THE ANGLO-AMERICAN ABOLITION MOVEMENT

1Centennial Anniversary of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1876), 22.

2. Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States Government’s Relations to Slavery (New York, 2001); Michael A. Morrison and James Brewer Stewart, eds., Race and the Early Republic: Racial Consciousness and Nation-Building in the Early Republic (Lanham, Md., 2002); Dale W. Tomich, Through the Prism of Slavery: Labor, Capital, and World Economy (Lanham, Md., 2004), chap. 3.

3. Paul Polgar, “To Raise Them to an Equal Participation: Early National Abolitionism, Gradual Emancipation, and the Promise of African American Citizenship,” JER 31 (Summer 2011): 229–58; Richard Newman, “The Pennsylvania Abolition Society and the Struggle for Racial Justice,” in Newman and James Mueller, eds., Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia: Emancipation and the Long Struggle for Racial Justice in the City of Brotherly Love (Baton Rouge, 2011), 118–46.

4. [J. Philmore], Two Dialogues on the Man-Trade (London, 1760), 4–10, 20–32, 40–57, 61–62; [Maurice Morgann], A Plan for the Abolition of Slavery in the West Indies (London, 1772), esp. 25–26; Sankar Muthu, Enlightenment Against Empire (Princeton, 2003), 210–51; Christopher Leslie Brown, Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism (Chapel Hill, 2006).

5The Case of Our FELLOW-CREATURES . . . (repr., Philadelphia, 1784); The Epistle from the Yearly-Meeting . . . (London, 1785); David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1820 (Ithaca, 1975), chap. 5; Seymour Drescher, “The Shocking Birth of British Abolitionism,” S&A 33 (2012): 571–93; James Walvin, “The Slave Trade, Quakers, and the Early Days of British Abolition,” in Brycchan Carey and Geoffrey Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition (Urbana, 2014), 165–79; Marcus Wood, Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England and America (New York, 2000), 14–27; Maurie D. McInnis, Slaves Waiting for Sale: Abolitionist Art and the American Slave Trade (Chicago, 2011); Jacqueline Francis, “The Brooks Slave Ship Icon: A ‘Universal Symbol’?” S&A 30 (2009): 327–38.

6. Thomas Clarkson, An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species . . . (London, 1786); Clarkson, An Essay on the Impolicy of the African Slave Trade In Two Parts (London, 1788); Clarkson, The Substance of the Evidence of Sundry Persons on the Slave Trade . . . (London, 1789); Clarkson, An Essay on the Comparative Efficiency of Regulation or Abolition, as Applied to the Slave Trade (London, 1789); Clarkson, Letters on the Slave-Trade . . . (London, 1790); Ellen Gibson Wilson, Thomas Clarkson: A Biography, 2d ed. (New York, 1996); Earl Leslie Griggs, Thomas Clarkson: The Friend of Slaves (Ann Arbor, 1938); J. R. Oldfield, Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery: The Mobilisation of Public Opinion against the Slave Trade, 1787–1807 (London, 1998), chap. 3; Dee E. Andrews and Emma Jones Lapansky-Werner, “Thomas Clarkson’s Quaker Trilogy: Abolitionist Narrative as Transformative History,” in Carey and Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition, 194–208.

7. James Ramsay, An Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies (London, 1784), esp. 68–69, 85–86, 198–248, 286–93; Ramsay, An Enquiry into the Effects of Putting a Stop to the African Slave Trade . . . (London, 1784), 9–10; Ramsay, Objections to the Abolition of the Slave Trade, with Answers . . .(London, 1788); F. O. Shyllon, James Ramsay: The Unknown Abolitionist (Edinburgh, 1977); John Newton, The Journal of a Slave Trader (John Newton) 1750–1754 . . . (London, 1962), 98–113; D. Bruce Hindmarsh, John Newton and the English Evangelical Tradition: Between the Conversions of Wesley and Wilberforce (New York, 1996), 58; William E. Phipps, Amazing Grace in John Newton: Slave-Ship Captain, Hymnwriter, and Abolitionist (Macon, Ga., 2001); Marcus Wood, The Poetry of Slavery: An Anglo-American Anthology 1764–1865 (New York, 2003), 77–93.

8. Hannah More, Slavery (Philadelphia, 1788); James G. Basker, ed., Amazing Grace: An Anthology of Poems About Slavery, 1660–1810 (New Haven, 2002), 218; Lilla Maria Crisafulli, “Women and Abolitionism: Hannah More’s and Anne Yearsley’s Poetry of Freedom,” in Cora Kaplan and J. R. Oldfield, eds., Imagining Transatlantic Slavery (New York, 2010), 110–24; Clare Midgley, Women Against Slavery: The British Campaigns, 1780–1870 (London, 1992), esp. 29–35; Marcus Rediker, The Slave Ship: A Human History (New York, 2007), chap. 5; Moira Ferguson, Subject to Others: British Women Writers and Colonial Slavery, 1670–1834 (London, 1992); Brycchan Carey, British Abolitionism and the Rhetoric of Sensibility: Writing, Sentiment, and Slavery, 1760–1807 (New York, 2005).

9. J. R. Oldfield, Transatlantic Abolitionism in the Age of Revolution: An International History of Anti-Slavery, c. 1787–1820 (Cambridge, Eng., 2013), chap. 4; Seymour Drescher, Capitalism and Antislavery: British Mobilization in Comparative Perspective (London, 1986); Leo D’Anjou, Social Movements and Cultural Change: The First Abolition Campaign Revisited (New York, 1996), part 2; Jürgen Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, vol. 1, trans. Thomas McCarthy (Boston, 1985).

10. Seymour Drescher, Econocide: British Slavery in the Era of Abolition (Pittsburgh, 1977); Thomas Bender, ed., The Antislavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation (Berkeley, 1992); Ian Baucom, Specters of the Atlantic: Finance Capital, Slavery and the Philosophy of History (Durham, 2005); Srividhya Swaminathan, Debating the Slave Trade: Rhetoric of British National Identity, 1759–1815 (Surrey, Eng., 2009).

11An Abstract of the Evidence Delivered Before a Select Committee of the House of Commons in the Years 1790 and 1791 . . . (London, 1791); Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 184–95; Oldfield, Transatlantic Abolitionism, chap. 5; [William Preston], A Letter to Bryan Edwards, Esquire . . . (London, 1795); Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge, Eng., 2009), 205–28; Roger Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810 (London, 1975); Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (London, 1988), chap. 8; Granville Sharp, Serious Reflections on the Slave Trade and Slavery . . . (London, 1805), esp. 7–13, 39–40.

12. William Wilberforce, A Letter on the Abolition of the Slave Trade . . . (London, 1807); Robert Isaac Wilberforce and Samuel Wilberforce, The Life of William Wilberforce, 5 vols. (London, 1838); Matthew Mason, “Slavery Overshadowed: Congress Debates Prohibiting the Atlantic Slave Trade to the United States, 1806–1807,” JER 20 (Spring 2000): 59–81; Padraig Riley, “Slavery and the Problem of Democracy in Jeffersonian America,” in John Craig Hammond and Matthew Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery: The Politics of Bondage and Freedom in the New American Nation (Charlottesville, Va., 2011), 236–37.

13. PAS to the London Committee, SEAST, and the Société Française des Amis des Noir, 1790, reel 15, PAS Papers, HSP; Edward Needles, An Historical Memoir of the Pennsylvania Society, for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1848), 30–35; Essays on the Subject of the Slave . . . (Philadelphia, 1791); Description of a Slave Ship(London, 1789); Sir William Elford, Plan of an African Ship’s Lower Deck (Philadelphia, 1789); Extract from the American Museum for May, 1789 (Philadelphia, 1789); Letter from Granville Sharp, Esq. of London to the Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Baltimore, 1793); J. P. Brissot de Warville, An Oration Upon the Necessity of Establishing at Paris, A Society to Cooperate with those in America and London, Towards the Abolition of the Trade and Slavery of the Negroes . . . (Philadelphia, 1788); Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation (Urbana, 1972), 40–41.

14. J. P. Brissot de Warville, New Travels in the United States of America 1788 (Cambridge, Mass., 1964), trans. Mara Soceanu Vamos and ed. Durand Esceverria, xiv–xvii, xxii, xxiii, 162–67, 217–52; Oldfield, Transatlantic Abolitionism, 90–91; Marie-Jeanne Rossignol, “The Quaker Antislavery Commitment and How It Revolutionized French Antislavery through the Crèvecoeur–Brissot Friendship, 1782–1789,” in Carey and Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition, 180–93; Eloise Ellery, Brissot de Warville: A Study in the History of the French Revolution (Boston, 1915), chap. 4; François Furstenberg, “Atlantic Slavery, Atlantic Freedom: George Washington, Slavery, and Transatlantic Abolitionist Networks,” WMQ 68 (April 2011): 247–86; Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 195.

15. Loose Correspondence from Giroud, Society of the Friends of the Blacks and Commissioners in St. Domingue, 17 January 1797, 1798, Undated letters from Raimond and Sonthonox, Zachary Macaulay to PAS, June 4, 1806, Wilberforce to the American Convention, August 28, 1806, reel 12, PAS Papers, HSP; Oldfield, Transatlantic Abolitionism, chap. 7; Drescher, Abolition, 228–41.

16. Peter M. Bergman and Jean McCarroll, eds., The Negro in the Congressional Record, 1789–1801 (New York, 1969), 2:14–19, 20–24, 25–27, 29–35, 36–40; Kaminski, ed., A Necessary Evil?, 212–30; William C. diGiacomantonion, “‘For the Gratification of a Volunteering Society’: Antislavery and Pressure Group Politics in the First Federal Congress,” JER 15 (Summer 1995): 169–97; Richard S. Newman, “Prelude to the Gag Rule: Southern Reaction to Antislavery Petitions in the First Federal Congress,” JER 16 (Winter 1996): 571–99; Robert Parkinson, “‘Manifest Signs of Passion’: The First Federal Congress, Antislavery, and Legacies of the Revolutionary War,” in Hammond and Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery, 49–68; Louis Ruchames, ed., Racial Thought in America, vol. 1, From the Puritans to Abraham Lincoln, A Documentary History (Amherst, Mass., 1969), 206–11; James G. Basker, ed., Early American Abolitionists: A Collection of Antislavery Writings, 1760–1820 (New York, 2005), 242–72.

17Memorials Presented to the Congress of the United States of America . . . (Philadelphia, 1792), 8; Memorials to Congress on Slavery and the Slave Trade, reel 25, PAS Papers, HSP; Warner Mifflin, A Serious Expostulation with the Members of the House of Representatives of the United States (Philadelphia, 1793), 11, 14; Bergman and McCarroll, eds., The Negro in the Congressional Record, 2:50–52; diGiacomantonion, “For the Gratification of a Volunteering Society,” 188–89.

18. Simeon Baldwin, An Oration Pronounced Before the Citizens of New-Haven, July 4th 1788 . . . (New Haven, 1788), 15–16; The Constitution of the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom, and for the Relief of Persons Unlawfully Holden in Bondage (New Haven, 1790); James Dana, The African Slave Trade . . . (New Haven, 1791), 5–33; William Patten, On the Inhumanity of the Slave Trade . . . (Providence, 1793), 5–14; James D. Essig, “Connecticut Ministers and Slavery, 1790–1795,” Journal of American Studies 15 (April 1981): 27–44; Edmund S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan: A Life of Ezra Stiles, 1727–1795 (New Haven, 1962); John Fitzmier, New England’s Moral Legislator: Timothy Dwight, 1752–1817 (Bloomington, 1998); James King Morse, Jedidiah Morse: A Champion of New England Orthodoxy (New York, 1939); Jonathan D. Sassi, A Republic of Righteousness: The Public Christianity of the Post-Revolutionary New England Clergy (New York, 2001); Christopher Grasso, A Speaking Aristocracy: Transforming Public Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Connecticut (Chapel Hill, 1999).

19. Zephaniah Swift, An Oration on Domestic Slavery . . . (Hartford, 1791), 3–23; Basker, ed., Early American Abolitionists, 141–71; James G. Basker, ed., American Antislavery Writings: Colonial Beginnings to Emancipation (New York, 2012), 75–77, 140–41.

20. Noah Webster, Effects of Slavery on Morals and Industry (Hartford, 1793), esp. 5–8, 11, 31–42; Joshua Kendall, The Forgotten Founding Father: Noah Webster’s Obsession and the Creation of an American Culture (New York, 2010): 178–79; Eva Sheppard Wolf, “Early Free Labor Thought and the Contest over Slavery in the Early Republic,” in Hammond and Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery, 32–48.

21. David Blight, ed., The Columbian Orator (New York, 1998), introduction.

22. Theodore Dwight, An Oration Spoken Before the Connecticut Society for the promotion of Freedom, and the Relief of Persons Unlawfully Holden in Bondage . . . (Hartford, 1794), 3–24; Basker, ed., Amazing Grace, 486–88; Peter Hinks, “Timothy Dwight, Congregationalism, and Early Antislavery,” in Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, eds., The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2007), 148–61; Matthew Mason, “Federalists, Abolitionists, and the Problem of Influence,” American Nineteenth-Century History 10 (March 2009): 1–27; Marc M. Arkin, “The Federalist Trope: Power and Passion in Abolitionist Rhetoric,” JAH 9 (June 2001): 75–98; Paul Finkelman, Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (Armonk, N.Y., 2001), chap. 5; Rachel Hope Cleves, The Reign of Terror in America: Visions of Violence from Anti-Jacobinism to Antislavery (Cambridge, Eng., 2009).

23Constitution of a Society for Abolishing the Slave-Trade . . . (Providence, 1789); George Benson to PAS, September 5, 1806, reel 12, PAS Papers, HSP; Works of Samuel Hopkins, 2:595–612; Joseph A. Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement (Washington, 1981), 153–55.

24Minutes of the Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies . . . (Philadelphia, 1794); Minutes of the proceedings of the Second Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies . . . (Philadelphia, 1795), 29; Abolition Society of Delaware Minute Book, 1810–1819, reel 30, PAS Papers, HSP; David Scholfield and Edmund Haviland, “The Appeal of the American Convention of Abolition Societies to Anti-Slavery Groups,” JNH 6 (April 1921): 200–240; Needles, An Historical Memoir, 50–52, 55; Mary Staughton Locke, Antislavery in America: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 (Chicago, 2003), 101–11.

25Minutes of the Proceedings of the Ninth Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1804): 40–49; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Tenth American . . . (Philadelphia, 1805), appendix; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Eleventh American . . . (Philadelphia, 1806), 28, 30–31.

26Minutes of the Proceedings of the Twelfth American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1809), 23–24, 26–31; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1812), 16–17, 21–22, 28–29; Constitution of the Kentucky Abolition Society, 1808, reel 30, Carter Tarrant to PAS, May 27, 1809, reel 12, PAS Papers, HSP.

27. Burns ed., Am I Not a Man and Brother, 386–89; Basker ed., Amazing Grace, 494–96, 674–75; Basker ed., Early American Abolitionists, 172–215; Heather S. Nathans, “Staging Slavery: Representing Race and Abolitionism On and Off the Philadelphia Stage,” in Newman and Mueller eds., Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia, 200–207.

28. John Parrish, Remarks on the Slavery of the Black People . . . (Philadelphia, 1806), 3–8, 12, 24, 36–37, 41–44; John L. Brooke, “Consent, Civil Society, and the Public Sphere in the Age of Revolution and the Early American Republic,” in Jeffrey L. Pasley, Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds., Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Public History of the Early American Republic (Chapel Hill, 2004), 207–50.

29. Thomas Branagan, A Preliminary Essay on the Oppression of the Exiled Sons of Africa . . . (Philadelphia, 1804); Branagan, Avenia: or, A Tragical Poem . . . (Philadelphia, 1805); Branagan, The Penitential Tyrant . . . (Philadelphia, 1805), vii–xxxvi, 55; Branagan, Serious Remonstrances, Addressed to the Citizens of the Northern States . . .(Philadelphia, 1805), 36–89; Branagan, The Guardian Genius of the Federal Union . . . (New York, 1839); Beverly Tomek, “‘From Motives of Generosity, as well as Self-Preservation’: Thomas Branagan, Colonization, and the Gradual Emancipation Movement,” American Nineteenth-Century History 6 (June 2005): 121–47.

30. David Freeman Hawke, Benjamin Rush: Revolutionary Gadfly (Indianapolis, 1971), 360–63; L. H. Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, vol. 2, 1793–1819 (Princeton, 1951), 756–58; Works of Samuel Hopkins, 2:608.

31An Address to the Public from the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief of Free Negroes, unlawfully held in Bondage (Philadelphia, 1789); Needles, An Historical Memoir, 37, 40, 43; Reports of PAS Sub Committees, March 25, 1791, March 1792, March 1793, August 1797, reel 6, PAS Papers, HSP; Report of the Committee to Prevent Irregular Conduct in Free Negroes, Read February 21, 1788, New York Manumission Society Records, NYHS; The Constitution of the New-York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, 3–4; Leslie Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 (Chicago, 2003), 65; John L. Rury, “Philanthropy, Self Help, and Social Control: The New York Manumission Society and Free Blacks, 1785–1810,” Phylon 46 (1985): 231–41.

32Minutes of the Proceedings of the Second Convention, 10–11; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Third Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1796), 12–15; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fourth Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1797), 16–18; Minutes of the proceedings of the Fifth Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1798), 17–18; American Convention of Abolition Societies, “Advice Given to Negroes a Century Ago,” JNH 6 (January 1921): 103–12.

33An Address from the Pennsylvania Abolition Society to the Free Black People . . . (Philadelphia, 1800), 3–8; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifth Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1800), 6–7, 21; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifteenth American . . . (Philadelphia, 1817), 16; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Eighth Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1803), 6–7, 22–23; Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery, 100–101.

34Address of the American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1804), 3–8; Minutes of the proceedings of the Fourteenth American . . . (Philadelphia, 1816), 20; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Tenth American Convention, 28, 37–38; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Eleventh American Convention, 17–18; Minutes of the Fifteenth Convention . . .(Philadelphia, 1818), 43–47; Address of the PAS to the Free People of Color, April 13, 1820, and Address of the PAS on behalf of Colored People, October 1821, reel 25, PAS Papers, HSP.

35Minutes of the Proceedings of the Seventh Convention of Delegates . . . (Philadelphia, 1801), 12, 16–17, 22, 32, 37–41; Locke, Antislavery in America, 104; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Twelfth American Convention, 26–31.

36The Constitution of the Society for the Free Instruction of the Black people, formed in the Year 1789 (Philadelphia, 1808); Committee for Improving the Condition of Free Blacks, December 25, 1792, reel 9, Absalom Jones to PAS, July 15, 1795, Quomony Clarkson to PAS, July 27, 1802, reel 12, PAS Committee of Education Lists in PAS schools and the Clarkson Institute and Education Society, 1790–1800, reels 25 and 26, PAS Papers, HSP; Margaret Hope Bacon, “The Pennsylvania Abolition Society’s Mission for Black Education,” Pennsylvania Legacies 5 (November 2005): 21–26; Leroy Graham, Baltimore: The Nineteenth Century Black Capital (New York, 1982), 21–23, 62–63.

37Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifth Convention, 13; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fourth Convention, 32–33; John L. Rury, “The New York African School, 1827–1836: Conflict over Community Control of Black Education,” Phylon 44 (Third Quarter 1983): 187–97; Robert J. Swan, “John Teasman: African-American Educator and the Emergence of Community in Early Black New York City, 1787–1815,” JER 12 (Autumn 1992): 331–56; Carla Peterson, Black Gotham: A Family History of African Americans in Nineteenth-Century New York City (New Haven, 2011), 66–69, 74–92.

38Minutes of the Proceedings of the Ninth American, 5; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Tenth American Convention, 27; Report of the Trustees of the African Free School, November 10, 1818, New York Manumission Society Records, NYHS; Charles C. Andrews, The History of the New-York African Free-Schools . . . (New York, 1830), 7–24; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1812), 7, 21; Minutes of the Adjourned Session of the Twentieth Biennial American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1828), 62–68; Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery, 64–66, 128–44; Leslie M. Alexander, African or American? Black Identity and Political Activism in New York City, 1784–1861 (Urbana, 2008), 13–14, 44–45.

39. New York Manumission Society Records, NYHS, vol. 6, pp. 5–7, 15–17, 25–28; vol. 7, May 18, 1791–February 13, 1807, pp. 7, 14, 20–23, 31, 59, 80, 141, 163, 165–67, 176, 178, 180, 182, 185–87, 193, 196, 204–5, 213, 217–18, 238–39, 242, 256–57, 282, 284, 304–8, 313–15, 321–22, 339, 342; vol. 10, March 11, 1807–July 8, 1817, pp. 7, 32–33, 36, 53, 68, 74, 90, 113, 134, 171, 188, 207, 216, 239, 259, 271–76, 329; vol. 11, July 15, 1817–January 17, 1842, pp. 11, 15–16, 19, 24, 33, 44, 65; Martha S. Jones, “Time, Space and Jurisdiction in Atlantic World Slavery: The Volunbrun Household in Gradual Emancipation New York,” Law and History Review 29 (November 2011): 1031–60; John Teasman, An Address Delivered in the African Episcopalian Church . . .(New York, 1811), 7; cf. Thomas Robert Moseley, “A History of the New York Manumission Society 1785–1849” (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1963).

40. Robert Layton to James Forten, May 2, 1825, Thomas Garrett to Thomas Shipley, July 1, 1826, reel 13; PAS Memorial to Governor Thomas Mifflin, reel 15, PAS Papers, HSP; Richard Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic (Chapel Hill, 2002), 18–31, 60–85; Dee E. Andrews, “Reconsidering the First Emancipation: Evidence from the Pennsylvania Abolition Society Correspondence, 1785–1810,” PH 64 (Summer 1997): 230–49.

41Minutes of the Proceedings of the Eleventh American Convention, 35–38; John H. Hewitt, “Peter Williams, Jr.: New York’s First African-American Episcopal Priest,” New York History 79 (April 1998): 101–29.

42. Prince Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp . . . (London, 1820), 254–55; Vincent Carretta, ed., Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings (New York, 1995), 224–25; The Life Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen . . . (repr., Nashville, 1960), 75–89; Dorothy Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837(Boston, 1971), 39, 98–100, 340, 344, 350–51, 362, 365, 388, 398; Adam Carman, An Oration Delivered at the Fourth Anniversary of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade . . . (New York, 1811), 15–18; Jeremiah Gloucester, An Oration Delivered on January 1, 1823 in Bethel Church on the Abolition of the Slave Trade (Philadelphia, 1823), 8–9.

43Constitution of the Brooklyn Woolman African Benevolent Society Adopted March 16, 1810 (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1820); John J. Zuille, Historical Sketch of the New York African Society for Mutual Relief Organized in the City of New York 1808 . . . (New York, 1892); Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 37–50; Craig Wilder, “Black Life in Freedom: Creating a Civic Culture,” in Ira Berlin and Leslie Harris, eds., Slavery in New York (New York, 2005), 217–37; Gloucester, An Oration, 14.

44. [John S. Tyson], Life of Elisha Tyson, the Philanthropist By a Citizen of Baltimore (Baltimore, 1825); Graham, Baltimore, chap. 2; Elisha Tyson to William Master, July 18, August 20, September 4, November 11, December 10, 1812, reel 13, PAS Papers, HSP; Isaac Parrish, Brief Memoirs of Thomas Shipley and Edwin P. Atlee . . . (Philadelphia, 1838); Parrish, Remarks on the Slavery, 49–66; Robert Purvis, A Tribute to the Memory of Thomas Shipley, the Philanthropist (Philadelphia, 1836), iii, 6–7, 16–17; Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism, 30, 63–64; William Staughton, An Eulogium in Memory of the Late Dr. Benjamin Rush (Philadelphia, 1813), 30; Richard Allen, Articles of Association of the African Methodist Episcopal Church . . .(Philadelphia, 1799), 17–19; Richard S. Newman, Freedom’s Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers (New York, 2008), 142–44; L. H. Butterfield ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, vol 2, 1793–1819 (Princeton, 1951), 639, 713.

45. Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass., 1993); Deborah Gray White, “‘Yes,’ There is a Black Atlantic,” Itinerario 23 (1999): 127–40; Henry Louis Gates Jr., The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (New York, 1988), chap. 4; Houston Baker, Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Chicago, 1987).

46. Joanna Brooks and John Saillant, eds., “Face Zion Forward”: First Writers of the Black Atlantic, 1785–1798 (Boston, 2002), 47–75, 93–160; Arthur A. Schomburg, “Two Negro Missionaries to the American Indians: John Marrant and James Stewart,” JNH 21 (October 1936): 394–400; Joanna Brooks, American Lazarus: Religion and the Rise of African-American and Native American Literatures (New York, 2003), chap. 3; John Saillant, “‘Wipe Away all Tears from their Eyes’: John Marrant’s Theology in the Black Atlantic, 1785–1808,” Journal of Millenial Studies 1 (Winter 1999): 1–23, www.mille.org/Journal.html.

47. Vincent Carretta, ed., Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African (New York, 1998), xix–xx; Reyhan King, ed., Ignatius Sancho: An African Man of Letters (London, 1997); Keith A. Sandiford, Measuring the Moment: Strategies of Protest in Eighteenth-Century Afro-English Writing (London, 1988), chap. 3.

48. Carretta, ed., Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, 46, 73–74, 93, 111–12, 130–31, 189, 200, 208, 210, 215, 216, 219; Paul Edwards and James Walvin, Black Personalities in the Era of the Slave Trade (Baton Rouge, 1983), 223–37; Felicity A. Nussbaum, “Being a Man: Olaudah Equiano and Ignatius Sancho,” and Markman Ellis, “Ignatius Sancho’s Letters: Sentimental Libertinism and the Politics of Form,” in Vincent Carretta and Philip Gould, eds., Genius in Bondage: Literature of the Early Black Atlantic (Lexington, Ky., 2001), 63–69, 199–217.

49. Quobna Ottobah Cugoano, Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery and Other Writings, Vincent Carretta, ed. (New York, 1999), introduction, 7; Sandiford, Measuring the Moment, chap. 4; James Sidbury, Becoming African in America: Race and Nation in the Early Black Atlantic (New York, 2007), 59–64.

50. Cugoano, Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery, 9–17, 19–20, 22, 24–46, 52–53, 60–84, 88–91, 96–111; Roxann Wheeler, “‘Betrayed by Some of My Own Complexion’: Cugoano, Abolition, and the Contemporary Language of Racialism,” in Carretta and Gould, eds., Genius in Bondage, 17–38.

51. Vincent Carretta, “Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa? New Light on an Eighteenth-Century Question of Identity,” S&A 20 (December 1999): 96–105; Paul E. Lovejoy, “Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, the African,” S&A 27 (2006): 317–47; Lovejoy, “Issues of Motivation: Vassa/Equiano and Carretta’s Critique of the Evidence”; and Vincent Carretta, “Response to Paul Lovejoy’s ‘Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, the African,’” S&A 28 (2007): 115–19, 121–25; James H. Sweet, “Mistaken Identities? Olaudah Equiano, Domingos Alvares, and the Methodological Challenges of Studying the African Diaspora,” AHR114 (April 2009): 279–306.

52. Geraldine Murphy, “Olaudah Equiano: Accidental Tourist,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Summer 1994): 551–68; James Green, “The Publishing History of Olaudah Equiano’s Interesting Narrative,” S&A 16 (1995): 362–75; Akiyo Ito, “Olaudah Equiano and the New York Artisans: The First American Edition of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African,” Early American Literature 32 (1997): 82–92.

53. Vincent Carretta, ed., Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings (New York, 1995), 328–40; Carretta, Equiano the African: Biography of a Self-Made Man (Athens, Ga., 2005), chap. 11; James Walvin, The Zong: A Massacre, the Law and the End of Slavery (New Haven, 2011).

54. Carretta, ed., Olaudah Equiano, 55–59, 61, 63–92, 104–12, 122–50, 158–64, 171–72, 205–21; Adam Potkay, “Olaudah Equiano and the Art of Spiritual Autobiography,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Summer 1994): 677–92; George E. Boulukus, “Olaudah Equiano and the Eighteenth-Century Debate on Africa,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 40 (Winter 2007): 241–57.

55. Carretta, ed., Olaudah Equiano, chap. 12; Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (New York, 2005), 244–50.

CHAPTER FIVE. BLACK ABOLITIONISTS IN THE SLAVEHOLDING REPUBLIC

1. Richard S. Newman, Freedom’s Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers (New York, 2008), 63–68; James Wood Sweet, Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730–1830 (Baltimore, 2003), 336–40.

2. Joanna Brooks, “The Early American Public Sphere and the Emergence of a Black Print Counterpublic,” WMQ 62 (January 2005): 67–98; Manisha Sinha, “An Alternative Tradition of Radicalism: African Americans and the Metaphor of Revolution, 1775–1865,” in Manisha Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, eds., Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race, and Power in American History(New York, 2007), 9–30; Black Public Sphere Collective, The Black Public Sphere: A Public Culture Book (Chicago, 1995).

3. Richard S. Newman and Roy E. Finkenbine, “Black Founders in the New Republic,” WMQ 64 (January 2007): 83–94.

4. Ira Berlin, “The Revolution in Black Life,” in Alfred P. Young, ed., The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism (DeKalb, Ill., 1976), 349–82; William D. Piersen, Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst, Mass., 1988), part 4; Joseph P. Reidy, “‘Negro Election Day’ and Black Community Life in New England, 1750–1860,” Marxist Perspectives 1 (1978): 102–17; Theda Skocpol, Ariane Liazos, and Marshall Ganz, What a Mighty Power We Can Be: African American Fraternal Groups and the Struggle for Racial Equality (Princeton, 2006); William J. Novak, “The American Law of Association: The Legal–Political Construction of Civil Society,” Studies in American Political Development 15 (Fall 2001): 163–88.

5. William H. Robinson, ed., The Proceedings of the Free African Union Society and the African Benevolent Society (Providence, 1976), introduction, 16, 58–59; James Campbell, Middle Passages: African American Journeys to Africa, 1787–2005 (New York, 2006), 20–21, 54–56; Sweet, Bodies Politic, 328–35.

6. Robinson, ed., Proceedings, 19, 25, 32, 86–87; Gaillard Hunt, “William Thornton and Negro Colonization,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 30 (April 14, 1921): 40–61; Floyd J. Miller, The Search for Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787–1863 (Urbana, 1975), 4–11.

7. Robinson, ed., Proceedings, 17–21, 24–34, 36–37, 43–47; George E. Brooks, “The Providence African Society,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 7 (1974): 183–202; Conforti, Samuel Hopkins, 150–53; Miller, The Search for Black Nationality, 12–20.

8. Robinson, ed., Proceedings, 49–50, 81–82, 145–47, 153, 158–65, 171–72; William Patten, A Sermon delivered at the Request of the African Benevolent Society . . . (Newport, R.I., 1808), 10–15; A Short History of the African Union Meeting and School-House . . . (Providence, 1821), 5–9, 14–28.

9. Sidney Kaplan and Emma Nogrady Kaplan ed., The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770–1800 (Washington, 1973), 202–14; Charles H. Wesley, Prince Hall: Life and Legacy (Washington, 1977); Lorenzo Johnston Greene, “Prince Hall: Massachusetts Leader in Crisis,” Freedomways 1 (Fall 1961): 238–58; Corey D. B. Walker, A Noble Fight: African American Freemasonry and the Struggle for Democracy in America (Urbana, 2008), 7–12, 48–73; Chernoh Momodu Sesay Jr., “Emancipation and the Social Origins of Black Freemasonry, 1775–1800,” in Peter P. Hinks and Stephen Kantrowitz, eds., All Men Free and Brethren: Essays on the History of African American Freemasonry (Ithaca, 2013), 21–39.

10. Wesley, Prince Hall, 66–72; Kaplan and Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence, 204–5, 207–11; Corey D. B. Walker, “Nation and Oration: The Political Language of African American Freemasonry in the Early Republic,” in Hinks and Kantrowitz, eds., All Men Free and Brethren, 84–94; Christopher Cameron, To Plead Our Own Cause: African Americans in Massachusetts and the Making of the Antislavery Movement (Kent, Ohio, 2014).

11. Wesley, Prince Hall, 77–81; A Sermon Preached . . . By the Right Reverend Marrant, Chaplain (Boston, 1789), 3, 17–21; Joanna Brooks, American Lazarus: Religion and the Rise of African-American and Native American Literatures (New York, 2003), 126–35; Peter P. Hinks, “John Marrant and the Meaning of Free Black Masonry,” WMQ 64 (January 2007): 105–16.

12. Wesley, Prince Hall, 72, 77; Dorothy Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837 (Boston, 1971), 63–69; John H. Bracey Jr. and Manisha Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty-First Century, Volume One—To 1877 (Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2004): 68–73.

13. Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 9–27; Hilary J. Moss, Schooling Citizens: The Struggle for African American Education in Antebellum America (Chicago, 2009), 136–37; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians: Family Life and Community Struggle in the Antebellum North (New York, 1979), 28–30, 40–52; George A. Levesque, “Inherent Reformers–Inherited Orthodoxy: Black Baptists in Boston, 1800–1873,” JNH 4 (1975): 491–525; Arthur O. White, “The Black Leadership Class and Education in Antebellum Boston,” Journal of Negro Education 42 (Fall 1973): 504–15.

14Annals of the First African Church in the United States of America . . . By the Rev. Wm. Douglass, Rector (Philadelphia, 1862), 15–40; Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia’s Black Community, 1720–1840 (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), 66–79, 94–99.

15Annals of the First African Church, 23–24, 40–85, 93–110, 118–22; Constitution and Rules Observed Kept by the Friendly Society of St. Thomas’ African Church, of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1799); Bracey and Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic, 63–64; Dagobert D. Runes, ed., The Selected Writings of Benjamin Rush (New York, 1947), 24–25; Nash, Forging Freedom, 109–20.

16. Bracey and Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic, 60–68; Charles H. Wesley, Richard Allen: Apostle of Freedom (Washington, 1935); Carol V. R. George, Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Emergence of Independent Black Churches, 1760–1840 (New York, 1973), chaps. 1–3.

17Articles of Association of the African Methodist Episcopal Church . . . (Philadelphia, 1799); “African Supplement,” in The Life Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen . . . (repr., Nashville, 1960), 37–41; Newman, Freedom’s Prophet, 70–73, 130–36, 159–81; Dee Andrews, The Methodists and Revolutionary America, 1760–1800 (Princeton, 2000), 139–50.

18Annals of the First African Church, 110–13; L. H. Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, vol. 2, 1793–1819 (Princeton, 1951), 639, 1071; John Gloucester to Benjamin Rush, January 11, 1812, Benjamin Rush Collection, BAP; Julie Winch, Philadelphia’s Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787–1848(Philadelphia, 1988), 4–15; Winch, “‘A Late Thing I Guess’: The Early Years of Philadelphia’s African Masonic Lodge,” in Hinks and Kantrowitz, eds., All Men Free and Brethren, 63–83; Nash, Forging Freedom, 12, 199–210; Newman, Freedom’s Prophet, 73–76.

19. Richard S. Newman, Roy E. Finkenbine, and Douglass Mooney, “Philadelphia Emigrationist Petitions, Circa 1792: An Introduction,” WMQ 64 (January 2007): 161–66; Ruth Bogin, “Petitioning and the New Moral Economy of Post-Revolutionary America,” WMQ 45 (July 1988): 391–425.

20. Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 1:39–44.

21. Peter M. Bergman and Jean McCarroll, eds., The Negro in the Congressional Record, 1789–1801 (New York, 1969), 2:154, 165–76; John Craig Hammond, Slavery, Freedom, and Expansion in the Early American West (Charlottesville, Va., 2007), 23–27.

22. Bracey and Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic, 58–59; Bergman and McCarroll, eds., The Negro in the Congressional Record, 2:55, 230–45.

23. “Letter from James Forten to George Thatcher, January 1800,” BAP; Julie Winch, A Gentleman of Color: The Life of James Forten (New York, 2002); Ray Allen Billington, “James Forten, Forgotten Abolitionist,” in John H. Bracey Jr., August Meier, and Elliot Rudwick, eds., Blacks in the Abolitionist Movement (Belmont, Calif., 1971), 4–16.

24A Short Account of the Rise and Progress of the African M.E. Church in America Written By Christopher Rush . . . (New York, 1843), 57; Carla Peterson, Black Gotham: A Family History of African Americans in Nineteenth-Century New York City (New Haven, 2011), 50–55; Leslie M. Alexander, African or American? Black Identity and Political Activism in New York City, 1784–1861 (Urbana, 2008), 8–13.

25. Craig Wilder, In the Company of Black Men: The African Influence on African American Culture in New York City (New York, 2001), chap. 2; Peterson, Black Gotham, 44–46; Leslie Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 (Chicago, 2003), 82–85; John H. Hewitt, “Peter Williams, Jr.: New York’s First African-American Episcopal Priest,” New York History 79 (April 1998): 101–29.

26. John J. Zuille, Historical Sketch of the New York African Society for Mutual Relief Organized in the City of New York . . . (New York, 1892), 5–9, 15–18, 41–47, 52–53; Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 37–50; Wilder, In the Company of Men, chaps. 4–6; Craig Wilder, “Black Life in Freedom: Creating a Civic Culture,” in Ira Berlin and Leslie Harris, eds., Slavery in New York (New York, 2005), 217–37; Daniel Perlman, “Organizations of the Free Negro in New York City, 1800–1860,” JNH 56 (July 1871): 181–97.

27. Wilder, In the Company of Men, 45–47, 81–83, 138–40, 154–55, 161–64; Carla Peterson, “Black Life in Freedom: Creating an Elite Culture,” in Berlin and Harris, eds., Slavery in New York, 183–214; Peterson, Black Gotham, 64–66.

28. Shane White, “‘It was a Proud Day’: African Americans, Festivals, and Parades in the North, 1741–1834,” JAH (June 1994): 13–50; White, “Black Life in Freedom: Creating a Popular Culture,” in Berlin and Harris, eds., Slavery in New York, 165–80; White, Stories of Freedom in Black New York (Cambridge, Mass., 2002); David Waldstreicher, In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776–1820 (Chapel Hill, 1997), esp. chap. 6.

29. Christopher Phillips, Freedom’s Port: The African American Community of Baltimore, 1790–1860 (Urbana, 1997), 127–38; Leroy Graham, Baltimore: The Nineteenth Century Black Capital (New York, 1982), 63, 72–75; Leonard P. Curry, The Free Black in Urban America, 1800–1850: The Shadow of a Dream (Chicago, 1981), chap. 11; John W. Davis, “George Liele and Andrew Bryan, Pioneer Negro Baptist Preachers,” JNH 3 (April 1918): 119–27.

30. Herbert Aptheker, “Eighteenth-Century Petition of South Carolina Negroes,” JNH 31 (January 1946): 98–99; Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:29–31; Robert L. Harris Jr., “Early Black Benevolent Associations, 1780–1830,” Massachusetts Review 20 (Autumn 1979): 603–26; Jane G. Landers, ed., Against the Odds: Free Blacks in the Slave Societies of the Americas(London, 1996) (see esp. chapters by Olwell, Hangar, and Lachance); Ira Berlin, Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (New York, 1974).

31Memoir of Benjamin Banneker . . . By John H. B. Latrobe, Esq. (Baltimore, 1845); Banneker, The Afric-American Astronomer. From the Posthumous Papers of Martha E[llicott] Tyson. Edited by her Daughter (Philadelphia, 1884); Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 324–29; Kaplan and Kaplan, eds., The Black Presence, 132–51; cf. Richard Newman, “‘Good Communications Corrects Bad Manners’: The Banneker–Jefferson Dialogue and the Project of White Uplift,” in John Craig Hammond and Matthew Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery: The Politics of Bondage and Freedom in the New American Nation (Charlottesville, Va., 2011), 69–93.

32. Silvio A. Bedini, The Life of Benjamin Banneker: The Definitive Biography of the First Black Man of Science (New York, 1972), 164, 279–83; Louis Ruchames, ed., Racial Thought in America, vol. 1, From the Puritans to Abraham Lincoln (Amherst, Mass., 1969), 257.

33. Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History, 1:23; Bedini, The Life of Benjamin Banneker, 96–102, 143–201, 323; L. H. Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, vol. 1, 1761–1792 (Princeton, 1951), 497.

34. Benjamin Banneker, Banneker’s Almanac and Ephemeris for the Year of our Lord 1793 . . . (Philadelphia, 1793), and Banneker’s Almanac, For the Year 1795 . . . (Philadelphia, 1795); Sandy Perot, “‘But what are colours? Do complexions change human intellects?’ Abolitionism and Benjamin Banneker’s Almanack,” unpublished manuscript; Bedini, The Life of Benjamin Banneker, 283–300.

35. Bracey and Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic, 1:32–45; Chandler B. Saint and George A. Krimsky, Making Freedom: The Extraordinary Life of Venture Smith (Middletown, Conn., 2009); Philip Gould, “‘Remarkable Liberty,’” in Carretta and Gould, eds., Genius in Bondage, 123–28; Robert E. Desrochers Jr., “‘Not Fade Away’: The Narrative of Venture Smith, an African American in the Early Republic,” JAH 84 (June 1997): 40–66; James Brewer Stewart, ed., Venture Smith and the Business of Slavery and Freedom (Amherst, Mass., 2010).

36The Life Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen, 48–65; Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, 2:731–32; Brooks, American Lazarus, chap. 5; Newman, Freedom’s Prophet, chaps. 3, 4.

37The Life Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen, 69–71.

38. Philip S. Foner and James Branham, eds., Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900 (Tuscaloosa, 1998), 58; Henry Weincek, An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves and the Creation of America (New York, 2003); Richard S. Newman, “‘We Participate in Common’: Richard Allen’s Eulogy of Washington and the Challenge of Interracial Appeals,” WMQ64 (January 2007): 117–28; François Furstenberg, In the Name of the Father: Washington’s Legacy, Slavery and the Making of a Nation (New York, 2006), chap. 2.

39A Collection of Hymns and Spiritual Songs. From Various Authors. By the Rev. Richard Allen . . . (Philadelphia, 1801), 11–12, 16, 33, 69–70; The Life Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen, 42–47, 72–74; Newman, Freedom’s Prophet, chap. 6.

40. William L. Andrews, To Tell a Free Story: The First Century of Afro-American Autobiography, 1760–1865 (Urbana, 1986), 49–51; The Narrative and Confession of Thomas Powers . . . (Norwich, Conn., 1796); [Richard Allen], Confessions of John Joyce . . . (Philadelphia, 1808), 5; [Allen], Confession of Peter Mathias . . . (Philadelphia, 1808), 30–35; Richard Newman, ed., Black Preacher to White America: The Collected Writings of Lemuel Haynes, 1774–1833 (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1990), 223, 225.

41. Manisha Sinha, “To ‘Cast Just Obliquy’ on Oppressors: Black Radicalism in the Age of Revolution,” WMQ 44 (January 2007): 149–60; William B. Gravely, “The Dialectic of Double Consciousness in Black American Freedom Celebrations, 1808–1863,” JNH 67 (Winter 1982): 302–17; Genevieve Fabre, “African-American Commemorative Celebrations in the Nineteenth Century,” in Genevieve Fabre and Robert O’Meally, eds., History and Memory in African-American Culture (New York, 1994), 77–80; Mitch Kachun, Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations (Amherst, Mass., 2003), chap. 1.

42. Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 336–37, 346–48, 384, 396.

43. Ibid., 348–49, 369, 396; Henry Johnson, An Oration on the Abolition of the African Slave Trade With an Introductory Address by Adam Carman . . . (New York, 1810), 8, 10; Jeremiah Gloucester, An Oration Delivered on January 1, 1823 in Bethel Church on the Abolition of the Slave Trade (Philadelphia, 1823), 7.

44. Adam Carman, An Oration Delivered at the Fourth Anniversary of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade . . . (New York, 1811), 3, 11–13; Ian Baucom, Specters of the Atlantic: Finance Capital, Slavery and the Philosophy of History (Durham, 2005); Philip Gould, Barbaric Traffic: Commerce and Antislavery in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (Cambridge, Mass., 2003).

45. Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 347, 380, 395–98; Carman, An Oration, 19; Gloucester, An Oration, 11; John Teasman, An Address Delivered in the African Episcopal Church . . . (New York, 1811), 5–11; Michael A. Morrison and James Brewer Stewart, eds., Race and the Early Republic: Racial Consciousness and Nation Building in the Early Republic (New York, 2002).

46A Discourse, Delivered at the African-Meeting House . . . By Jedidiah Morse . . . (Boston, 1808), 17; A Sermon Delivered in Boston, Before the African Society . . . By Thomas Gray . . . (Boston, 1818), 3–5; A Discourse Delivered before the African Society . . . By Paul Dean . . . (Boston, 1819), 6, 10–15; A Discourse Delivered Before the African Society . . . By Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, DD (Boston, 1822).

47. Porter, ed. Early Negro Writing, 36–37, 360–62; Baker, ed., “A Slave to Thomas Jefferson, November 30, 1808,” and Thomas N. Baker, “Sources and Interpretations: ‘A Slave’ Writes Thomas Jefferson,” WMQ 68 (January 2011): 127–39, 140–54.

48. Porter, Early Negro Writing, 353, 357–58, 373, 379, 382.

49A Dialogue between a Virginian and an African Minister, written by the Rev Daniel Coker . . . (Baltimore, 1810), 4–6, 7–8, 10–13, 15–18, 20–25, 28–29, 30–31, 35, 38–40.

50. George W. Williams, History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1860: Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens, vol. 2, 1800 to 1880 (New York, 1883), chaps. 2, 3; William C. Nell, The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution . . . (Boston, 1855), 181–88, 286–306; Gerald Horne, Negro Comrades of the Crown: African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. Before Emancipation (New York, 2012), chaps. 1–6; W. Jeffrey Bolster, Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail (Cambridge, Mass., 1997), chap. 4; Gerard T. Altoff, Amongst My Best Men: African Americans and the War of 1812 (Put-in-Bay, Ohio, 1996); Frank A. Cassell, “Slaves of the Chesapeake Bay Area and the War of 1812,” JNH 57 (April 1972): 144–55; Alan Taylor, The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia, 1772–1832 (New York, 2013), 208–13; Nathaniel Millett, The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World (Gainesville, Fla., 2013); Harvey Amani Whitfield, Blacks on the Border: The Black Refugees in British North America, 1815–1860 (Hanover, N.H., 2006).

51. James Forten, Letters from a Man of Colour, on a late bill before the Senate of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1813), 1–11; Winch, A Gentleman of Color, 169–74.

52A Search for Truth . . . By Jacob Oson A Descendant of Africa (New York, 1817), 3–11; Stephen G. Hall, A Faithful Account of the Race: African American Historical Writing in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill, 2009), 28–32.

53. Graham Russell Hodges, ed., Black Itinerants of the Gospel: The Narratives of John Jea and George White (Madison, 1993), 52–53, 60–61; Andrews, To Tell a Free Story, 52–56.

54. Hodges, ed., Black Itinerants of the Gospel, 89–94, 97–105, 111–19, 147–58, 168; Henry Louis Gates Jr., The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (New York, 1988); Dickson D. Bruce, The Origins of African American Literature 1680–1865 (Charlottesville, Va., 2001), 103–4; Andrews dates Jea’s narrative to 1811, To Tell a Free Story, 48; David Kazanjian, The Colonizing Trick: National Culture and Imperial Citizenship in Early America (Minneapolis, 2003), 69–73.

55. Newman, ed., Black Preacher to White America, 74–75, 82, 119, 152–54, 157, 158, 167.

56. Henri Grégoire, An Enquiry Concerning the Intellectual and Moral Faculties, and Literature of Negroes, Graham Russell Hodges, ed. (Armonk, N.Y., 1997), 115; Ruchames ed., Racial Thought in America, 256–r7.

CHAPTER SIX. THE NEGLECTED PERIOD OF ANTISLAVERY

1. Jesse Torrey, A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery in the United States . . . (Philadelphia, 1817), 42–44.

2. Alice Dana Adams, The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in America, 1808–1831 (Williamstown, Mass., 1973); Ousmane Power-Greene, Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle Against the Colonization Movement (New York, 2014); cf. David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Emancipation (New York, 2014), 84–86, 107.

3. Robert Pierce Forbes, The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath: Slavery and the Meaning of America (Chapel Hill, 2007); John Craig Hammond, Slavery, Freedom, and Expansion in the Early West (Charlottesville, Va., 2007); Matthew Mason, Slavery and Politics in the Early American Republic (Chapel Hill, 2006), chaps. 5, 6; David Brion Davis, “The Emergence of Immediatism in British and American Antislavery Thought,” MVHR 49 (1962): 797–878.

4. Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, ed., Captain Paul Cuffe’s Logs and Letters, 1807–1817: A Black Quaker’s “Voice from within the Veil” (Washington, 1996), 103, 119, 148; James Pemberton to Paul Cuffe, June [8], September 27, 1808, Paul Cuffe to William Allen, April 22, 24, 1811, August 10, 1813, Elisha Tyson to Paul Cuffe, May 12, July 20, 1813, John Murray Jr. to Paul Cuffe, November 18, 1816, Cuffe Papers, New Bedford Public Library, BAP; Moses Brown to Paul Cuffe, June 10, 1812, Moses Brown Papers, Rhode Island Historical Society, BAP; James Sidbury, Becoming African in America: Race and Nation in the Early Black Atlantic (New York, 2007), 145–55; Kevin G. Lowther, The African American Odyssey of John Kizell: A South Carolina Slave Returns to Fight the African Slave Trade in His African Homeland (Columbia, S.C., 2011), chap. 7; Wayne Ackerson, The African Institution (1807–1823) and the Antislavery Movement in Great Britain (Lewiston, N.Y., 2005), 72–76; Lamont D. Thomas, Paul Cuffe: Black Entrepreneur and Pan-Africanist (Urbana, 1988), 35.

5. Paul Cuffe to James Madison, June 20, 1812, Prince Saunders to Paul Cuffe, June 25, August 3, 1812, Perry Locks to Paul Cuffe, July 15, 1813, Thomas Clarkson and William Allen to Paul Cuffe, July 1, William Allen to Paul Cuffe, August 4, 13, October 29, 1812, Samuel J. Mills to Paul Cuffe, July 10, 1814, July 10, December 26, 1816, July 14, 1817, March 12, 1817, James Forten to Paul Cuffe, January 5, February 15, 1815, January 25, 28, April 14, July 25, 1817, Robert Finley to Paul Cuffe, December 5, 1816, Peter Williams Jr. to Paul Cuffe, March 22, 1817, John Gloucester to Paul Cuffe, July 22, 1817, Cuffe Papers, New Bedford Public Library, BAP.

6. Wiggins, ed., Captain Paul Cuffe’s Logs and Letters, 145, 252–53, 271, 276, 434–35, 436, 446, 455, 509; A Brief Account of the Settlement and Present Situation of the Colony of Sierra Leone . . . (New York, 1812), 3–12; Sheldon H. Harris, Paul Cuffe: Black America and the African Return (New York, 1972), 182–85; Floyd J. Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787–1863 (Urbana, 1973), chap. 2.; Peter Williams, Jun., A Discourse Delivered on the Death of Capt. Paul Cuffe . . . (New York, 1817), 4–6, 8–9, 11–12, 15–16.

7. Robert Finley, Thoughts on the Colonization of Free Blacks [Washington, 1816], 1–2, 4–7; ARCJ, March 1825; P. J. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816–1865 (New York, 1961), chap. 2; Hugh Davis, Leonard Bacon: New England Reformer and Antislavery Moderate (Baton Rouge, 1998), chap. 3; Mathew Spooner, “‘I Know this Scheme is from God’: Toward a Reconsideration of the Origins of the American Colonization Society,” S&A (2013): 1–15.

8A Letter from General Harper, of Maryland, to Elias Caldwell . . . (Baltimore, 1818), 7–11, 15–19, 29–32; Memorial of the President and Board of Managers of The American Colonization . . . (Washington, 1820), 3–6; First Report of the New York Colonization Society . . . (New York, 1823), 30–33; ARCJ, April 1826; The Twelfth Annual Report of the American Society for the Colonizing of Free People of Colour . . . (Washington, 1829), v–ix, 1, 22–24, 50–56; Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, chaps. 3, 5; Andrew Shankman, “Neither Infinite Wretchedness nor Positive Good: Mathew Carey and Henry Clay on Political Economy and Slavery during the Long 1820s,” in John Craig Hammond and Matthew Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery: The Politics of Bondage and Freedom in the New American Nation (Charlottesville, Va., 2011), 247–66; Douglas R. Egerton, Charles Fenton Mercer and the Trial of National Conservatism (Jackson, Miss., 1989), 106–12, 161–73; Egerton “‘Its Origin is Not a Little Curious’: A New Look at the American Colonization Society,” JER 5 (Winter 1985): 463–80; Eric Robert Papenfuse, The Evils of Necessity: Robert Goodloe Harper and the Moral Dilemma of Slavery (Philadelphia, 1997), chap. 3; Nicholas Guyatt, “‘The Outskirts of Our Happiness’: Race and the Lure of Colonization in the Early Republic,” JAH 95 (March 2009): 986–1011.

9. Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization . . . (Boston, 1832), 9–13; Wiggins, ed., Captain Paul Cuffe’s Logs and Letters, 502; Julie Winch, A Gentleman of Color: The Life of James Forten (New York, 2002), chap. 8.

10. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 34; Marie Tyler-McGraw, An African Republic: Black and White Virginians in the Making of Liberia (Chapel Hill, 2007); Eric Burin, Slavery and the Peculiar Solution: A History of the American Colonization Society (Gainesville, Fla., 2005); Douglas R. Egerton, “Averting a Crisis: The Proslavery Critique of the American Colonization Society,” CWH 43 (June 1997): 142–56; Claude A. Clegg III, The Price of Liberty: African Americans and the Making of Liberia (Chapel Hill, 2004).

11ARCJ, March 1825; November 1827; Archibald Alexander, A History of Colonization on the Western Coast of Africa, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1849), 98–218; Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, chaps. 4, 6; Leonard Bacon, A Plea for Africa . . . (New Haven, 1825), 9–12, 16–19; Bacon, A Discourse Preached in the Center Church . . .(New Haven, 1828), 9–14, 23; Davis, Leonard Bacon, 55–64; Ralph Randolph Gurley, Life of Jehudi Ashmun . . . (Washington, 1835), 73–89, 113–17, 134–37, 148–49, 154, 182–92, 390–94; The Twelfth Annual Report, vii, 2–4, 47; First Report of the New York Colonization Society, 12–14.

12ARCJ, April 1825; May 1825; March 1826; July 1826; August 1826; October 1826; May 1827; September 1827; November 1827; May 1828; December 1828; October 1837; A Concise History of the Commencement, Progress and Present Condition of the American Colonies in Liberia By Samuel Wilkeson (Washington, 1839), 73; A Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the American Colonization Society . . . (Hartford, 1833); R. R. Gurley, A Discourse . . . (Washington, 1825), 14–19; Elizabeth Varon, “Evangelical Womanhood and the Politics of the African Colonization Movement in Virginia,” in John R. McKivigan and Mitchell Snay, eds., Religion and the Antebellum Debate over Slavery(Athens, Ga., 1998), 169–93.

13Journal of Daniel Coker . . . (Baltimore, 1820), 12, 17–19, 31–34, 42–48; Amos J. Beyan, The American Colonization Society and the Creation of the Liberian State: A Historical Perspective, 1822–1900 (Lanham, Md., 1991), chaps. 2, 4; Leroy Graham, Baltimore: The Nineteenth Century Black Capital (New York, 1982), 75–77; Lowther, The African American Odyssey, 209–25.

14. Gurley, Life of Ashmun, 29–34, 134–36; ARCJ, October 1825; October 1827; December 1827; March 1828; October 1828; March 1829; June 1829; March 1830; June 1830; February 1832; May 1834; September 1837; The Twelfth Annual Report, 19–21; Bell I. Wiley, ed., Slaves No More: Letters from Liberia 1833–1869 (Lexington, Ky., 1980); Beyan, The American Colonization Society, chap. 2; Howard Temperley, “African American Aspirations and the Settlement of Liberia,” S&A 21 (2000): 67–92; Frankie Hutton, “Economic Considerations in the American Colonization Society’s Early Effort to Emigrate Free Blacks to Liberia, 1816–1836,” JNH 68 (Autumn 1983): 376–89; Tyler-McGraw, An African Republic, 64–70; James Wesley Smith, Sojourners in Search of Freedom: The Settlement of Liberia by Black Americans (Lanham, Md., 1987), 14–78; Tom W. Schick, Behold the Promised Land: A History of Afro-American Settler Society in Nineteenth-Century Liberia (Baltimore, 1977), chap. 2; Jeremiah Gloucester, An Oration Delivered on January 1, 1823 . . . (Philadelphia, 1823), 13.

15. Prince Saunders, Haytian Papers . . . (Boston, 1818), An Address Delivered at Bethel Church, Philadelphia . . . (Philadelphia, 1818), A Memoir Presented to the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race . . . (Philadelphia, 1818), 13–17; Thomas Clarkson to Prince Saunders, February 3, 1819, Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Henry E. Huntington Library, BAP; Arthur O. White, “Prince Saunders: An Instance of Social Mobility Among Antebellum New England Blacks,” JNH 60 (October 1975): 526–35; Niles Weekly Register 18 (July 1820): 326; GUE, Third Month 1821; Ninth Month 1822; September 17, 1825; Chris Dixon, “An Ambivalent Black Nationalism: Haiti, Africa, and Antebellum African American Emigrationism,” Australasian Journal of American Studies 10 (December 1991): 10–25; Sara C. Fanning, “The Roots of Early Black Nationalism: Northern African Americans’ Invocations of Haiti in the Early Nineteenth Century,” S&A 28 (April 2007): 61–85.

16GUE, January, March, April, August 1825; Correspondence Relative to Emigration to Hayti . . . (New York, 1824), 2–6, 7–10, 18–22, 29–31; Information for the Free People of Colour, who are inclined to emigrate to Haiti (New York, 1824), 3–6, 10; Newman, Freedom’s Prophet, 20; Dorothy Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837 (Boston, 1971), 279–80; Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Paul Cuffe . . . (Vernon, Conn., 1839), 5; Alfred N. Hunt, Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (Baton Rouge, 1988), 165–70; Leon D. Pamphile, Haitians and African Americans: A Heritage of Tragedy and Hope (Gainesville, Fla., 2001), 34–46; Chris Dixon, African America and Haiti: Emigration and Black Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 2000), 34–49; Sara Fanning, Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement (New York, 2014).

17GUE, Sixth Month, 1824; October, November 1824; January, February, March, June, October 8, 1825; June 3, 10, 1826; December 4, 1829; H. M. Wagstaff, ed., Minutes of the N.C. Manumission Society, 1816–1834 (Chapel Hill, 1934), 82–84; Bruce Dain, A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 93–104; The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy . . . (Philadelphia, 1847), 191–94; Merton L. Dillon, Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom (Urbana, 1966), chap. 6.

18Minutes of the Eighteenth Session of the American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1823), 28–31; Edward Needles, An Historical Memoir of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1848), 81–82; vol. 11, July 15, 1817–January 17, 1842, pp. 26, 39, 61, 69–70, 73–74, 82–83, New York Manumission Society Records, NYHS.

19. Elias Hicks, Observations on the Slavery of the Africans and Their Descendants . . . (New York, 1811), 3–14, 23–24; Paul Buckley, ed., The Journal of Elias Hicks (San Francisco, 2009), introduction; Larry Ingle, Quakers in Conflict: The Hicksite Reformation (Knoxville, 1986); Kathleen G. Velsor, The Underground Railroad on Long Island: Friends in Freedom (Charleston, S.C., 2013); Thomas D. Hamm, “George F. White and Hicksite Opposition to the Abolitionist Movement,” in Brycchan Carey and Geoffrey Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition (Urbana, 2014), 43–55; Ryan P. Jordan, Slavery and the Meetinghouse: Quakers and the Abolitionist Dilemma, 1820–1865 (Bloomington, 2007).

20An Exposition of the Treatment of Slaves in the Southern States . . . (New Brunswick, N.J., 1815), iii, iv, 6–7, 16–18, 21–22, 24, 29–34.

21. John W. Christie and Dwight L. Dumond, George Bourne and The Book and Slavery Irreconcilable (Baltimore, 1969), 106–9, 113–17, 120–21, 126–27, 135–38, 140–46, 162–67, 186–92; Lester B. Scherer, Slavery and the Churches in Early America, 1619–1819 (Grand Rapids, 1975), 134; TL, August 25, 1832.

22. John Kenrick, Horrors of Slavery in Two Parts . . . (Cambridge, 1817), 1–4; TL, February 2, June 8, 1833.

23. Torrey, A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery, 18–22, 28–30, 37–62; TL, February 2 1833.

24Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fourteenth American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and Improving the Condition of the African Race: Assembled at Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1816), 30–32; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifteenth American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and Improving the Condition of the African Race: Assembled at Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1817), 31; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), 12; Minutes of the Proceedings of a Special Meeting of the Fifteenth American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and Improving the Condition of the African Race: Assembled at Philadelphia(Philadelphia, 1818), 47–54; Minutes of the Seventeenth Session of the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and Improving the Condition of the African Race. Convened at Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1821), 50–55; “Reports of the American Convention of Abolition Societies on Negroes and on Slavery, their Appeals to Congress, and their Addresses to the Citizens of the United States,” JNH 6 (July 1921): 349–57; Adams, The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery, 154–207.

25. David Barrow, Involuntary, Unmerited, Absolute, Hereditary Slavery, Examined . . . (Lexington, Ky., 1808), 11, 17–18, 28; Address from the Manumission Society of Tennessee to the Free Men of the State, On Account of the Oppressed Africans Therein (Rogersville, Tenn., 1816), 3–5; The Emancipator (Complete) . . . (Nashville, 1932), v–x, 2, 17, 60–61, 91, 111–12; Minutes of the Eighteenth Session of the American Convention, 16–19; James D. Essig, The Bonds of Wickedness: American Evangelicals Against Slavery, 1770–1808 (Philadelphia, 1982), 140–51; Scherer, Slavery and the Churches, 135–37; Jeffrey Brook Allen, “Were Southern White Critics of Slavery Racists? Kentucky and the Upper South, 1791–1824,” JSH 44 (May 1978): 169–90; James Brewer Stewart, “Evangelicalism and the Radical Strain in Southern Antislavery Thought During the 1820s,” JSH 39 (August 1973): 379–96.

26. H. M. Wagstaff, ed., Minutes of the N.C. Manumission Society, 1816–1834 (Chapel Hill, 1934), 37–39, 57–60, 62, 75–79, 81–93; Minutes of an Adjourned Session of the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race . . . (Baltimore, 1826), 32–39; Letitia Woods Brown, Free Negroes in the District of Columbia, 1790–1846 (New York, 1972), 124–25; Gordon Finnie, “The Antislavery Movement in the Upper South before 1840,” JSH 35 (August 1969): 319–34; Kenneth M. Stampp, “The Fate of the Southern Antislavery Movement,” JNH 28 (January 1943): 10–22; Scherer, Slavery and the Churches, 131–34; A. Glenn Crothers, Quakers Living in the Lion’s Mouth: The Society of Friends in Northern Virginia, 1730–1865 (Gainesville, Fla., 2012), chaps. 4, 7; Patricia Hickin, “Gentle Agitator: Samuel M. Janney and the Antislavery Movement in Virginia, 1842–1851,” JSH 37 (May 1971): 159–88.

27Minutes of the Proceedings of the Sixteenth American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1819), 30–32; Hammond, Slavery, Expansion, and Freedom in the Early American West, 139–45; [John S. Tyson], Life of Elisha Tyson, the Philanthropist By a Citizen of Baltimore (Baltimore, 1825), 99–102; Thomas D. Morris, Free Men All: The Personal Liberty Laws of the North, 1780–1861(Baltimore, 1974), 220–22; Mason, Slavery and Politics, 130–45; Adams, The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery, chap. 20; Brown, Free Negroes in the District of Columbia, 125–28.

28An Oration Delivered before the Semi-Annual Meeting of the Union Humane Society . . . By Thos. H. Genin, Esq. (Mount Pleasant, Ohio, 1818), 3–5, 7–9, 29, 31–32, 35–36.

29The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, 9–23; Benjamin Lundy, Circular To The Advocates of African Emancipation . . . [St. Clairsville, Ohio, 1816]; Minutes of the Eighteenth Session of the American Convention, 42; GUE, Seventh Month, Twelfth Month 1821, First Month 1822; Needles, An Historical Memoir, 83–84; Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, chap. 1; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, Bound with Them in Chains: A Biographical History of the Antislavery Movement (Westport, Conn., 1972), chap. 5.

30Minutes of the Eighteenth Session of the American Convention, 42–65; GUE, November 1824; W. Wilberforce, An Appeal to the Religion, Justice and Humanity of the Inhabitants . . . (London, 1823); T. Clarkson, Thoughts on the Necessity of Improving the Condition of Slaves in the British Colonies . . . (London, 1823); Antislavery Recollections in A Series of Letters Addressed to Mrs. Beecher Stowe Written by Sir George Stephen, 2d ed. (London, 1971), with a new introduction by Howard Temperley; F. J. Klingberg, The Anti-Slavery Movement in England: A Study in English Humanitarianism (New Haven, 1926); Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation(Urbana, 1972), 168–81; Seymour Drescher, From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery (New York, 1999), chap. 3; Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (London, 1988), 421–23; David Turley, The Culture of English Antislavery, 1780–1860 (New York, 1991).

31Minutes of the Adjourned Session of the Twentieth Biennial American Convention, 44–52; Minutes of the Twenty-First Biennial American Convention, 37–47; GUE, Fifth Month 1823; Fifth Month 1824; December 1826; Charles Marriott, An Address to the Members of the Religious Society of Friends . . . (New York, 1835), 5, 15; Minutes of Proceedings of the Requited Labor Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1838), 28; Ruth Ketring Nueremberger, The Free Produce Movement: A Quaker Protest Against Slavery (New York, 1942); Clare Midgley, “Slave Sugar Boycotts, Female Activism and the Domestic Base of British Anti-Slavery Culture,” S&A 17 (December 1996); Carol Faulkner, “The Root of the Evil: Free Produce and Radical Antislavery, 1820–1860,” JER 27 (Fall 2007): 377–405; Lawrence B. Glickman, “‘Buy for the Sake of the Slave’: Abolitionism and the Origins of Consumer Activism,” American Quarterly 56 (December 2004): 889–912.

32. [Elizabeth Heyrick], Immediate not Gradual Abolition . . . (New York, 1825), 3–5, 9–16; Clare Midgley, Women Against Slavery: The British Campaigns of 1780–1870 (London, 1992), 43–51, 58–71, 103–8; Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge, Eng., 2009), 248–52.

33Minutes of the Twenty-First Biennial American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, 48; GUE, January 7, 14, 21, 1825; September 2, 16, December 4, 1829; Elizabeth Margaret Chandler, Essays, Philanthropic and Moral Principally Relating to the Abolition of Slavery in America (Philadelphia, 1845), 7–9, 37–39, 43–48, 51–52, 75–76, 115–17; Benjamin Lundy, The Poetical Works of Elizabeth Margaret Chandler With a Memoir of Her Life and Character (Philadelphia, 1845), 11–13, 16–25, 40–41, 59, 70–71; Marcia J. Heringa Mason, Remember the Distance that Divides Us: The Family Letters of Philadelphia Quaker Abolitionist and Elizabeth Margaret Chandler, 1830–1842(East Lansing, 2004), xxxvi–xxxix; Gay Gibson Cima, Performing Anti-Slavery: Activist Women on Antebellum Stages (Cambridge, Eng., 2014).

34. Benjamin Lundy, A Plan for the Gradual Emancipation of Slavery in the United States Without Danger to the Citizens of the South (Baltimore, 1825); The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, 29–30; GUE, February 24, 1827; May, June, October 1830; Niles Weekly Register, May 19, 1827; Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, 133–39.

35GUE, November 26, December 10, 27, 1825; January 28, February 11, 1826; February 24, August 25, 1827; February 23, March 8, 15, 21, 1828; October 1830; Robert Dale Owen, Twenty-Seven Years of Autobiography: Threading My Way (London, 1874), 101–12, 264–72; Josephine M. Elliot, ed., Robert Dale Owen’s Travel Journal, 1827(Indianapolis, 1977), 28; Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, chap. 7; Celia Morris Eckhart, Fanny Wright: Rebel in America (Cambridge, Mass., 1984), 86–102, 108–67; Sean Wilentz, Chants Democratic: New York City and the Rise of the American Working Class, 1788–1850 (New York, 1984), 176–216; Philip Sheldon Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States (New York, 1947): 1:129–40; Arthur E. Bestor, Backwoods Utopia: The Sectarian and Owenite Phases of Communitarian Socialism in America, 1663–1829 (Philadelphia, 1950); Robert Dale Owen, The Policy of Emancipation . . . (Philadelphia, 1863).

36. Nathan Perkins, The National Sins, and National Punishment in the Recently Declared War . . . (Hartford, 1812), 16–18; E. Parish, A Protest Against the War . . . (Newburyport, Mass., 1812), 13–17; Rachel Hope Cleves, The Reign of Terror in America: Visions of Violence from Anti-Jacobinism to Antislavery (Cambridge, Eng., 2009), 153–93, 230–48; Matthew Mason, “Federalists, Abolitionists, and the Problem of Influence,” American Nineteenth-Century History 10 (March 2009): 1–27; Marc M. Arkin, “The Federalist Trope: Power and Passion in Abolitionist Rhetoric,” JAH 9 (June 2001): 75–98; Leonard L. Richards, The Slave Power: The Free North and Southern Domination, 1780–1860(Baton Rouge, 2000), chap. 2; Albert F. Simpson, “The Political Significance of Slave Representation, 1787–1821,” JSH 7 (August 1941): 333–42; Linda Kerber, Federalists in Dissent: Imagery and Ideology in Jeffersonian America (Ithaca, 1970), chap. 2; Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (New York, 2005), 159–68; John L. Thomas, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison, A Biography (Boston, 1963), 28–35.

37. John Craig Hammond, Slavery, Expansion, and Freedom in the Early American West (Charlottesville, Va., 2007); Mason, Slavery and Politics, 145–56; Philip J. Schwartz, Migrants Against Slavery: Virginians and the Nation (Charlottesville, Va., 2001); Susan Cooper Guasco, Confronting Slavery: Edward Coles and the Rise of Anti-Slavery Politics in Nineteenth-Century America(DeKalb, Ill., 2013); Eugene Berwanger, The Frontier Against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy (Urbana, 1967), chap. 1; Christopher P. Lehman, Slavery in the Upper Mississippi Valley, 1787–1865: A History of Human Bondage in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin(Jefferson, N.C., 2011).

38. Glover Moore, The Missouri Controversy, 1819–1821 (Lexington, Ky., 1953), 1–64, 84–128, 281–87, 314–15; Hammond, Slavery, Expansion, and Freedom, chap. 8; Mason, Slavery and Politics, chap. 8; Major L. Wilson, Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, 1815–1861 (Westport, Conn., 1974), chap. 2; Forbes, The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath, chap. 2; Richards, The Slave Power, chap. 3; Speech of the Honorable James Tallmadge, Jr . . . (New York, 1819), 5, 13–15; Remarks of Mr. Taylor [Philadelphia, 1819], 1–6; Select Speeches of John Sergeant of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1832), 185–233; Substance of Two Speeches, Delivered in the Senate of the United States on the Subject of the Missouri Bill by the Hon. Rufus King of New York (New York, 1819), 9–19, 23–25, 27–32; Robert Ernst, Rufus King: American Federalist (Chapel Hill, 1968), 369–78; Joshua Michael Zeitz, “The Missouri Compromise Reconsidered: Antislavery Rhetoric and the Emergence of the Free Labor Synthesis,” JER 20 (Autumn 2000), 447–85; John R. Howe Jr., “John Adam’s View of Slavery,” JNH 49 (July 1964), 201–6.

39. Moore, The Missouri Controversy, 218–73; Russel Kirk, John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in American Politics, With Selected Speeches and Letters (Indianapolis, 1978), 183–89; Norman K. Risjord, The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatives in the Age of Jefferson (New York, 1965), 213–22; John Chester Miller, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery (New York, 1977); William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854 (New York, 1990), 1: chaps. 7, 8; Lacy K. Ford, Deliver Us from Evil: The Slavery Question in the Old South (New York, 2009), 74–76; Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill, 2000), 16.

40. Moore, The Missouri Controversy, chaps. 4, 5; Forbes, The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath, chap. 3; Mason, Slavery and Politics, chap. 9; Richards, The Slave Power, chap. 4; Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery, 14–15.

41Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifteenth American Convention, 42–43; The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, 18–19; Life of Elisha Tyson, 102–6; At a Numerous Meeting of the Citizens of Boston and its Vicinity . . . [Boston, 1819]; Minutes of the Proceedings of the Sixteenth American, 10–11, 16, 18–27, 33, 60–62; Minutes of the Seventeenth Session of the American Convention, 22–25, 46–48; James G. Basker, ed., Early American Abolitionists: A Collection of Anti-Slavery Writings, 1760–1820 (New York, 2005), 319–51; Speech of the Honorable James Tallmadge, Jr., 17–20; Needles, An Historical Memoir, 68–69; The Emancipator, 87–89, 105–11; GUE, I Seventh Month 1821; “Reports of the American Convention of Abolition Societies on Negroes and on Slavery,” 328–33.

42. Daniel Raymond, Esq. The Missouri Question (Baltimore, 1819), 3–7, 9–23, 25–26, 29–39; Raymond, Thoughts on Political Economy (Baltimore, 1820), 456; Select Speeches of John Sergeant, 237–56; Allen Kaufman, Capitalism, Slavery and Republican Values, 1819–1848 (Austin, 1982), 243–314.

43. Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 170–71; Robert Walsh Jr., An Appeal From the Judgments of Great Britain Respecting the United States of America . . . (Philadelphia, 1819), 306–424; [Robert Walsh], Free Remarks on the Spirit of the Federal Constitution . . . (Philadelphia, 1819), 32–33, 83–84, 98–100; [Joseph Blunt], An Examination of the Expediency and Constitutionality of Prohibiting Slavery in the State of Missouri By Marcus (New York, 1819), 3–7, 13, 17–22; Niles’ Weekly Register, May 15, 22, June 19, 26, July 17, August 14, 21, 1819; Padraig Riley, “Slavery and the Problem of Democracy in Jeffersonian America,” in Hammond and Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery, 228–46.

44. [James (misidentified as William) Hillhouse], The Crisis. No. 1 or Thoughts on Slavery Occasioned by the Missouri Question (New Haven, 1820), 3–4, 6–7; The Crisis. No. 2 or Thoughts on Slavery Occasioned by the Missouri Question . . . (New Haven, 1820), 3–5, 7–10, 14–19; Pocohontas; A Proclamation: With Plates [New Haven, 1820], 3, 9–13; Gary Nash, “Race and Citizenship in the Early Republic,” in Richard Newman and James Mueller, eds., Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia: Emancipation and the Long Struggle for Racial Justice in the City of Brotherly Love (Baton Rouge, 2011), 90–117; Martin Ohman, “Perfecting Independence: Tench Coxe and the Political Economy of Western Development,” JER 31 (Fall 2011): 397–433; Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York, 2014), chap. 2.

45Minutes of the Nineteenth Session of the American Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1825), 10–16, 33–35; Minutes of the Adjourned Session, 7, 28–29, 44–47; Minutes of the Twentieth Session of the American Convention . . . (Baltimore, 1827), 22–25, 29–31; Minutes of the Adjourned Session of the Twentieth Biennial American Convention . . .(Philadelphia, 1828), 17–24, 33–35; GUE, September 12, 1825; Minutes of the Twenty-First Biennial American . . . (Philadelphia, 1829), 19–35, 37–48; “Reports of the American Convention of Abolition Societies on Negroes and on Slavery,” 310–16, 326–28, 342–49, 364–74; The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, 30; David G. Smith, On the Edge of Freedom: The Fugitive Slave Issue in South Central Pennsylvania, 1820–1870 (New York, 2013), 74–78; Dwight Lowell Dumond, Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America (Ann Arbor, 1961), 236–37.

CHAPTER SEVEN. INTERRACIAL IMMEDIATISM

1An Address Delivered on the Celebration of the Abolition of Slavery in the State of New York . . . By Nathaniel Paul . . . (Albany, 1827), 23; FJ, December 19, 1828.

2. Ann C. Loveland, “Evangelicalism and ‘Immediate Abolition’ in American Antislavery Thought,” Journal of Social History (1966): 172–88; David W. Blight, “Perceptions of Southern Intransigence and the Rise of Radical Antislavery Thought, 1816–1830,” JER 3 (Summer 1983): 139–63.

3. Nathan O. Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity (New Haven, 1989); Robert H. Abzug, Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (New York, 1994); John R. McKivigan, The War Against Proslavery Religion: Abolitionism and the Northern Churches, 1830–1865 (Ithaca, 1984), 19–24.

4. Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969); Paul Goodman, Of One Blood: Abolitionism and the Origins of Racial Equality (Berkeley, 1998), chap. 3; Richard S. Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic (Chapel Hill, 2002); Manisha Sinha, “Coming of Age: The Historiography of Black Abolitionism,” in Timothy Patrick McCarthy and John Stauffer, eds. Prophets of Protest: Reconsidering the History of American Abolitionism (New York, 2006), 23–38.

5. Vincent Harding, There Is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America (New York, 1981); Sterling Stuckey, Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America (New York, 1987); Merton L. Dillon, Slavery Attacked: Southern Slaves and Their Allies, 1619–1865 (Baton Rouge, 1990); Gelien Matthews, Caribbean Slave Revolts and the British Abolitionist Movement (Baton Rouge, 2006).

6. Lionel H. Kennedy and Thomas Parker, eds., An Official Report of the Trials of Sundry Negroes . . . (Charleston, S.C., 1822); James Hamilton Jr., An Account of the Late Intended Insurrection Among a Portion of the Blacks of this City (Charleston, S.C., 1822); GUE, Twelfth Month, 1822; “The Making of a Slave Conspiracy, Part I,” WMQ 58 (October 2001): 913–76; “The Making of a Slave Conspiracy, Part II,” WMQ 59 (January 2002): 153–268; Douglas R. Egerton, He Shall Go Out Free: The Lives of Denmark Vesey (Madison, 1999); Egerton “Of Facts and Fables: New Light on the Denmark Vesey Affair,” South Carolina Historical Magazine 105 (January 2004): 8–48; Robert L. Paquette, “From Rebellion to Revisionism: The Continuing Debate about the Denmark Vesey Affair,” Journal of the Historical Society 4 (Fall 2004): 8–48; James O” Neil Spady, “Power and Confession: On the Credibility of the Earliest Reports of the Denmark Vesey Slave Conspiracy,” WMQ 68 (April 2011): 287–304.

7Niles Weekly Register, September 14, 1822; Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill, 2000), 14–16; John Lofton, Denmark Vesey’s Revolt: The Slave Plot that Lit a Fuse to Fort Sumter (Kent, Ohio, 1964); Peter P. Hinks, To Awaken My Afflicted Brethren: David Walker and the Problem of Antebellum Slave Resistance (University Park, Pa., 1997); Slave Insurrection in Southampton County, Va. . . . Compiled and Published by Henry Bibb (New York, 1850), 1–7; Egerton, He Shall Go Out Free, xxiii, xxiv, 203–28; Christian Recorder, March 6, 1869.

8. L. Glen Inabinet, “‘The July Fourth Incident’ of 1816: An Insurrection Plotted by Slaves in Camden, South Carolina,” in Herbert A. Johnson, ed., South Carolina Legal History (Spartanburg, S.C., 1980), 209–21; Emilia Viotti da Costa, Crowns of Glory, Tears of Blood: The Demerara Slave Rebellion of 1823 (New York, 1994); Michael Craton, Testing the Chains: Resistance to Slavery in the British West Indies (Ithaca, 1982), chaps. 20, 21; GUE, First Month, 1824; [Elizabeth Heyrick], Immediate not Gradual Abolition . . . (New York, 1825), 7–8, 13, 21–22.

9Truth, Self-Supported . . . By Robert Wedderburn . . . (London, [1795]); Iain McCalman ed., The Horrors of Slavery and Other Writings by Robert Wedderburn (Princeton, 1991), introduction, 47, 59, 81–83, 85–87, 89–103, 105–10, 133, 139; McCalman, “Anti-Slavery and Ultra-Radicalism in Early Nineteenth-Century England: The Case of Robert Wedderburn,” S&A 7 (September 1986): 99–117.

10. [John S. Tyson], Life of Elisha Tyson . . . (Baltimore, 1825), 107–10; The Farewell Address of Elisha Tyson . . . (Baltimore, 1824), 8; GUE, April 1830; Leroy Graham, Baltimore, the Nineteenth Century Black Capital (Lanham, Md., 1982), 70, 82–85, 95–107.

11ARCJ, December 1826, July 1829; Andrew Diemer, “The Quaker and the Colonist: Moses Sheppard, Samuel Ford McGill, and Transatlantic Antislavery across the Color Line,” in Brycchan Carey and Geoffrey Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition (Urbana, 2014), 135–48; Christopher Phillips, Freedom’s Port: The African American Community of Baltimore, 1790–1860 (Urbana, 1997), 186–87; 214–15, 230–31.

12. Graham Russell Hodges, Roots and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1619–1863 (Chapel Hill, 1999), 192; David N. Gellman and David Quigley, eds., Jim Crow New York: A Documentary History of Race and Citizenship, 1777–1877 (New York, 2003), 64–66, 73–83, 87–200; Joanne Pope Melish, Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780–1860 (Ithaca, 1998), 172–83; John Wood Sweet, Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730–1830 (Baltimore, 2003), 378–90; Shane White, Stories of Freedom in Black New York (Cambridge, Mass., 2002).

13. Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 100–104; FJ, June 1, 27, 29, July 6, 13, 20, 27, October 12, 1827; Philip S. Foner and Robert James Branham, eds., Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900 (Tuscaloosa, 1998), 107–8; Mitch Kachun, Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations, 1808–1915 (Amherst, Mass., 2003), 42–53.

14FJ, April 20, 1827; July 11, 18, 1828; An Address Delivered on the Celebration of the Abolition of Slavery in the State of New York, 5–6, 11–12; Nathaniel Paul, An Address Delivered at Troy on the Celebration of the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Albany, 1829), 8–12; Robert S. Levine, “Fifth of July: Nathaniel Paul and the Construction of Black Nationalism,” in Vincent Carretta and Philip Gould, eds., Genius in Bondage: Literature of the Early Black Atlantic (Lexington, Ky., 2001), 242–60; Leonard I. Sweet, “The Fourth of July and Black Americans in the Nineteenth Century: Northern Leadership Opinion within the Context of the Black Experience,” JNH 61 (July 1976): 256–75.

15A Selection from The Freedom’s Journal . . . (New York, 1987); FJ, March 16, September 14, 1827; David E. Swift, Black Prophets of Justice: Activist Clergy Before the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 1989), chap. 3; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, Bound with Them in Chains: A Biographical History of the Antislavery Movement (Westport, Conn., 1972), chap. 7.

16FJ, March 16, 23, 30, April 6, 4, 13, July 6, September 28, 1827; GUE, September 15, 1827, November 8, 1828; Jacqueline Bacon, Freedom’s Journal: The First African-American Newspaper (Lanham, Md., 2007); Timothy Patrick McCarthy, “‘To Plead Our Own Cause’: Black Print Culture and the Origins of American Abolitionism,” in McCarthy and Stauffer, eds., Prophets of Protest, 114–33; David Kazanjian, The Colonizing Trick: National Culture and Imperial Citizenship in Early America (Minneapolis, 2003), 126–32.

17FJ, June 15, August 17, 24, 1827; July 25, October 17, 31, 1828; Dain, A Hideous Monster of the Mind, 123–36.

18FJ, March 16, April 6, 20, 27, May 4, 11, 18, June 14, 29, October 12, 1827; January 18, 25, February 8, 15, 1828; Jacqueline Bacon, “‘A Revolution Unexampled in the History of Man’: The Haitian Revolution in Freedom’s Journal, 1827–1829,” in Maurice Jackson and Bacon, eds., African Americans and the Haitian Revolution: Selected Essays and Historical Documents (New York, 2010), 81–92.

19FJ, May 18, June 8, July 6, August 24, 31, September 7, 14, 21, 28, October 5, 12, 19, 26, November 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, December 7, 1827; January 2, March 7, 1829; African Colonization: Proceedings of the Formation of the New York State Colonization Society . . . (Albany, 1829).

20FJ, February 14, 21, 1829; Sandra Sandiford Young, “A Different Journey: John Brown Russwurm, 1799–1851” (Ph.D. diss., Boston College, 2004), 75–217, 241–50; Young, “John Brown Russwurm’s Dilemma: Citizenship or Emigration?,” in McCarthy and Stauffer, eds., Prophets of Protest, 90–113; ARCJ, April, May, June 1830; March 1831; Winston James, The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799–1851 (New York, 2010), chaps. 2, 3; Amos J. Beyan, African American Settlements in West Africa: John Brown Russwurm and the American Civilizing Efforts (New York, 2005).

21FJ, March 16, 1827; April 25, October 24, December 19, 1828; Terry Alford, Prince Among Slaves: The True Story of an African Prince Sold into Slavery in the American South (New York, 1977); Hinks, To Awaken My Afflicted Brethren, chaps. 1–3; Stuckey, Slave Culture, 98–121; Quarles, Black Abolitionists, 16–17; Donald M. Jacobs, “David Walker: Boston Race Leader, 1825–1830,” Essex Institute Historical Collections 107 (January 1971): 94–107; George R. Price and James Brewer Stewart, eds., To Heal the Scourge of Prejudice: The Life and Writings of Hosea Easton (Amherst, Mass., 1999), 6, 51–62.

22Walker’s Appeal with a Brief Sketch of His Life By Henry Highland Garnet . . . (New York, 1848), 11–13, 17–22, 25–27, 29–33, 38–46, 48–56, 66–81, 84–87; Herbert Aptheker, One Continual Cry: David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, 1829–1830: Its Setting and Its Meaning, Together with the full text of the third, and last, edition of the Appeal (New York, 1965); Rufus Burrow Jr., God and Human Responsibility: David Walker and Ethical Prophecy (Macon, Ga., 2003), chaps. 3–5; Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas About White People, 1830–1925 (New York, 2000), 32–36; Hinks, To Awaken My Afflicted Brethren, chaps. 4, 6–8.

23. Richard Newman, Patrick Rael, and Phillip Lapansky, eds., Pamphlets of Protest: An Anthology of Early African American Protest Literature, 1790–1860 (New York, 2001), 84–89; Dain, A Hideous Monster of the Mind, 136–48.

24. John Malvin, North into Freedom: The Autobiography of John Malvin, Free Negro, 1795–1880, Allan Peskin, ed. (Cleveland, 1966), 38–44, 66–67; FJ, December 5, 1828; ARCJ, August, October 1829; Nikki Marie Taylor, Frontiers of Freedom: Cincinnati’s Black Community, 1802–1868 (Athens, Ohio, 2005), introduction, chaps. 1–3; Marilyn Baily, “From Cincinnati, Ohio to Wilberforce, Canada: A Note on Antebellum Colonization,” JNH 58 (October 1973): 427–40; Harry E. Davis, “John Malvin, a Western Reserve Pioneer,” JNH 23 (October 1938): 426–38.

25Rights of All, May 29, June 12, August 14, September 12, 1829; Bella Gross, “Freedom’s Journal and the Rights of All,” JNH 17 (1932): 281–86.

26. Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 281–85, 295–99, 301; ARCJ, March 1831.

27. Howard Holman Bell, ed., Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions, 1830–1864 (New York, 1969), iii, iv, 5, 9–12, Bell, A Survey of the Negro Convention Movement, 1830–1861 (New York, 1969), chap. 2; Harry Reed, Platform for Change: The Foundations of the Northern Free Black Community, 1775–1865 (East Lansing, 1994), 135–41.

28Minutes and Proceedings of the First Annual Convention of the People of Colour . . . (Philadelphia, 1831), 3–7, 10–15, in Bell, ed., Minutes; Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States: From the Colonial Times to the Civil War (New York, 1951), 1:109–11; Julie Winch, ed., The Elite of Our People: Joseph Willson’s Sketches of Black Upper-Class Life in Antebellum Philadelphia (University Park, Pa., 2002), 103–5.

29. Aptheker, A Documentary History, 1:111–14; FJ, May 11, 1827; Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia’s Black Community, 1720–1840 (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), 253–59; Julie Winch, Philadelphia’s Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation, and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787–1848 (Philadelphia, 1988), chap. 5; Theodore Hershberg, “Free Blacks in Antebellum Philadelphia: A Study of Ex-Slaves, Freeborn, and Socio Economic Decline,” Journal of Social History, 183–209; Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 113–14, 119; David Zimmerman, “William Whipper in the Black Abolitionist Tradition,” http://www.millersville.edu/~ugrr/resources/columbia/whipper.html; Richard P. McCormick, “William Whipper, Moral Reformer,” PH 43 (January 1976): 22–46; Winch, A Gentleman of Color, 233–35.

30The Confessions of Nat Turner . . . (Baltimore, 1831), 3; Louis Masur, 1831: Year of Eclipse (New York, 2001), 9–34; Hinks, To Awaken My Afflicted Brethren, chap. 5; Glenn M. McNair, “The Elijah Burritt Affair: David Walker’s Appeal and Partisan Journalism in Antebellum Milledgeville,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 83 (Fall 1999): 448–78; Clement Eaton, “A Dangerous Pamphlet in the Old South, JSH 2 (August 1936): 323–34; Marshall Rachleff, “Document: David Walker’s Southern Agent,” JNH 62 (January 1977): 100–103; William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, “Walker’s Appeal Comes to Charleston: A Note and Documents,” JNH 59 (July 1974): 287–92; Harding, There Is a River, 77–85, 94.

31The Confessions of Nat Turner, 3–5, 7–11, 18–19; [Bibb], Slave Insurrection in Southampton County, 8–12; Peter H. Wood, “Nat Turner: The Unknown Slave as Visionary Leader,” in Leon Litwack and August Meier, eds., Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century (Urbana, 1988), 21–40; Herbert Aptheker, Nat Turner’s Slave Rebellion Together with the Full Text of the So-Called “Confessions” of Nat Turner Made in Prison in 1831 (New York, 1966); Kenneth S. Greenberg, ed., Nat Turner: A Slave Rebellion in History and Memory (New York, 2003), parts 1, 3; Stephen B. Oates, The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion (New York, 1975); Scot French, The Rebellious Slave: Nat Turner in American Memory (Boston, 2004), chaps. 1–3; Jean Fagan Yellin, The Intricate Knot: Black Figures in American Literature, 1776–1863 (New York, 1972), chap. 9.

32. Thomas R. Dew, Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature . . . (Richmond, 1832); Eva Sheppard Wolf, Race and Liberty in the New Nation: Emancipation in Virginia from the Revolution to Nat Turner’s Rebellion (Baton Rouge, 2006), 185–238; Alison Goodyear Freehling, Drift Toward Dissolution: The Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1832 (Baton Rouge, 1982); Penelope Campbell, Maryland in Africa: The Maryland Colonization Society, 1831–1857 (Urbana, 1971), chaps. 1–3; William W. Freeh ling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854 (New York, 1990): 1: chaps. 10, 11.

33. [Samuel Warner], Authentic and Impartial Narrative of the Tragical Scene . . . (New York, 1831), 6, 19–31, 35–38; Ira Berlin, “Documents: After Nat Turner: A Letter from the North,” JNH 55 (1970): 144–51; The Letter of Appomattox to the People of Virginia . . . (Richmond, 1832), 21–27.

34. Henry Bleby, Death Struggles of Slavery . . . (London, 1853), 1–2, 116–18; Craton, Testing the Chains, 291–323; Gad Heuman, Between Black and White: Race, Politics, and the Free Coloreds in Jamaica, 1792–1865 (Westport, Conn., 1995); Vincent Brown, The Reaper’s Garden: Death and Power in the World of Atlantic Slavery (Cambridge, Mass., 2008), 232–35; Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 423–36, 451–52; Drescher, Abolition, 260–63.

35. Sara Salih, ed., The History of Mary Prince: A West Indian Slave (London, 2000), 3, 8–12, 16–21, 24–25, 31–38, 55, 64; Barbara Baumgartner, “The Body as Evidence: Resistance, Collaboration, and Appropriation in ‘The History of Mary Prince,’” Callaloo 24 (Winter 2001): 253–75; Edlie L. Wong, Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel (New York, 2009), 36–63; Clare Midgley, Women Against Slavery: The British Campaigns of 1780–1870 (London, 1992), 86–92.

36. [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life told By His Children, vol. 1, 1805–1835 (New York, 1885), chaps. 1–4; GUE, November 8, 1828; Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 3–60.

37William Lloyd Garrison, 1:126–38; Mayer, All on Fire, 68–69; Thomas, The Liberator, 101–3.

38GUE, November 27, December 18, 1829; January 15, 29, May, June, October, November 1830; Bettye J. Gardner, “William Watkins: Antebellum Black Teacher and Anti-Slavery Writer,” Negro History Bulletin 39 (September/October 1976): 623–25; Graham, Baltimore, chap. 2; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:148–49; Mayer, All on Fire, 79–82.

39William Lloyd Garrison, 1:174–99, 202–4; Walter M. Merrill, Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), 9; TL, January 1, 15, 1831; Mayer, All on Fire, 94.

40GUE, December 1830; The Life, Travels, and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, 30–186; Oliver Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison and His Times . . . (Boston, 1880), 28–31, 39; Dillon, Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom, chaps. 10–14.

41TL, March 5, 12, April 9, 23, 30, May 14, 28, September 3, November 26, 1831, April 21, 1832; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:199–202, 212–24; James Forten to Garrison, December 31, 1830; February 2, 23, August 9, 1831; July 28, 1832; George Cary to Garrison, June 6, 1831; Joseph Cassey to Garrison, October 16, 1832; February 15, 1834; February 12, 1835; William Watkins to Garrison, July 2, September 13, 1835, BAP, reel 1; Deborah Bingham Van Broekhoven, The Devotion of These Women: Rhode Island in the Antislavery Network (Amherst, Mass., 2002), 10–11, 15; Quarles, Black Abolitionists, 18–22; Charles H. Wesley, “The Negro in the Organization of Abolition,” Phylon 2 (Third Quarter 1941): 223–25; Donald M. Jacobs, “William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator and Boston’s Blacks, 1830–1865,” NEQ 44 (June 1971): 259–61.

42TL, January 1, January 8, January 15, March 12, June 4, November 26, 1831; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:351.

43TL, January 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, February 26, April 30, May 14, 28, September 3, 10, 17, 24, October 1, 8, 1831; January 14, March 10, 1832; The Abolitionist, January 1833; Walter M. Merrill ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 1, I Will be Heard! 1822–1835 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 149, 151–53, 195–96; Donald M. Jacobs, “David Walker and William Lloyd Garrison: Racial Cooperation and the Shaping of Boston Abolition,” in Jacobs, ed., Courage and Conscience: Black and White Abolitionists in Boston (Bloomington, 1993), 7–17; Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison, 51–52, 60–66; Mayer, All on Fire, 116.

44TL, March 12, April 2, July 2, 30, August 20, September 3, 17, November 5, December 10, 17, 1831; January 21, 1832; Louis R. Mehlinger, “The Attitude of the Free Negro Towards African Colonization,” JNH 1 (July 1916): 283–88.

45American Colonization Society, and the Colony at Liberia Published by the Massachusetts Colonization Society (Boston, 1831), 15; Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization . . . (Boston, 1832), preface, part 1: 5–9, 54, 57, 71–72, 78–80, 90, 103–10, 122–24, 129–34, 141–50; part 2: 4–6, 8; TL, September 17, 1831; January 28, October 27, 1832; Bruce Rosen, “Abolition and Colonization, The Years of Conflict, 1829–1834,” Phylon 33 (Second Quarter 1972): 181–88.

46TL, September 17, October 1, 1831; January 14, August 20, October 20, 1832; March 23, 30, April 13, May 4, June 22, 1833; Merrill ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 1:217, 220–22, 261–62, 267–69; R. J. M. Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830–1860 (Baton Rouge, 1983), 52–69; Reply to Mr. Joseph Phillips’ Enquiry . . . By the Rev. Nathaniel Paul . . . (N.p. [1832]); A Letter to Thomas Clarkson by James Cropper: And Prejudice Vincible . . . By C. Stuart (New York, 1833); Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation (Urbana, 1972), 204–20; David B. Davis, “James Cropper and the British Anti-Slavery Movement, 1823–1833,” JNH 46 (April 1961): 154–73; Anthony J. Barker, Captain Charles Stuart: Anglo-American Abolitionist (Baton Rouge, 1986), chap. 3; The Abolitionist, June, October, December 1833.

47Speeches Delivered at the Anti-Colonization Meeting in Exeter Hall . . . (Boston, 1833), 3–4, 7, 11, 13–15, 29–30, 39–40; TL, October 1, 1831; July 6, 13, August 10, 31, September 7, October 12, 19, November 2, 1833; The Abolitionist, January, March 1833; Second Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1834), 31–48; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:372–73; Foner and Branham, eds., Lift Every Voice, 130–35; First Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1833), 51–53; TE, January 7, 1841.

48. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 1:215; TL, July 6, August 31, September 7, October 19, 1833; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:379; Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 6, 29, 32; Van Gosse, “‘As a Nation, the English Are Our Friends’: The Emergence of African American Politics in the British Atlantic World, 1776–1861,” AHR 113 (October 2008): 1003–28; The Abolitionist, July 1833.

49TL, May 28, July 2, 1831; February 18, April 14, June 23, September 22, October 13, December 1, 22, 1832; March 23, April 6, June 8, 1833; The Abolitionist, January, February, May, June 1833; Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison, 84–88; Samuel J. May, Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict (Boston, 1869), 17–20, 31; Donald Yacovone, Samuel Joseph May and the Dilemmas of the Liberal Persuasion, 1797–1871 (Philadelphia, 1991), chap. 3; Nina Moore Tiffany, Samuel E. Sewall: A Memoir (Boston, 1898), 33–42; Gilbert H. Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844 (Gloucester, Mass., 1965), 1:94–99; Charles A. Jarvis, “Admission to Abolition: The Case of John Greenleaf Whittier,” JER 4 (Summer 1984): 161–76; Roman J. Zorn, “The New England Anti-Slavery Society: Pioneer Abolitionist Organization,” JNH 52 (July 1957): 157–76; Lawrence B. Goodheart, Abolitionist, Actuary, Atheist: Elizur Wright and the Reform Impulse (Kent, Ohio, 1990), chaps. 4, 5; Milton C. Sernett, Abolition’s Axe: Beriah Green, Oneida Institute, and the Black Freedom Struggle (Syracuse, 1986), 18–30; Lewis Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan (New York, 1871), 73–76, 88–142; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), 45–52; Mayer, All on Fire, 131; Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism, 188–90.

50TL, August 25, September 1, 15, 22, 29, October 6, 13, 20, 1832; May, Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict, 10; Samuel J. May, On Prejudice (Boston, 1830), 6; John Rankin, Letters on American Slavery . . . (Boston, 1833), 7, 12–15, 20, 29, 35, 46, 52, 58, 116–18; James Duncan, A Treatise on Slavery . . . (1824; repr., New York, 1840), 25–38, 44–45, 50–55, 61, 73–74, 107–11, 123–24; TE, February 6, 1840; Dwight Lowell Dumond, Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America (Ann Arbor, 1961), 140–41.

51The Abolitionist, April, May, July, September, October, December 1833; TL, August 31, October 12, 19, December 14, 1833; Third Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1835), 6–7; Gilbert Hobbs Barnes, The Antislavery Impulse, 1830–1844 (New York, 1933), chaps. 1, 2; Hugh Davis, Joshua Leavitt: Evangelical Abolitionist (Baton Rouge, 1990), 94–109; Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850 (Ithaca, 1950); Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan, 98–104; Robert H. Abzug, Passionate Liberator: Theodore Dwight Weld and the Dilemma of Reform (New York, 1980), chap. 3; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1:99–105, 114–17; Goodman, Of One Blood, 65–68, 77–78, 81–90, 99–102.

52Proceedings of the Anti-Slavery Convention Assembled in Philadelphia . . . (New York, 1833), 3–4, 23–24; First Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society, 8; John G. Whittier, The Antislavery Convention of 1833 (Written in 1874) [Boston, 1897], 1–6; Edward Needles, An Historical Memoir of the Pennsylvania Society, for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1848), 90–91, 97; TL, February 2, October 12, December 14, 1833; The Abolitionist, December 1833; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:392–401; May, Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict, 81–91; Mary Grew, James Mott: A Biographical Sketch (New York, ca. 1868), 8–9; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1:117–20; Quarles, Black Abolitionists, 23–25; Wesley, “The Negro in the Organization of Abolition,” 228.

53Proceedings of the Anti-Slavery Convention, 7–16; Whittier, The Antislavery Convention, 7–12; The Abolitionist, December 1833; John G. Whittier, Anti-Slavery Reporter . . . (New York, 1833), 51–63; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:402–14; Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison, 147–53; Samuel T. Pickard, Life and Letters of John Greenleaf Whittier(Cambridge, Mass., 1894), 1:130–36; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1:121–31; Sernett, Abolition’s Axe, 37–38.

54. Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery, chaps. 1, 2; cf. Brian Schoen, The Fragile Fabric of Union: Cotton, Federal Politics and the Global Origins of the Civil War (Baltimore, 2009); Edward Rugemer, The Problem of Emancipation: The Caribbean Roots of the American Civil War (Baton Rouge, 2008).

CHAPTER EIGHT. ABOLITION EMERGENT

1. Robert H. Abzug, Passionate Liberator: Theodore Dwight Weld and the Dilemma of Reform (New York, 1980), 147–49.

2. Daniel Walker Howe, What God Hath Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848 (New York, 2007); Lawrence Goodwyn, Democratic Promise: The Populist Movement in America (New York, 1976).

3. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. Henry Reeve, 2 vols. (London, 1836); Russel Nye, Fettered Freedom: Civil Liberties and the Slavery Controversy (East Lansing, 1949).

4College for Colored Youth . . . (New York, 1831), 2–3, 5–7, 10–11, 13–15, 17–18, 20–24; TL, July 9, September 17, October 8, November 5, 1831; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 1, I Will be Heard! 1822–1835 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 119–21; “Abolition Letters Collected by Col. Arthur B. Spingarn,” JNH 18 (January 1933): 79–80; Lewis Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan (New York, 1871), 146–52; Paul Goodman, “The Manual Labor Movement and the Origins of Abolitionism,” JER 13 (Autumn 1993): 355–88; Hilary J. Moss, Schooling Citizens: The Struggle for African American Education in Antebellum America (Chicago, 2009), chap. 2; Robert H. Abzug, Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (New York, 1994), 116–24.

5TL, May 25, June 15, August 3, 31, 1833; September 27, 1834; The Abolitionist, April, July, September, November 1833; [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life told By His Children, vol. 1, 1805–1835 (New York, 1885), 315–23, 340–42; Samuel J. May, Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict(Boston, 1869), 39–72, May, The Right of Colored People to Education Vindicated . . . (Brooklyn, Conn., 1833), 6, 9–11, 15–18, 21–24; “Abolition Letters,” 80–84; Second Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1834), 14–16; Proceedings of the New England Anti Slavery Convention . . . (Boston, 1834), 23; John Bowers to Garrison, May 14, 1834, BAP, reel 1; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1834), 47–48; Susan Strane, A Whole-Souled Woman: Prudence Crandall and the Education of Black Women (New York, 1990); Philip S. Foner and Josephine F. Pacheco, Three Who Dared: Prudence Crandall, Margaret Douglass, Myrtilla Miner—Champions of Antebellum Black Education (Westport, Conn., 1984), 5–54; Carl R. Woodward, “A Profile in Dedication: Sarah Harris and the Fayerweather Family,” New England Galaxy 15 (Summer 1973): 3–14; Donald Yacovone, Samuel Joseph May and the Dilemmas of the Liberal Persuasion, 1797–1871 (Philadelphia, 1991), chap. 4.

6Herald of Freedom, March 7, July 25, September 5, 19, 1835; TL, October 25, 1834; February 28, May 16, July 25, 1835; Second Annual Report of the New Hampshire Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Concord, N.H., 1836), 11–17; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1836), 52–54; Russell W. Irvine and Donna Zani Dunkerton, “The Noyes Academy, 1834–35: The Road to the Oberlin Collegiate Institute and the Higher Education of African-Americans in the Nineteenth Century,” Western Journal of Black Studies 22 (1998): 260; Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent (New York, 1989), 20–21; Martin B. Pasternak, Rise Now and Fly to Arms: The Life of Henry Highland Garnet (New York, 1995), 3–15; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1977), 3–15; Milton C. Sernett, Abolition’s Axe: Beriah Green, Oneida Institute, and the Black Freedom Struggle (Syracuse, 1986), chap. 4; Parker Pillsbury, Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles (Concord, N.H., 1883), chap. 2.

7. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 1:137–38; TL, October 12, December 14, 1833; Leonard L. Richards, “Gentlemen of Property and Standing”: Anti-Abolition Mobs in Jacksonian America (New York, 1970); David Grimsted, American Mobbing, 1828–1861: Toward Civil War (New York, 1998), 33–66; Hazel Catherine Wolf, On Freedom’s Altar: The Martyr Complex in the Abolition Movement (Madison, 1952).

8TL, January 4, July 12, 19, 26, August 2, 1834; Harriet Martineau, The Martyr Age of the United States (Boston, 1839), 20–21; Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan, chap. 12; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), 115–22; Richards, “Gentlemen of Property and Standing,” 113–22; Linda K. Kerber, “Abolitionists and Amalgamators: The New York City Race Riots of 1834,” New York History 48 (January 1967): 28–39; John H. Hewitt, “Peter Williams, Jr.: New York’s First African-American Episcopal Priest,” New York History 79 (April 1998): 119–23; John Runcie, “‘Hunting the Nigs’ in Philadelphia: The Race Riot of August 1834,” Pennsylvania History 39 (April 1972): 187–218; Grimsted, American Mobbing, 36; Carl E. Prince, “The Great ‘Riot Year’: Jacksonian Democracy and Patterns of Violence in 1834,” JER 5 (1985): 1–19.

9. [William Thomas], The Enemies of the Constitution Discovered . . . By Defensor (New York, 1835), 48–103, 167–75; TL, January 13, 1834; October 3, 1835; TE, November 1835; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 63–65; Richards, “Gentlemen of Property and Standing,” 85–92; Oliver Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison and His Times . . . (Boston, 1880), 208–10; Frederick J. Blue, No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics (Baton Rouge, 2005), 17–19.

10TL, August 23, October 11, 18, November 1, 22, December 6, 13, 1834; January 3, April 13, June 6, September 12, 26, 1835; The Abolitionist, May 1835; George Thompson to Robert Purvis, November 10, 1834, BAP, reel 1; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1835), 16–23; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 37–38; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:434–53.

11TL, October 4, November 22, 1834; September 5, 12, 19, October 10, 17, 31, November 7, 14, 28, 1835; Right and Wrong in Boston: Report of the Boston Female Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1836), 10–37, 55–73, 96–99; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 61–63; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 1:496–526, 530–36, 541–42; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:486–514; [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life told By His Children, vol. 2, 1835–1840 (New York, 1885), 2–36; Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison, 195–201; Martineau, The Martyr Age, 30–33; C. Duncan Rice, “The Anti-Slavery Mission of George Thompson to the United States, 1834–1835,” Journal of American Studies 2 (April 1968): 13–31; Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 199–210.

12TL, December 20, 27, 1834; January 3, 17, 24, 31, February 7, 28, November 14, December 12, 1835; January 9, 30, April 2, November 5, 1836; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 1:436–42, 444–63, 578–84; Louis Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 2, House Dividing Against Itself, 1836–1840(Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 43–46; William E. Channing, Slavery (Boston, 1835); Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1836), 24; TASR, July 1836; Johnson, William Lloyd Garrison, 202–3; May, Some Recollections, 157–85; [Thomas], The Enemies of the Constitution, 157–66; John L. Thomas, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison: A Biography (Boston, 1963), 206–8; James Brewer Stewart, Wendell Phillips: Liberty’s Hero (Baton Rouge, 1986), 42–46; Stephen P. Budney, William Jay: Abolitionist and Anticolonialist (Westport, Conn., 2005), 2–3, 30–35; John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), 99–102; Andrew Delbanco, William Ellery Channing: An Essay on the Liberal Spirit in America (Cambridge, Mass., 1981).

13Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 50; TE, October 13, 1836; Edwin A. Miles, “The Mississippi Insurrection Scare of 1835,” JNH 42 (January 1957): 48–60; Christopher Morris, “An Event in Community Organization: The Mississippi Slave Insurrection Scare of 1835,” Journal of Social History 22 (1988): 93–111; Laurence Shore, “Making Mississippi Safe for Slavery: The Insurrection Panic of 1835,” in Orville Vernon Burton and Robert C. McMath Jr., eds., Class, Consensus, and Conflict: Antebellum Southern Community Studies (Westport, Conn., 1982), 96–127; Joshua D. Rothman, Flush Times and Fever Dreams: A Story of Capitalism and Slavery in the Age of Jackson (Athens, Ga., 2012), 280–90.

14The Narrative of Amos Dresser . . . (New York, 1836), 6–14; Martineau, The Martyr Age, 23–26; TL, September 26, 1835; January 21, February 11, 1837; TASR, November 1835; TE, October 1835; December 8, 1836; January 19, 1837; TP, November 25, 1836; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 48–50.

15The Trial of Reuben Crandall . . . By a Member of the Bar (Washington, 1836), 3–5, 8–19, 24–32, 37–48; TE, March 8, 1838; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 54–55; Neil S. Kramer, “The Trial of Reuben Crandall,” Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington DC 50 (1980): 123–39; Jefferson Morley, Snow-storm in August: Washington City, Francis Scott Key, and the Forgotten Race Riot of 1835 (New York, 2012).

16Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 37, 76–82; Narrative of the Late Riotous Proceedings Against the Liberty of the Press, in Cincinnati . . . (Cincinnati, 1836), 8–20, 23–45; A Collection of Valuable Documents . . . (Boston, 1836), 5–6, 9–15, 26–30, 67–75; TP, September 27, October 14, 21, December 23, 1836; March 31, 1837; TL, April 4, May 23, 1835; February 13, August 27, October 1, 1836; TE, September 1835; August 11, 18, 1836; February 25, 1841; TASR, June 1836; Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1831–1857 (Gloucester, Mass., 1966), 1:112–25, 127–40, 147–52, 161–63, 170–82, 185–91, 201–22, 227–35, 239–44, 251–77, 280–302, 310–22, 342–60, 371–75; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:66–68; Letter of William E. Channing to James G. Birney (Boston, 1836), 7–13, 18–28; William Birney, James G. Birney and His Times . . . (New York, 1890), chaps. 21, 23; Betty Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney: Slaveholder to Abolitionist (New York, 1955), chaps. 1–7; Nikki M. Taylor, Frontiers of Freedom: Cincinnati’s Black Community, 1802–1868 (Athens, Ohio, 2005), 109–13, 118–26.

17. Joseph C. Lovejoy and Owen Lovejoy, Memoir of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy . . . (New York, 1838); Edward Beecher, Narrative of the Riots at Alton (Alton, Ill., 1838); Alton Observer Extra . . . (Alton, Ill., 1838), 3–5, 9–10, 21–25; TP, May 6, May 27, 1836; November 21, 28, 1837; January 2, 1838; TL, August 13, 1836; September 15, November 17, 24, December 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 1837; January 5, 12, February 23, April 27, 1838; Beriah Green, The Martyr . . . (New York, 1838), 8–16; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:182–96; May, Some Recollections, 221–30; TE, March 30, October 26, November 23, 30, December 7, 14, 21, 28, 1837; January 11, February 15, 1838; Wendell Phillips, Speeches, Lectures, and Letters (Boston, 1872), 1–10; Merton L. Dillon, Elijah P. Lovejoy: Abolitionist Editor (Urbana, 1961); Stewart, Wendell Phillips, 58–63; Mayer, All on Fire, 216, 237–39; Paul Simon, Freedom’s Champion Elijah Lovejoy (Carbondale, 2000).

18. Martineau, The Martyr Age, 58–74; Isaac Stearns, Right and Wrong in Mansfield, Massachusetts . . . (Pawtucket, Mass., 1837), 1–10; TL, February 14, July 4, 1835; January 9, April 16, June 25, July 2, 1836; TE, June 7, 1838; January 31, 1839; TP, March 3, 1837; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:115; Gilbert H. Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844 (Gloucester, Mass., 1965), 1:205–8; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:210–18; May, Some Recollections, 150–57; Dwight Lowell Dumond, Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America (Ann Arbor, 1961), 220; Russel B. Nye, “Marius Robinson, A Forgotten Abolitionist Leader,” Ohio State Archeological and Historical Quarterly 55 (April–June 1946): 138–54; History of Pennsylvania Hall . . . (Philadelphia, 1838); Samuel T. Pickard, Life and Letters of John Greenleaf Whittier (Cambridge, Mass., 1894), 1:231–36; Henry B. Stanton, Random Recollections (New York, 1887), 51–55; Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1–10; Beverly C. Tomek, Pennsylvania Hall: A Legal Lynching in the Shadow of the Liberty Bell (New York, 2014); Deborah A. Logan, “The Redemption of a Heretic: Harriet Martineau and Anglo-American Abolitionism,” in Kathryn Kish Sklar and James Brewer Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery in the Era of Emancipation (New Haven, 2007), 242–65.

19. Mathew Carey, To the Public (Philadelphia, 1832); Carey, Reflections on the Causes that Led to the Formation of the Colonization Society . . . (Philadelphia, 1832); Carey, Letters on the Colonization Society . . . (Philadelphia, 1832), 25–28; Carey, Letters on the Colonization Society . . . , 4th ed. (Philadelphia, 1832), 3; Carey, Letters on the Colonization Society . . . (Philadelphia, 1834), 1–3; Carey, Address of the Managers of the American Colonization Society . . . (Washington, 1832), 4–5; TL, January 28, 1832; George M. Fredrickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914 (New York, 1971), 12–21.

20TL, March 23, 1833; Wilbur D. Fisk, Substance of an Address delivered before the Middletown Colonization Society . . . (Middletown, Conn., 1835), 12–15; ARCJ, December, November 1832; Remarks on African Colonization . . . (Windsor, Vt., 1833), 3, 25, 31–34, 39–47; J. K. Converse, A Discourse on the Moral, Legal, and Domestic Condition of Our Colored . . . (Burlington, Vt., 1832), 9–15, 18–20; Converse, The History of Slavery and Means of Elevating the African Race . . . (Burlington, Vt., 1840), 22; A. [Mariah] Chandler, A Discourse . . . (Greenfield, Conn., 1833), 25; Honorable Elisha Whittlesey and Charles Whittlesey, Two Addresses Delivered Before the Tallmadge Colonization Society . . . (Ravena, Ohio, 1833), 8–10, 22–27; A Sketch of the Colonization Enterprise . . . (Newark, 1838), 8; Professor Fowler’s Discourse . . . (Middlebury, 1834), 11–21; Hon. Caleb Cushing, An Oration Pronounced at Boston Before the Colonization Society of Massachusetts . . . (Boston, 1833), 6, 12–21; Joseph Tracy, Natural Equality: A Sermon before the Vermont Colonization Society . . . (Windsor, Vt., 1833), 10–14; Abolition A Sedition By a Northern Man (Philadelphia, 1839), 1–3, 12, 36–56, 72–85, 133–40, 159–69; A Cursory Examination of the Respective Pretensions of the Colonizationists and Abolitionists (New York, 1837), 8–11; An Inquiry into the Condition and Prospects of the African Race in the United States . . . (Philadelphia, 1839), 27–42, 111, 126–53, 183–91; TE, September 22, 1835.

21. Robert J. Breckinridge, An Address Delivered Before the Colonization Society of Kentucky . . . (Frankfort, Ky., 1831), 3, 19–24; Review of Pamphlets on Slavery and Colonization (New Haven, 1833), 3–12, 20–22; Hugh Davis, Leonard Bacon: New England Reformer and Antislavery Moderate (Baton Rouge, 1998), chaps. 4, 5; ARCJ, February, March, November 1834; TL, January 17, February 7, 1835; Ebenezer Baldwin, Observations on the Physical, Intellectual, and Moral Qualities of our Colored Population . . . (New Haven, 1834), 10–38, 40–51; F. Freeman, Yaradee . . . (Philadelphia, 1836); R. R. Gurley, Address at the Annual Meeting of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society . . .(Philadelphia, 1839), 13–20, 26–40; [Calvin Colton], Colonization and Abolition Contrasted [Philadelphia, 1839], 2–5, 9–13.

22. Elizur Wright Jr., The Sin of Slavery and its Remedy . . . (New York, 1833), 3–5, 8–11, 13–18, 25–29, 32–37, 40–47; TL, March 24, July 21, September 1, 1832; January 5, February 2, 16, May 25, 1833; January 25, August 15, 16, 1834; January 3, August 8, 22, 1835; June 2, August 13, 20, 1836; The Abolitionist, February, July 1833; TE, August 11, 18, October 13, November 10, December 22, 1836; April 6, June 8, August 5, 10, 17, November 9, 1837; January 11, May 3, 1838; TP, September 27, October 14, December 2, 1836; September 29, 1837; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 42; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1:440–44; Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation (Urbana, 1972), 236–37.

23Debate at the Lane Seminary, Cincinnati . . . (Boston, 1834), 3–7, 10–11; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1:132–46, 170–73, 178–99, 247–49, 256–65, 270–89, 315–29; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1:136–40, 145–47; TL, April 5, 12, June 13, November 1, 1834; January 10, May 2, 1835; April 16, 1836:; Third Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1835), 10–11; Stanton, Random Recollections, 46–49; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:116–17; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 6–12, 23–28, 62–64; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery, 40–43; Lawrence Thomas Lesick, The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America (Metuchen, N.J., 1980), 70–173; J. Brent Morris, Oberlin, Hotbed of Abolitionism: College, Community, and the Fight for Freedom and Equality in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill, 2014), 22; Abzug, Passionate Liberator, chaps. 5–7; Deborah Bingham Broekhoven, The Devotion of These Women: Rhode Island in the Antislavery Network (Amherst, Mass., 2002), 21–24; John L. Myers, “Organization of ‘The Seventy’: To Arouse the North Against Slavery,” Mid-American: An Historical Review 42 (1966): 29–46.

24Debate at Lane Seminary, 11–16; TE, December 15, 1836; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 4–6, 15–16, 28–31; Amos A. Phelps, Lectures on Slavery . . . (Boston, 1834), v–xi, 13–24, 27–30, 36–43, 58, 65–80, 145–60, 179–88, 213, 219–30, 239–50, 269–84; TL, January 25, 1834; August 11, 1836.

25. John Hersey, An Appeal to Christians . . . (Baltimore, 1833), 87–88; Maryland Colonization Society (Baltimore, 1833); TL, January 25, February 1, August 2, 1834; July 4, 1835; January 14, 1837; Bettye J. Gardner, “Opposition to Emigration: A Selected Letter of William Watkins (A Colored Baltimorean),” JNH 67 (Summer 1982): 155–58; The Maryland Scheme . . . (Boston, 1834), 4–14, 18–20; “Extract from Governor Russwurm’s letter to the President of the Maryland State Colo. Society, Extracts from Dispatches of Governor Russwurm June 1839” and “Letters from John B. Russwurm to John H. B. Latrobe August 1839,” Maryland Colonization Journal, BAP; Winston James, The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799–1851 (New York, 2010), chap. 5; Penelope Campbell, Maryland in Africa: The Maryland State Colonization Society, 1831–1857 (Urbana, 1971).

26News from Africa . . . (Baltimore, 1832); Amos J. Beyan, African American Settlements in West Africa: John Brown Russwurm and the American Civilizing Efforts (New York, 2005), chaps. 4, 5; Sandra Sandiford Young, “A Different Journey: John Brown Russwurm, 1799–1851” (Ph.D. diss., Boston College, 2004), 250–90; ARCJ, May, September, October 1832; April, July 1835; May, June, July, October 1836; April 1837; February, August 1839; March 1, 1840; A Brief Account of the Colony of Liberia by Solomon Bayley [Wilmington, Del., 1833]; A Collection of Facts in Regard to Liberia . . . (Woodstock, Vt., 1839); Examination of Mr. Thomas C. Brown . . . (New York, 1834).

27. Hon. James G. Birney, Letter on Colonization . . . (Boston, 1834), 7–10, 18–22, 43–44; Third Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society, 13–14; William Jay, Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery (New York, 1853), 28–58, 64–74, 153–60, 170–96; TL, April 13, 1835; TASR, February 1837; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 3–4.

28. David Meredith Reese, A Brief Review of the “First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society . . .” (New York, 1834), 4–8, 14–17, 28–33; The “Extinguisher” Extinguished! Or David M. Reese, M.D., “Used Up.” By David Ruggles . . . (New York, 1834), 3–5, 11–15; A Brief Review of the First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society by David M. Reese, M.D. of New York Dissected by Martin Mar Quack . . . (Boston, 1834); David Meredith Reese, Letters to the Honorable William Jay . . . (New York, 1835), x, xi; Reese, Humbugs of New York . . . (New York, 1838), 195–204; An Antidote for a Poisonous Combination . . . (New York, 1838), 1–2, 22–23, 31–32; CA, March 15, 22, April 12, June 16, 26, 1838; Graham Russell Gao Hodges, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City (Chapel Hill, 2010).

29CA, May 13, 1837; January 27, March 29, June 16, August 11, 1838; January 12, 19, March 2, 1839; May 30, 1840; March 20, June 12, 19, 26, July 3, 10, 31, October 2, November 13, 20, 1841; TE, December 20, 1838; January 17, 1839; TP, January 17, March 5, 1839; P. J. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816–1865 (New York, 1961), 201–23.

30First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 16; First Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1833), 9–43; Second Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society, 22–29; Third Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti Slavery Society, 17; TASR, February 1835; Cyrus Pitt Grosvenor, Address Before the Anti-Slavery Society of Salem . . . (Salem, Mass., 1834), 5–7, 9–10, 21–24, 28–29, 42–43; Amos Savage, National Sins, The Cause of National Judgments . . . (Utica, N.Y., 1835), 15–18; Address of the Starksborough and Lincoln Anti Slavery Society . . . (Middlebury, 1835), 3–5; James H. Eells, The American Revolution Compared with the Present Struggle for the Abolition of Slavery in the United States . . . (Elyria, Ohio, 1836), 9–12; Enoch Mack, The Revolution Unfinished . . . (Dover, 1838): 3–5; Edward A. Barber, An Oration Delivered Before the Addison County Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Middlebury, 1836), 4–5, 11–14; John Rankin, An Address to the Churches . . . (Medina, Ohio, 1836), 2–3, 6–8.

31. Grosvenor, Address Before the Anti-Slavery Society of Salem, 26; James T. Dickinson, A Sermon Delivered in the Second Congregational Church . . . (Norwich, Conn., 1834), 16, 31; W. D. Wilson, A Discourse on Slavery . . . (Concord, N.H., 1839), 14; David L. Child, The Despotism of Freedom . . . (Boston, 1833), 65–67; Proceedings of the New England Anti-Slavery Convention . . . 1834, 47, 63; Proceedings of the New England Anti-Slavery Convention . . . (Boston, 1836), 74; Proceedings of the Fourth New England Anti-Slavery Convention, 110–16; Oliver Johnson, An Address Delivered in the Congregational Church . . . (Montpelier, Vt., 1835), 12–13; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1831–1857, 1:286, 292–93; TL, August 6, 1831; May 17, 1834; June 16, 30, 1837; August 17, 1838; TE, January 26, 1837; July 12, 1838; TASR, April, November, December 1835; March, December 1836; December 1837; TP, January 1, 22, 1839; Address of the New York City Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1833), 7–11.

32First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 26, 50–52; Birney, Letter on Colonization, 14–15; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 3–16, 43; Henry Peterson, An Address Delivered Before the Junior Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Philadelphia, 1837), 9; Jas. A Thome and J. Horace Kimball, Emancipation in the West Indies . . . (New York, 1838), 264, 330–41, 401–5; Alex Tyrell, Joseph Sturge and the Moral Radical Party in Early Victorian Britain (London, 1987); TP, May 5, 1837; TE, March 8, 1838; TL, April 20, July 6, August 17, 1838; An Address to the Citizens of the United States, on the Subject of Slavery (Philadelphia, 1838), 7–13; Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 246–52.

33. David Paul Brown, An Oration Delivered . . . (Philadelphia, 1834), 13–20, 28–30; Proceedings of the New England Anti-Slavery Convention . . . 1834, 15; Second Annual Report of the New Hampshire Anti-Slavery Society, 3–6; Johnson, An Address Delivered, 5–7; James G. Birney, Letter to the Ministers and Elders . . . [New York, 1834]; Samuel J. May, Letter Addressed to the Editor of the Christian Examiner (Boston, 1835), 5–7; Proceedings of the Indiana Convention . . . (Cincinnati, 1838), 7; TP, January 22, February 12, 1839; Beriah Green, The Chattel Principle . . . (New York, 1839), 18–20; Green, Four Sermons . . . (Cleveland, 1833), 7–19.

34. Green, Four Sermons, 30–52; Green, The Chattel Principle, 42; Rankin, An Address to the Churches, 5–8; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 12–16; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 4–11, 67–74; Constitution of the Anti-Slavery Society of Worcester County, North Division (n.p., 1835), 4–5; Theodore Dwight Weld, The Bible Against Slavery . . . (New York, 1837), vii, 16–28, 86–98, 145–53; TASR, March, June, November 1835; December 1836; September 1837; TP, July 2, 23, 1839; TAE 3 (New York, 1837), 3–8, 18–24, 36–49; cf. Molly Oshatz, Slavery and Sin: The Fight Against Slavery and the Rise of Liberal Protestantism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

35Human Rights, July 1835; Proceedings of the Rhode Island Anti-Slavery Convention . . . (Providence, 1836), 18–21; David Root, The Abolition Case Eventually Triumphant . . . (Andover, 1836), 6–7; TE, August, October, November 1835; Channing, Slavery.

36. [Theodore D. Weld], American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses (New York, 1839), 8; Dumond, Antislavery, chap. 30; Abzug, Passionate Liberator, 210–18; Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 240; Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1972).

37TL, February 26, 1831; August 23, 1835; February 20, 27, April 2, 9, May 7, 28, August 5, 1836; TE, October, November 1835; April 1836; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 11–19, 42–48, 55–60; Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan, 243–52; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:73–77, 95–97, 102–6; May, Some Recollections, 185–202; Martineau, The Martyr Age, 43–48; Theodore Sedgwick Jr., ed., A Collection of the Political Writings of William Leggett (New York, 1840), 2:7–64; Clement Eaton, Freedom-of-Thought Struggle in the Old South (Durham, 1940); Richard R. John, Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse (Cambridge, Mass., 1995), chap. 7; Susan Wyly-Jones, “The 1835 Anti-Abolition Meetings in the South: A New Look at the Controversy over the Abolition Postal Campaign,” CWH 47 (2001): 289–309.

38TL, December 26, 1835; January 2, 9, 8, 16, 30, February 6, 13, 20, 27, March 12, June 18, July 9, October 8, 1836; February 11, March 4, April 7, 14, 21, June 2, 1837; February 16, 23, July 20, December 14, 1838; TE, June 22, August 31, 1837; January 16, February 1, 8, April 26, October 4, 25, 1838; January 31, February 7, 28, March 7, 1839; TASR, February, July, December 1836; March, April, November 1837; TP, June 17, 1836; June 2, 30, July 31, September 23, 29, 1837; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:84–85; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 83–86; May, Some Recollections, 211–21; Fifth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1837), 17–70; B. F. Morris, ed., The Life of Thomas Morris: Pioneer and Long a Legislator of Ohio, and U.S. Senator from 1833 to 1839 (Cincinnati, 1856), chaps. 11–15, quote from 85; A Collection of Valuable Documents, 41–66; Martineau, The Martyr Age, 75–81; TAE 9 (New York, 1839), 3–18; Leonard L. Richards, The Life and Times of Congressman John Quincy Adams (New York, 1986), 89–131; Richards, The Slave Power: The Free North and Southern Domination, 1790–1860 (Baton Rouge, 2000); William Lee Miller, Arguing About Slavery: The Great Battle in the United States Congress (New York, 1996); William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854 (New York, 1990) 1: chaps. 17–19; George C. Rable, “Slavery, Politics, and the South: The Gag Rule as a Case Study,” Capitol Studies 3 (1975): 69–88; Daniel Wirls, “‘The Only Mode of Avoiding Everlasting Debate’: The Overlooked Senate Gag Rule of Antislavery Petitions,” JER 27 (Spring 2007): 115–38; Edward B. Rugemer, “Caribbean Slave Revolts and the Origins of the Gag Rule: A Contest Between Abolitionism and Democracy, 1707–1835,” in John Craig Hammond and Matthew Mason, eds., Contesting Slavery: The Politics of Bondage and Freedom in the New American Nation (Charlottesville, Va., 2011), 94–113.

39TL, January 2, 1836; April 28, 1837; TE, April 20, 1837; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 83–87; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 89–99; TAE 8 (New York, 1838), 6–17; Teresa A. Goddu, “The Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society’s Weekly Contribution Box,” Common-Place (Fall 2014): http://www.common-place.org/vol-15/no-01/notes/; Louis Filler, The Crusade Against Slavery, 1830–1860 (New York, 1960), 67, 70; Benjamin Quarles, “Sources of Abolitionist Income,” in John R. McKivigan, ed., Abolitionism and American Reform (New York, 1999), 207–20; Gerald Sorin, The New York Abolitionists: A Case Study of Radicalism(Westport, Conn., 1971), chap. 4; John Jentz, “The Antislavery Constituency in Jacksonian New York City,” CWH 27 (June 1981): 101–22; Jentz, “Artisans, Evangelicals and the City: A Social History of Abolition and Labor Reform in Jacksonian New York” (Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 1977), chap. 5; Edward Magdol, The Antislavery Rank and File: A Social Profile of the Abolitionists Constituency (Westport, Conn., 1986); Magdol, “A Window on the Abolitionist Constituency: Antislavery Petitions, 1836–1839,” in Alan M. Kraut, ed., Crusaders and Compromisers: Essays on the Relationship of the Antislavery Struggle to the Antebellum Party System (Westport, Conn., 1983), 45–70; John W. Quist, “‘The Great Majority of Our Subscribers Are Farmers’: The Michigan Abolitionist Constituency of the 1840s,” JER14 (Autumn 1994): 325–58; Ford Risley, Abolition and the Press: The Moral Struggle Against Slavery (Evanston, Ill., 2008); Robert Fanuzzi, Abolition’s Public Sphere (Minneapolis, 2003).

40TL, August 21, 1831; January 5, 12, October 10, 1833; March 14, 1835; June 4, July 23, 1836; October 13, 1837; October 12, 1838; The Abolitionist, August 1833; TP, June 17, 1836; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:85–88; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 42–44; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 49–50; Apology for Anti-Slavery Theological Seminary, Andover, August 22, 1833 (n.p., n.d.), 1–3; Child, The Despotism of Freedom, 5–11; Address of the New York Young Men’s Anti-Slavery Society, 19–28; First Annual Report of the New York Young Men’s Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1835), 3–4, 13–14; Constitution of the New Bedford Young Men’s Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New Bedford, Mass., 1836), 6–7; Peterson, An Address, 3–4; Hermann R. Muelder, Fighters for Freedom: A History of Anti-Slavery Activities of Men and Women Associated with Knox College (New York, 1959); Robert Samuel Fletcher, A History of Oberlin College: From Its Foundations Through the Civil War, 2 vols. (New York, 1971).

41TL, May 28, 1831; May 17, December 20, 1834; January 14, 1837; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:60; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 52–53; Harriet Hyman Alonso, Growing Up Abolitionist: The Story of the Garrison Children (Amherst, Mass., 2002); Proceedings of the New England Anti Slavery Convention . . . 1834, 19; Lois A. Brown, ed., Memoir of James Jackson: The Attentive and Obedient Scholar Who Died in Boston, October 31, 1833, Aged Six Years and Eleven Months by His Teacher Miss Susan Paul (Cambridge, Mass., 2000), introduction, 71–72, 79–81, 88–90, 106–10, 117–27; Lois A. Brown, “Out of the Mouths of Babes: The Abolitionist Campaign of Susan Paul and the Juvenile Choir of Boston,” NEQ 75 (March 2002): 52–79.

42Proceedings of the Fourth New England Anti Slavery Convention, 45; Henry C. Wright, A Kiss for a Blow . . . (Boston, 1842); The Slave’s Friend, I, II 1836; II, V, VI, VII, XI, XII 1837; I, II, III, V, VII, VIII, IX, XII, IV 1838; I, II 1839; TL, April 19, 1839; January 8, 1841; September 9, 1842; Lewis Perry, Childhood, Marriage, and Reform: Henry Clarke Wright, 1797–1870(Chicago, 1980), chap. 1; Holly Keller, “Juvenile Antislavery Narrative and Notions of Childhood,” Children’s Literature 24 (1996): 86–100.

43. Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1967); Gilbert Hobbs Barnes, The Anti-Slavery Impulse, 1830–1844 (New York, 1933).

44First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 17; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 29; Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 16–17; Sixth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1838), x–xii, xx–xxvii; Johnson, Garrison and His Times, chap. 14; Filler, The Crusade Against Slavery, 115–16, 123–26; John R. McKivigan, The War Against Proslavery Religion: Abolitionism and the Northern Churches, 1830–1865 (Ithaca, 1984); Hugh Davis, Joshua Leavitt: Evangelical Abolitionist (Baton Rouge, 1990): 121–30.

45TL, October 26, 1838; TP, May 20, 27, June 3, 1836; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:147–49, 172, 188, 208; The “Negro Pew.” . . . (Boston, 1837), 3–14, 84–96, 102–8; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 32.

46TL, August 11, 18, 19 Extra, September 1, 8, 15, 20, October 13, 27, November 3, 1837; January 12, 19, 26, March 2, April 27, June 29, July 6, 13, 27, 1838; September 14, 21, 28, October 26, November 2, 9, December 14, 21, 28, 1838; January 4, 11, 18, 25, February 22, March 8, 1839; Right and Wrong in Boston . . . in 1837, 83; May, Some Recollections, 236–48; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:234–51, 292–307, 311–22, 365, 383–85, 401–8, 413–19, 432–38, 440–44, 447–49, 459, 461–63, 493, 538–48; [Mara Weston Chapman], Right and Wrong in Massachusetts (Boston, 1839), 3–54; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:136–82, 199–207, 222–42; Fifth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, xxxvi; Johnson, Garrison and His Times, 271–81; Principles of the Non-resistance Society (Boston, 1839), 5; Mayer, All on Fire, 222–28, 249–51; Lewis Perry, Radical Abolitionism: Anarchy and the Government of God in Antislavery Thought (Ithaca, 1973), chaps. 3, 5; Kraditor, Means and Ends, chap. 4; Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan, 185–91; Goodheart, Abolitionist, 101–5.

47Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 27, 30; TP, May 20, 27, December 30, 1836; July 31, August 4, 1837; April 30, 1839; TL, October 29, 1836; June 30, July 7, August 25, October 6, 1837; January 26, February 2, March 16, 23, 1838; TE, November 23, 1837; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:245–47; Kraditor, Means and Ends, chap. 5.

48Remarks of Henry B. Stanton . . . (Boston, 1837); Stanton, Random Recollections, 49–50, 60–61; TAE 8 . . . 28–42; TE, February 14, 28, March 7, 1839; TP, July 23, 1839; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1:274, 381–91, 404–12, 417–28, 464–68, 478–79; Birney, James G. Birney, chap. 25; Kraditor, Means and Ends, chap. 6.

49TL, February 1, 8, 22, April 12, May 3, 1839; TE, January 24, April 4, 11, June 6, 20, 1839; James G. Birney, A Letter on the Political Obligations of Abolitionists . . . (Boston, 1839), 3–4, 8–13, 14–15, 20–34; Seventh Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1839), 6–16, 26–38; Right and Wrong in Massachusetts, 55–151; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:260–95; Mayer, All on Fire, 257–58; Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan, 279–82; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1:481–84, 489–95, 502–8; Alvan Stewart, The Causes of Hard Times (Boston, 1840); Joshua Leavitt, The Financial Power of Slavery . . . (New York, 1841); Johnson, Garrison and His Times, 282–85; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, chap. 4; Julian P. Bretz, “The Economic Background of the Liberty Party,” in John R. McKivigan, ed., Abolition and American Politics and Government (New York, 1999), 88–102; Rothman, Flush Times, epilogue; Edward Baptist, “Toxic Debt, Liar Loans, and Securitized Human Beings: The Panic of 1837 and the Fate of Slavery,” Common-Place (April 2010): http://www.common-place.org/vol-10/no-03/baptist/; Jessica Lepler, The Many Panics of 1837: People, Politics, and the Creation of a Transatlantic Financial Crisis (New York, 2013).

50TL, March 8, April 19, May 17, June 28, July 12, September 13, August 9, 30, November 15, 22, 29, December 13, 1839; January 2, 31, February 16, March 6, 13, 20, 27, April 24, May 8, 15, 19, July 3, 17, August 21, September 11, October 30, 1840; TE, May 16, 30, August 8, 15, October 2, 24, December 12, 1839; January 9, February 27, March 12, 1840; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:497–516, 523–27, 563–69, 577–87; Eighth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1840), 4–32; [Elizur Wright], Myron Holley . . . (Boston, 1882), chaps. 20, 28; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1:511–19; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:296–320; Johnson, Garrison and His Times, 286–87; TP, September 3, November 1, October 8, December 31, 1839; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Weld, 2:849; Reinhard O. Johnson, The Liberty Party, 1840–1848: Antislavery Third Party Politics in the United States (Baton Rouge, 2009), 13–16; Frederick J. Blue, No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics (Baton Rouge, 2005), 23–25; Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney, 166–70; Richard H. Sewell, Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837–1860 (New York, 1976), chap. 3.

51TL, June 7, 28, September 6, October 18, December 6, 20, 1839; April 3, May 15, 22, 1840; Eighth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 36–37; TE, May 8, 15, 22, July 2, 1840; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:607–18; Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1841), 5–53; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:342–51; Schor, Henry Highland Garnet, 30–35; [Wright], Myron Holley, 259–75; Stanley Harrold, Gamaliel Bailey and Antislavery Union (Kent, Ohio, 1986), 19–40; John B. Pickard, “John Greenleaf Whittier and the Abolitionist Schism of 1840,” NEQ 37 (June 1964): 250–54; Mayer, All on Fire, chap. 13; Birney, James G. Birney, 299–313; Davis, Joshua Leavitt, 148–63.

52TL, June 19, 1840; TE, June 5, 1840; McKivigan, The War Against Proslavery Religion, chaps. 4, 6; Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan, 198–200; Gale L. Kenny, Contentious Liberties: American Abolitionists in Post-Emancipation Jamaica, 1834–1866 (Athens, Ga., 2010); Clifton Herman Johnson, “The American Missionary Association, 1846–1861: A Study of Christian Abolitionism” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, 1958); J. Brent Morris, “‘All The Truly Wise or Truly Pious have one and the Same End in View’: Oberlin, the West, and Abolitionist Schism,” CWH 57 (2011): 234–67.

53. C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 3, The United States, 1830–1846 (Chapel Hill, 1991) 298–310, 329–39, 352–55; Mirror of Liberty, August 1838; CA, February 10, 17, 1838; March 21, April 4, May 2, 23, 30, August 22, October 3, 10, 24, 31, 1840; January 23, 30, April 24, May 8, 1841; TL, August 30, 1839, May 29, 1840.

54. Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Weld, 2:966–67.

CHAPTER NINE. THE WOMAN QUESTION

1TL, September 19, 1835; Governor Hammond’s Letters on Southern Slavery . . . (Charleston, S.C., 1845), 32.

2. Barbara Welter, “The Cult of True Womanhood, 1820–1860,” American Quarterly 18 (Summer 1966), 151–74; Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: “Woman’s Sphere” in New England, 1780–1835 (New Haven, 1977); Nancy A. Hewitt, Women’s Activism and Social Change: Rochester, New York, 1822–1872 (Ithaca, 1984); Christine Stansell, City of Women: Sex and Class in New York, 1789–1860 (New York, 1986); Lori D. Ginzberg, Women and the Work of Benevolence: Morality, Politics and Class in the Nineteenth-Century United States (New Haven, 1990); Carolyn J. Lawes, Women and Reform in a New England Community, 1815–1860 (Lexington, Ky., 2000); Judith Wellman, “Women and Radical Reform in Antebellum Upstate New York: A Profile of Grassroots Female Abolitionists,” in Mabel E. Deutrich and Virginia C. Purdy, eds., Clio Was a Woman: Studies in the History of American Women (Washington, 1980), 113–27; Julie Roy Jeffrey, “Permeable Boundaries: Abolitionist Women and Separate Spheres,” JER 21 (Spring 2001): 79–93.

3FJ, August 10, November 2, 1827; February 1, September 26, 1828; Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1984), 105–7; James Horton, “Freedom’s Yoke: Gender Conventions among Antebellum Free Blacks,” Feminist Studies 12 (Spring 1986), 51–76; Ann Firor Scott, “Most Invisible of All: Black Women’s Voluntary Associations,” JSH 56 (February 1990), 3–7; Elizabeth McHenry, Forgotten Readers: Recovering the Lost History of African American Literary Societies (Durham, 2002), 50–57, 84–102; Anne M. Boylan, “Benevolence and Antislavery Activity among African American Women in New York and Boston, 1820–1840,” in Jean Fagan Yellin and John C. Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood: Women’s Political Culture in Antebellum America (Ithaca, 1994), 119–38; Linda Perkins, “The Impact of the ‘Cult of True Womanhood’ on the Education of Black Women,” in Darlene Clark Hine, ed., Black Women in United States History (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1990), 3:1065–69; Gayle T. Tate, Unknown Tongues: Black Women’s Political Activism in the Antebellum Era, 1830–1860 (East Lansing, 2003).

4. Marilyn Richardson, ed., Maria W. Stewart: America’s First Black Woman Political Writer (Bloomington, 1987), introduction, 28–30, 37–38, 40–41, 45–49, 56–74, 89, 92; James Oliver and Lois E. Horton, “The Affirmation of Manhood: Black Garrisonians in Antebellum Boston,” in Donald M. Jacobs, ed., Courage and Conscience: Black and White Abolitionists in Boston(Bloomington, 1993), 134–35; Kristin Waters, “Crying Out for Liberty: Maria W. Stewart and David Walker’s Revolutionary Liberalism,” Philosophia Africana 15 (Winter 2013): 35–60; Lena Ampadu, “Maria W. Stewart and the Rhetoric of Black Preaching: Perspectives on Womanism and Black Nationalism,” in Kristin Waters and Carol B. Conaway, eds., Black Women’s Intellectual Traditions: Speaking Their Minds (Burlington, Vt., 2007), 38–54.

5. Richardson, ed., Maria W. Stewart, 79–109; Maria W. Stewart, “Two Texts on Children and Christian Education,” introd. Eric Gardner, Publications of the Modern Language Association 123 (January 2008): 156–65; Marilyn Richardson, “‘What if I am a Woman?’ Maria W. Stewart’s Defense of Black Women’s Political Activism,” in Jacobs, ed., Courage, 191–206.

6. Richardson, ed., Maria W. Stewart, 43–44, 53, 55, 127–28; TL, June 18, 1831; January 28, September 1, 1832; February 16, 1833; March 8, December 20, 1834; Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters, 108–9, 113; Second Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, 49; Erica Armstrong Dunbar, A Fragile Freedom: African American Women and Emancipation in the Antebellum City (New Haven, 2008), 60–62, 101–2; Ann M. Boylan, The Origins of Women’s Activism: New York and Boston, 1797–1840 (Chapel Hill, 2002), 34–37, 44; Lois A. Brown, “William Lloyd Garrison and Emancipatory Feminism in Nineteenth-Century America,” in James Brewer Stewart, ed., William Lloyd Garrison at Two Hundred: History, Legacy, and Memory (New Haven, 2008), 41–76; Shirley J. Yee, Black Women Abolitionists: A Study in Activism, 1828–1860 (Knoxville, 1992), 18–19; Puritan, The Abrogation of the Seventh Commandment by the American Churches (New York, 1835), 4.

7TL, June 18, 1831; August 18, 1832; February 9, 1838; TE, July 20, 1833; Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters, 103–4, 111–14, 127–33; Dorothy Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837 (Boston, 1971), 127–28; Sarah M. Douglass to Garrison, February 29, December 6, 1832; Garrison to Douglass, March 5, 1832, BAP, reel 1; Anna Bustill Smith, “The Bustill Family,” JNH 9 (1925): 638–44; Julie Winch, “‘You Have Talents–Only Cultivate Them’: Philadelphia’s Black Female Literary Societies and the Abolitionist Crusade,” in Yellin and Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 101–18; Erica Armstrong Dunbar, “Writing for True Womanhood: African-American Women’s Writing and the Antislavery Struggle,” in Kathryn Kish Sklar and James Brewer Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery in the Era of Emancipation (New Haven, 2007), 299–308; April Haynes, “‘Abuse Not’: Flesh and Bones in Sarah Mapps Douglass’ Classroom,” paper presented at the AAS, 2010.

8TL, April 23, 1831; January 28, 1832; Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters, 114–17, 119–26; Gilbert H. Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844 (Gloucester, Mass., 1965), 1:379–82; Janice Sumler-Lewis, “The Forten–Purvis Women of Philadelphia and the American Anti-Slavery Society,” JNH 66 (Winter 1981): 281–88; Julie Winch, “Sarah Forten’s Anti-Slavery Networks,” in Sklar and Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery, 143–57; Carolyn Williams, “The Female Antislavery Movement: Fighting Against Racial Prejudice and Promoting Women’s Rights in Antebellum America,” in Yellin and Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 159–77.

9. Porter, ed., Early Negro Writing, 494–514; William L. Andrews, ed., Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women’s Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century (Bloomington, 1986), introduction; Julyanne Dodson, “Nineteenth-Century A.M.E. Preaching Women,” in Hine, ed., Black Women in United States History, 1:333–49; Nell Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (New York, 1996), 187.

10. Porter identifies L.H. as a black woman in Early Negro Writing, 123–26; TL, April 19, 1834; Tiya Miles, “Laura Smith Haviland in Abolitionist Women’s History,” Michigan History 39 (Fall 2013): 1–20; Anna Davis Hallowell, James and Lucretia Mott: Life and Letters (Boston, 1884), 110–27; Mary Grew, James Mott: A Biographical Sketch(New York, ca. 1868), 8–9, 29; Beverly Wilson Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott (Urbana, 2002), 20–35; Carol Faulkner, Lucretia Mott’s Heresy: Abolition and Women’s Rights in Nineteenth-Century America (Philadelphia, 2011); Ira V. Brown, “Cradle of Feminism: The Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, 1833–1840,” PMHB 102 (April 1978): 143–66; Brown, Mary Grew: Abolitionist and Feminist (1813–1896) (Cranbury, N.J., 1992); Jean R. Soderlund, “Priorities and Power: The Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society,” in Yellin and Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 67–88.

11Right and Wrong in Boston . . . Annual Meeting of 1835, 4, 39, 81–86, 102–3; Right and Wrong in Boston in 1836 . . . (Boston, 1836), 22–25, 41; Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1836), 6; The Liberty Bell . . . (Boston, 1841); The Liberty Bell . . . (Boston, 1842), 164–204; The Liberty Bell . . . (Boston, 1843), 71–110, 170–74; Debra Gold Hansen, Strained Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (Amherst, Mass., 1993), chaps. 1, 4; Clare Taylor, Women of the Anti-Slavery Movement: The Weston Sisters (New York, 1995), chaps. 2, 3.

12. Mrs. Child, An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans called Africans (New York, 1836): 10–11, 23–24, 29–30, 32–34, 41–42, 73, 78–81, 84–88, 109–12, 117–21, 130–31, 134, 148, 166–68, 170–71, 191–94, 214–16; TL, September 7, 1833, 141; Jean Fagan Yellin, Women and Sisters: The Antislavery Feminists in American Culture (New Haven, 1989), chap. 3; Carolyn L. Karcher, The First Woman of the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child (Durham, 1994); Deborah Pickman Clifford, Crusader for Freedom: A Life of Lydia Maria Child (Boston, 1992).

13. Mrs. Child, ed., The Oasis (Boston, 1834), vi, viii; Authentic Anecdotes of American Slavery [Newburyport, 1835]; Mrs. Child, Anti-Slavery Catechism (Newburyport, 1836); Mrs. Child, The Evils of Slavery and the Cure of Slavery (Newburyport, 1836), 19; Mrs. D. L. Child, The History of the Condition of Women in Various Ages and Nations, vol. 1, Comprising the Women of Asia and Africa; vol. 2, Comprising Women of Europe, America and South Sea Islands (Boston, 1835); Karcher, The First Woman of the Republic, chap. 10; Right and Wrong in Boston . . . Annual Meeting of 1835, 90–96; Karen Sanchez-Eppler, Touching Liberty: Abolition, Feminism, and the Politics of the Body (Berkeley, 1993), chap. 1.

14First Annual Report of the Ladies New York City Anti-Slavery Society (New York, 1836), 4–6, 15–19; Right and Wrong in Boston . . . Annual Meeting of 1835, 86–90; Amy Swerdlow, “Abolition’s Conservative Sisters: The Ladies’ New York City Anti-Slavery Societies, 1834–1840,” in Yellin and Horne, The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 31–44; Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation (Urbana, 1972), 227.

15Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 50–53, 83–87; First Annual Report of the Ladies Anti-Slavery Society of Concord . . . (Concord, N.H., 1836), 5–10; Right and Wrong in Boston in 1836, 28–32, 72–75, 78: TL, November 2, 1833; March 19, May 21, August 13, 27, September 7, October 15, December 10, 27, 1836; January 2, 1837; TP, December 9, 1836; Deborah Bingham Van Broekhoven, The Devotion of These Women: Rhode Island in the Antislavery Network (Amherst, Mass., 2002), 11–17, 25–26, 85–87, 92; Beth A. Salerno, Sister Societies: Women’s Antislavery Organizations in Antebellum America (DeKalb, Ill., 2005), chap. 2; Julie Roy Jeffrey, The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism: Ordinary Women in the Antislavery Movement(Chapel Hill, 1998), 36–95; Stacey M. Robertson, Hearts Beating for Liberty: Women Abolitionists in the Old Northwest (Chapel, Hill, 2010), 15–20; Thomas Dublin, Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826–1860(New York, 1979).

16. John M. Putnam, An Address Delivered at Concord . . . (Concord, N.H., 1836), 12–13; James A. Thome, Address to the Females of Ohio . . . (Cincinnati, 1836), 1–5, 8–9, 11–15.

17TL, October 15, December 10, 1836; January 1, 1841; July 22, 1842; Louis Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 2, House Dividing Against Itself, 1836–1840 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 194; Jeffrey, The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism, 108–26; Van Broekhoven, The Devotion of These Women, chap. 7; Robertson, Hearts Beating for Liberty, chap. 4; Lee Chambers-Schiller, “‘A Good Work Among the People’: The Political Culture of the Boston Antislavery Fair,” in Yellin and Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 249–74.

18TE, July 21, 1836; TL, March 11, April 28, June 16, 1837; July 20, 1838; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:326; Gerda Lerner, “The Political Activities of Antislavery Women,” in The Majority Finds Its Past: Placing Women in History (New York, 1979), 112–28; Mary Hershberger, “Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition: The Struggle against Indian Removal in the 1830s,” JAH 86 (June 1999): 15–40; Deborah Bingham Van Broekhoven, “‘Let Your Names be Enrolled’: Method and Ideology in Women’s Antislavery Petitioning,” in Yellin and Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 179–99; Susan Zaeske, Signatures of Citizenship: Petitioning, Antislavery, and Women’s Political Identity (Chapel Hill, 2003); Daniel Carpenter and Colin D. Moore, “When Canvassers Become Activists: Antislavery Petitioning and the Political Mobilization of American Women,” American Political Science Review 108 (August 2014): 479–98.

19. Charles Wilbanks, ed., Walking by Faith: The Diary of Angelina Grimké 1828–1835 (Columbia, S.C., 2003), 107, 211–13; A. E. Grimké, Appeal to the Christian Women of the South (New York, 1836), 1–2, 10–12, 14–20, 26–31, 35–36; TL, October 8, 1836; May 5, 1837; Sarah M. Grimké, An Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States [New York, 1836], 1–4, 10–12; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1:366–72; Larry Ceplair, ed., The Public Years of Sarah and Angelina Grimké: Selected Writings, 1835–1839 (New York, 1989), 33–36.

20. Catherine Birney, The Grimké Sisters . . . (Boston, 1885), 159–67, 177–95; TL, December 3, 1836; February 25, July 28, August 11, October 27, 1837; [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life told By His Children (New York, 1885), 2:133–35, 160–61; Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott, 36–37; Right and Wrong in Boston in 1836, 88–90; Right and Wrong in Boston . . . (Boston, 1837), 42–69, 94–101; Nathaniel P. Rogers, An Address Delivered Before the Concord Female Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Concord, N.H., 1838), 3–4, 10–12, 17–19; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1:374–75, 389–92, 395–97, 411–19, 423–36, 441–45; Ceplair, ed., The Public Years, 280–85, 289–94; Gerda Lerner, The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Rebels Against Slavery (Boston, 1967), 163–204; Katharine Du Pre Lumpkin, The Emancipation of Angelina Grimké (Chapel Hill, 1974), 94–101, 108–30; Yellin, Women and Sisters, 36, 45.

21. Catharine E. Beecher, An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism . . . (Philadelphia, 1837), 6–9, 13–17, 21–28, 39–47, 96–107, 120–22; Kathryn Kish Sklar, Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity (New Haven, 1973), 98–101, 132–37, 235–43, 266–70; Du Pre Lumpkin, The Emancipation of Angelina Grimké, 115–17; Jeanne Boydston, Mary Kelley, and Anne Margolis, The Limits of Sisterhood: The Beecher Sisters on Women’s Rights and Women’s Sphere (Chapel Hill, 1988); Alisse Theodore Portnoy, “‘Female Petitioners can be Lawfully Heard’: Negotiating Female Decorum, United States Politics, and Political Agency, 1829–1831,” JER 23 (Winter 2003): 573–610; Zaeske, Signatures of Citizenship, 164–66.

22Letters to Catharine E. Beecher . . . (Boston, 1838), 4–7, 10–13, 15–17, 31–34, 36–41, 45–47, 89–93; TL, June 23, July 21, August 11, 25, September 15, 20, October 13, November 3, 1837; Kathryn Kish Sklar, “‘The Throne of My Heart’: Religion, Oratory, and Transatlantic Community in Angelina Grimké’s Launching of Women’s Rights, 1828–1838,” in Sklar and Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery, 211–41; Stephen Howard Browne, Angelina Grimké: Rhetoric, Identity, and the Radical Imagination (East Lansing, 1999), chap. 4.

23Letters to Catharine E. Beecher, 106–29; Letters on the Equality of the Sexes . . . (Boston, 1838), 3, 11, 14–21, 45, 118–22; TL, January 5, 12, 19, 26, February 2, 9, 16, 1838; Elizabeth Ann Bartlett, Liberty, Equality, Sorority: The Origin and Interpretation of American Feminist Thought: Frances Wright, Sarah Grimké, and Margaret Fuller(Brooklyn, N.Y., 1994), chap. 4; Gerda Lerner, ed., The Feminist Thought of Sarah Grimké (New York, 1998), for her later writings.

24Right and Wrong in Boston . . . in 1837, 32–41; Proceedings of the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women . . . (New York, 1837), 3–9, 11–13, 15, 17; An Appeal to the Women of the Nominally Free States . . . (New York, 1837), 3–6, 14–28, 54–61, 66–67.

25. Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 2:540–43, 552–53, 564, 567–68; TL, March 2, 30, May 25, 1838; Ceplair, ed., The Public Years, 310–12, 318–23; Proceedings of the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women . . . (Philadelphia, 1838), 3–5, 6–10, 12–14, 18; Address to Antislavery Societies (Philadelphia, 1838), 3–7, 9–10; Address to the Free Colored People of the United States (Philadelphia, 1838), 3–11; Address to the Senators and Representatives of the Free States . . . (Philadelphia, 1838), 3–10; Du Pre Lumpkin, The Emancipation of Angelina Grimké, 130–52.

26Proceedings of the Third Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women . . . (Philadelphia, 1839), 3–10, 13, 15–28.

27. Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 2:532–683; Robert K. Nelson, “The Forgetfulness of Sex: Devotion and Desire in the Courtship Letters of Angelina Grimké and Theodore Dwight Weld,” Journal of Social History 37 (Spring 2004): 663–79; Carol Berkin, Civil War Wives: The Lives and Times of Angelina Grimké Weld, Varina Howell Davis, and Julia Dent Grant (New York, 2009), chaps. 6–8.

28. Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 177–87; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 1, I Will be Heard! 1822–1835 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 279–409; Hallowell, James and Lucretia Mott, 40–44; Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott, 188; Grew, James Mott, 16; John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 215–18, 228–32; Karcher, The First Woman of the Republic, chap. 9; Lori D. Ginzberg, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: An American Life (New York, 2009), 86–89; Nancy H. Burkett, Abby Kelley Foster and Stephen S. Foster (Worcester, Mass., 1976); Leslie Wheeler, ed., Loving Warriors: Selected Letters of Lucy Stone and Henry B. Blackwell, 1853 to 1893 (New York, 1981), introduction; Robertson, Hearts Beating for Liberty, 22–24, 145–53; Chris Dixon, Perfecting the Family: Antislavery Marriages in Nineteenth-Century America (Amherst, Mass., 1997); Blanche Glassman Hersh, The Slavery of Sex: Feminists-Abolitionists in America (Urbana, 1978), chap. 7; Yee, Black Women Abolitionists, chap. 1; Frances Smith Foster, ed., Love and Marriage in Early African America (Boston, 2008), 71.

29TL, May 3, August 9, September 6, 1839; TE, August 8, 1839; Seventh Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1839), 31–33; Eighth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1840), 27–29; Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1967), 49–52; Salerno, Sister Societies, 92–101; Ellen Carol DuBois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848–1869 (Ithaca, 1978), 31–40; Betty Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney: Slaveholder to Abolitionist (Ithaca, 1955), 161–64.

30TL, March 20, April 19, May 17, June 28, August 16, December 20, 1839; January 20, March 20, May 22, 29, 1840; TE, June 19, 1840; November 25, 1841; Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1841), 50–52; John B. Pickard, “John Greenleaf Whittier and the Abolitionist Schism of 1840,” NEQ 37 (June 1964): 250–54; Dorothy Sterling, Ahead of Her Time: Abby Kelley and the Politics of Antislavery (New York, 1991); Keith Melder, “Abby Kelley and the Process of Liberation,” in Yellin and Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 231–40; Martha S. Jones, All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture, 1830–1900 (Chapel Hill, 2007), 54–57; Salerno, Sister Societies, 101–17; Swerdlow, “Abolition’s Conservative Sisters,” 31–44.

31Seventh Annual Report of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society . . . (Boston, 1840), 1–7, 28–30; Hansen, Strained Sisterhood, chap. 5; Margaret Hope Bacon, “By Moral Force Alone: The Antislavery Women and Nonresistance,” in Yellin and Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 275–97.

32. Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott, 47–50, 64–66, 71–73; Brown, “Cradle of Feminism,” 143–66; “The Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society,” 84–88; Bruce Dorsey, Reforming Men and Women: Gender in the Antebellum City (Ithaca, 2002), 171–81; Faulkner, Lucretia Mott’s Heresy, 81–83; Brown, Mary Grew, 52.

33TL, July 23, 1841; March 18, April 15, 1842; Salerno, Sister Societies, chap. 5; Lawes, Women and Reform, 4–80; Jeffrey, The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism, 96–106; Robertson, Hearts Beating for Liberty; Michael D. Piersen, Free Hearts and Free Homes: Gender and American Antislavery Politics (Chapel Hill, 2003); Wendy Hamand Venet, Neither Ballots nor Bullets: Women Abolitionists and the Civil War (Charlottesville, Va., 1991).

34. Hersh, The Slavery of Sex; Alex Tyrell, Joseph Sturge and the Moral Radical Party in Early Victorian Britain (London, 1987); William Lloyd Garrison, 2:351–52; Douglas H. Maynard, “The World’s Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840,” MVHR 47 (December 1970): 452–71.

35. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Eighty Years and More: Reminiscences, 1815–1897 (1898; repr., New York, 1971), 54, 78–84; Ann D. Gordon, ed., The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: In the School of Anti-Slavery, 1840–1860 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1997), 1:8–15; Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Jocelyn Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 1, 1848–1861 (New York, 1881), 52, 61–62, 407–31; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:383; Ginzberg, Elizabeth Cady Stanton; Elisabeth Griffith, In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (New York, 1984); Lois W. Banner, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A Radical for Women’s Rights (Boston, 1980).

36TL, June 26, July 3, 24, 31, October 23, 1840; February 12, April 23, 1841; April 29, 1842; TE, June 18, July 9, 16, 23, 30, 1840; January 7, 1841; NASS, July 23, August 6, September 10, October 22, 1840; Stanton, Anthony, and Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, 1:53–62; Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention . . . (London, 1841); Frederick B. Tolles ed., Slavery and “The Woman Question”: Lucretia Mott’s Diary of Her Visit to Britain to Attend the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840 (Haverford, Pa., 1952); James Mott, Three Months in Great Britain (Philadelphia, 1841); Memorial of Sarah Pugh . . . (Philadelphia, 1888), 22–30; Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott, 77–81; Hallowell, James and Lucretia Mott, chap. 7; Grew, James Mott, 14; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:366–407; Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 2:659–71; Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 54–56; Anthony J. Barker, Captain Charles Stuart: Anglo-American Abolitionist (Baton Rouge, 1986), 189; Donald R. Kennon, “‘An Apple of Discord’: The Woman Question at the World’s Antislavery Convention of 1840,” S&A 5 (1984): 244–66; Kathryn Kish Sklar, “‘Women Who Speak for an Entire Nation’: American and British Women at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, London, 1840,” in Yellin and Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood, 301–33; Clare Midgley, “British Abolition and Feminism in Transatlantic Perspective,” in Sklar and Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery, 121–37; Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 227–28, 258–71.

37TL, August 28, September 11, 25, October 23, 30, December 8, 1840; February 26, March 6, 12, 1841; NASS, May 23, 1844; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:361, 381; Brown, Mary Grew, 55–56.

38. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Margaret Fuller Ossoli (Boston, 1884); Love Letters of Margaret Fuller, 1845–1846 . . . (New York, 1903), 216, 222; Patricia Okker, Our Sister Editors: Sarah J. Hale and the Tradition of Nineteenth-Century American Women Editors (Athens, Ga., 1995); Charles Capper, Margaret Fuller: An American Romantic Life, vol. 2, The Private Years (New York, 1992), 332; Meg McGavran Murray, Margaret Fuller: Wandering Pilgrim (Athens, Ga., 2008), 1, 137; Joan Von Mehren, Minerva and the Muse: A Life of Margaret Fuller (Amherst, Mass., 1994); Megan Marshall, Margaret Fuller: A New American Life (New York, 2013).

39. Margaret Fuller Ossoli, Woman in the Nineteenth Century . . . (New York, 1869), 28–31, 37–43, 110–16, 140–48, 167–77; Robert N. Hudspeth, ed., “My Heart Is a Large Kingdom”: Selected Letters of Margaret Fuller (Ithaca, 2001), 135–36; Capper, Margaret Fuller . . . The Private Years, 2:292, 306; Charles Capper, Margaret Fuller: An American Romantic Life, vol. 1, The Public Years (New York, 2007), 17, 106–22, 177–93; Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, 2 vols. (Boston, 1857), 1:107, 319–50; Murray, Margaret Fuller, 218–27; Stanton, Anthony, and Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage 1:801–2.

40. Judith Mattson Bean and Joel Myerson eds., Margaret Fuller, Critic: Writings from the New-York Tribune, 1844–1846 (New York, 2000), 28–29, 65–70, 119–20, 131–33, 233–39, 386–89; Capper, Margaret Fuller . . . The Public Years, 1:268–70.

41Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, 2 vols. (Boston, 1857), 2:169–352; Capper, Margaret Fuller . . . The Public Years, 1:487–89; Bonnie S. Anderson, “Frauen-emancipation and Beyond: The Use of the Concept of Emancipation by Early European Feminists,” and Ellen Carol DuBois, “Ernestine Rose’s Jewish Origins and the Varieties of Euro-American Emancipation in 1848,” in Sklar and Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery, 82–97, 279–96; Bonnie S. Anderson, Joyous Greetings: The First International Women’s Movement, 1830–1860 (New York, 2000); Margaret H. McFadden, Golden Cables of Sympathy: The Transatlantic Sources of Nineteenth-Century Feminism (Lexington, Ky., 1998); Mischa Honeck, We Are the Revolutionists: German-Speaking Immigrants and American Abolitionists after 1848 (Athens, Ga., 2011), chap. 4.

42. Stanton, Anthony, and Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, 1:63–67, 98–100; Paulina W. Davis, A History of the National Woman’s Rights Movement . . . (New York, 1871), 12; Michael S. Kimmel and Thomas E. Mosmiller, eds., Against the Tide: Pro-Feminist Men in the United States, 1776–1900 (Boston, 1992), 76–78, 82–93, 94–97; Lisa Tetrault, The Myth of Seneca Falls: Memory and the Woman’s Suffrage Movement, 1848–1898 (Chapel Hill, 2014); Norma Basch, In the Eyes of the Law: Women, Marriage and Property in Nineteenth-Century New York (Ithaca, 1982); Lori D. Ginzberg, Untidy Origins: A Story of Woman’s Rights in Antebellum New York (Chapel Hill, 2005); Stansell, City of Women; Boyd Guest, “John Neal and ‘Women’s Rights and Women’s Wrongs,’” NEQ 18 (December 1945): 508–15; Jane L. Silver-Isenstadt, Shameless: The Visionary Life of Mary Gove Nichols (Baltimore, 2002); Diane Eickhoff, Revolutionary Heart: The Life of Clarina Nichols and the Pioneering Crusade for Women’s Rights (Kansas City, Kan., 2006); Marilyn S. Blackwell and Kristen T. Oertel, Frontier Feminist: Clarina Howard Nichols and the Politics of Motherhood (Lawrence, Kan., 2010); Lewis Perry, Childhood, Marriage, and Reform: Henry Clarke Wright, 1797–1870 (Chicago, 1980), 218–55.

43. Samuel J. May, Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict (New York, 1968), 236; TL, December 31, 1841; November 18, December 30, 1842; May 5, November 24, December 8, 1843; January 26, 1844; NASS, March 7, 1844; Judith Wellman, The Road to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the First Woman’s Rights Convention(Urbana, 2004), part 2; Donald Yacovone, Samuel Joseph May and the Dilemmas of the Liberal Persuasion, 1797–1871 (Philadelphia, 1991), 119–25; Sterling, Ahead of Her Time, 150–186; Melder, “Abby Kelley and the Process of Liberation,” 240–48; Nancy Hewitt, “‘Seeking a Larger Liberty’: Remapping First Wave Feminism,” in Sklar and Stewart, eds., Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery, 266–78; Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850–1920 (Bloomington, 1998), 14.

44. Gordon, ed., The Selected Papers 1:69, 75–88; Stanton, Anthony, and Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, 1:67–75; Stanton, Eighty Years and More, 127–51; Proceedings of the Woman’s Rights Convention . . . (New York, 1870); Hallowell, James and Lucretia Mott, 298–301; Grew, James Mott, 12; DuBois, Feminism and Suffrage, 40–41; Wellman, The Road to Seneca Falls, chaps. 7, 8; Philip S. Foner, ed., Frederick Douglass on Women’s Rights (Greenwood, Conn., 1976); Sue Davis, The Political Thought of Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Women’s Rights and the American Political Traditions (New York, 2008); Vivian Gornick, The Solitude of Self: Thinking about Elizabeth Cady Stanton(New York, 2005); Barbara Caine, “Elizabeth Cady Stanton, John Stuart Mill, and the Nature of Feminist Thought,” in Ellen Carol DuBois and Richard Candida Smith, eds., Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Feminist as Thinker, A Reader in Documents and Essays (New York, 2007), 50–65; Paul A. Cimbala, “Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Woman’s Rights Movement,” in Cimbala and Miller, eds., Against the Tide, 41–53; Sylvia D. Hoffert, When Hens Crow: The Woman’s Rights Movement in Antebellum America (Bloomington, 1995), chap. 2.

45Proceedings of the Woman’s Rights Convention, 3–6, 8–12; Stanton, Anthony, and Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, 1:808–10; Wellman, The Road to Seneca Falls, 211–16; Nancy A. Hewitt, “The Spriritual Journey of an Abolitionist: Amy Kirby Post, 1802–1889,” in Brycchan Carey and Geoffrey Plank, eds., Quakers and Abolition (Urbana, 2014), 73–86; Keith E. Melder, Beginnings of Sisterhood: The American Woman’s Rights Movement, 1800–1850 (New York, 1977), chap. 10.

46. Gordon, ed., The Selected Papers, 1:88–123; Ginzberg, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 66–84; Banner, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, chap. 4; Hallowell, James and Lucretia Mott, 487–506; Dana Greene, ed., Lucretia Mott: Her Complete Speeches and Sermons (New York, 1980): 143–62.

47. Du Bois, Feminism and Suffrage; Gayle V. Fischer, Pantaloons and Power: A Nineteenth Century Dress Reform in the United States (Kent, Ohio, 2001); Joelle Million, Woman’s Voice, Woman’s Place: Lucy Stone and the Birth of the Woman’s Rights Movement (Westport, Conn., 2003); Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890–1920 (New York, 1981); Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, 1987), 6–9; Christine Stansell, The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present (New York, 2010).

CHAPTER TEN. THE BLACK MAN’S BURDEN

1Weekly Advocate, January 7, 1837; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), introduction; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, They Who Would Be Free: Blacks’ Search for Freedom, 1830–1861 (New York, 1974), 297–99; Patrick Rael, ed., African-American Activism Before the Civil War (New York, 2008), 39–49, 58–77, 134–67; James Oliver and Lois E. Horton, In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1700–1860 (New York, 1997); Steven Kantrowitz, More than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829–1889 (New York, 2012).

2TL, May 28, 1831; June 30, 1832; May 9, 1835; Howard Holman Bell, A Survey of the Negro Convention Movement, 1830–1861 (1953, repr., New York, 1969); Harry Reed, Platform for Change: The Foundation of the Northern Free Black Community, 1775–1865 (East Lansing, 1994), 141–52.

3Minutes and Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1832), 4–6, 8–11, 15–20, 32–36, and Minutes and Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention . . . (New York, 1833), 8–11, 14–19, 22–23, 26–36, in Howard Holman Bell, ed., Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions, 1830–1864 (New York, 1969); First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1834), 34–36; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society . . . (New York, 1835), 26–27; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 25; Donald Yacovone, “The Transformation of the Black Temperance Movement, 1827–1854: An Interpretation,” JER 8 (Autumn 1988): 281–86; Leslie M. Alexander, African or American?: Black Identity and Political Activism in New York City, 1784–1861 (Urbana, 2008), 81–82, 85.

4Minutes of the Fourth Annual Convention . . . (New York, 1834), 3–7, 21–25, 27–36, in Bell, ed., Minutes; C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 3, The United States, 1830–1846 (Chapel Hill, 1991), 133; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, “Negro Conventions and the Problem of Black Leadership,” Journal of Black Studies 2 (September 1971): 30–31; Elizabeth Rauh Bethel, The Roots of African American Identity: Memory and History in Antebellum Free Communities (New York, 1997), 136–38.

5TL, May 9, 1835; Minutes of the Fifth Annual Convention . . . (Philadelphia, 1835), 5, 10–14, 16–19, 25–32, in Bell, ed., Minutes.

6. Julie Winch, ed., The Elite of Our People: Joseph Willson’s Sketches of Black Upper-Class Life in Antebellum Philadelphia (University Park, Pa., 2002), 84–85, 111–19; Minutes and Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention, 14; TL, June 4, 1831; Weekly Advocate, January 14, 28, February 4, 25, 1837; NR, January 1839; CA, October 5, 1839; Craig Steven Wilder, “Black Life in Freedom: Creating a Civic Culture,” in Ira Berlin and Leslie Harris, eds., Slavery in New York (New York, 2005), 217–37; Dorothy Porter, “The Organized Educational Activities of Negro Literary Societies, 1828–1846,” Journal of Negro Education 5 (Fall 1936): 555–75; Tony Martin, “The Banneker Literary Institute of Philadelphia: African American Intellectual Activism before the War of the Slaveholders’ Rebellion,” JAH 87 (Summer 2002): 303–22; Peter P. Hinks and Stephen Kantrowitz, All Men Free and Brethren: Essays on the History of Free Black Masonry (Ithaca, 2013), introduction; John Ernest, A Nation within a Nation: Organizing African-American Communities before the Civil War (Lanham, Md., 2011).

7. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:119–29, 189–94; An Address Delivered Before the Moral Reform Society . . . (Philadelphia, 1836), 5–7, 12–14.

8The Minutes and Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the American Moral Reform Society . . . (Philadelphia, 1837): 20–25, 30–55; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:154–67; “John P. Burr, James Forten Jr.: A Circular Pennsylvania Freeman, July 5, 1838” and “Benjamin Wilson, The Council for the Philadelphia Association for the Moral and Mental Improvement of the People of Color, June 20, 1839,” BAP; Howard H. Bell, “The American Moral Reform Society, 1836–1841,” Journal of Negro Education 27 (Winter 1958): 34–40; Julie Winch, Philadelphia’s Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation, and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787–1848 (Philadelphia, 1988), chap. 6; Third Annual Report of the American Moral Reform Society . . . (New York, 1838), 5–8, 13–33.

9Minutes of the Fifth Annual Convention, 15; NASS, July 30, 1840; Richard P. McCormick, “William Whipper, Moral Reformer,” PH 43 (January 1976), 22–46; Patrick Rael, Black Identity and Black Protest in the Antebellum North (Chapel Hill, 2002), 110–13; Karen E. Fields and Barbara J. Fields, Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life(New York, 2012); Jaqueline Jones, A Dreadful Deceit: The Myth of Race from the Colonial Era to Obama’s America (New York, 2013).

10Weekly Advocate, January 7, 14, 28, February 4, 18, 1837; CA, March 4, November 11, 18, 1837; January 13, February 3, 17, March 15, June 2, 9, 16, 23, August 4, September 1, 15, October 6, December 15, 22, 1838; July 13, September 14, 1839; TL, September 7, 1838; March 13, 1839; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:320–22; I. Garland Penn, The Afro-American Press and Its Editors (Springfield, Mass., 1891); David E. Swift, Black Prophets of Justice: Activist Clergy Before the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 1989), 82–85; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, Bound with Them in Chains: A Biographical History of the Antislavery Movement (Westport, Conn., 1972), 148–49; M. N. Work, “The Life of Charles B. Ray,” JNH 4 (October 1919): 361–71.

11CA, August 26, September 2, 9, 16, 23, November 11, December 2, 9, 23, 30, 1837; February 3, 10, March 15, 22, 29, May 3, June 2, 23, 30, July 21, August 4, 25, September 22, 1838; January 12, June 8, 1839; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:288–93; Floyd Miller, “The Father of Black Nationalism: Another Contender,” CWH 17 (December 1971): 310–19; Sterling Stuckey, The Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism (Boston, 1972), 13–15; Tunde Adeleke, “Afro-Americans and Moral Suasion: The Debate in the 1830s,” JNH 83 (Spring 1998): 127–42.

12CA, August 26, September 16, 23, 1837; March 3, June 9, August 25, September 22, 1838; September 28, 1839; NR, January 1839; TP, June 18, 1839; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:238–51.

13. I am grateful to Marieta Joyner for donating all her copies of the National Reformer to me. NR, September, October, November, December 1838; January, February, March, April, September, November, December 1839; TP, February 20, 1838; TE, December 27, 1838; “George Cary et al.” and “A Colored Baltimorean to Editor,” NE, February 1, 1838,” BAP; CA, September 15, December 22, 1838; September 19, 1840; Yacovone, “The Transformation of the Black Temperance Movement,” 281–97; Rita Roberts, Evangelicalism and the Politics of Reform in Northern Black Thought, 1776–1863 (Baton Rouge, 2010), 104–14.

14CA, September 23, October 7, 1837; February 10, March 22, 1838; February 13, 20, March 6, 13, 1841; TL, January 26, 1838, p. 15; Stuckey, The Ideological Origin, 17–19; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1977), 36–40; Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Let Your Motto Be Resistance: The Life and Thought of Henry Highland Garnet (Boston, 1972), 18–22.

15CA, March 11, 18, April 1, 15, June 3, September 9, October 7, 14, 28, November 18, 1837; February 3, 10, 17, June 2, 9, 23, 30, July 7, 14, 28, August 4, September 1, 8, 22, October 6, November 17, December 22, 1838; January 12, June 8, July 13, October 5, 1839; TL, May 25, 1838.

16. George R. Price and James Brewer Stewart, eds., To Heal the Scourge of Prejudice: The Life and Writings of Hosea Easton (Amherst, Mass., 1999), 16, 22–25, 74, 76, 81, 85, 91, 100–101, 104–6, 111–12, 115; Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 31; TL, September 6, 1834, February 11, 1837; Patrick Rael, “A Common Nature, A United Destiny: African American Responses to Racial Science from the Revolution to the Civil War,” in Timothy Patrick McCarthy and John Stauffer, eds., Prophets of Protest: Reconsidering the History of American Abolitionism (New York, 2006), 183–99; Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African American Ideas about White People, 1830–1925 (New York, 2000), 46–50, 77, 84–85; Bruce Dain, A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 170–96.

17. Robert Benjamin Lewis, Light and Truth: From Ancient and Sacred History (Portland, Me., 1836), 108–10, 132–39, 152–53, 155–56, 171–72, and Light and Truth . . . (Boston, 1844), v, 304–5, 386–98, 400; Laurie F. Maffly-Kipp, Setting Down the Sacred Past: African American Race Histories (Cambridge, Mass., 2010); Stephen G. Hall, A Faithful Account of the Race: African American Historical Writing in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill, 2009), 62–64, 71–74, 79–84; John Ernest, Liberation Historiography: African American Writers and the Challenge of History, 1794–1861 (Chapel Hill, 2004), 101–13.

18. Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York, 1981); Ann Fabian, The Skull Collectors: Race, Science, and America’s Unburied Dead (Chicago, 2010); James W. C. Pennington, A Text Book of the Origin and History, &c. &c. of the Colored People (Hartford, 1841), 3, 12, 43–44, 45, 48, 52–54, 56, 74–80, 85, 89; CA, January 9, 1841; R. J. M. Blackett, Beating Against the Barriers: The Lives of Six Nineteenth-Century Afro-Americans (Ithaca, 1989), chap. 1; David E. Swift, Black Prophets of Justice: Activist Clergy before the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 1989), chap. 9; Herman E. Thomas, James W. C. Pennington: African American Churchman and Abolitionist (New York, 1995); Christopher Webber, American to the Backbone: The Life of James W. C. Pennington: The Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Abolitionists (New York, 2011).

19. Ann Plato, Essays Including Biographies and Miscellaneous Pieces, in Prose and Poetry (Hartford, 1841), xviii, 41, 55, 60, 111–12, 114–15; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:326–28; Ann Allen Shockley, ed., Afro-American Woman Writers, 1746–1933: An Anthology and Critical Guide (New Haven, 1988), 26–28; Joan R. Sherman, Invisible Poets: Afro-Americans of the Nineteenth Century (Urbana, 1974), 33–34; Ron Welburn, Hartford’s Ann Plato and the Native Burden of Identity (Albany, 2015).

20. Harriet E. Wilson, Our Nig; or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black (New York, 1983), introduction, 3, 15, 126–29; JerriAnne Boggis, Eve Allegra Raimon, and Barbara A. White, eds., Harriet Wilson’s New England: Race Writing and Region (Durham, N.H., 2007); Eric Gardner, “‘This Attempt of Their Sister’: Harriet Wilson’s Our Nig from Printer to Readers,” NEQ 66 (1993): 226–46; P. Gabrielle Foreman and Katherine Flynn, “Mrs. H. E. Wilson, Mogul? The Curious New History of an American Literary Original,” Boston Globe, February 15, 2009.

21TL, June 1, 1838; February 16, May 10, 1844; NASS, February 8, April 18, 1844; John Stauffer, ed., The Works of James McCune Smith: Black Intellectual and Abolitionist (New York, 2006), introduction, 51–52, 57–65, part 4, 265–66, 280; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 65–68, 86–88; David W. Blight, “In Search of Learning, Liberty, and Self Definition: James McCune Smith and the Ordeal of the Antebellum Black Intellectual,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 9 (July 1985), 7–26; Ivy G. Wilson, Specters of Democracy: Blackness and the Aesthetics of Politics in the Antebellum United States (New York, 2011), chap. 7.

22. Henry Highland Garnet, The Past and Present Condition and the Destiny of the Colored Race (Troy, N.Y., 1848), 6, 25–29; Hall, A Faithful Account of the Race, 56–57; Schor, Henry Highland Garnet, 89–91.

23. Frederick Douglass, The Claims of the Negro Ethnologically Considered . . . (Rochester, 1854), 5, 7–10, 13–16, 28–31, 34; Martin R. Delany, Principia of Ethnology . . . (Philadelphia, 1879); Robert S. Levine, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity (Chapel Hill, 1997); Robert S. Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany: A Documentary Reader (Chapel Hill, 2003): introduction.

24TL, January 15, January 22, December 10, 1831; January 26, June 23, August 11, October 13, 1832; April 4, 1835; David L. Child, The Despotism of Freedom; or The Tyranny and Cruelty of American Republican Slave-Masters Shown to be the Worst in the World . . . (Boston, 1833), 5, 8, 11; Proceedings of the New England Anti-Slavery Convention . . . (Boston, 1834), 13.

25Proceedings of the New England Anti-Slavery Convention . . . 1834, 13–18; First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 45–47; Proceedings of the New England Antislavery Convention . . . (Boston, 1836), 57–58, 69–71; Proceedings of the Fourth New England Anti-Slavery Convention . . . (Boston, 1837), 46–49; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:269–71, 275–77, 294–97.

26Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 35–37; Report on the Condition of the People of Color in the State of Ohio . . . (Boston, 1836), 1–4, 10–15; Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 27, 29.

27. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:181–88, 375–79; Proceedings of the New England Antislavery Convention . . . 1836, 48–49, 55–56; TL, June 25, July 2, 1836; October 13, 1837; TP, November 25, 1836; Carter G. Woodson, ed., Negro Orators and Their Orations (Washington, 1925), 85–95; CA, October 14, 1837; TE, October 26, 1837; March 14, 1839; Swift, Black Prophets of Justice, 47–55, 60–71, 90–97, 100–101.

28An Apology for Abolitionists Addressed by the Anti-Slavery Society of Meriden . . . (Middletown, Conn., 1837), 4, 7; Proceedings of the Rhode Island Anti-Slavery Convention . . . (Providence, 1836), 16; Proceedings of the Indiana Convention . . . (Cincinnati, 1838), 7–10, 13; Proceedings of the Fourth New England Anti-Slavery Convention, 122; TL, August 6, 1831; February 25, 1837; TE, May 17, 1838; The “Negro Pew” . . . (Boston, 1837), 9–14, 24–43, 52.

29. Christopher Malone, Between Freedom and Bondage: Race, Party, and Voting Rights in the Antebellum North (New York, 2008); To the Honorable The Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania The Memorial of the People of Colour of the City of Philadelphia and its vicinity . . . [1832], 3–8; Winch, Philadelphia’s Black Elite, 131–34; [John F. Denny], An Enquiry into the Political Grade of the Free Colored Population . . . [Chambersburg, 1834], 2–3, 21–23; TE, May 18, 1837; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:206–12; “Charles W. Gardner et al., Address to the Ministers of the Gospel in Pennsylvania,” “Charles W. Gardner et al., Circular,” and “Charles W. Gardner and Frederick A. Hinton, Memorial,” BAP; CA, March 25, June 17, July 1, 29, 1837; March 15, 1838; TL, May 19, November 17 1837; David McBride, “Black Protest against Racial Politics: Gardner, Hinton, and Their Memorial of 1838,” Pennsylvania History 46 (April 1979): 149–62; Winch, Philadelphia’s Black Elite, 134–40.

30. Robert Purvis, Appeal of Forty Thousand Threatened with Disfranchisement to the People of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1838), 3–6, 16–18; CA, January 27, February 3, March 3, 22, 29, April 19, May 3, June 2, 1838; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:252, 389–92; NASS, August 25, 1842; Nicholas Wood, “‘A Sacrifice on the Altar of Slavery’: Doughface Politics and Black Disfranchisement in Pennsylvania, 1837–1838,” JER 31 (Spring 2011): 75–106; Eric Ledell Smith, “The End of Black Voting Rights in Pennsylvania: African Americans and the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1837–1838,” Pennsylvania History 65 (Summer 1998): 279–99; Nikki M. Taylor, Frontiers of Freedom: Cincinnati’s Black Community, 1802–1868 (Athens, Ohio, 2005), 118–26; Margaret Hope Bacon, But One Race: The Life of Robert Purvis (Albany, 2007), 59–65, 73, 98–99.

31Remarks of Henry B. Stanton in the Representatives Hall . . . (Boston, 1837), 35; [Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society], Address to the Colored People of the State of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1837), 3–7; The Present State and Condition of the Free People of Color . . . (Philadelphia, 1838); TL, August 27, 1831; William Jackson, Views of Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1838), 5.

32. William Yates, Rights of Colored Men to Suffrage, Citizenship and Trial by Jury . . . (Philadelphia, 1838), 3–4, 36–38, 52–63; CA, September 30, 1837; January 13, April 19, 29, March 3, 15, September 1, October 20, 1838; March 7, 14, 21, 1840.

33. William Jay, “Condition of the Free People of Color,” in Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery (New York, 1853), 371–95; CA, January 26, 1837; April 1, 1839.

34CA, March 4, 11, July 22, August 12, 19, September 23, December 30, 1837; March 15, April 12, May 3, June 16, September 8, October 20, 1838; Carla L. Peterson, Black Gotham: A Family History of Nineteenth Century New York City (New Haven, 2011), 121–24; Roberts, Evangelicalism and the Politics of Reform, 125; Celeste Michelle Condit and John Louis Lucaites, Crafting Equality: America’s Anglo-African Word (Chicago, 1993), chap. 4.

35NASS, June 25, July 2, 1840; September 23, 1841; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:340–51; CA, March 18, 1837; October 6, 24, 31, November 17, 24, 1838; June 6, 13, 20, 27, July 4, 11, 18, 25, August 1, 8, 15, 29, September 5, 12, 19, 1840; March 13, September 4, 18, 1841; Craig Steven Wilder, “Patrick and Charles Reason,” in Berlin and Harris, eds., Slavery in New York, ed. 228; Willard Gatewood, ed., Free Man of Color: The Autobiography of Willis Augustus Hodges (Knoxville, 1992), introduction; Alexander, African or American, 97–107; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, “Black Power—The Debate in 1840,” Phylon, 19–26.

36. Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, vol. 1, 1840–1865 (Philadelphia, 1979), 2–42; CA, August 29, September 12, November 14, 21, December 5, 19, 26, 1840; January 2, 9, 16, 23, February 6, March 20, April 3, 24, May 8, June 12, 19, 26, July 10, 24, August 14, 21, 28, September 4, 11, October 30, November 13, December 4, 25, 1841; NASS, May 19, 1842; Schor, Henry Highland Garnet, 36–44; Jay Rubin, “Black Nativism: The European Immigrant in Negro Thought, 1830–1860,” Phylon 39 (Fall 1978): 193–20.

37. Leon Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790–1860 (Chicago, 1961), 88–89; David M. Gellman and David Quigley, eds., Jim Crow New York: A Documentary History of Race and Citizenship, 1777–1877 (New York, 2003), 249–59; An Address to the Three Thousand Colored Citizens of New York . . . (New York, 1846); Benjamin Quarles, ed., “Letters from Negro Leaders to Gerrit Smith,” JNH 27 (October 1942): 432–53; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:479–81; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 136–58, 169–74; Phyllis E. Field, The Politics of Race in New York: The Struggle for Black Suffrage in the Civil War Era (Ithaca, 1982).

38TL, March 5, 19, 1831; CA, March 6, 13, 27, June 12, July 3, 17, 24, 31, September 11, 18, 1841; Foner and Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1:104–38; Erik Chaput, The People’s Martyr: Thomas Wilson Dorr and His 1842 Rhode Island Rebellion (Lawrence, Kan., 2013); Robert J. Cottrol, The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in the Antebellum Era (Westport, Conn., 1982), 67–90; Julian Rammelkamp, “The Providence Negro Community, 1820–1841,” in John H. Bracey, Elliot Rudwick, and August Meier, eds., Free Blacks in America 1800–1860 (Belmont, Calif., 1970), 85–94; Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent (New York, 1989), 34–35; Memorial of Thirty Thousand Disfranchised Citizens of Philadelphia, to the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives (Philadelphia, 1855), 1–2.

39Minutes of the National Convention of Colored Citizens: Held at Buffalo . . . (New York, 1843), 7; Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored People, and their Friends held in Troy . . . (Troy, 1847), 13–14, 32; Report of the Proceedings of the Colored National Convention, Held at Cleveland . . . (Rochester, 1848), 5–6, 11, 17–20, in Bell, ed., Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions.

40. Foner and Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1:173–97; Emma Lou Thornbrough, The Negro in Indiana Before 1900 (Bloomington, 1993), chap. 3; Michael J. McManus, Political Abolitionism in Wisconsin, 1840–1860 (Kent, Ohio, 1998); Paul Finkelman, “Prelude to the Fourteenth Amendment: Black Legal Rights in the Antebellum North,” Rutgers Law Journal 17 (1985–86): 415–82.

41. Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, vol. 2, 1840–1865 (Philadelphia, 1980), 306–21; “Morris Brown At a Meeting Pennsylvania Freeman December 6, 1838,” BAP; Paul Finkelman, “Race, Slavery and the Law in Antebellum Ohio,” in Michael Les Benedict and John F. Winkler, eds., The History of Ohio Law (Athens, Ohio, 2004), 2:748–81; Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws: Race and Legal Process in Early Ohio (Athens, Ohio, 2005), chap. 3.

42TP, February 5, September 24, 1839; Foner and Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1:214–73; Litwack, North of Slavery, 69–74; Blackett, Beating Against the Barriers, 288–97; William F. Cheek and Aimee Lee Cheek, John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom (Urbana, 1989), chaps. 4, 5; Middleton, The Black Laws, chap. 4.

43. Foner and Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 2:2–6, 18–38; Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863 (Chapel Hill, 1999), 255–56; Marion Thompson Wright, “Negro Suffrage in New Jersey, 1776–1875,” JNH 33 (April 1948): 168–224.

44TE, August 23, November 8, 1838; May 16, 1839; CA, September 7, December 7, 1839; October 24, 1840; February 20, March 20, 26, June 5, 26, July 10, 1841; Jay, Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery, 442–48; TL, July 21, 1843; “Letter from Alexander Crummell to Caste in the Church, 1839,” “Letter from George T. Downing and John J. Zuille to Alexander Crummell, 1839,” “Letter from James McCune Smith to Gerrit Smith 31 July 1839,” “Letter to John Jay from Alexander Crummell 24 October 1839,” BAP; “Letters from Negro Leaders to Gerrit Smth,” JNH 27 (October 1942): 445–46; FDP, 1854, 1855, 1856; Moses, Alexander Crummell, 26–30, 38–40; Kyle G. Volk, Moral Minorities and the Making of American Democracy (New York, 2014), chap. 5; Gellman and Quigley, eds., Jim Crow New York, 291.

45. “Letter to William Cooper Nell from Jeremiah B. Sanderson and David Ruggles, 26 June 1841,” BAP; TL, March 19, July 2, 9, August 20, September 10, 17, October 15, November 19, 1841; February 4, 11, 25, 1842; Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Mass. Anti-Slavery Society . . . , 72–81; Eleventh Annual Report . . . , 28–29; Twelfth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . , 5–8; Stephen Kendrick and Paul Kendrick, Sarah’s Long Walk: The Free Blacks of Boston and How Their Struggle for Equality Changed America (Boston, 2004), chap, 4; Louis Ruchames, “Race, Marriage, and Abolition in Masschusetts,” JNH 40 (July 1955): 250–73; Ruchames, “Jim Crow Railroads in Masschusetts,” American Quarterly8 (Spring 1956): 61–75; George S. Levesque, “Politicians in Petticoats: Interracial Sex and Legislative Politics in Antebellum Massachusetts,” New England Journal of Black Studies 3 (1983): 40–59; Graham Russell Gao Hodges, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City (Chapel Hill, 2010), 164–67; Kathryn Grover, The Fugitive’s Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts (Amherst, Mass., 2001), 172–75; Bruce Laurie, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform (Cambridge, Eng., 2005), 108–16.

46NASS, March 10, April 21, May 19, 1842; Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Mass. Anti-Slavery Society, 63–72; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:314–19, 368–74; James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Black Bostonians: Family Life and Community Struggle in the Antebellum North (New York, 1979), 67–70; Grover, The Fugitive’s Gibraltar, 176–81; William E. Ward, “Charles Lenox Remond: Black Abolitionist, 1838–1873” (Ph. D. diss., Clark University, 1977); Sibyl Ventress Brownlee, “Out of the Abundance of the Heart: Sarah Ann Parker Remond’s Quest for Freedom” (Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1997), 98–100.

47. Dorothy Porter Wesley and Constance Porter Uzelac, eds., William Cooper Nell, Nineteenth-Century African-American Abolitionist, Historian, Integrationist: Selected Writings 1832–1874 (Baltimore, 2002), 5–21, 30–33, 132–44, 150–51, 159–60, 253–56, 259–60, 380–84, 435–46; Robert P. Smith, “William Cooper Nell: Crusading Black Abolitionist,” JNH (July 1970): 182–99; Argument of Charles Sumner Esq. against the Constitutionality of Separate Colored . . . (Boston, 1849); Kendrick and Kendrick, Sarah’s Long Walk, 71–182, 217–39; TL, December 28, 1849; January 18, 25, April 26, December 28, 1850; Laurie, Beyond Garrison, 119–21, 277–82; Hilary J. Moss, Schooling Citizens: The Struggle for African American Education in Antebellum America(Chicago, 2009), chap. 6; Louis Ruchames, “Race and Education in Massachusetts,” Negro History Bulletin 13 (December 1949): 53–71; Carleton Mabee, “A Negro Boycott to Integrate Boston Schools,” NEQ 41 (September 1968): 341–61; Triumph of Equal School Rights in Boston . . . (Boston, 1856); Kantrowitz, More than Freedom, 167–71; Barbara Ann White, A Line in the Sand: The Battle to Integrate Nantucket Public Schools, 1825–1847 (New Bedford, Mass., 2009).

48TL, February 24, 1860; Lawrence Grossman, “George T. Downing and Desegregation of Rhode Island Public Schools, 1855–1866,” Rhode Island History 36 (November 1977): 99–105; Cottrol, The Afro-Yankees, 90–101; C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York, 1955).

49. Floyd J. Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787–1863 (Urbana, 1975); Kwando M. Kinhasa, Emigration v. Assimilation: The Debate in the African American Press, 1827–1861 (Jefferson, N.C., 1988); Ousmane K. Power-Greene, Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle against Colonization (New York, 2014); Ifeoma Kiddoe Nwanko, Black Cosmopolitanism: Racial Consciousness and Transnational Identity in the Nineteenth-Century Americas (Philadelphia, 2005), 9–15.

50. Austin Steward, Twenty-Two Years a Slave . . . (New York, 1856), 176–95, 232–44, 251–73, 341–60; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:3–62, 76–83, 104–18, 316–20; CA, February 16, 1839; “Letter from James C. Brown to William Goodell July 24, 1839,” BAP; William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, Black Utopia: Negro Communal Experiments in America (Madison, 1963), chaps. 3–6; Robin W. Winks, The Blacks in Canada: A History (New Haven, 1971), chap. 7; Harvey Amani Whitfield, Blacks on the Border: The Black Refugees in British North America, 1815–1860 (Burlington, Vt., 2006); Daniel G. Hill, The Freedom Seekers: Blacks in Early Canada (Agincourt, Canada, 1981), chaps. 4, 5; Donald G. Simpson, Under the North Star: Black Communities in Upper Canada before Confederation (1867), ed. Paul E. Lovejoy (Trenton, 2005); Clara Merritt DeBoer, Be Jubilant My Feet: African American Abolitionists in the American Missionary Association, 1839–1861 (New York, 1994), 153–59, 160–83; W. B. Hartgrove, “The Story of Josiah Henson,” JNH 13 (January 1918): 1–21; Fred Landon, “Henry Bibb, a Colonizer,” JNH 5 (October 1920): 437–47; Victor Ullman, Look to the North Star: A Life of William King (Boston, 1969).

51NS, February 19, March 23, June 8, 1849; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:143–76, 184–92, 200–203, 208–11, 245–55, 270–78; Mary A. Shadd, A Plea for Emigration, Richard Almonte, ed. (Toronto, 1998), introduction, 53, 70–71, 81–85, 89–95; Jane Rhodes, Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century (Bloomington, 1998); Jason H. Silverman, “Mary Ann Shadd and the Search for Equality,” in Darlene Clark Hine, ed., Black Women in United States History (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1990), 4:1260–74; Carol B. Conaway, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary: A Visionary of the Black Press,” in Kristin Waters and Carol B. Conaway eds., Black Women’s Intellectual Traditions: Speaking Their Minds (Burlington, Vt., 2007): 216–247.

52. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:136–37, 177–81, 224–37; Samuel Ringgold Ward, Autobiography of a Fugitive Slave: His Anti-Slavery Labours in the United States, Canada, and England (London, 1855), 12–13, 33–34, 43, 51, 139–50, 218–24, 303, 382–84; Weekly Anglo-African, August 20, 1859; DeBoer, Be Jubilant My Feet, 90–93; Ronald K. Burke, Samuel Ringgold Ward: Christian Abolitionist (New York, 1995).

53CA, November 18, 1837; April 19, May 3, October 13, November 10, 1838; July 27, August 17, 31, September 14, October 5, 12, November 16, 1839; March 7, 14, April 4, 11, 18, May 2, 9, 16, June 6, July 18, 25, September 12, October 17, 31, December 26, 1840; February 6, 13, 27, March 6, 20, April 3, June 5, 26, July 5, November 13, December 4, 1841; TE, September 26, 1839; “Letter from Frederick A. Hinton to John G. Whittier 7 November 1839” and “Letter to James G. Barbadoes from Lewis Tappan 2 December 1839,” BAP; Nancy Prince, The West Indies . . . (Boston, 1841); Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 94–101; P. J. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816–1865 (New York, 1961), 244.

54ARCJ, July 1838; April 1, 15, June 1, 1840; January 1, March 1, 1841; John H. B. Latrobe, Maryland in Liberia . . . (Baltimore, 1885), 72–79; Latrobe, Memoir of Benjamin Banneker . . . (Baltimore, 1845), 14–16; Mark J. Fleszar, “Zephaniah Kingsley, Slavery, and the Politics of Race in the Atlantic World” (Ph.D. diss., Georgia State University, 2009), esp. chaps. 4, 5.

55Letter of John McDonogh, on African Colonization . . . (New Orleans, 1842), 4–8, 14–16; Emigration to Liberia . . . (New York, 1848), 5–14; Bell I. Wiley, ed., Slaves No More: Letters from Liberia, 1833–1869 (Lexington, Ky., 1980), 116–19, 153; Eric Burin, Slavery and the Peculiar Solution: A History of the American Colonization Society(Gainesville, Fla., 2005); Claude A. Clegg, The Price of Liberty: African Americans and the Making of Liberia (Chapel Hill, 2004); Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 240–46.

56. Samuel S. Cornish and Theodore E. Wright, The Colonization Scheme Considered . . . (Newark, 1840), 4–7, 10–15, 17–24; Robert J. Eells, Forgotten Saint: The Life of Theodore Frelinghuysen: A Case Study of Christian Leadership (Lanham, Md., 1987).

57ARCJ, February 15, July 1842; May, June, September 1846; January, February, June, July 1847; January, March, April, June 1848; January, February 1849; The Twenty-Fourth Annual Report of the American Colonization Society . . . (Washington, 1841), 45–48; David Christy, Ethiopia: Her Gloom and Glory . . . (Cincinnati, 1857); [Ephraim Peabody], Slavery in the United States . . . (Boston, 1851), 22–29; The Annual Reports of the American Society Colonizing the Free People of Color in the United States, vols. 34–43, 1851–60 (New York, 1969): 35–52; Archibald Alexander, A History of Colonization on the Western Coast of Africa (Philadelphia, 1849), 646–59; Calumny Refuted by Facts from Liberia . . . (London, 1848), 3–6; James Wesley Smith, Sojourners in Search of Freedom: The Settlement of Liberia by Black Americans (Lanham, Md., 1987), chap. 11; Tom W. Shick, Behold the Promised Land: A History of Afro-American Settler Society in Nineteenth-Century Liberia (Baltimore, 1977), 44–50.

58. Robert J. Breckinridge, The Black Race . . . (Frankfort, Ky., 1851), 7–9, 12–13; Colonization of the Western Coast of Africa . . . (New York, 1851); Information about going to Liberia . . . (Washington, 1852), 19–23; Circular of the Massachusetts Colonization Society (Boston, 1855); Jacob Dewees, The Great Future of America and Africa . . .(Philadelphia, 1854), 49, 99–107, 156–62, 186–89, 210–20; C. Van Rensselaer, Slave-holding and Colonization . . . (Philadelphia, 1858), 15–17, 19–24.

59ARCJ, November 1843; August 1844; Information about going to Liberia, 11; Wilson Jeremiah Moses, The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850–1925 (Hamden, Conn., 1978), 10–11; Winston James, The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799–1851 (New York, 2010), 236, 251; Penelope Campbell, Maryland in Africa: The Maryland Colonization State Society, 1831–1857 (Urbana, 1970), 211–43; Land of Hope . . . (Hartford, 1852), 10, 13–14, 30–32, 52, 103, 185–94, 210–11; The Looking-Glass . . . (New York, 1854), 13–14, 18–20, 26–29, 121–32; Wilson Jeremiah Moses, ed., Liberian Dreams: Back-to-Africa Narratives from the 1850s (University Park, Pa., 1998), xxviii, xxix; Wiley, ed., Slaves No More, 216, 233.

60. Alexander Crummell, Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840–1898, Wilson Jeremiah Moses, ed. (Amherst, Mass., 1992), 158–64, 269–88; Alexander Crummell, B.A., The Future of Africa . . . (1862; repr., New York, 1969), 89–90, 148, 216, 327–54; Moses, Alexander Crummell, chap. 6; Hollis Lynch, ed., Selected Letters of Edward Wilmot Blyden (New York, 1978), 29–30; Lynch, Edward Wilmot Blyden, Pan-Negro Patriot, 1832–1912 (New York, 1967); Moses, The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 20–21; Tunde Adeleke, Unafrican Americans: Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalism and the Civilizing Mission (Lexington, Ky., 1998), esp. chap. 4.

61FDP, July 31, September 4, November 13, 1851; April 15, 1852; November 25, 1853; December 2, 1854; Alexander, African or American?, 142–45; Weekly Anglo-African, April 14, 1860; Moses, ed., Liberian Dreams, 181–224.

CHAPTER ELEVEN. THE ABOLITIONIST INTERNATIONAL

1. Cf. W. Caleb McDaniel, The Problem of Democracy in the Age of Slavery: Garrisonian Abolitionists and Transatlantic Reform (Baton Rouge, 2013); John T. Cumbler, From Abolition to Rights for All: The Making of a Reform Community in the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia, 2008).

2. Howard Temperley, “Capitalism, Slavery and Ideology,” Past and Present 75 (May 1977): 94–118; Richard Huzzey, Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (Ithaca, 2012); Marcus Cunliffe, Chattel Slavery and Wage Slavery: The Anglo-American Context, 1830–1860 (Athens, Ga., 1979).

3. R. J. M. Blakett, Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830–1860 (Baton Rouge, 1983); Fionnghuala Sweeney and Alan Rice, “Liberating Sojourns? African Americans and Transatlantic Abolition, 1845–1865,” S&A 33 (June 2012): 181–89.

4. David Lee Child, Oration in Honor of Universal Emancipation in the British Empire . . . (Boston, 1834); [Samuel Cornish], Address in Commemoration of the Great Jubilee on the 1st of August, 1834 (n.p., n.d.), 2–4; TL, August 17, 24, 1838; J. W. C. Pennington, An Address Delivered at Newark, NJ, at the First Anniversary of West India Emancipation . . . (Newark, 1839), 1, 3, 8; NE, August 17, 1836; Anti-Slavery Reporter, August 9, 1843, BAP; CA, July 15, 29, 1837; July 21, 28, August 11, 18, 1838; July 27, August 17, 24, 31, 1839; July 25, August 1, 15, 17, September 5, 1840; July 17, 24, 1841; NASS, August 5, September 2, 1841; June 23, 1842; Van Gosse, “‘As a Nation the English Are Our Friends’: The Emergence of African American Politics in the Atlantic World, 1772–1861,” AHR 113 (October 2008): 1003–28; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), 116–29; J. R. Kerr-Ritchie, Rites of August First: Emancipation Day in the Black Atlantic World (Baton Rouge, 2007); Mitch Kachun, Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations, 1808–1915 (Amherst, Mass., 2003), chap. 2.

5TL, November 15, 1834; June 30, 1843; August 8, 15, 1845; July 31, August 7, 21, 1846, July 30, August 13, 1847; August 25, September 1, 1848; July 13, August 17, 1849; August 9, 1850; August 15, 22, 29, 1851; August 6, 1852; August 12, 1853; August 4, 1854; August 10, 1855; August 8, 1856; August 7, 1857; August 6, 1858; August 5, 1859; John A. Collins, The Anti-Slavery Picknick . . . (Boston, 1842); Martha Schoolman, Abolitionist Geographies (Minneapolis, 2014), 69–74; W. Caleb McDaniel, “The Fourth and the First: Abolitionist Holidays, Respectability, and Radical Interracial Reform,” American Quarterly 57 (2005): 129–51.

6NS, May 28, 1848; April 29, June 29, August 31, 1849; June 13, 1850; FDP, August 26, 1853; August 11, 18, 25, 1854; J. W. C. Pennington, D.D., An Address Delivered at Hartford, Conn., on the First of August, 1856 (Hartford, 1856); Voice of the Fugitive, July 16, 1851; Weekly Anglo-African, July 30, August 6, 13, 20, 1859; Pine and Palm, August 17, 1861, BAP; Weekly Anglo-African, October 15, November 19, 1859; Kerr-Ritchie, Rites of August First, 129, 133–43, 154–63; John R. McKivigan and Jason H. Silverman, “Monarchical Liberty and Republican Slavery: West India Celebrations in Upstate New York and Canada West,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 10 (January 1986): 7–18.

7TL, July 31, August 28, November 13, 1840; February 26, March 6, May 21, June 4, 25, July 9, 30, September 10, 24, November 19, 1841; NASS, July 1, September 9, 1841; C. Peter Ripley ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 1, The British Isles, 1830–1865 (Chapel Hill, 1985), 65–103; [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life Told By His Children, vol. 2, 1835–1840 (1885; repr., New York, 1969), 416–17; Clare Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists: An Episode in Transatlantic Understanding (Edinburgh, Scotland, 1974), 31; Betty Fladeland, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation(Urbana, 1972), 276–77; Miriam L. Usrey, “Charles Lenox Remond, Garrison’s Ebony Echo: World Anti-Slavery Convention, 1840,” Essex Institute Historical Collection 106 (April 1970): 113–25; Quarles, Black Abolitionists, 129–42; Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, 75–80.

8. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:104–33, 155–60, 182–83; NASS, August 31, September 7, 1843; TL, October 11, 1844; Christopher L. Webber, American to the Backbone: The Life of James W. C. Pennington, the Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Black Abolitionists (New York, 2011), chaps. 12, 16; R. J. M. Blackett, Beating Against the Barriers: The Lives of Six Nineteenth-Century Afro-Americans (Ithaca, 1989), 27–30, 42–51; Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 292–93; Manisha Sinha, “James W. C. Pennington and Transatlantic Abolitionism,” Annual Report 2010–2011 of the Heidelberg Center for American Studies (Heidelberg, Germany, 2011), 165–66, 173; Mischa Honeck, “Liberating Sojourns? African American Travelers in Mid-Nineteenth Century Germany,” Paper in author’s possession, 4–12.

9. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:142–51, 469–73; CA, September 9, 1837; February 17, 1838; Margaret Hope Bacon, But One Race: The Life of Robert Purvis (Albany, 2007), 44–47; TL, January 2, 1846; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:181; John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews, vol. 1, 1841–46 (New Haven, 1979), 90–92, 139–43; A Narrative of the Life and Travels of Nancy Prince (Boston, 1850); David F. Dorr, A Coloured Man Round the World by a Quadroon (Cleveland, 1858).

10. Samuel Ringgold Ward, Autobiography of a Fugitive Slave: His Anti-Slavery Labours in the United States, Canada, and England (London, 1855), 12–13, 33–34, 43, 51, 139–50, 218–24, 303, 382–84; Impartial Citizen, February 28, 1849; Weekly Anglo-African, August 20, 1859; Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, 149–53, 173–74; Ronald K. Burke, Samuel Ringgold Ward: Christian Abolitionist (New York, 1995); Jeffrey R. Kerr-Ritchie, “Samuel Ward and the Making of an Imperial Subject,” S&A 33 (June 2012): 205–19.

11. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:349–54; Alexander Crummell, The Future of Africa . . . (1862; repr., New York, 1969), 327–54; Alexander Crummell, Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840–1898, Wilson Jeremiah Moses, ed. (Amherst, Mass., 1992), 158–64; Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Alexander Crummell: A Study in Civilization and Discontent (New York, 1989), 46–88.

12. Wilson Armistead, A Tribute to the Negro . . . (London, 1848); John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 50–51; Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, 155–61.

13. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:474; William Farmer, ed., Three Years in Europe . . . (Boston, 1852), 216–19, 246–49; Schoolman, Abolitionist Geographies, 109–14; Thomas C. Holt, The Problem of Freedom: Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832–1938 (Baltimore, 1992), 280–86; Edward Bartlett Rugemer, The Problem of Emancipation: The Caribbean Roots of the American Civil War (Baton Rouge, 2008), 263, 270–71; Ezra Greenspan, William Wells Brown: An African American Life (New York, 2014), 242.

14. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:259–67; L. A. Chamerovzow, ed., Slave Life in Georgia: A Narrative of the Life, Sufferings, and Escape of John Brown . . . (London, 1855), 35–38, 45–48, 54–61, 68, 88, 171; Audrey A. Fisch, American Slaves in Victorian England: Abolitionist Politics in Popular Literature and Culture (Cambridge, Eng., 2000), chap. 3.

15. William G. Allen, The American Prejudice Against Colour . . . (London, 1853); TL, May 21, 1846; December 20, 1850; October 29, 1852; July 22, 1853; May 5, 1854; FDP, April 29, June 10, August 13, October 22, November 5, 1852; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:367–78, 423–26; R. J. M. Blackett, “William G. Allen: The Forgotten Professor,” CWH 26 (March 1980): 39–52; Sarah Elbert, “An Inter-Racial Love Story in Fact and Fiction: William and Mary King Allen’s Marriage and Louisa May Alcott’s Tale, ‘M.L.’” History Workshop Journal 53 (Spring 2002): 17–42.

16TL, February 11, April 22, 1859; Sarah P. Remond, “The Negroes of the United States of America,” JNH 27 (April 1942): 216–18; Sibyl Ventress Brownlee, “Out of the Abundance of the Heart: Sarah Ann Parker Remond’s Quest for Freedom” (Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1997), chap. 4; Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1984), 175–80; Ruth Bogin, “Sarah Parker Remond: Black Abolitionist from Salem,” Essex Institute Historical Collection (April 1974): 120–50; Dorothy Porter, “Sarah Parker Remond, Abolitionist and Physician,” JNH 20 (July 1935): 287–93; Clare Midgley, Women Against Slavery: The British Campaigns, 1780–1870 (London, 1992), 143–45; Amanda Foreman, A World on Fire: Britain’s Crucial Role in the American Civil War (New York, 2010).

17TE, May 12, 1835; August 1, 1839; Theodore Sedgwick Jr., ed., A Collection of the Political Writings of William Leggett (New York, 1840), 1:28–40; Proceedings of the New England Anti Slavery Convention . . . 1834, 10; Proceedings of the Fourth New England Anti Slavery Convention, 45–46, 100; Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: From Jefferson to Lincoln (New York, 2005), 422–25; Philip S. Foner and Herbert Shapiro, eds., Northern Labor and Antislavery: A Documentary History (Westport, Conn., 1994), 120–25; Herbert Shapiro, “Labor and Antislavery: Reflections on the Literature,” Nature, Society, and Thought 2 (1989): 471–90; Paul Goodman, Of One Blood: Abolitionism and the Origins of Racial Equality (Berkeley, 1998), chaps. 11, 12; W. D. Wilson, A Discourse on Slavery . . . (Concord, N.H., 1839), 29–30; Bernard Mandel, Labor: Free and Slave Workingmen and the Antislavery Movement in the United States (New York, 1955), 61–95; Eric Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (New York, 1980), chap. 4.

18TE, April 1836; Proceedings of the Rhode Island Anti Slavery Convention, 24–25, 31–33, 36–38, 57; David Root, The Abolition Case Eventually Triumphant . . . (Andover, 1836), 18–20; Isaac Stearns, Right and Wrong in Mansfield, Massachusetts . . . (Pawtucket, Mass., 1837), 11–12, 24–25; Second Annual Report of the New Hampshire Anti Slavery Society, 6; Beriah Green, The Chattel Principle . . . (New York, 1839), 53; Jonathan Glickstein, “The Chattelization of Northern Whites: An Evolving Abolitionist Warning,” American Nineteenth-Century History 4 (2003): 25–58.

19TL, January 1, 1831; November 22, December 13, 20, 1834; January 3, 31, February 7, 1835; January 2, 9, 1836; June 16, 1837; May 11, 1838; May 15, June 9, 12, October 23, December 18, 1840; August 22, 1845; January 9, February 13, 1846; April 23, 1847; TE, July 2, October 1, 1840; October 7, November 18, 1841; John A. Collins to Garrison, December 7, 1840, William Lloyd Garrison Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; Foner and Shapiro, eds., Northern Labor and Antislavery, 2–6, 184–85, 236–41; William Lloyd Garrison, 1:435, 469–75; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:358; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 1, I Will be Heard! 1822–1835(Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 168; TASR, September 1835; September 1836; O. A. Brownson, The Laboring Classes . . . (Boston, 1840), 10; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 133–35; Annie Heloise Abel and Frank J. Klingberg, eds., A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 1839–1858: Furnished by the Correspondence of Lewis Tappan and Others with the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (Washington, 1927), 66–69; Alex Gourevitch, From Slavery to Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, Eng., 2015), 37, 41–46; Jonathan A. Glickstein, “‘Poverty Is Not Slavery’: American Abolitionists and the Competitive Labor Market,” in Lewis Perry and Michael Fellman, eds., Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists (Baton Rouge, 1979), 195–218.

20. William Lloyd Garrison, American Slavery . . . (London, 1846); TL, March 25, May 6, 1842; January 13, February 9, March 3, May 5, June 22, July 28, October 13, 1843; February 9, 1844; January 24, April 4, August 22, 1845; September 4, 25, October 2, 16, November 13, 1846; TP, July 2, October 29, 1839; NASS, July 31, 1845; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:159–73; Louis Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison: A House Dividing Against Itself, vol. 2, 1836–1840 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 707–31; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 3, No Union with Slaveholders, 1841–1849 (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), 344–45, 368, 372–73, 377–79, 393–95, 455–59; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 151, 160, 183, 185–86, 188, 225–26, 275–76, 278, 284–87, 289–92, 296, 308; Betty Fladeland, “‘Our Cause Being One and the Same’: Abolitionists and Chartism,” in James Walvin, ed., Slavery and British Society, 1776–1846 (Baton Rouge, 1982), 69–99; Fladeland, Abolitionists and Working-Class Problems in the Age of Industrialization (Baton Rouge, 1984); Gareth Stedman Jones, Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History, 1832–1982 (Cambridge, Eng., 1983), 90–178; R. K. Webb, Harriet Martineau: A Radical Victorian (New York, 1960); Alex Tyrell, Joseph Sturge and the Moral Radical Party in Early Victorian Britain (London, 1987); Douglas B. A. Ansdell, “William Lloyd Garrison’s Ambivalent Approach to Labour Reform,” Journal of American Studies 24 (December 1990): 402–7; McDaniel, The Problem of Democracy, 143–58.

21. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:252–54, 379–82; William S. McFeely, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1991), 104–8, 138–41; Sarah P. Remond, “The Negroes of the United States of America,” JNH 27 (April 1942): 217–18; Samuel Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor: An Autobiography (New York, 1925), 1:20–21; Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, 14–25; Seymour Drescher, Capitalism and Antislavery: British Mobilization in Comparative Perspective (New York, 1986).

22. Jonathan H. Earle, Jacksonian Antislavery and the Politics of Free Soil, 1824–1854 (Chapel Hill, 2004), chap. 1; Foner and Shapiro, eds., Northern Labor and Antislavery, 7–10, 91–98; James L. Huston, “Abolitionists, Political Economists, and Capitalism,” JER 20 (2000): 487–521; The Democracy of Christianity . . . , vol. 1 (New York, 1849); Goodman, Of One Blood, chap. 7; Jonathan Glickstein, “The Specter of White Chattelization: William Goodell’s Abolitionist Thought,” in Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, eds., The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2007), 174–82; Sean Wilentz, Chants Democratic: New York City and the Rise of the American Working Class, 1788–1850 (New York, 1984), 335–43; Jeffrey J. Pilz, The Life, Work and Times of George Henry Evans, Newspaperman, Activist and Reformer 1829–1849 (New York, 2001); TL, October 1, 1847; February 16, 1849; Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War, 69–73, 150–52; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 136–39; Henry George to Sarah Mifflin Gay, November 4, November 11, 1880, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU.

23. Foner and Shapiro, eds., Northern Labor and Antislavery, 19–22, 127–30; Abel and Klingberg, eds., A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 219–20; Lawrence B. Goodheart, Abolitionist, Actuary, Atheist: Elizur Wright and the Reform Impulse (Kent, Ohio, 1990), chap. 9; Bruce Laurie, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform(Cambridge, Eng., 2005), 67–71; Adam Tuchinsky, Horace Greeley’s New-York Tribune: Civil War–Era Socialism and the Crisis of Free Labor (Ithaca, 2009); Mitchell Snay, Horace Greeley and the Politics of Reform in Nineteenth-Century America (Lanham, Md., 2011), chap. 4; Wilentz, Chants Democratic, 382–84, 387; Paul Goodman, “The Emergence of the Homestead Exemption in the United States: Accommodation and Resistance to the Market Revolution, 1840–1880,” JAH 80 (September 1993): 482–87; Mark A. Lause, Young America: Land, Labor and the Republican Community (Urbana, 2005), chap. 7; Lawrence Goldmand, “Republicanism, Radicalism and Sectionalism: Land Reform and the Languages of American Working Men, 1820–1860,” in Rebecca Starr, ed., Articulating America: Fashioning a National Political Culture in Early America (Lanham, Md., 2000), 177–236; Jamie Bronstein, Land Reform and Working-Class Experience in Britain and the United States, 1800–1862 (Stanford, Calif., 1999).

24. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:145, 184–85, 240–41, 267; TL, September 1, 1843; January 5, 1844; August 28, 1846, p. 139; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 137; Abby Kelley Foster to Gay, December 14, 1846, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Albert Brisbane, Social Destiny of Man: or Association and Reorganization of Industry(Philadelphia, 1840); Lewis Perry, Radical Abolitionism: Anarchy and Government of God in Antislavery Thought (Ithaca, 1973), chap. 5; Carl J. Guarneri, The Utopian Alternative: Fourierism in Nineteenth-Century America (Ithaca, 1991); John L. Thomas, “Antislavery and Utopia,” in Martin Duberman, ed., The Antislavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists (Princeton, 1965), 249–69.

25TL, July 28, 1843; February 15, 1856; Giles B. Stebbins, Upward Steps of Seventy Years . . . (New York, 1890), 51–62; Adin Ballou, Practical Christian Socialism . . . (Hopedale, Mass., 1854); John Humphrey Noyes, History of American Socialisms (1870; repr., New York, 1961); Walter M. Merrill, Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), 216–17; Spencer Klaw, Without Sin: The Life and Death of the Oneida Community (New York, 1993); Anne C. Rose, Transcendentalism as a Social Movement, 1830–1850 (New Haven, 1981); Christopher Clark, The Communitarian Moment: The Radical Challenge of the Northampton Association (Ithaca, 1995), 57–74, 88–134; Arthur E. Bestor, “Fourierism at Northampton: A Critical Note,” NEQ 13 (March 1940): 110–22; Wendy E. Chmielewski, “Sojourner Truth: Utopian Visions and Search for Community, 1797–1883,” in Chmielewski, Louis J. Kern, and Marlyn Klee-Hartzwell, eds., Women in Spiritual and Communitarian Societies in the United States (Syracuse, 1993); Guarneri, The Utopian Alternative, 322–26, 354–67.

26CA, January 27, March 2, August 18, December 15, 1838; On Seneca village, see http://projects.ilt.columbia.edu/seneca/start.html and http://www.centralparknyc.org/visit/things-to-see/great-lawn/seneca-village-site.html; Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar, The Park and the People: A History of Central Park (Ithaca, 1992), 65–73; Judith Wellman, Brooklyn’s Promised Land: The Free Black Community of Weeksville, New York (New York, 2014); Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua, America’s First Black Town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830–1915 (Urbana, 2000); Juliet E. K. Walker, Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier (Lexington, Ky., 1983); Stephen A. Vincent, Southern Seed, Northern Soil: African-American Farm Communities in the Midwest, 1765–1900 (Bloomington, 1999); William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, Black Utopia: Negro Communal Experiments in America (Madison, 1963), 26–27, 39–45; On Carthagena, see http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=676.

27Governor Hammond’s Letters on Southern Slavery . . . (Charleston, S.C., 1845), 10–11, 16–19; TL, June 14, 1850; April 9, 1858; Foner and Shapiro, eds., Northern Labor and Antislavery, 152–60; Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1967), 243–47; Stacey M. Robertson, Parker Pillsbury: Radical Abolitionist, Male Feminist (Ithaca, 2000), 11–24; The War a Rebellion of Capital Against Labor . . . (n.p., 1864), 1–2; Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 379; David Montgomery, Beyond Equality: Labor and the Radical Republicans, 1862–72 (New York, 1967), 114–26; David Roediger, “Ira Steward and the Anti-Slavery Origins of American Eight-Hour Theory,” Labor History 27 (June 1986): 410–26.

28TL, December 4, 1846; March 26, June 4, 11, 1847; April 7, 28, 1848; May 17, 1850; William Lloyd Garrison, 2:280–300; Wilentz, Chants Democratic, 327–35; Tyler Anbinder, “Isaiah Rynders and the Ironies of Popular Democracy in Antebellum New York,” in Manisha Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, eds., Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race and Power in American History(New York, 2007), chap. 2.

29TL, December 13, 20, 1834; January 3, February 7, 1835; TE, July 11, December 26, 1839; June 18, 1840; TASR, September 1835; Jonathan Walker, A Brief View of American Chattelized Humanity . . . (Boston, 1846), 29–30; Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York, 1995), 75–79; David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (New York, 1991).

30TL, September 10, October 8, 1840; February 18, March 3, 1841; March 11, 25, April 22, May 13, September 2, 1842; April 14, 28, May 13, June 30, July 7, 14, 21, 28, August 25, September 8, October 6, November 17, December 8, 1843; January 26, July 12, 1844; February 28, May 8, September 12, 26, 1845; February 5, 12, July 2, 1846; July 2, 1847; August 10, 24, September 7, 14, 28, October 5, 1849; May 24, 1850; May 9, 1856; NASS, April 21, June 2, August 11, 25, November 3, 1842; July 5, November 16, 1843; January 4, 1844; May 8, 1845; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:229–33; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 168–72, 174; Daniel O’Connell upon American Slavery . . . (New York, 1860); Gilbert Osofsky, “Abolitionists, Irish Immigrants, and the Dilemma of Romantic Nationalism,” AHR 80 (October 1975): 889–912; Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White, 1–31; Angela F. Murphy, American Slavery, Irish Freedom: Abolition, Immigrant Citizenship, and the Transatlantic Movement for Irish Repeal (Baton Rouge, 2010); W. Caleb McDaniel, “Repealing Unions: American Abolitionists, Irish Repeal, and the Origins of Garrisonian Disunionism,” JER 28 (Summer 2008): 243–69; John F. Quinn, “The Rise and Fall of Repeal: Slavery and Irish Nationalism in Philadelphia,” PMHB 130 (January 2006): 45–78; Quinn, “Expecting the Impossible? Abolitionist Appeals to the Irish in Antebellum America,” NEQ 82 (December 2009): 667–710; Quinn, Father Mathew’s Crusade: Temperance in Nineteenth-Century Ireland and Irish America (Amherst, Mass., 2002), 160–64.

31TL, February 3, March 17, May 19, 1854; September 18, 1857; December 10, 1858; Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White, 68–70; Bryan P. McGovern, John Mitchel: Irish Nationalist, Southern Secessionist (Knoxville, 2009); Iver Bernstein, The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War (New York, 1990); Leslie Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1629–1863 (Chicago, 2001), 279–86; Kevin McGruder, ‘A Fair and Open Field’: The Responses of Black New Yorkers to the Draft Riots,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 37 (July 2013): 7–40; Kevin Kenny, “Diaspora and Comparison: The Global Irish as a Case Study,” JAH 90 (June 2003): 155–59; Montgomery, Beyond Equality, 126–34; Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War, chap. 8; Edward T. O’Donnell, Henry George and the Crisis of Inequality: Progress and Poverty in the Gilded Age (New York, 2015), chap. 4.

32Proceedings of the New England Anti Slavery Convention . . . 1834, 11–12; First Annual Report of the New Hampshire Anti Slavery Society . . . (Concord, N.H., 1835), 34–35; Weekly Advocate, January 21, 1837; CA, August 17, October 12, 1839; April 25, 1840; TL, August 9, 1839; January 30, 1846; July 2, 1858; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 294, 316; James W. Trent Jr., The Manliest Man: Samuel G. Howe and the Contours of Nineteenth-Century American Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2012).

33TL, April 14, 21, 1848; Clare Taylor, Women of the Anti-Slavery Movement: The Weston Sisters (New York, 1995), chap. 5; Lawrence C. Jennings, French Anti-Slavery: The Movement for the Abolition of Slavery in France, 1802–1848 (Cambridge, Eng., 2000); Marcel Dorigny, ed., The Abolitions of Slavery from Léger Félicité Sonthonax to Victor Schoelcher, 1793, 1794, 1848(Paris, 2003), 305–17; Timothy Mason Roberts, Distant Revolutions: 1848 and the Challenge to American Exceptionalism (Charlottesville, Va., 2009); Martin Duberman, James Russell Lowell (Boston, 1966); Adam-Max Tuchinsky, “‘The Bourgeoisie Will Fall and Fall Forever’: The New York Tribune, the 1848 French Revolution, and American Social Democratic Discourse,” JAH 92 (September 2005): 498–526; Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution, 1789–1848 (New York, 1962).

34. David Brion Davis, Revolutions: Reflections on American Equality and Foreign Liberations (Cambridge, Mass., 1990); Charles M. Wiltse, “A Critical Southerner: John C. Calhoun on the Revolutions of 1848,” JSH 15 (August 1949): 299–310; Richard C. Rohrs, “American Critics of the French Revolution of 1848,” JER 14 (Autumn 1994): 359–77; Timothy M. Roberts, “‘Revolutions Have become the Bloody Toy of the Multitude’: European Revolutions, the South, and the Crisis of 1850,” JER 25 (2005): 259–83; Thomas, “Antislavery and Utopia,” 240–49; Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill, 2000), 91, 224–27.

35TL, October 31, November 7, December 20, 1851; January 2, 9, 16, 23, February 20, 27, March 5, 12, 19, May 7, 14, 1852; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 416–18, 441; [William Lloyd Garrison], Letter to Louis Kossuth . . . (Boston, 1852), 4–8, 52, 76; Letters on American Slavery . . . (Boston, 1860); Enrico Dal Lago, William Lloyd Garrison and Giuseppe Mazzini: Abolition, Democracy, and Radical Reform (Baton Rouge, 2013); Mischa Honeck, We Are the Revolutionists: German-Speaking Immigrants and American Abolitionists After 1848 (Athens, Ga., 2011), 26; Michael A. Morrison, “American Reaction to European Revolutions, 1848–1852: Sectionalism, Memory, and the Revolutionary Heritage,” CWH 49 (June 2003): 111–32.

36NE, August 5, October 23, November 6, 13, 20, December 4, 11, 18, 25, 1851; January 29, February 26, July 1, September 9, 1852; FDP, November 6, 13, 20, 27, December 11, 18, 25, 1851; January 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, February 12, 25, 26, March 11, 22, 25, April 1, 8, June 3, 10, October 22, 1852; Mitch Kachun, “‘Our Platform Is as Broad as Humanity’: Transatlantic Freedom Movements and the Idea of Progress in Nineteenth-Century African American Thought and Activism,” S&A 24 (December 2003): 1–23; Erica L. Ball, To Live an Antislavery Life: Personal Politics and the Antebellum Black Middle Class (Athens, Ga, 2012), 117–24.

37TL, April 8, 22, 1859; NE, November 9, 23, 1854; April 5, June 7, September 20, October 11, 25, November 8, 29, December 13, 20, 27, 1855; Honeck, We Are the Revolutionists, 34, esp. 141–47; Mischa Honeck, “An Unexpected Alliance: August Willich, Peter H. Clark and the Abolitionist Movement in Cincinnati,” in Larry A. Greene and Anke Ortlepp, eds., Germans and African Americans: Two Centuries of Exchange (Jackson, Miss., 2011), 17–36; Bruce Levine, The Spirit of 1848: German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War (Urbana, 1992); Alison Clark Efford, German Immigrants, Race, and Citizenship in the Civil War Era (Cambridge, Eng., 2013).

38TL, May 18, 1849; Honeck, “An Unexpected Alliance,” 27, 30; Timothy Messer-Kruse, The Yankee International, 1846–1876: Marxism and the American Reform Tradition (Chapel Hill, 1998), esp. chap. 1; Nikki M. Taylor, America’s First Black Socialist: The Radical Life of Peter H. Clark (Lexington, Ky., 2013); Karl Marx, Dispatches for the New York Tribune: Selected Journalism of Karl Marx, James Ledbetter, ed. (New York, 2007); Tuchinsky, Horace Greeley’s New-York Tribune, 104–7; Robin Blackburn, Marx and Lincoln: An Unfinished Revolution (London, 2011), introduction, 177–78; Nick Salvatore, Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist (Urbana, 1982); Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital, 1848–1875 (New York, 1975).

39. John Townsend, The Doom of Slavery in the Union . . . (Charleston, S.C., 1860), 24; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 144, 176, 219–20; Robert E. May, The Southern Dream of a Caribbean Empire, 1845–1861 (Baton Rouge, 1973); Walter Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (Cambridge, Mass., 2013); Fladeland, Men and Brothers, chap. 16.

40. R. R. Gurley, Mission in England . . . (Washington, 1841), 17, 62–65, 84–85, 140, 190; ARCJ, October 1837; March 15, 1840; April 15, 1841; November 1845; CA, February 27, 1841; Thomas Fowell Buxton, The African Slave Trade and its Remedy (London, 1840); Report of the Committee of the African Civilization Society . . . (London, 1842); Colonization . . . (Baltimore, 1851); Joseph Tracy, Colonization and Missions . . . (Boston, 1846), 12–21, 38–40; Address of the Honorable Edward Everett . . . (n.p., n.d.), 4–7; Howard Temperley, White Dreams, Black Africa: The Antislavery Expedition to the River Niger, 1841–1842 (New Haven, 1991), 1–15, 33–36, 55–58.

41. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:349–54; Alexander Crummell, B.A., The Future of Africa . . . (1862; repr., New York, 1969), 89–90, 148, 216, 327–54; Crummell, Destiny and Race, 158–64, 269–88; Remond, “The Negroes of the United States of America,” 218; Moses, Alexander Crummell, 46–88; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1977), 114.

42. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:225–27, 232–33; NS, March 2, June 22, July 6, 27, August 31, September 7, 1849; October 31, 1850; TL, August 10, 1849; NASS, March 10, 1855; Schor, Henry Highland Garnet, chap. 6; Ofari, Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 66–69, 72–75, 155–60; Martin B. Pasternak, Rise Now and Fly to Arms: The Life of Henry Highland Garnet(New York, 1995), 73–76; Burke, Samuel Ringgold Ward; Sven Beckert, “Emancipation and Empire: Reconstructing the Worldwide Web of Cotton Production in the Age of the American Civil War,” AHR 109 (December 2004): 1405–38.

43. J. W. C. Pennington to Phelps, February 2, 1846, Amos Phelps Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; Webber, American to the Backbone, 232–37; Clara Merritt DeBoer, Be Jubilant My Feet: African American Abolitionists in the American Missionary Association, 1839–1861 (New York, 1994), 191–93; Gale L. Kenny, Contentious Liberties: American Abolitionists in Post-Emancipation Jamaica, 1834–1866 (Athens, Ga., 2010); Rugemer, The Problem of Emancipation, 282, 291–301

44TL, August 9, 1839; February 16, March 6, 20, April 3, August 7, 28, 1840; January 28, 1841; January 20, March 3, December 29, 1843; May 23, 1845; June 13, 1851; NASS, July 1, October 21, December 1, 1841; December 1, 1842; Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 68–70, 72, 77–79, 81–82, 86–87, 102, 108, 112, 126, 165, 184, 225, 230–31, 233, 239, 254; Abel and Klingberg, eds., A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 62, 66; Stebbins, Upward Steps of Seventy Years, 58, 100–101; Elizabeth Kelly Gray, “‘Whisper to Him the Word India’: Trans-Atlantic Critics and American Slavery, 1830–1860,” JER 27 (Fall 2008): 379–91; Howard Temperley, “The Delegalization of Slavery in British India,” in After Slavery: Emancipation and Its Discontents (London, 2000), 169–87.

45TL, September 25, October 2, November 6, 1857; Gray, “Whisper to Him the Word India,” 379–91; Rajmohun Gandhi, A Tale of Two Revolts: India’s 1857 and the American Civil War (New Delhi, 2009); Shlomo Avineri, Karl Marx on Colonialism and Modernization (Garden City, N.J., 1968); V. I. Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism: A Popular Outline (1917: rev. ed. Moscow, 1934).

46Proceedings of the First General Peace Convention . . . (London, 1843), 23–24, 33–34; Report of the Proceedings of the Second General Peace Congress . . . (London, 1849); Ofari, Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 58–61; Rufus W. Clark, An Address Delivered Before the American Peace Society . . . (Boston, 1851), 38; Chas. Nothend, ed., Elihu Burritt . . . (New York, 1879); Valerie Ziegler, The Advocates of Peace in Antebellum America (Bloomington, 1992); Merle E. Curti, The American Peace Crusade, 1815–1860 (Durham, 1929); Peter Brock, Radical Pacifists in Antebellum America (Princeton, 1968); George Fredrickson, The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (New York, 1968).

47. Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists, 67; Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, “The End of Slavery and the End of Empire: Slave Emancipation in Cuba and Puerto Rico” and Charles Swaisland, “The Aborigines Protection Society, 1837–1909,” in Temperley, ed., After Slavery, 188–205, 265–80; McDaniel, The Problem of Democracy, 269; Cecilia Azevedo, Abolitionism in the United States and Brazil: A Comparative Perspective (New York, 1995); Seymour Drescher, “From Empires of Slavery to Empires of Antislavery,” in Josep M. Fradera and Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, eds., Slavery and Antislavery in Spain’s Atlantic Empire (New York, 2013): 291–316.

48TL, January 1, October 8, 1831; February 28, 1835; August 31, 1838; TE, September 19, 1839; Wright, The Sin of Slavery, 4, 36–35; [Garrison], The Maryland Scheme of Expatriation, 18; Linda K. Kerber, “The Abolitionist Perception of the Indian,” JAH 62 (September 1975): 271–95; Bruce Cutler, The Massacre at Sand Creek: Narrative Voices(Norman, Okla., 1995); Ari Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre: Struggling over the Memory of Sand Creek (Cambridge, Mass., 2013), chap. 1; Barbara Krauthamer, Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation and Citizenship in the Native American South (Chapel Hill, 2015); Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, chap. 6; John H. Bracey Jr. and Manisha Sinha, eds., African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty-First Century, Volume One—To 1877 (Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2004), 387–92.

49. [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life Told By His Children, vol. 4, 1861–1879 (London, 1889): 296–300; Timothy Messer-Kruse, “Eight Hours, Greenbacks, and ‘Chinamen’: Wendell Phillips, Ira Steward and the Fate of Labor Reform in Massachusetts,” Labor History42 (May 2001): 133–58; Gwendolyn Mink, Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party and State, 1875–1920 (Ithaca, 1986); cf. Moon Ho-Jung, Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation (Baltimore, 2006); Stacey L. Smith, Freedom’s Frontier: California and the Struggle over Unfree Labor, Emancipation, and Reconstruction (Chapel Hill, 2013), esp. chap. 7.

50TL, November 17, 1843; February 23, 1844; January 2, 1846; see “Abolition of Capital Punishment” petitions, D. Carpenter, N. Topich, and G. Griffin, Digital Archive of Massachusetts Anti-Slavery and Anti-Segregation Petitions, Massachusetts Archives, Boston, Harvard Dataverse; Louis Masur, Rites of Execution: Capital Punishment and the Transformation of American Culture, 1776–1865 (New York, 1989), 117–21, 160–61; Jeannine Marie DeLombard, In the Shadow of the Gallows: Race, Crime, and American Civic Identity (Philadelphia, 2012), 249–51.

CHAPTER TWELVE. SLAVE RESISTANCE

1Walker’s Appeal, With a Brief Sketch of His Life By Henry Highland Garnet and also Garnet’s Address to the Slaves of the United States of America (1848; repr., New York, 1969); James Oakes, “The Political Significance of Slave Resistance,” in Patrick Rael, ed., African-American Activism Before the Civil War (New York, 2008), 188–205.

2. Merton L. Dillon, Slavery Attacked: Southern Slaves and Their Allies, 1619–1865 (Baton Rouge, 1990); Henrietta Buckmaster, Let My People Go: The Story of the Underground Railroad and the Growth of the Abolition Movement (New York, 1941); Jeanine DeLombard, Slavery on Trial: Law, Abolitionism and Print Culture (Chapel Hill, 2007); François Furstenberg, “Beyond Freedom and Slavery: Autonomy, Virtue, and Resistance in Early American Political Discourse,” JAH 89 (March 2003): 1295–1330.

3. Marion Gleason McDougall, Fugitive Slaves (New York, 1891); Jane G. Landers, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions (Cambridge, Mass., 2010); Sarah E. Cornell, “Citizens of Nowhere: Fugitive Slaves and Free African Americans in Mexico, 1833–1857,” JAH 100 (September 2013): 351–74; Fergus M. Bordewich, Bound for Canaan: The Epic Story of the Underground Railroad, America’s First Civil Rights Movement (New York, 2005); Charles L. Blockson, The Underground Railroad (Baltimore, 1994).

4. Carol Wilson, Freedom at Risk: The Kidnapping of Free Blacks in America, 1780–1865 (Lexington, Ky., 1994); Thomas D. Morris, Free Men All: The Personal Liberty Laws of the North, 1780–1861 (Baltimore, 1974), chap. 3; Paul Finkelman, An Imperfect Union: Slavery, Federalism and Comity (Chapel Hill, 1981); Steven Hahn, The Political Worlds of Slavery and Freedom(Cambridge, Mass., 2009), 29–44.

5. Stanley Harrold, Border War: Fighting Over Slavery Before the Civil War (Chapel Hill, 2010), 40; John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger, Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation (New York, 1999), 283–86; Sylviane A. Diouf, Slavery’s Exiles: The Story of the American Maroons (New York, 2014); Sean Kelley, “‘Mexico in His Head’: Slavery and the Texas–Mexico Border, 1810–1860,” Journal of Social History 37 (Spring 2004): 718; R. J. M. Blackett, Making Freedom: The Underground Railroad and the Politics of Slavery (Chapel Hill, 2013).

6NASS, July 2, November 2, 26, December 31, 1840; January 11, March 4, April 29, May 13, 27, July 22, August 5, October 14, 28, November 25, December 16, 1841; January 20, March 24, October 20, 1843; July 13, November 9, 1844; L. Maria Child, Isaac T. Hopper . . . (Boston, 1853): 47, 70–73, 77–80, 208–9; Isaac T. Hopper, Narrative of the Life of Thomas Cooper (New York, 1832); Daniel Meaders, “Kidnapping Blacks in Philadelphia: Isaac Hopper’s Tales of Oppression,” JNH 80 (Spring 1995): 47–65; Meaders, Kidnappers in Philadelphia: Isaac Hopper’s Tales of Oppression 1780–1843 (New York, 1994).

7Reminiscences of Levi Coffin . . . , 3d ed. (Cincinnati, 1898); Ann Hagedorn, Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad (New York, 2002); Larry Gara, The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad (Lexington, Ky., 1961), 94–96; David W. Blight, ed., Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory(Washington, 2004).

8. Peter P. Hinks, “‘Frequently Plunged into Slavery’: Free Blacks and Kidnapping in Antebellum Boston,” Historical Journal of Massachusetts (Winter 1992): 16–31; Lawrence B. Goodheart, “‘The Chronicles of Kidnapping in New York’: Resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law, 1834–1835,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 8 (January 1984): 7–15; “Proceeding of a Meeting of the New York Committee of Vigilance . . . November, 1836,” and “Second Annual Report of the New York Committee of Vigilance, 1838,” BAP; First Annual Report of the Committee of Vigilance . . . (New York, 1837), 3–4, 8–14, 31–32, 73, 81–83; The Mirror of Liberty, August 1838; January 1839; David Ruggles, A Plea for “A Man and a Brother” (New York, 1839), 11–16; CA, October 20, November 3, 1838; January 26, February 23, March 9, July 27, August 31, September 7, 14, 1839; September 5, 1840; NASS, June 25, August 13, 20, October 15, 1840; March 25, May 6, September 9, 1841; May 26, 1842; May 11, 1843; February 10, 1848; TL, June 19, 1840; August 6, 20, November 3, September 9, 1841; August 31, September 13, 1844; December 21, 1849; Graham Russell Gao Hodges, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City (Chapel Hill, 2010), chaps. 3–5; Dorothy B. Porter, “David Ruggles, an Apostle of Human Rights,” JNH 28 (January 1943): 23–50.

9TL, August 6, October 15, 22, 1836; September 12, 19, October 3, 1845; November 20, 1846; Thomas Aves, Case of the Slave-Child, Med . . . (Boston, 1836), 4, 13–16, 21–31; Nina Moore Tiffany, Samuel E. Sewall: A Memoir (New York, 1898), 58–69; Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 3, No Union with Slaveholders, 1841–1849 (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), 320–21; Leonard W. Levy, “The ‘Abolition Riot’: Boston’s First Slave Rescue,” NEQ 25 (1952): 85–92; Edlie L. Wong, Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel (New York, 2009), 81–104.

10CA, May 30, 1840; April 17, May 15, 1841; Luther Rawson Marsh, ed., Writings and Speeches of Alvan Stewart on Slavery (New York, 1860), 94, 219–33, 377–88; Glyndon G. Van Deusen, William Henry Seward (New York, 1967), 64–67; Daniel R. Ernst, “Legal Positivism, Abolitionist Litigation and the New Jersey Slave Case of 1845,” Law and History Review 4 (Autumn 1986): 337–65; Frederick Blue, No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics (Baton Rouge, 2005), chap. 2.

11. Jacob C. White Sr., “Minute Book of the Vigilant Committee of Philadelphia,” Elizabeth White and Sarah McCrummill, “Preamble, 5 July, 1838,” “At a Meeting of the Vigilant Committee . . . 20 June 1839,” “Robert Purvis to J. Miller McKim, October 31, 1844,” BAP; CA, August 18, 1838; William Still, The Underground Railroad . . .(Philadelphia, 1872), 508, 525–28; Robert C. Smedley, History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania (Lancaster, Pa., 1883), 355–61; Margaret Hope Bacon, But One Race: The Life of Robert Purvis (Albany, 2007), 75–82, 117–21; Joseph Borome, “The Vigilant Committee of Philadelphia,” PMHB 92 (1968): 320–51; Richard S. Newman, “‘Lucky to be Born in Pennsylvania’: Free Soil, Fugitive Slaves, and the Making of Pennsylvania’s Anti-Slavery Borderland,” S&A 32 (September 2011): 413–30.

12. C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:397–402; C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 2, Canada, 1830–1865 (Chapel Hill, 1986), 2:26–30; Katharine Du Pre Lumpkin, “‘The General Plan Was Freedom’: A Negro Secret Order on the Underground Railroad,” Phylon 28 (Spring 1967): 63–77; Keith P. Griffler, Frontline of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio River (Lexington, Ky., 2004), 90–93; Carol M. Hunter, To Set the Captive Free: Reverend Jermain Wesley Loguen and the Struggle for Freedom in Central New York, 1835–1872 (New York, 1993).

13. William Birney, James G. Birney and His Times . . . (New York, 1890), 260–66; Speech of Salmon P. Chase in the Case of the Colored Woman, Matilda . . . (Cincinnati, 1837), 7, 10–12, 19–27, 30–35; Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1831–1857 (Gloucester, Mass., 1966), 1:379; The Address and Reply on the Presentation of a Testimonial to S. P. Chase by the Colored People of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, 1845), 11, 27, 35; Betty Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney: Slaveholder to Abolitionist (Ithaca, 1955), 149–54; Stephen Middleton, Ohio and the Antislavery Activities of the Attorney Salmon Portland Chase, 1830–1849 (New York, 1990), 50–73, 92–113; Hagedorn, Beyond the River, 124–28, 140–93, 226–30; Hans Louis Trefousse, Benjamin Franklin Wade: Radical Republican from Ohio (New York, 1963), 32–38; Harrold, Border War, 79–93; Matthew Salafia, “Searching for Slavery: Fugitive Slaves in the Ohio River Valley Borderland, 1830–1860,” Ohio Valley History 8 (Winter 2008): 38–63.

14TL, March 11, April 22, May 13, 1842; NASS, April 21, 1842; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:380–84; S. P. Chase, An Argument for the Defendant . . . (Cincinnati, 1847), 6–9; Salmon P. Chase to Gay, April 28, 1847, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Diary and Correspondence of Salmon P. Chase (New York, 1971), 113–15; Paul Finkelman, “Prigg v. Pennsylvaniaand Northern State Courts: Anti-Slavery Use of a Pro-Slavery Decision,” CWH 25 (March 1979): 5–35; Robert M. Cover, Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process (New Haven, 1975), 166–74, 232–49; R. Kent Newmyer, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story: Statesman of the Old Republic (Chapel Hill, 1985), 370–78; H. Robert Baker, Prigg v. Pennsylvania: Slavery, the Supreme Court and the Ambivalent Constitution (Lawrence, Kan., 2012).

15TL, October 28, November 4, 11, 18, 25, December 9, 16, 23, 1842; January 13, February 3, March 24, April 7, May 12, 1843; November 26, 1847; The Latimer Journal and North Star, November 11, 1842; May 10, 1843; NASS, November 17, 24, December 8, 15, 1842; Austin G. Elbridge, Statement of the Facts Connected with the Arrest and Emancipation of George Latimer(Boston, 1842); Asa Davis, “The Two Autobiographical Fragments of George W. Latimer,” Journal of Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Magazine 1 (Summer 1980); Vincent Y. Bowditch, Life and Correspondence of Henry Ingersoll Bowditch, 2 vols. (Boston, 1902), 1: chaps. 7–9; Tiffany, Samuel E. Sewall, 69–70; Book 8, Boston Vigilance Committee Records, 1846–47, Boston Anti-Man Hunting League Papers, MHS; Address of the Committee Appointed by a Public Meeting . . . (Boston, 1846); James W. Trent Jr., The Manliest Man: Samuel G. Howe and the Contours of Nineteenth-Century Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2012), 157–59; Bruce Laurie, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform (Cambridge, Eng., 2005), 78–79, 116–19.

16. Stanley Harrold, The Abolitionists and the South (Lexington, Ky., 1995), chap. 4.

17NASS, November 25, December 2, 1841; William Beardsley et al., Narrative of Facts Respecting Alanson Work, Jas E. Burr and Geo. Thompson . . . (Quincy, Ill., 1842); George Thompson, Prison Life and Reflections . . . (Oberlin, 1847), 21, 62, 114, 170, 417; Harrold, Border War, 50–51; Joseph Yanielli, “George Thompson among the Africans: Empathy, Authority and Insanity in the Age of Abolition,” JAH 96 (March 2010): 982–88; Benjamin G. Merkel, “The Underground Railroad and the Missouri Borders, 1840–1860,” Missouri Historical Review 37 (April 1943): 271–85; Terrell Dempsey, Searching for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemens’s World (Columbia, Mo., 2003), chaps. 15, 16; Carol Pirtle, Escape Betwixt Two Suns: A True Tale of the Underground Railroad in Illinois (Carbondale, 2000).

18TL, April 19, May 17, June 21, August 16, 31, September 6, December 6, 13, 1844; January 3, August 8, 15, 1845; January 23, February 20, March 20, July 24, 1846; February 12, March 5, April 9, August 20, October 15, 1847; February 11, March 31, May 26, 1848; November 30, 1849; March 29, 1850; May 19, 1854; NASS, October 3, 1844; February 27, July 17, 24, August 7, 1845; Henry Ingersoll Bowditch to Sydney Howard Gay, November 11, 1845, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Jonathan Walker, Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker . . . (Boston, 1845), 9, 11, 24–33, 44–51, 74–93, 105–6; Jonathan Walker, A Brief View of American Chattelized Humanity, and Its Supports(Boston, 1846), 3–4; Thirteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By its Board of Managers, January 22, 1845 . . . , 23–25, 39–40, and Fourteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By its Board of Managers, January 28, 1846 . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 51–52; Frank Edward Kittredge, The Man with the Branded Hand: An Authentic Sketch of the Life and Services of Capt. Jonathan Walker (Rochester, 1899); Matthew J. Clavin, Aiming for Pensacola: Fugitive Slaves on the Atlantic and Southern Frontiers (Cambridge, Mass., 2015).

19TL, January 21, 1842; August 9, 22, 31, September 6, 13, December 13, 20, 27, 1844; January 2, December 5, 1845; January 9, February 27, March 6, April 3, May 8, 15, July 3, 1846; NASS, October 3, November 28, 1844; Memoir of Rev. Abel Brown by his Companion C. S. Brown (Worcester, 1849), 100–128, 138–41, 150–52, 190–205, 212, 226–27; Torrey to Phelps, July 24, November 4, 1844, Phelps to Torrey, December 10, 1844, Amos A. Phelps Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; J. C. Lovejoy, ed., Memoir of Reverend Charles T. Torrey . . . (Boston, 1847), 89–99, 126–214, 282–308, 322–24; A Narrative of Thomas Smallwood . . . (Boston, 1851), 13–43; Diary and Correspondence of Salmon P. Chase, 107–8; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:338; Stanley Harrold, Subversives: Antislavery Community in Washington DC, 1828–1865 (Baton Rouge, 2003), 52–53, 64–93; Harrold, “On the Borders of Slavery and Race: Charles T. Torrey and the Underground Railroad,” JER 20 (Summer 2000): 273–92; James L. Huston, “The Experiential Basis of the Northern Antislavery Impulse,” JSH 56 (November 1990): 609–40; E. Fuller Torrey, The Martyrdom of Abolitionist Charles Torrey (Baton Rouge, 2013).

20TL, November 29, 1844; August 1, September 12, 1845; February 27, 1846; April 23, 1852; December 29, 1854; January 26, 1855; February 8, March 7, 28, May 9, 1856; NASS, March 6, 1845; Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, 719–26; Delia Ann Webster, Kentucky Jurisprudence . . . (Vergennes, Vt., 1845), 21–23, 83–84; Fourteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 52–53; Laura S. Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work . . . (Chicago, 1887), 139–61; Tiya Miles, “The Radical Mrs. Haviland,” Michigan History Magazine (November–December 2012), 15–20; Reverend Calvin Fairbank During Slavery Times . . . (Chicago, 1890), 12–25, 50–52, 85–105; Randolph Paul Runyon, Delia Webster and the Underground Railroad (Lexington, Ky., 1996); Jane Williamson, “Rowland T. Robinson, Rokeby, and the Underground Railroad in Vermont,” Vermont History 69 (2011): 19–31; Stanley J. Robboy and Anita W. Robboy, “Lewis Hayden: From Fugitive Slave to Statesman,” NEQ 46 (December 1973): 591–613; Hallie Quinn Brown, Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction (New York, 1988).

21Fifteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By Its Board of Managers, January 27, 1847 . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 62–63; Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, 305–12, 428–46, 713–18.

22. Still, The Underground Railroad, 525, 527; Bordewich, Bound for Canaan, 312, 346; Runyon, Delia Webster, 123; Harrold, Border War, chaps. 5, 6; Mathew Salafia, Slavery’s Borderland: Freedom and Bondage Along the Ohio River (Philadelphia, 2013).

23. Wilbur H. Seibert, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1898); J. Blaine Hudson, Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland (Jefferson, N.C., 2002); Keith P. Griffler, Front Line of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley (Lexington, Ky., 2004); Kathryn Grover, The Fugitive’s Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts (Amherst, Mass., 2001), chap. 3; William C. Kashatus, Just Over the Line: Chester County and the Underground Railroad (Chester, Pa., 2002); David G. Smith, On the Edge of Freedom: The Fugitive Slave Issue in South Central Pennsylvania, 1820–1870 (New York, 2012); Owen W. Muelder, The Underground Railroad in Western Illinois (Jefferson, N.C., 2008); Cheryl Janifer LaRoche, Free Black Communities and the Underground Railroad: The Geography of Resistance (Urbana, 2013); Tom Calarco, The Underground Railroad in the Adirondack Region (Jefferson, N.C., 2004); Calarco, Places of the Underground Railroad (Santa Barbara, Calif., 2011); William J. Switala, Underground Railroad in Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia (Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2004); Switala, Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania (Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2001); Eric Foner, Gateway to Freedom: New York City, the Underground Railroad, and the Irrepressible Conflict (New York, 2015).

24PF, June 1, 8, 1848; TL, November 12, 1852; March 2, 1860; Still, The Underground Railroad, 448–62, 511–14, 531–33; James A. McGowan, Station Master of the Underground Railroad: The Life and Letters of Thomas Garrett (Jefferson, N.C., 2005); Smedley, History of the Underground Railroad in Chester, 237–45, 249–59, 337, 355.

25Personal Memoir of Daniel Drayton . . . (Boston, 1854), 20–26, 32–34, 38–62, 72–102, 111, 115, 122; Slavery at Washington, Narrative of the Heroic Adventures of Drayton, an American Trader (London, 1848); TL, April 28, May 26, 1848; NE, May 11, November 2, 1848; Josephine F. Pacheo, The Pearl: A Failed Slave Escape on the Potomac(Chapel Hill, 2005), chaps. 2–5; Mary K. Ricks, Escape on the Pearl: The Heroic Bid for Freedom on the Underground Railroad (New York, 2007); Harrold, Subversives, chaps. 4, 5.

26. Horace Mann, Slavery: Letters and Speeches (1851), 84–118; TL, August 18, December 15, 1848; April 27, May 4, 11, 1849; May 21, 1851; May 21, June 11, August 13, 27, September 3, 10, 1852; December 30, 1853; NE, July 13, August 3, 10, 24, December 21, 1848; May 31, 1849; October 31, 1850; November 6, 1851; April 29, January 29, September 16, 1852; January 12, 1854; Pacheo, The Pearl, chaps. 6–9; James B. Stewart, “Christian Statesmanship, Codes of Honor, and Congressional Violence: The Antislavery Travails and Triumphs of Joshua Giddings,” Stanley Harrold, “Gamaliel Bailey, Antislavery Journalist and Lobbyist,” and Jonathan Earle, “Saturday Nights at the Baileys’: Building an Antislavery Movement in Congress, 1838–1854,” in Paul Finkelman and David R. Kennon, eds., In the Shadow of Slavery: The Politics of Slavery in the Nation’s Capital (Athens, Ohio, 2011), 53, 62–65, 92–93; Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York, 2010), 55–59.

27. Lydia Maria Child, Isaac Hopper: A True Life (Boston, 1853), 98–103; Lewis Richardson, BAP; Henry Clay to Sydney Howard Gay, June 25, December 1, 22, 1847, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Runyon, Delia Webster and the Underground Railroad, 113–16; Memoir of Rev. Abel Brown, 130–37, 143–44; TL, April 3, 17, 1846; June 8, October 25, 1849; NS, December 13, 1847; NASS, December 30, 1841; August 25, 1842; Robert V. Remini, Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (New York, 1991), 670.

28The Case of William Chaplin (Boston, 1851), 14–21, 22–39, 49–51; Circular From the Chaplin Fund Committee [1850]; TL, August 16, 1850; April 25, 1851; NE, August 15, September 26, November 21, December 26, 1850; May 5, August 11, 1853; NS, September 5, October 3, 24, 1850; January 23, 1851; Pacheo, The Pearl, 219–22.

29. Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:4–6, 3:428–29; Jason H. Silverman, Unwelcome Guests: Canada West’s Response to American Fugitive Slaves, 1800–1865 (Millwood, N.Y., 1983), 36–42; Irwin D. S. Winsboro and Joe Knetsch, “Florida Slaves, the ‘Saltwater Railroad’ to the Bahamas and Anglo-American Diplomacy,” JSH 79 (February 2013): 51–78.

30. Howard Jones, Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and Its Impact on American Abolition, Law, and Diplomacy (New York, 1987); Iyunolu Folayan Osagie, The Amistad Revolt: Memory, Slavery, and the Politics of Identity in the United States and Sierra Leone (Athens, Ga., 2000); Maggie Montesinos Sale, The Slumbering Volcano: American Slave Ship Revolts and the Production of Rebellious Masculinity (Durham, 1997), 6–7, 21–28; Marcus Rediker, The Amistad Rebellion: An Atlantic Odyssey of Slavery and Freedom (New York, 2012), 21.

31The African Captives . . . (New York, 1839), iii–vi, 9–20, 22–27, 44–47; John W. Barber, A History of the Amistad Captives . . . (New Haven, 1840), 6–15, 17–18, 20–31; Augustus Field Beard, The Story of the “Amistad” (New York, n.d.); TE, September 5, 12, 19, 26, November 21, 1839; May 1, September 3, 1840; TL, September 13, October 18, 1839; January 17, 24, 1840; NASS, November 19, December 3, 1840; December 30, 1841; Rediker, The Amistad Rebellion, 168–71; Sydney Kaplan, “Black Mutiny on the Amistad,” Massachusetts Review 10 (Summer 1969): 493–532; Leon O. Broin, The Irish Abolitionist: Richard Madden and the Subversion of Empire, trans. Michael O. hAodha (Dublin, 1971), chap. 5; Bertram Wyatt Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), 205–12.

32Argument of John Quincy Adams . . . (New York, 1841), 4–6, 88–89, 113–15, 121–32; Argument of Roger S. Baldwin . . . (New York, 1841); Charles Francis Adams, ed., Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848 (Philadelphia, 1876), 5:128, 131–35, 427–37, 450–55; TE, February 11, March 18, 25, April 1, November 18, 1841; TL, March 5, 19, 26, April 16, November 3, 1841; March 19, 1847; NASS, January 21, March 4, 11, 25, April 1, 1841; April Anne Heloise Abel and Frank J. Klingberg, eds., A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 1839–1858, Furnished by the Correspondence of Lewis Tappan and Others with the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (Lancaster, Pa., 1927), 60–66, 69–70, 83–84; Leonard L. Richards, The Life and Times of Congressman John Quincy Adams (New York, 1986), 135–39; John T. Noonan Jr., The Antelope: The Ordeal of the Recaptured Africans in the Administration of James Monroe and John Quincy Adams (Berkeley, 1977); Newmyer, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story, 345–58, 368–69; Cover, Justice Accused, 109–12.

33. Joseph Sturge, A Visit to the United States in 1841 (London, 1842), 68, 74, appendix liv; Jones, Mutiny on the Amistad, 196; Simeon E. Baldwin, “The Captives of the Amistad,” Papers of the New Haven Historical Society 4 (New Haven, 1888), 331–70; Horatio T. Strother, The Underground Railroad in Connecticut (Middletown, Conn., 1962), chap. 4; Hugh Davis, Joshua Leavitt, Evangelical Abolitionist (Baton Rouge, 1990), 177–79; Howard Jones, “Cinque of the Amistad a Slave Trader? Perpetuating a Myth,” and responses by Paul Finkelman, Bertram Wyatt Brown, and William S. McFeely, JAH 87 (December 2000): 923–50; CA, July 31, September 4, December 4, 25, 1841; TL, April 22, 1842; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:365–67; Celeste Marie Bernier, Characters of Blood: Black Heroism in the Transatlantic Imagination (Charlottesville, Va., 2012), chap. 3; Rediker, The Amistad Rebellion, 196–217; Lewis Tappan, History of the American Missionary Association . . . (New York, 1855); Clara Merritt DeBoer, Be Jubilant My Feet: African American Abolitionists in the American Missionary Association, 1839–1861 (New York, 1994), chaps. 2–5; Christopher L. Webber, American to the Backbone: The Life of James W. C. Pennington, the Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Black Abolitionists (New York, 2011), 158–72, 180–81; Clifton Herman Johnson, “The American Missionary Association, 1846–1861: A Study of Christian Abolitionism” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, 1958), chaps. 2, 3, 10, 11; Osagie, The Amistad Revolt, chap. 3; Yanneilli, “George Thompson among the Africans,” 988–1000.

34NASS, January 6, 1842; TL, January 7, June 10, 1842; January 20, 1843; George Hendrick and Willene Hendrick, The Creole Mutiny: A Tale of Revolt Aboard a Slave Ship (Chicago, 2008); Edward D. Jervey and C. Harold Huber, “The Creole Affair,” JNH 65 (Summer 1980): 196–211; Phillip Troutman, “Grapevine in the Slave Market: African American Geo-Political Literacy and the 1841 Creole Slave Revolt,” in Walter Johnson, ed., The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas (New Haven, 2004), 203–33; Walter Johnson, “White Lies: Human Property and Domestic Slavery Aboard the Slave Ship Creole,” Atlantic Studies 5 (August 2008): 237–56.

35. Abel and Klingberg, eds., A Side-Light on Anglo-American Relations, 121–29; NASS, March 10, 17, September 1, 15, 22, 1842; January 12, April 6, 1843; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:4–6; Silverman, Unwelcome Guests, 42–43; Howard Jones, “The Peculiar Institution and National Honor: The Case of the Creole Slave Revolt,” CWH 21 (March 1975): 28–50; Robin W. Winks, The Blacks in Canada: A History (New Haven, 1971), 169–76; Harper Twelvetrees, ed., The Story and Life of John Anderson, the Fugitive Slave” (London, 1863).

36. Joshua R. Giddings, Speeches in Congress (1853; repr., New York, 1968), 6–12, 15–19, 22–31, 33–38, 46–51, 76–81, 89–95; Giddings, History of the Rebellion: Its Authors and Causes (New York, 1864), 173–94, 205–11; NASS, February 9, 1843; Joshua R. Giddings to Sydney Howard Gay, January 12, March 15, May 6, 25, 1846; April 17, May 27, 1848, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Matthew Clavin, “‘It is a Negro, not an Indian War’: Southampton, St. Domingo, and the Second Seminole War,” in William S. Belko, ed., America’s Hundred Years’ War: U.S. Expansion to the Gulf Coast and the Fate of the Seminole, 1763–1858 (Gainesville, Fla., 2011), 181–208; George W. Julian, The Life of Joshua R. Giddings (Chicago, 1892), chaps. 3–5; James Brewer Stewart, Joshua R. Giddings and the Tactics of Radical Politics (Cleveland, 1970), 32–78.

37. “The Duty of the Free States,” in The Works of William E. Channing, D.D. (Boston, 1903), 853–907; TL, June 17, 24, July 8, 1842.

38The Creole Case, and Mr. Webster’s Dispatch . . . (New York, 1842), 11–24, 29–31, 36; Cover, Justice Accused, 113–16.

39TL, February 11, March 4, 1842; June 2, 1843; NASS, February 24, 1842; June 15, 1843; Stanley Harrold, The Rise of Aggressive Abolitionism: Addresses to the Slaves (Lexington, Ky., 2004), 77–80, 163–67; Dillon, Slavery Attacked, 217.

40TL, September 8, 22, December 8, 1843; Walker’s Appeal . . . and also Garnet’s Address to the Slaves of the United States of America, 89–96; Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored People and Their Friends, Held in Troy, N.Y. on the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th October, 1847 (Troy, 1847), 31–32, in Howard Holman Bell, ed., Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Convention, 1830–1864 (New York, 1969); Earl Ofari, Let Your Motto Be Resistance: The Life and Thought of Henry Highland Garnet (Boston, 1972), 34–45; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1977), 50–64; Martin B. Pasternak, Rise Now and Fly to Arms: The Life of Henry Highland Garnet (New York, 1995), 45–48.

41. Jabez Delano Hammond to Smith, May 18, 1839, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; [Jabez Delano Hammond], Life and Opinions of Julius Melbourne . . . (Syracuse, 1847), 17, 37, 45, 58, 64–78, 119–20, 125–40, 236–38; Dillon, Slavery Attacked, 205–6.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN. FUGITIVE SLAVE ABOLITIONISM

1TL, February 24, 1844.

2. John Sekora, “Black Message/White Envelop: Genre, Authenticity and Authority in the Antebellum Slave Narrative,” Callaloo 10 (Summer 1987): 482–515; Dwight A. McBride, Impossible Witnesses: Truth, Abolitionism and Slave Testimony (New York, 2001), introduction.

3. Lara Langer Cohen and Jordan Alexander Stein, eds., Early African American Print Culture (Philadelphia, 2012), introduction; Kenneth W. Warren, What Was African American Literature? (Cambridge, Mass., 2011), 2–9; Eric Gardner, Unexpected Places: Relocating Nineteenth-Century African American Literature (Jackson, Miss., 2009): introduction; William L. Andrews, To Tell a Free Story: The First Century of Afro-American Autobiography, 1760–1865 (Urbana, 1986); Charles T. Davis and Henry Louis Gates Jr., eds., The Slave’s Narrative (New York, 1985), introduction, chapters by C. Vann Woodward, John Blassingame, James Olney, and Houston A. Baker Jr.

4A Narrative of Some Remarkable Incidents in the Life of Solomon Bayley . . . (London, 1825), ix, 17–18, 37–41; Arna Bontemps, ed., Five Black Lives . . . (Middletown, Conn., 1971), 104, 111, 119–20; William L. Andrews and Regina E. Mason, eds., Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave (New York, 2008), introduction; Charles Nichols, “The Case of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave,” WMQ 8 (October 1951): 552–60; The Slave: Or Memoirs of Archy Moore, 2 vols. (Boston, 1836), 2:162; Moore, The White Slave; or, Memoirs of a Fugitive (Boston, 1852); Nancy Bentley, “White Slaves: The Mulatto Hero in Antebellum Fiction,” American Literature 65 (September 1993): 501–22.

5Slavery in the United States . . . (New York, 1837), 209–10; Fifty Years in Chains; or, The Life of an American Slave (New York, 1859), 9.

6Narrative of James Williams . . . (Boston, 1838), xviii, xix, 70; TL, March 9, September 28, 1838; Davis and Gates, eds., The Slave’s Narrative, 8–15; Henry Louis Gates Jr., “From Wheatley to Douglass: The Politics of Displacement,” in Eric J. Sundquist, ed., Frederick Douglass: New Literary and Historical Essays (Cambridge, Eng., 1990), 57–60.

7A Narrative of the Adventures and Escape of Moses Roper . . . (Philadelphia, 1838), 7–8, 87; Narrative of the Adventures and Escape of Moses Roper . . . (Berwick-Upon-Tweed, Eng., 1848); C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 1, The British Isles, 1830–1865 (Chapel Hill, 1985), 60–64; TL, March 30, 1838.

8The Narrative of Lunsford Lane . . . (Boston, 1842); Lunsford Lane Speeches, Western Citizen, August 5, 1842, Anti-Slavery Bugle, May 19, 1855, Black Abolitionist Archive, University of Detroit, Mercy; Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy . . . (London, 1843), 67–72; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:8; Bland Simpson, Two Captains from Carolina: Moses Grandy, John Newland Maffitt, and the Coming of the Civil War (Chapel Hill, 2012), 7–28, 40–65, 80–86, 122–30.

9. Lovejoy, ed., Memoir of Reverend Charles T. Torrey, 106–25; TL, February 23, 1844; The Light and Truth of Slavery . . . (Worcester, Mass., [1845]); Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson . . . (Syracuse, 1847), iii, iv, 7, 14, 22.

10Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clarke . . . (Boston, 1845), 9–12, 26, 37, 56–57; NASS, October 20, 27, 1842; April 6, 1843; Narratives of the Sufferings of Lewis and Milton Clarke . . . (Boston, 1846), 110, 112–13.

11TL, August 27, December 31, 1841; January 14, 1842; May 12, 1843; January 12, 1844; May 9, 16, 23, 30, 1845; John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews, Vol. 1, 1841–46 (New Haven, 1979), 16; Jonathan Walker, Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker (Boston, 1845), iii–vi, 34–36; David W. Blight, ed., Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by Himself, With Related Documents (Boston, 2003), 31–32, 64, 89; NS, December 3, 1847; April 27, 1849; L. Diane Barnes, Frederick Douglass: Reformer and Statesman (New York, 2013), 66; Gregory P. Lampe, Frederick Douglass: Freedom’s Voice, 1818–1845 (East Lansing, 1998), 261; Sundquist, ed., Frederick Douglass: New Literary and Historical Essays; Deborah E. McDowell, “In the First Place: Making Frederick Douglass and the Afro-American Narrative Tradition,” in William Andrews, ed., African American Autobiography: A Collection of Critical Essays (New York, 1992), 36–58.

12. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, 1:36, 58, 183, 228–29, 242–43, 249, 340; TL, January 16, 30, February 27, May 29, June 26, November 27, 1846; NASS, November 27, 1846; Clare Taylor, ed., British and American Abolitionists: An Episode in Transatlantic Understanding (Edinburgh, Scotland, 1974), 241–44, 247–54, 258–60, 272–73, 277, 294; R. J. M. Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830–1860 (Baton Rouge, 1983), chap. 3; Betty Flade land, Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation (Urbana, 1972), 296–99.

13TL, January 15, 29, March 5, April 16, 1847; William S. McFeely, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1991), 144; Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (New York, 1967), 220–24.

14Narrative of William W. Brown . . . (Boston, 1847), iii, iv, 13, 27, 70, 82–83, 109–10; NASS, August 29, 1844; January 30, 1845; NS, January 7, 1848; William W. Brown, A Lecture Delivered Before the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Salem . . . (Boston, 1847), 3, 5–7; Brown, The Anti-Slavery Harp . . . (Boston, 1849), 3, 6, 17, 23, 27–28, 45; William L. Andrews, ed., From Fugitive Slave to Free Man: The Autobiographies of William Wells Brown (New York, 1993), introduction, 81–83; Biography of an American Bondman By His Daughter (Boston, 1856): 96–99, 102–4; William Edward Farrison, William Wells Brown: Author and Reformer (Chicago, 1969), chaps. 1–9; Ezra Greenspan, William Wells Brown: An African American Life (New York, 2014).

15. William Farmer, ed., Three Years in Europe . . . (London, 1852), 2, 48–50, 176, 233–35, 252; TL, September 28, November 2, December 14, 1849; June 28, July 12, 1850; May 30, 1851; November 19, 1852; September 22, 1854; NS, April 17, 1851; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:155, 161–181; Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 344–47.

16. Farmer, ed., Three Years in Europe, 246–49; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:190–224, 283–92; TL, July 4, 25, September 26, 1851; Farrison, William Wells Brown, chaps. 10–12, 15; Paul Jefferson, ed., The Travels of William Wells Brown (New York, 1991), introduction.

17Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb . . . (New York, 1849), 13–15, 24–25, 40, 50–51, 175–78, 187–90, 194–95; Bibb to Smith, December, 1848, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 3:460–62; NS, February 25, June 16, September 1, December 29, 1848; January 6, 19, August 3, September 28, 1849; Fred Landon, “Henry Bibb, a Colonizer,” JNH 5 (October 1920), 437–47.

18The Life of Josiah Henson . . . (Boston, 1849), iii, 1–2, 5, 21–28, 39–43, 47–48, 56–59, 70–76; TL, January 24, 1851; W. B. Hartgrove, “The Story of Josiah Henson,” JNH 13 (January 1918): 1–21.

19The Fugitive Blacksmith . . . (London, 1849): iv–v, xi, 4, 9–10, 52–55, 59, 80–84. Herman E. Thomas, James W. C. Pennington: African American Churchman and Abolitionist (New York, 1995); Christopher Webber, American to the Backbone: The Life of James W. C. Pennington: The Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Abolitionists(New York, 2011), 347.

20Narrative of Henry Watson . . . (Boston, 1848), 39–40; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:234–51, 259–67, 271–75, 290–92, 327–29; Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Let Your Motto be Resistance: The Life and Thought of Henry Highland Garnet (Boston, 1972), 61–66; Fladeland, Men and Brothers, 247; Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, 168–73.

21Narrative of Sojourner Truth . . . (Boston, 1850), vii, 26–27, 30–33, 44–59, 82–84, 100, 124–25; Narrative of Sojourner Truth . . . (Boston, 1875); Nell Irvin Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (New York, 1996); Painter, ed., Narrative of Sojourner Truth (New York, 1998), introduction, 232; Margaret Washington, Sojourner Truth’s America(Urbana, 2009).

22FJ, July 18, August 8, 15, 29, September 12, October 3, 1828; TL, March 29, 1834; October 20, 1837, p. 172; Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley . . . (Boston, 1838), 9, 119–23, 130; NE, April 28, 1848; The Poetical Works of George Moses Horton . . . (Hillsborough, N.C., 1845), v, vii, xii, xv, xvii, 45–50; William G. Allen, Wheatley, Banneker, and Horton (Boston, 1849), 5–7, 39; George Moses Horton, Naked Genius (Raleigh, 1865), 23, 66, 104, 114–15; Joan R. Sherman, ed., The Black Bard of North Carolina: George Moses Horton and His Poetry (Chapel Hill, 1997), introduction; Blyden Jackson, “George Moses Horton, North Carolinian,” North Carolina Historical Review 53 (April 1976): 140–47.

23. Jill Beute Koverman, ed., I Made This Jar: The Life and Works of the Enslaved African American Potter, Dave (Columbia, S.C., 1998); Leonard Todd, Carolina Clay: The Life and Legend of the Slave Potter Dave (New York, 2008); Angela Cheng, Etched in Clay: The Life of Dave, Enslaved Potter and Poet (New York, 2013); Michael A. Chaney, Fugitive Vision: Slave Image and Black Identity in Antebellum Narrative (Bloomington, 2008), chap. 6; TL, February 9, June 8, November 30, 1849.

24Narrative of Henry Box Brown . . . (Boston, 1849), 11–12, 56–62, 67, 86, 89–91; NS, August 24, September 28, November 16, 1849; TL, May 31, 1850; July 11, 1851; Cynthia Griffin Wolff, “Passing Beyond the Middle Passage: Henry ‘Box’ Brown’s Translations of Slavery,” Massachusetts Review 37 (Spring 1996): 42–22; John Ernest, ed., Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown, Written By Himself (Chapel Hill, 2008), 41–42, 122–67; Jeffrey Ruggles, The Unboxing of Henry Brown (Richmond, 2003); Daphne Brooks, Bodies in Dissent: Spectacular Performances in Race and Freedom, 1850–1910 (Durham, 2006), chap. 2; Britt Rusert, “The Science of Freedom: Counterarchives of Racial Science on the Antebellum Stage,” African American Review 45 (Fall 2012): 291–308.

25Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom . . . (London, 1860), 15, 18, 29, 35–36, 41, 82, 87–92, 111; TL, February 9, March 2, April 27, 1849; January 24, May 30, July 11, 1851; January 2, December 17, 1852; NS, July 20, 1849; December 5, 1850; William Still, The Underground Railroad . . . (Philadelphia, 1872), 267–69; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:330–31; Vincent Y. Bowditch, Life and Correspondence of Henry Ingersoll Bowditch, 2 vols. (Boston, 1902), 1:203–9; Blackett, Beating Against the Barriers: The Lives of Six Nineteenth-Century Afro-Americans (Ithaca, 1989), chap. 2; Barbara McCaskill, “‘Yours Very Truly’: Ellen Craft—The Fugitive as Text and Artifact,” African American Review 28 (1994): 509–29; McCaskill, Love, Liberation and Escaping Slavery: William and Ellen Craft in Cultural Memory (Athens, Ga., 2015).

26. Sarah H. Bradford, Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman (Auburn, N.Y., 1869), 1, 5, 7, 13, 29, 48, 79–84, 117–29; Milton C. Sernett, Harriet Tubman: Myth, Memory, and History (Durham, 2007); Jean M. Humez, Harriet Tubman: The Life and the Life Stories (Madison, 2003), 32, 38, 352; Kate Gifford Larson, Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero (New York, 2004), 251, 302; Catherine Clinton, Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom (New York, 2004).

27Twelve Years a Slave . . . (Auburn, N.Y., 1853), xvi, 20, 25, 56, 68–75, 189, 206–7, 247–49, 265–321; NE, February 3, 25, 1853; July 20, September 7, 1854; TL, September 9, 1853; FDP, January 28, February 11, 18, 1853; David Fiske, Solomon Northup: His Life Before and After Slavery (Ballston Spa, N.Y., 2012); Judith Bloom and Dennis Brindell Frandin, Stolen into Slavery: The True Story of Solomon Northup, Free Black Man (Washington, 2012); Adam Rothman, “The Horrors ‘12 Years a Slave’ Could Not Tell,” http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/1/the-horrors-a-12yearsaslaveacouldnattello.html.

28NE, May 15, 1851; Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin . . . (1852; repr., New York, 1962), 51–52, 494–97, 506–11; Stowe, A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin . . . (Boston, 1853), iii–iv; Charles Beecher, The Duty of Disobedience to Wicked Laws: A Sermon on the Fugitive Slave Law (Newark, 1851), 6–7, 10–11, 21–22; FDP, October 8, 15, 22, 1852; April 29, 1853; TL, January 7, 1853; July 6, 1855; Charles Edward Stowe, Harriet Beecher Stowe: The Story of Her Life (Boston, 1911); Mary Church Terrell, Harriet Beecher Stowe: An Appreciation (Washington, 1911); Eric J. Sundquist, ed., New Essays on Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Cambridge, Eng., 1986); David S. Reynolds, Mightier than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America (New York, 2011), 107–61, 166–67, 173–80; Sarah Meer, Uncle Tom Mania: Slavery, Minstrelsy, and Transatlantic Culture in the 1850s (Athens, Ga., 2005); cf. Heather S. Nathans, Slavery and Sentiment in the American Stage, 1787–1861: Lifting the Veil of Black (Cambridge, Eng., 2009); Debby Applegate, The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher (New York, 2006), 243, 257–59, 357–62; Richard Whitman Fox, “Performing Emancipation,” in Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, eds., The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2007), 298–311; Prithi Kanakamedala, In Pursuit of Freedom: Antislavery Activism and the Culture of Abolitionism in Antebellum Brooklyn, NY (Brooklyn Historical Society, 2012), 125–32; Ethan J. Kytle, Romantic Reformers and the Antislavery Struggle in the Civil War Era (Cambridge, Eng., 2014), chap. 3.

29TL, March 26, 1852; February 4, 1859; FDP, April 8, May 27, June 10, 17, July 30, 1852; Andrews, To Tell a Free Story, 181; Robert S. Levine, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass and the Politics of Representative Identity (Chapel Hill, 1997), 71–90, 143; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany: A Documentary Reader (Chapel Hill, 2003), 230–37; Susan Gilman, “Networking Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Hyper Stowe in Early African American Print Culture,” in Cohen and Stein, eds., Early African American Print Culture, chap. 13.

30. Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom, William L. Andrews, ed. (Urbana, 1987), xi–xxvi, 2, 9–10, 17, 21–23, 168, 215–17, 242–45, 248; Levine, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, 102, 144–45; John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 200–201; Waldo E. Martin Jr., The Mind of Frederick Douglass (Chapel Hill, 1984); David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge, 1989), 88–91; Peter Walker, Moral Choices: Memory, Desire, and Imagination in Nineteenth-Century American Abolition (Baton Rouge, 1978), 209–28, 236–54, 261.

31Truth Stranger Than Fiction . . . (Boston, 1858), iii–v; TL, August 13, 1858; Andrews, To Tell a Free Story, 123, 184; Robin W. Winks, “The Making of a Fugitive Slave Narrative: Josiah Henson and Uncle Tom—A Case Study,” in Davis and Gates Jr., eds., The Slave’s Narrative, 112–46; Experience and Personal Narrative of Uncle Tom Jones . . .(Boston, n.d.), 4, 23–29, 54; The Experience of Rev. Thomas H. Jones . . . (New Bedford, 1885), 70–82; Kanakamedala, In Pursuit of Freedom, 114–17.

32. Still, The Underground Railroad, 1–13; Kate E. R. Pickard, The Kidnapped and the Ransomed . . . (New York, 1856), xix–xx, 307–38, 375–76, 388; Nancy Grant, ed., The Kidnapped and the Ransomed (Jackson, Miss., 2013), introduction; Edlie L. Wong, Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel(New York, 2009), 114–25.

33Autobiography of a Female Slave (New York, 1857), 13–18, 31–36, 79–82, 98–100, 105–6, 122–35, 145–50, 199–209, 226–31, 255–78, 296–302, 307–9, 343, 398–401; Joe Lockard, ed., Autobiography of a Female Slave by Mattie Griffith (Jackson, Miss., 1998), after-word; Carolyn L. Karcher, The First Woman in the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child(Durham, 1994), 413.

34. William Wells Brown, Clotel, or, the President’s Daughter, Robert S. Levine, ed. (Boston, 2000); J. Noel Heermance, William Wells Brown and Clotelle: A Portrait of an Artist in the First Negro Novel (Hamden, Conn., 1969); Jonathan Senchyne, “Bottles of Ink and Reams of Paper: Clotel, Racialization, and the Material Culture of Print,” and Lara Langer Cohen, “Notes from the State of Saint Domingue: The Practice of Citation in Clotel,” in Cohen and Stein, eds., Early African American Print Culture, chaps. 8, 9; Greenspan, William Wells Brown, 288–300; Paula Garrett and Hollis Robbins, eds., The Works of William Wells Brown: Using His “Strong, Manly Voice” (New York, 2006), 264–308; John Ernest, “The Reconstruction of Whiteness: William Wells Brown’s The Escape, Or, a Leap for Freedom,” PMLA 113 (October 1998): 1108–21.

35TL, January 11, 7, February 1, 19, 1856; May 21, 1858, p. 82; Frances Ellen Watkins, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (Boston, 1855), 3–4, 9–11, 32; Watkins, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (Philadelphia, 1857), 40–42, 53; Anglo-African Magazine 1 (August 1859), 253–54; Still, The Underground Railroad, 538–58; Melba Joyce Boyd, Discarded Legacy: Politics and Poetics in the Life of Frances E. W. Harper, 1825–1911 (Detroit, 1994), 58–70, 114–16; Meredith L. McGill, “Frances Ellen Watkins Harper and the Circuits of Abolitionist Poetry,” in Cohen and Stein, eds., Early African American Print Culture, chap. 3; Frances Smith Foster, ed., A Brighter Coming Day: A Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Reader (New York, 1990); Maryemma Graham, ed., The Complete Poems of Frances E. W. Harper: An Annotated Critical History (New York, 1988); Carla L. Peterson, “Doers of the Word”: African-American Women Speakers and Writers in the North (1830–1880) (New York, 1995), 120–35; Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1984), 159–75; Manisha Sinha, “Allies for Emancipation?: Lincoln and Black Abolitionists,” in Eric Foner ed., Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World (New York, 2008), 184.

36. Frank J. Webb, The Garies and Their Friends (Project Gutenberg ebook, 2004), 2–3; The Christian Slave . . . (Boston, 1855); Werner Sollors, Frank J. Webb: Fiction, Essays, Poetry (New Milford, Conn., 2004), introduction; Eric Gardner, “‘A Gentleman of Superior Cultivation and Refinement’: Recovering the Biography of Frank J. Webb,” African American Review 35 (2001): 297–308; Gardner, “A Nobler End: Mary Webb and the Victorian Platform,” Nineteenth-Century Prose 19 (Spring 2002): 103–16; Samuel Otter, Philadelphia Stories: America’s Literature of Race and Freedom (New York, 2013), chap. 4.

37. John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews, vol. 2, 1847–1854 (New Haven, 1982), 131, 154–55; TL, June 8, 1849; FDP, January 21, March 4, 11, 18, 25, 1853; Richard Yarborough, “Race, Violence and Manhood: The Masculine Ideal in Frederick Douglass’ ‘The Heroic Slave,’” in Eric J. Sundquist, ed., Frederick Douglass: New Literary and Historical Essays (Cambridge, Eng., 1990), 177–83; Maggie Montesinos Sale, The Slumbering Volcano: American Slave Ship Revolts and the Production of Rebellious Masculinity (Durham, 1997), chaps. 4, 5; Krista Walter, “Trappings of Nationalism in Frederick Douglass’s ‘The Heroic Slave,’” African American Review 34 (2000): 233–46; Celeste Marie-Bernier, “Ambiguities in Frederick Douglass’s Two Versions of ‘The Heroic Slave,’” S&A 22 (2001): 69–86; Cynthia S. Hamilton, “Models of Agency: Frederick Douglass and ‘The Heroic Slave,’” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 114 (Worcester, Mass., 2005): 87–136; Sterling Stuckey, African Culture and Melville’s Art: The Creative Process in Benito Cereno andMoby-Dick (New York, 2009); Greg Grandin, The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom, and Deception in the New World (New York, 2014).

38. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, Robert S. Levine, ed. (Chapel Hill, 2000), ix, 49–51, 162, 198, 203–12, 353–55, 435–36, 438, 493–94, 509–13, 520, 539–47; Painter, Sojourner Truth, chap. 17; Jeanine DeLombard, Slavery on Trial: Law, Abolitionism and Print Culture (Chapel Hill, 2007), chap. 5; Cynthia S. Hamilton, “Dred: Intemperate Slavery,” Journal of American Studies 34 (2000): 257–67; Levine, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, 156–76.

39. Dorothy Porter Wesley and Constance Porter Uzelac, eds., William Cooper Nell: Selected Writings 1832–1847 (Baltimore, 2002), 282–86; William C. Nell, The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution . . . (Boston, 1855), 5–6, 11, 18, 101–11, 198–99, 223–29, 253–55, 369, 380–81; TL, July 1, August 2, 1853; November 14, 1856; August 5, 1859; William K. Watkins, Our Rights as Men . . . (Boston, 1853), 3–4, 7, 11, 17–18; Mitch Kachun, “From Forgotten Founder to Indispensable Icon: Crispus Attucks, Black Citizenship, and Collective Memory, 1770–1865,” JER 29 (2009): 249–86; John Ernest, Liberation Historiography: African American Writers and the Challenge of History, 1794–1861 (Chapel Hill, 2004), 95–97, 132–53; Stephen G. Hall, A Faithful Account of the Race: African American Historical Writing in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill, 2009), 94–104; J. R. Kerr-Ritchie, Rites of August First: Emancipation Day in the Black Atlantic World (Baton Rouge, 2007), chap. 6; Stephen Kantrowitz, More than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829–1889 (New York, 2012), 198–222.

40CA, June 4, August 7, 28, October 2, 9, 1841; John Stauffer, ed., The Works of James McCune Smith: Black Intellectual and Abolitionist (New York, 2006), 25–47; William Wells Brown, St. Domingo: Its Revolutions and Its Patriots, A Lecture (Boston, 1855), 37–38; “The Haitian Revolution in Resolutions Adopted by African American State and Regional Conventions (1858, 1859, 1865),” in Maurice Jackson and Jacqueline Bacon, eds., African Americans and the Haitian Revolution: Selected Essays and Historical Documents (New York, 2010), 194–95; George B. Vashon, “Vincent Ogé,” in Julia Griffiths, ed., Autographs for Freedom (Auburn, N.Y., 1854), 59; Wendell Phillips, Speeches, Lectures, and Letters (Boston, 1872), 492; Manisha Sinha, “An Alternative Tradition of Radicalism: African American Abolitionists and the Metaphor of Revolution,” in Manisha Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, eds., Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race, and Power in American History (New York, 2007), 9–30; cf. Jenna M. Gibbs, Performing the Temple of Liberty: Slavery, Theatre and Popular Culture in London and Philadelphia, 1760–1850(Baltimore, 2014), chap. 7.

41Anglo-African Magazine 1 (February 1859): 37; ibid. (August 1859): 301; Floyd J. Miller, ed., Blake, or the Huts of America, A Novel by Martin R. Delany (Boston, 1970), 16–17, 29, 39, 192–93, 210–11, 241–42, 287, 313; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 160–69; Levine, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, 191–223; Sharla Fett, “‘The Ship of Slavery’: Atlantic Slave Trade Suppression, Liberated Africans, and Black Abolition Politics in Antebellum New York,” in Ana Lucia Araujo, ed., Paths of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Interactions, Identities, and Images (Amherst, N.Y., 2011); Ifeoma Kiddoe Nwanko, Black Cosmopolitanism: Racial Consciousness and Transnational Identity in the Nineteenth-Century Americas (Philadelphia, 2005), 54–80.

42. Harriet A. Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself, Jean Fagan Yellin, ed. (Cambridge, Mass., 1987), 31, 56, 77, 128, 184–85; Harriet A. Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself, Enlarged Edition Now With “A True Tale of Slavery” by John S. Jacobs, Jean Fagan Yellin, ed. (Cambridge, Mass., 2000), xxv–xli, 207–28, 254, 258, 264, 266; Robert Purvis to Gay, September 13, 1858, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Jean Fagan Yellin, Harriet Jacobs, A Life: The Remarkable Adventures of the Woman Who Wrote Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (New York, 2004); Yellin, ed., The Harriet Jacobs Family Papers (Chapel Hill, 2008); Peterson, “Doers of the Word,” 156–65; Karen Sanchez-Eppler, Touching Liberty: Abolition, Feminism, and the Politics of the Body (Berkeley, 1993), chap. 3; Frances Smith Foster, Written by Herself: Literary Production by African American Women, 1746–1892 (Bloomington, 1993), 108–16.

43. Henry Louis Gates Jr., ed., The Bondwoman’s Narrative (New York, 2002), introduction, 1, 3; Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Hollis Robbins, eds., In Search of Hannah Crafts: Critical Essays on The Bondwoman’s Narrative (New York, 2004); “Professor Says He Has Solved Mystery over a Slave’s Novel,” New York Times, September 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/19/books/professor-says-he-has-solved-a-mystery-over-a-slaves-novel.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

44. Benjamin Drew, The Refugee: or, the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada . . . (Boston, 1856), vi, 1–3, 13–16, 161–73; TL, May 18, 1855; May 29, July 12, 1857; S. G. Howe, The Refugees from Slavery in Canada West . . . (Boston, 1864), 1, 103–4, 110; James W.Trent Jr., The Manliest Man: Samuel G. Howe and the Contours of Nineteenth-Century Reform (Amherst, Mass., 2012), 225–29.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN. THE POLITICS OF ABOLITION

1Despotism in America . . . (Boston, 1840), 8–34, 40, 47, 50, 54–57, 61, 66–71, 90–97, 146, 156, 176–78, 186; Richard Hildreth, Theory of Politics . . . (New York, 1853): 15–16, 32, 25–26, 55–56, 61, 142–47, 151–55; 199–200, 208, 229, 267–74; Donald E. Emerson, Richard Hildreth (Baltimore, 1946); Arthur Schlesinger Jr., “The Problem of Richard Hildreth,” NEQ 13 (June 1940): 223–45.

2. Daniel J. McInerney, The Fortunate Heirs of Freedom: Abolition and Republican Thought (Lincoln, Neb., 1994); Eric Foner, Fee Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970; repr. New York, 1994), ix–xxxix; John Ashworth, Slavery, Capitalism and Politics in the Antebellum Republic, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Eng., 1995); Thomas G. Mitchell, Antislavery Politics in Antebellum and Civil War America (Westport, Conn., 2007); James Oakes, The Scorpion’s Sting: Antislavery and the Coming of the Civil War (New York, 2014).

3The Power of Congress Over the District of Columbia (New York, 1838), 3, 15–16, 39–47; Gilbert H. Barnes and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Weld, and Angelina Grimké Weld and Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844 (Gloucester, Mass., 1965), 2:923, 954–55, 958; Samuel B. Treadwell, American Liberties and American Slavery . . . (New York, 1838), xii, xxxix, 58, 355; William Jay, A View of the Action of the Federal Government, in Behalf of Slavery (Utica, N.Y., 1844), 3, 9–26, 55–72, 79; William Jay, Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery (New York, 1853), 209, 371–95; Bayard Tuckerman, William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1893).

4. Leavitt to Roger H. Leavitt, May 17, 1841, Leavitt to Col. R. Hooker Leavitt, December 10, 1841, Leavitt to his mother, May 10, 1842, Joshua Leavitt Family Papers, LC; Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Weld, 2:879–86, 899–913; TEFA, January 15, 20, February 10, 17, 24, March 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, April 7, 14, 21, August 25, November 24, December 29, 1842; February 23, March 9, May 11, 18, November 30, 1843; TLP, November 15, 1842; February 21, March 14, April 4, May 23, September 19, October 3, 1843; January 16, 30, March 5, 1844; TL, December 16, 1842; January 6, 13, February 3, March 10, 1843; March 8, 29, 1844; Seth M. Gates to Smith, August 28, 1839; February 4, June 7, 10, 18, November 23, 1841; January 25, 28, February 4, March 24, April 8, May 13, 1842; September 18, October 16, 1843, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; James Brewer Stewart, “Abolitionists, Insurgents, and Third Parties: Sectionalism and Partisan Politics in Northern Whiggery, 1836–1844,” in Alan M. Kraut, ed., Crusaders and Compromisers: Essays on the Relationship of the Antislavery Struggle to the Antebellum Party System(Westport, Conn., 1983), 25–43; Corey Brooks, “‘Stoking the Abolition Fire in the Capitol’: Liberty Party Lobbying and Antislavery in Congress,” JER 33 (Fall 2013): 523–47.

5TEFA, December 8, 1841; February 24, August 4, 25, December 1, 1842; April 20, June 8, September 14, 28, October 5, November 16, 1843; TLP, December 27, 1842; January 10, March 7, 28, July 25, August 1, 8, September 12, October 31, 1843; TL, September 22, 1843; Giles Stebbins to Gay, September 25, 1846, Abby Kelley Foster to Gay, September 19, 1847, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Abby Kelley Foster to Smith, July 26, 1843, January 1, 1852, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; Gerrit Smith to Wright, April 20, 1840, Elizur Wright Jr. Papers, LC; William Birney, James G. Birney and His Times (New York, 1890), 327–28; Dwight L. Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 1831–1857 (Gloucester, Mass., 1966), 2:603–5, 613–14, 627–28, 642–56, 704, 743–48, 761–62, 766–73, 776; Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society Presented January 26 1842 . . . , 17–19; Eleventh Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By its Board of Managers January 25, 1843, 61–69; Twelfth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By its Board of Managers, January 24, 1844 . . . 53–57 (reprs., Westport, Conn., 1970); Walter M. Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 3, No Union with Slaveholders, 1841–1849 (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), 163, 248; Rein hard O. Johnson, The Liberty Party, 1840–1848: Antislavery Third-Party Politics in the United States (Baton Rouge, 2009), chaps. 1–3; Aileen S. Kraditor, Means and Ends in American Abolitionism: Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834–1850 (Chicago, 1967), chap. 6; Alan M. Kraut, “Partisanship and Principles: The Liberty Party in Antebellum Political Culture,” in Kraut, ed., Crusaders and Compromisers: Essays on the Relationship of the Antislavery Struggle to the Antebellum Party System (Westport, Conn., 1983), 71–99; Richard H. Sewell, Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837–1860 (New York, 1976), chap. 4.

6TEFA, July 7, August 11, 25, September 22, 29, October 27, 1842; March 16, April 20, July 20, November 2, December 7, 1843; TLP, August 22, 1843; Henry B. Stanton to Wright, July 4, 1843, Elizur Wright Jr. Papers, LC; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 2:623, 633–40, 643–45, 778, 857–922; Birney, James G. Birney, 353–56; Gerrit Smith Printed Circular, December 14, 1843, Amos Phelps Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery . . . (New York, 1855), 468–77; Austin Willey, The History of the Antislavery Cause . . . (Portland, Me., 1886), 227, 242–43, 260–61; Johnson, The Liberty Party, chaps. 5–7; Theodore Clark Smith, The Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest (New York, 1897), chap. 5; Richard J. Carwardine, Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America (Knoxville, 1997), 134–39; Betty Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney: Slaveholder to Abolitionist (Ithaca, 1955), 245–51; John R. McKivigan, “‘Vote as you Pray and Pray as you Vote’: Church-Oriented Abolitionism and Antislavery Politics,” in Kraut, ed., Crusaders and Compromisers, 179–87.

7FOM, February 22, 1838; TLP, November 15, 22, December 6, 1842; April 11, 1843; TEFA, March 30, November 23, 1843; February 8, 1844; Samuel Sewall to Wright, September 9, 1840, Elizur Wright Jr. Papers, LC; Douglas M. Strong, Perfectionist Politics: Abolitionism and the Religious Tensions of American Democracy (Syracuse, 1999), 24, 134; Johnson, The Liberty Party, 64–65, 145, 229–30; Bruce Laurie, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform (Cambridge, Eng., 2005), chap. 4; Alan M. Kraut, “The Forgotten Reformers: A Profile of Third Party Abolitionists in Antebellum New York,” in Lewis Perry and Michael Fellman, eds., Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Abolitionists (Baton Rouge, 1979), 119–45; Vernon L. Volpe, Forlorn Hope of Freedom: The Liberty Party in the Old Northwest, 1838–1848 (Kent, Ohio, 1990); John W. Quist, “‘The Great Majority of Our Subscribers Are Farmers’: The Michigan Abolitionist Constituency in the 1840s,” JER 14 (Fall 1994): 325–58.

8“Letter of Gerrit Smith to Hon. Henry Clay,” TAE, 9, 18–54; TL, January 15, 9, 1841; April 12, July 5, November 1, 1844; April 18, 1845; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 2:624–25; Johnson, The Liberty Party, chap. 9; Johnson, “National Liberty Party Platform, 1844,” 320; NASS, October 17, November 14, p. 93, 1844; C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 3, The United States, 1830–1846 (Chapel Hill, 1991), 413–15, 468–73; Willey, The History of the Antislavery Cause, 300, 330–31; The Impartial Citizen, February 28, 1849; Ronald K. Burke, Samuel Ringgold Ward: Christian Abolitionist (New York, 1995), 34, 108; Report of the Proceedings of the Colored National Convention, Held at Cleveland, Ohio . . . (Rochester, 1848), 5–6, 8, 11–12, 14, in Howard Holman Bell, ed., Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions 1830–1864 (New York, 1969).

9TLP, January 10, September 12, October 31, 1843; February 20, September 24, 1844; Michael D. Pierson, Free Hearts and Free Homes: Gender and American Antislavery Politics (Chapel Hill, 2003), chaps. 1, 2; Elizabeth Varon, We Mean to Be Counted: White Women and Politics in Antebellum Virginia (Chapel Hill, 1998); Johnson, The Liberty Party, 276–85; Julie Roy Jeffrey, “The Liberty Women of Boston: Evangelicalism and Antislavery Politics,” NEQ 85 (March 2012): 38–77; Alice Taylor, “From Petitions to Partyism: Antislavery and the Domestication of Maine Politics in the 1840s and 1850s,” NEQ 77 (March 2004): 70–88; Sylvia D. Hoffert, Jane Grey Swisshelm: An Unconventional Life, 1818–1884 (Chapel Hill, 2004); John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 212–15.

10. Paulina W. Davis, A History of the National Woman’s Rights . . . (New York, 1871); Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Jocelyn Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 1, 1848–1861 (New York, 1881); The Proceedings of the Woman’s Rights Convention, Held at Worcester, October 23d and 24th, 1850 (Boston, 1851), 6–19, 20–36, 820–25; TL, June 9, September 6, November 1, 1850; October 15, 29, 1852; January 14, 1853; March 16, 23, April 20, 1854; August 8, 1856; February 19, March 26, June 4, 25, October 15, 29, 1858; June 10, September 30, 1859; Carol Faulkner, Lucretia Mott’s Heresy: Abolition and Women’s Rights in Nineteenth-Century America(Philadelphia, 2011), chap. 9; Keith Melder, “Abby Kelley and the Process of Liberation,” in Jean Fagan Yellin and John C. Van Horne, eds., The Abolitionist Sisterhood: Women’s Political Culture in Antebellum America (Ithaca, 1994), 139–58; Alice Stone Blackwell, Lucy Stone: Pioneer of Women’s Rights (Boston, 1930); Ida Husted Harper, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony . . . , vol. 1 (Indianapolis, Ind., 1898); Stacey M. Robertson, Hearts Bleeding for Liberty: Women Abolitionists in the Old Northwest (Chapel Hill, 2010), chaps. 5, 7; Sylvia D. Hoffert, When Hens Crow: The Woman’s Rights Movement in Antebellum America (Bloomington, 1995); Ellen Carol DuBois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848–1869 (Ithaca, 1981).

11TL, February 25, April 22, 29, May 13, September, 2, 1842; January 20, 1843; May 17, 24, 31, 1844; February 7, April 4, July 18, 1845; NASS, March 31, May 5, June 2, 1842; September 19, 1844; March 13, April 10, 24, 1845; Thirteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By its Board of Managers, January 22, 1845 . . . (repr.; Westport, Conn., 1970), 27–34, 77–78; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:265–66, 273, 298–301; Caroline Weston to Gay, June 27, 1844, Abby Kelley Foster to Gay, July 6, August 11, 1845, March 1, June 10, August 2, 1846, Kelley Foster to Elizabeth Neall Gay, November 11, 1845, Kelley Foster to the Gays, November 16, 1845, Edmund Quincy to Gay, March 29, 1845, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; [Francis Jackson Garrison and Wendell Phillips Garrison], William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879 The Story of His Life Told By His Children, vol. 3, 1841–1860 (New York, 1889), 88–90, 96–119; Leonard L. Richards, The Life and Times of Congressman John Quincy Adams (New York, 1986), 139–45; Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 327–29, 365–71; Elizabeth Varon, Disunion! The Coming of the American Civil War, 1789–1859 (Chapel Hill, 2008), chap. 4.

12. J. W. C. Pennington, Covenants Involving Moral Wrong . . . (Hartford, 1842), 4–7, 11; NASS, September 7, 1843.

13TLP, September 3, 1841; November 29, 1842; December 19, 1843; March 26, 1844; TL, November 3, 10, December 22, 1843; January 3, 1845; NASS, April 4, 1844; The American Churches . . . , 2d ed. (Newburyport, Mass., 1842), 8, 40–44; Thomas Clarkson, A Letter to the Clergy . . . (London, 1841); Stephen S. Foster, The Brotherhood of Thieves . . . (1844; repr., Concord, N.H., 1886), 9–15, 73–74; William Goodell, Come-Outerism . . . (New York, 1845); Eleventh Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 58; Domestic Slavery Considered as a Scriptural Institution . . . (New York, 1845); Fourteenth Annual Report Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, By its Board of Managers, January 28, 1846 . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 66–77; John R. McKivigan, The War Against Proslavery Religion: Abolitionism and the Northern Churches, 1830–1865 (Ithaca, 1984); Troy Duncan and Chris Dixon, “Denouncing the Brotherhood of Thieves: Stephen Symonds Foster and the Abolitionist Critique of the Anti-Abolitionist Clergy,” CWH 47 (2001): 97–117; Deborah Bingham Van Broekhoven, “Suffering with Slaveholders: The Limits of Francis Wayland’s Anti slavery Witness,” Edward R. Crowther, “‘Religion has Something . . . to do with Politics’: Southern Evangelicals and the North,” and John R. McKivigan, “The Sectional Division of the Methodist and Baptist Denominations as Measures of Northern Antislavery Sentiment,” in John R. McKivigan and Mitchell Snay, eds., Religion and the Antebellum Debate over Slavery (Athens, Ga., 1998), 196–220, 317–64; C. C. Goen, Broken Churches, Broken Nation: Denominational Schisms and the Coming of the American Civil War (Macon, Ga., 1985); Mitchell Snay, Gospel of Disunion: Religion and Separatism in the Antebellum South (Cambridge, Eng., 1993), chap. 4.

14. Samuel Wilberforce, A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America (London, 1844); Jay, Miscellaneous Writings, 430, 442–50, 471–81; Stephen P. Budney, William Jay: Abolitionist and Anticolonialist (Westport, Conn., 2005), 80–83; Parker Pillsbury, The Church As It Is . . . (1847; repr., Concord, N.H., 1885), 3–4, 7, 13, 40, 76.

15. Lewis Tappan to Phelps, September 30, October 28, 1844, Amos Phelps Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; FOM, June 27, 1838; TLP, December 6, 1842; Silas McKeen, A Scriptural Argument in Favor of Withdrawing . . . (New York, 1848); John G. Fee, Non-Fellowship with Slaveholders . . . (New York, 1849); Samuel Brooke, The Slaveholder’s Religion (Cincinnati, 1845); William W. Patton, Slavery, the Bible, Infidelity . . . (Hartford, 1846), 14–15; Foster, The Brotherhood of Thieves, 26–29; Pillsbury, The Church As It Is, 57–67; John G. Fee, An Anti-Slavery Manual . . . (1848; rpr., New York, 1851); Fee, The Sin-fulness of Slaveholding . . . (New York, 1851); Autobiography of John G. Fee, Berea, Kentucky (Chicago, 1891), 20, 34–57; Jay, Miscellaneous Writings, 634–40, 658–64; TL, October 6, 1843; March 1, 8, 1844; NASS, January 25, 1844; Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery, 153–219, 425–33, 487–516, 541–58; Mark A. Noll, The Civil War as a Theological Crisis (Chapel Hill, 2006), chap. 3.

16. Alvan Stewart, “A Constitutional Argument on the Subject of Slavery,” in Jacobus tenBroek, ed., Equal Under Law (New York, 1965), 281–95; FOM, June 13, June 27, 1838; G. W. F. Mellen, An Argument on the Unconstitutionality of Slavery . . . (Boston, 1841), 4–6, 433; TL, July 20, August 27, 1841; June 21, 1844; NASS, September 12, 1844; Robert Cover, Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process (New Haven, 1975), chap. 9; Frederick J. Blue, No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics (Baton Rouge, 2005), 20–21, 30–36; William M. Weicek, The Sources of Antislavery Constitutionalism in America, 1760–1848 (Ithaca, 1977), chap. 9.

17. Wendell Phillips, The Constitution, a Pro-Slavery Compact . . . (Boston, 1844), 8; TAE, No. 13, Can Abolitionists Vote or Take Office Under the United States Constitution? (New York, 1845), 4; William Goodell, Views of American Constitutional Law . . . (Utica, N.Y., 1844), 10–11, 35–37, 63–65, 97–102, 149–51; Gerrit Smith’s Constitutional Argument (Peter boro, N.Y., 1844), 4–8; Lysander Spooner, The Unconstitutionality of Slavery (Boston, 1845; Project Gutenberg ebook, 2010); Wendell Phillips, Review of Lysander Spooner’s Essay . . . (Boston, 1847), 9–15, 93; NASS, September 28, November 9, 1843; September 12, 19, 1844; September 18, November 14, 1845; TL, August 16, September 6, 13, 20, 27, October 4, 25, November 22, 1844; Wendell Phillips to Gay, July 3, 1844, October 7, n.d., William Goodell to Gay, April 20, 1847, Lysander Spooner to Gay, March 22, April 24, 1847, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Staughton Lynd, “The Abolitionist Critique of the United States Constitution,” in Martin Duberman, ed., The Anti slavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists (Princeton, 1965), chap. 10; Weicek, The Sources of Antislavery Constitutionalism, chaps. 10, 11; Hoan Gia Phan, Bonds of Citizenship: Law and the Labors of Emancipation (New York, 2013), 127–38.

18. Benjamin Shaw, Illegality of Slavery (Boston, 1846), 1–2; Joel Tiffany, A Treatise on the Unconstitutionality of Slavery . . . (Cleveland, 1849), 7–10, 16–17, 21, 54–57, 60–83, 87–88, 93–96, 122–29, 135.

19Diary and Correspondence of Salmon P. Chase (New York, 1971), 115; J. W. Schuckers, The Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (New York, 1874), 67–74; John Niven, ed., The Salmon P. Chase Papers, vol. 2, Correspondence, 1823–1857 (Kent, Ohio, 1994), 84–87, 99–100, 119–20; TEFA, September 14, 1843; TLP, August 29, 1843; Maria Weston Chapman to Gay, May 22, 1834, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Joshua Leavitt to Roger H. Leavitt, February 9, 1842, Joshua Leavitt Family Papers, LC; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 2:661–62, 670–72; Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men, 73–87; Oakes, Freedom National, 26–33; Stanley Harrold, Gamaliel Bailey and Antislavery Union (Kent, Ohio, 1986), 48–69.

20TL, October 14, 1842; September 1, November 3, December 1, 8, 1843; February 23, March 15, 29, April 19, May 3, June 7, 1844; TLP, December 20, 1842; February 20, 27, March 5, 26, April 9, 16, May 7, 14, 28, June 7, July 9, 16, 30, August 6, 1844; NASS, April 4, May 2, 9, June 20, July 4, August 29, September 5, 1844; Edmund Quincy to Gay, March 4, 1845, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Joshua R. Giddings, Speeches in Congress (New York, 1853), 97–147; Tenth Annual Report of . . . the Mass. Anti-Slavery Society, 26–28; Eleventh Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 99; Twelfth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 17–21; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:284; Norman Graebner, ed., Manifest Destiny (Indianapolis, 1968), 15–28, 41–56, 63–69; Joshua R. Giddings, History of the Rebellion . . . (New York, 1864), 213–15, 222–36, 247; George W. Julian, The Life of Joshua R. Giddings (Chicago 1892), 155–68, 182–92; Fourteenth Annual Report Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 4–16; Frederick Merk, Fruits of Propaganda in the Tyler Administration (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 95–128, 221–52; Merk, Slavery and the Annexation of Texas (New York, 1972); Joel H. Silbey, Storm over Texas: The Annexation Controversy and the Road to Civil War (New York, 2005); David Zarefsky, “Debating Slavery by Proxy: The Texas Annexation Controversy,” in Paul Finkelman and Donald R. Kennon, eds., In the Shadow of Freedom: The Politics of Slavery in the National Capital (Athens, Ohio, 2011), 125–37.

21Eleventh Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 24; Twelfth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 21–22; Thirteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 41–44; Fourteenth Annual Report Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 90–91; Fifteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 4–26; NASS, June 1, 8, 15, December 14, 1843; January 4, February 15, 22, March 21, May 16, 1844; January 2, 16, February 6, 13, 20, 27, March 6, 20, October 2, November 13, December 25, 1845; TL, February 2, March 1, 8, April 5, May 3, June 28, December 13, 27, 1844; January 10, 24, 31, February 7, 14, 1845; March 7, 14, 28, April 4, 11, May 9, 16, October 31, November 7, 14, 28, December 5, 1845; March 6, April 17, December 18, 1846; TLP, February 6, April 9, 16, 30, October 19, 1844; TEFA, February 14, 24, May 11, 1844; Cassius M. Clay to Gay, March 22, 1845, Edmund Quincy to Gay, October 30, 1845, February 4, 1846, September 12, 1847, Caroline Weston to Gay, November 2, 1846, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Gerrit Smith Printed Letter to the Proslavery Voters of Madison County, May 22, 1844, Amos Phelps Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:285–87, 311, 319; William Lloyd Garrison, 3:120–29; Samuel T. Pickard, ed., Whittier as a Politician (Boston, 1900), 33–43; Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (Boston, 1872): vol. 1, chaps. 41–45; Richard H. Sewell, John P. Hale and the Politics of Abolition (Cambridge, Mass., 1965), 28–35, 48–85; Jonathan H. Earle, Jacksonian Antislavery and the Politics of Free Soil, 1824–1854 (Chapel Hill, 2004), chaps. 3, 4; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery (Cleveland, 1969), 250–56; Frank Otto Gatell, John Gorham Palfrey and the New England Conscience (Cambridge, Mass., 1963); Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner, vol. 1, 1811–1838 (Boston, 1877), 156–57; ibid., vol. 2, 1838–1845, 191–96, 335–67; Elias Nason, The Life and Public Services of Henry Wilson . . . (New York, 1876), 61–87; Kinley J. Brauer, Cotton versus Conscience: Massachusetts Whig Politics and Southwestern Expansion, 1843–1848 (Lexington, Ky., 1967).

22. John G. Palfrey, Papers on the Slave Power . . . (Boston, 1846); William Jay, A Review of the Mexican War (Boston, 1849); TL, January 30, April 24, 1846; February 19, 26, 1847; January 21, February 4, July 21, 1848; Joshua Giddings to Smith, January 25, 1847, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; Joshua R. Giddings to Gay, January 12, March 15, 26, May 6, 8, 25, 1846, January 24, 28, 1847, Giddings to Maria Weston Chapman, June 14, 1846, Giles Stebbins to Gay, September 25, November 13, 1846, Richard Webb to Gay, January 20, 1848, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Lewis Tappan to Phelps, February 22, 1847, Amos Phelps Papers, Antislavery Collection, BPL; Sixteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 4–14; Julian, The Life of Joshua R. Giddings, 170, 192–204, 238–40; Giddings, History of the Rebellion, 250–73; Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (Boston, 1874), 2: chaps. 2–4; Bernard De Voto, The Year of Decision 1846(Boston, 1942); Amy S. Greenberg, A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln and the 1846 US Invasion of Mexico(New York, 2012).

23NE, January 21, 28, February 11, 18, October 21, 28, 1847; July 27, August 3, 10, 24, 31, September 14, 21, 28, October 12, 19, 26, November 2, 9, 16, 23, 1848; February 8, March 22, 29, May 3, 10, 17, 24, June 7, 28, August 16, November 8, 15, 1849; January 3, August 29, 1850; April 22, 1852; TL, November 5, 19, December 17, 1847; September 23, 1853; George Bradburn to Smith, April 21, May 26, 1850, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; John Gorham Palfrey to Gay, December 15, 1847, April 8, 1848, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Charles Knowlton to Roger H. Leavitt, October 12, 1848, Printed Circular Boston Free Soil Club, October 19, 1848, D. S. Jones to Roger Leavitt, November 8, 1848, Joshua Leavitt to Roger H. Leavitt, April 4, 1851, Joshua Leavitt Family Papers, LC; TLP, September 12, 1843; Henry B. Stanton, Random Recollections (New York, 1887), 157–65; Julian, The Life of Joshua R. Giddings, 206–57, 271–85; Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall, vol. 2, chaps. 10–15; Sewell, Ballots for Freedom, chaps. 6–9; Frederick J. Blue, The Free Soilers: Third Party Politics, 1848–54 (Urbana, 1973), 293–301; Eric Foner, “Politics and Prejudice: The Free Soil Party and the Negro,” JNH 50 (October 1965): 239–56; Mitchell, Antislavery Politics, chaps. 3–4; Michael F. Holt, The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War (New York, 1999); Richard H. Sewell, “Slavery, Race, and the Free Soil Party, 1848–1854,” in Kraut, ed., Crusaders and Compromisers, 101–24; Joseph G. Rayback, Free Soil: The Election of 1848 (Lexington, Ky., 1970); Sewell, John P. Hale, chap. 6; Stanley Harrold, “Gamaliel Bailey, Antislavery Journalist and Lobbyist,” and Jonathan Earle, “Saturday Nights at the Baileys’: Building an Antislavery Movement in Congress, 1838–1854,” in Finkelman and Kennon, eds., In the Shadow of Freedom, 58–96; Daniel Feller, “A Brother in Arms: Benjamin Tappan and the Antislavery Democracy,” JAH 88 (June 2001): 48–74; Edward Magdol, Owen Lovejoy: Abolitionist in Congress (New Brunswick, N.J., 1967).

24. Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery, 475–86; James Birney, “Can Congress, under the Constitution, Abolish Slavery in the States?,” in tenBroek, ed., Equal Under Law, 296–319; Dumond, ed., Letters of James Gillespie Birney, 2:1027–29, 1047–57, 1087–88, 1094–95, 1108–9, 1124; F. Freeman, Africa’s Redemption the Salvation of Our Country(New York, 1852), 314–24; William Birney, James G. Birney and His Times . . . (New York, 1890), chap. 31; Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney, chap. 14; George Bradburn to Smith, December 28, 1848, June 29, 1849, Seth M. Gates to Smith, November 8, 1852, David Lee Child to Smith, January 20, 1852, Gerrit Smith Papers, SU; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 174–76; Burke, Samuel Ringgold Ward, 35; Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan, 274–76, 278–81.

25TL, March 5, 12, June 25, July 2, October 22, December 17, 24, 1847; January 7, February 11, 18, 25, March 3, June 23, 30, July 7, 14, August 4, 18, 25, September 8, 15, 29, October 6, November 17, 1848; January 12, 26, February 3, May 18, June 1, July 27, November 30, 1849; Edmund Quincy to Gay, n.d., Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Seventeenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . and Eighteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 34–42, 96–97; Mayer, All on Fire, 382–85.

26. Elbert B. Smith, The Magnificent Missourian: The Life of Thomas Hart Benton (Philadelphia, 1958); Henry Ruffner, Address to the People of West Virginia . . . (Lexington, Va., 1847), 9; NASS, December 14, 1843; February 22, 1844; March 6, August 28, September 4, 1845; TL, July 3, 1846; January 22, 1847; NS, February 9, April 27, September 7, 1849; FDP, November 5, 1852; December 22, 1854; NE, March 18, June 24, 1847; June 28, 1849; April 20, 1848; January 25, April 19, May 17, July 19, August 16, 30, November 1, 1849; April 2, 1851; September 23, October 28, December 9, 1852; August 2, 16, September 25, 1855; Horace Greeley ed., The Writings of Cassius Marcellus Clay . . . (New York, 1848), vi–vii, 68–71, 77–96, 129, 183, 521–22, 530–35; The Life of Cassius Marcellus Clay . . . (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1886), vol. 1, chaps. 5, 6, 10; Harold D. Tallant, Evil Necessity: Slavery and Political Culture in Antebellum Kentucky (Lexington, Ky., 2003).

27. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Poems on Slavery (Cambridge, Mass., 1842), 18; TL, December 30, 1842; November 28, 1845; February 13, July 3, 1846; December 1, 1848; NE, November 25, 1847; August 31, October 20, November 30, 1848; January 17, 1850; November 13, 1851; NS, April 28, October 6, 1848; January 26, 1849; August 13, 1852; PF, June 17, 1854; George Lowell Austin, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: His Life, His Work, and His Friendships (Boston, 1883); David S. Reynolds, Walt Whitman (New York, 2005), 8–11; [James Rusell Lowell], The Biglow Papers (Boston, 1848); Martin B. Duberman, James Russell Lowell (Boston, 1966), 102–15; John Stauffer, “Fighting the Devil With His Own Fire,” in Andrew Delbanco, The Abolitionist Imagination (Cambridge, Mass., 2012), 61–67.

28TL, January 12, 1844; December 5, 1845; November 27, 1846; June 16, 1848; November 1, 1850; July 2, August 20, October 1, 1852; August 10, 1855; NASS, July 11, 1844; February 20, December 18, 1845; NE, February 10, 17, 24, March 2, 1848; NS, January 7, 27, February 3, 11, March 24, 31, April 7, 14, 21, May 5, June 30, 1848; January 6, 13, 20, March 23, June 15, August 10, 24, 31, 1849; Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emerson’s Antislavery Writings, Len Gougeon and Joel Myerson, eds. (New Haven, 1995), introduction, 26, 35–38, 41–50; Henry David Thoreau, A Vision of Thoreau: With His 1849 Essay, Civil Disobedience (Norwalk, Conn., 1965); American Slavery: A Protest Against American Slavery, By One Hundred and Seventy Three Unitarian Ministers(Boston, 1845); James Freeman Clarke, Slavery in the United States . . . (Boston, 1843); Clarke, The Annexation of Texas . . . (Boston, 1844); Theodore Parker, Sermons on War . . . from The Collected Works of Theodore Parker, ed. Francis P. Cobbe (New York, 1973); Len Gougeon, Virtue’s Hero: Emerson, Anti-Slavery, and Reform (Athens, Ga., 1990); Peter Field, “The Strange Career of Emerson and Race,” American Nineteenth-Century History 2 (Spring 2001): 1–32; Peter Wirzbicki, “Black Intellectuals, White Abolitionists, and Revolutionary Transcendentalists: Creating the Radical Intellectual Tradition in Antebellum Boston,” (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 2012); Sandra Petrulionis, To Set This World Right: The Antislavery Movement in Thoreau’s Concord(Ithaca, 2006); Nick Aaron Ford, “Henry David Thoreau, Abolitionist,” NEQ 19 (1946): 284–310; Lewis Perry, “Black Abolitionists and the Origins of Civil Disobedience,” in Karen Haltunnen and Lewis Perry, eds., Moral Problems in American Life: New Perspectives on Cultural History (Ithaca, 1998), 103–22; Dean Grodzins, American Heretic: Theodore Parker and Transcendentalism (Chapel Hill, 2002), 469–75; Ethan J. Kytle, Romantic Reformers and the Antislavery Struggle in the Civil War Era (Cambridge, Eng, 2014), chaps. 1, 5.

29NE, February 7, 14, 28, March 7, 14, 28, April 4, 11, 18, 25, May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 13, 20, July 18, 25, August 1, 8, 22, 29, September 12, 26, October 3, 10, November 28, December 5, 1850; TL, February 8, March 8, 15, 22, 29, April 5, 12, May 3, July 19, 1850; Richard Webb to Gay, June 7, 1850, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Jay, Miscellaneous Writings, 496, 569, 617; NS, October 3, 1850; Nineteenth Annual Report, Presented to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society . . . (repr., Westport, Conn., 1970), 4–24; Burke, Samuel Ringgold Ward, 137–40; Giddings, History of the Rebellion, 309–39; Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall, vol. 2, chaps. 17–24; Fergus M. Bordewich, America’s Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas and the Compromise that Preserved the Union (New York, 2012); Holman Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and the Compromise of 1850 (Lexington, Ky., 1964); Mark J. Stegmaier, “Zachary Taylor versus the South,” CWH 33 (1987): 217–41; A. Glenn Crothers, “The 1846 Retrocession of Alexandria: Protecting Slavery and the Slave Trade in the District of Columbia,” in Finkelman and Kennon, eds., In the Shadow of Freedom, 141–68; Merrill D. Peterson, The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay, and Calhoun (New York, 1987); Robert V. Remini, Daniel Webster: The Man and His Time (New York, 1997), 669–81; Glyndon G. Van Deusen, William Henry Seward (New York, 1967), 106–42; Frederic Bancroft, The Life of William H. Seward (New York, 1900): 1:242–68.

30TL, July 23, December 17, 1847; January 14, October 6, November 3, 17, December 1, 1848; January 5, April 13, May 18, June 8, 1849; June 28, July 5, November 29, 1850; May 16, 23, June 13, 20, July 4, October 31, November 14, 1851; January 30, May 14, 21, October 1, 22, 1852; July 22, August 5, 22, 26, September 2, 16, November 18, 25, December 19, 1853; January 13, 27, 1854; February 9, May 11, 1855; Philip S. Foner, ed., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1, Early Years, 1817–1849 (New York, 1950), 253–55, 256–69, 306–7, 369–70; John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One, Speeches, Debates and Interviews, vol. 2, 1847–1854 (New Haven, 1982), 93–95, 114, 193–97, 447–50; FDP, November 6, 1851; April 22, August 6, 1852; December 9, 1853; March 31, 1854; Merrill, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, 3:532–33, 614, 625; Louis Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 4, From Disunionism to the Brink of War, 1850–1860 (Cambridge, Mass., 1975), 256–57, 329–30, 391–92, 693–94; Mayer, All on Fire, 428–34; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 158–68; John R. McKivigan, “The Frederick Douglass–Gerrit Smith Friendship and Political Abolitionism in the 1850s,” in Eric J. Sundquist, ed., Frederick Douglass: New Literary and Historical Essays (Cambridge, Eng., 1990), 205–32; Benjamin Quarles, “The Break between Douglass and Garrison,” JNH 23 (April 1938): 144–54; William S. McFeely, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1991), chap. 14; Maria Diedrich, Love Across Color Lines: Ottilie Assing and Frederick Douglass (New York, 1999); Rosetta Douglass Sprague, “Anna Murray Douglass—My Mother as I Recall Her,” JNH 8 (January 1923): 93–101; John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews, vol. 3, 1855–63 (New Haven, 1985), 14–51; Philip S. Foner, ed., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 2, Pre–Civil War Decade, 1850–1860 (New York, 1950), 467–80; Phan, Bonds of Citizenship, 138–41, 206–7.

31NE, February 2, 9, 1854; TL, February 10, March 3, 17, May 5, 12, 26, 1854; FDP, October 30, 1851; August 6, September 24, December 10, 1852; February 10, 24, May 26, June 2, 23, August 25, September 15, October 27, November 24, 1854; Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One, 2:555; Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall, vol. 2, chap. 30; John R. Wunder and Joann M. Ross, eds., The Nebraska–Kansas Act of 1854 (Lincoln, Neb., 2008); Roy F. Nichols, “The Kansas–Nebraska Act: A Century of Historiography,” MVHR 34 (1956): 187–212; Michael Todd Landis, Northern Men with Southern Loyalties: The Democratic Party and the Sectional Crisis (Ithaca, 2014).

32NE, August 28, September 4, 1851; December 8, 1853; May 4, 1854; January 25, 1855; TL, December 31, 1852; April 2, 1854; May 18, 1855; FDP, September 4, 1851; September 3, December 3, 31, 1852; January 7, 14, February 4, 18, 1853; May 12, June 23, September 29, 1854; Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One, 3:116–20; The War in Nicaragua, Written by Gen’l William Walker (Mobile, 1860), 276–80; Graebner, ed., Manifest Destiny, 245–53, 285–307; Giddings, History of the Rebellion, 413–18; Tom Chaffin, Fatal Glory: Narciso López and the First Clandestine U.S. War against Cuba (Charlottesville, Va., 1996); Robert May, Manifest Destiny’s Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill, 2002); Walter Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (Cambridge, Mass., 2013).

33NE, November 23, 1854; May 10, 31, July 19, September 20, October 4, 11, 18, November 1, 2, 8, 15, 29, December 13, 20, 27, 1855; TL, October 6, November 10, 17, December 1, 1854; FDP, November 17, December 15, 1854; Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall, vol. 2, chap. 32; Sewell, Ballots for Freedom, chap. 11; Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men, chap. 7; William E. Gienapp, The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856 (New York, 1987); Tyler Anbinder, Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850s (New York, 1992).

34FDP, November 24, December 1, 1854; TL, May 25, October 24, 31, 1856; Blassingame ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One, 3:132, 141; Horace Greeley, History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension . . . (New York, 1856); Allan Nevins, Frémont, the West’s Greatest Adventurer . . . (New York, 1928); David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge, 1989), 47–51; Mitchell, Antislavery Politics, chap. 6; Pierson, Free Hearts and Free Homes, chaps. 5, 6.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN. REVOLUTIONARY ABOLITIONISM

1. Jacob R. Shipherd, History of the Oberlin–Wellington Rescue (Boston, 1859), 175–78.

2. Steven Lubet, Fugitive Justice: Runaways, Rescuers, and Slavery on Trial (Cambridge, Mass., 2010); Robert M. Cover, Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process (New Haven, 1975); Gordon S. Barker, Fugitive Slaves and the Unfinished American Revolution: Eight Cases, 1848–1856 (Jefferson, N.C., 2013).

3NE, October 3, 1850; June 5, September 18, 1851; January 22, October 21, 1852; George Stroud, A Sketch of the Laws Relating to Slavery (Philadelphia, 1856); Stanley Campbell, The Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850–1860 (Chapel Hill, 1968); Carol Wilson, Freedom at Risk: The Kidnapping of Free Blacks in America, 1780–1865 (Lexington, Ky., 1994), 54; Robert Churchill, “Fugitive Slave Rescues in the North: Toward a Geography of Antislavery Violence,” Ohio Valley History 14 (Summer 2014): 51–75; Lois E. Horton, “Kidnapping and Resistance: Antislavery Direct Action in the 1850s,” in David W. Blight ed., Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory (Washington, 2004), 149–73; W. H. Furness, A Discourse Occasioned by the Boston Fugitive Slave Case . . . (Philadelphia, 1851), 6, 14–15.

4NS, September 5, 1850; TL, August 9, September 13, 1850; NE, October 10, 1850; John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2002), 163–64.

5TL, April 5, September 27, October 4, 11, 18, 25, November 1, December 13, 20, 1850; January 10, 17, October 24, 1851; December 27, 1852; NE, August 14, October 10, 24, 31, November 14, 21, 28, 1850; February 6, 25, March 20, April 24, May 22, November 13, December 4, 1851; July 8, 1852; NS, October 24, October 31, 1850; January 16, 23, March 20, April 3, 10, 1851; R. J. M. Blackett, “‘Freemen to the Rescue’: Resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850,” in Blight, ed., Passages to Freedom, 133–47; David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge, 1989), chap. 4.

6NS, October 3, 24, 1850; January 16, 1851; NE, October 10, November 21, 1850; The Fugitive Slave Bill . . . (New York, 1850), 2–5, 21, 31–36; TL, October 25, 1850, p. 170; Samuel May, The Fugitive Slave Law and Its Victims . . . (New York, 1861), 12–13, 37–38; NASS, January 2, 9, February 6, 1851; FDP, April 8, 15, May 13, June 3, 1852; William Still, The Underground Railroad . . . (1872; repr. Medford, N.J., 2005), 120–23; Carla L. Peterson, Black Gotham: A Family History of African Americans in Nineteenth-Century New York City (New Haven, 2011), 194–96, 237–40; Christopher L. Webber, American to the Backbone: The Life of James W. C. Pennington, the Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Black Abolitionists (New York, 2011), 341–51; Prithi Kanakamedala, “In Pursuit of Freedom: Anti-Slavery Activism and the Culture of Abolitionism in Brooklyn, NY,” (Brooklyn Historical Society, 2012), 67–72; Eric Foner, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad (New York, 2015), chap. 5.

7TL, October 18, November 1, 29, December 13, 30, 1850; Account Book of Francis Jackson, Treasurer 1850–1860 . . . (Boston, 1924), 18, 20, 24; Austin Bearse, Reminiscences of Fugitive-Slave Law Days . . . (Boston, 1880), 3–6, 13–20, 24–33; Gary Collison, “The Boston Vigilance Committee: A Reconsideration,” Historical Journal of Massachusetts 12 (October 1984): 104–16; Sidney Kaplan, “The Moby Dick in the Service of the Underground Railroad,” Phylon 12 (1951): 173–76; Stanley J. Robboy and Anita W. Robboy, “Lewis Hayden: From Fugitive Slave to Statesman,” NEQ 46 (December 1973): 591–613; Dean Grodzins, “‘Slave Law’ versus ‘Lynch Law’ in Boston: Benjamin Robbins Curtis, Theodore Parker and the Fugitive Slave Crisis, 1850–1855,” MHR 12 (2010): 1–33; Stephen Kantrowitz, More than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829–1889 (New York, 2012): 180–84.

8TL, February 21, March 14, April 11, 18, May 9, 1851; NE, March 6, April 10, 17, May 22, 1851; NS, April 10, 1851; NASS, February 27, March 13, April 10, 17, 24, July 17, November 20, 1851; May, The Fugitive Slave Law, 15–17; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays (Boston, 1898), 135–46; Trial of Thomas Sims . . . (Boston, 1851), 4, 15–16 26–27; The Fugitive Slave Law: Speech of Hon. Robert Rantoul, Jr. . . . (Boston, 1851); Gary Collison, Shadrach Minkins: From Fugitive Slave to Citizen (Cambridge, Mass., 1997); Leonard W. Levy, “Sims’ Case: The Fugitive Slave Law in Boston,” JNH 35 (January 1950): 39–69; Merle E. Curti, “Robert Rantoul Jr., A Reformer in Politics,” NEQ 5 (April 1932): 264–80.

9. Still, The Underground Railroad, 251–64, 438–40; W. U. Hensel, The Christiana Riot . . . (Lancaster, Pa., 1911), 16, 20–39, 40–46, 57–91, 99–100, 103–25; James R. Robbins, Report of the Trial of Caster Hanway . . . (Philadelphia, 1852), 89–90, 111–17, 216–20; NASS, February 13, March 20, September 18, October 2, 16, 23, November 20, December 4, 11, 18, 25, 1851; FDP, September 25, October 2, 9, 16, 23, November 13, 20, 27, December 11, 1851; January 1, 8, 22, February 19, June 24, 1852; NE, September 18, 25, October 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, November 13, 20, 27, December 11, 18, 1851; January 1, 29, 1852; TL, September 26, October 3, 10, November 28, 1851; Beverly Wilson Palmer, ed., The Selected Papers of Thaddeus Stevens (Pittsburgh, 1987), 1:136–37; Marion Gleason McDougall, Fugitive Slaves [1619–1865] (Boston, 1891), 51; R. C. Smedley, History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania (Lancaster, Pa., 1883); Julie Winch, “Philadelphia and the Other Underground Railroad,” PMHB 111 (January 1987): 3–25; William J. Switala, Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania(Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2001); William C. Kashatus, Just Over the Line: Chester County and the Underground Railroad (West Chester, Pa., 2002); David G. Smith, On the Edge of Freedom: The Fugitive Slave Issue in South Central Pennsylvania, 1820–1870 (New York, 2013), 27–30; Roderick W. Nash, “William Parker and the Christiana Riot,” JNH 96 (1961): 24–31; Thomas P. Slaughter, Bloody Dawn: The Christiana Riot and Racial Violence in the Antebellum North (New York, 1991); Jonathan Katz, Resistance at Christiana: The Fugitive Slave Rebellion, Christiana, Pennsylvania, September 11, 1851, A Documentary Account (New York, 1974); Hans L. Trefousse, Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (Chapel Hill, 1997), 13–15, 84.

10NASS, June 5, August 28, September 4, October 30, 1851; FDP, October 9, 30, 1851; January 8, 29, October 8, 15, December 24, 1852; February 11, March 4, 1853; NE, October 9, 1851; March 17, October 6, 1853; TL, October 3, 10, 17, 24, 1851; May 14, October 8, 15, 22, 1852; May 26, 1854; The Reverend J. W. Loguen, As a Slave and a Freeman . . . (Syracuse, 1859), ix, 389–444, 451–55; Carol M. Hunter, To Set the Captives Free: Reverend Jermain Wesley Loguen and the Struggle for Freedom in Central New York, 1835–1872 (New York, 1993), 78–79, 120–22, 128–31, 156–57; Earl E. Sperry, The Jerry Rescue, October 1, 1851 (Syracuse, 1924), 18–27, 32, 36, 38, 54–56; W. Freeman Galpin, “The Jerry Rescue,” New York History 26 (January 1945): 19–34; Jayme Sokolow, “The Jerry McHenry Rescue and the Growth of Northern Anti-Slavery Sentiment During the 1850s,” Journal of American Studies (December 1982): 427–45; Angela F. Murphy, The Jerry Rescue: The Fugitive Slave Law, Northern Rights, and the American Sectional Crisis (New York, 2016).

11. Charles Emery Stevens, Anthony Burns . . . (Boston, 1856), 16, 29–30, 33, 41–47, 50–52, 62–72, 93–95, 124–25, 139–49, 187–90, 237–44, 273–74, 281–83; Boston Slave Riot, and Trial of Anthony . . . (Boston, 1854), 5–18, 35–40, 57–60, 77–79, 84–89; Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays, 146–66; James Freeman Clarke, Discourse on Christian Politics . . . (Boston, 1854), 9, 19, 21; NASS, June 3, 10, 24, July 1, 8, 1854; FDP, June 2, 9, 23, November 3, 1854; TL, February 9, 16, 23, March 2, 9, 23, April 6, 20, 27, May 4, 18, 25, 1855; March 27, 1857; March 5, 12, 1858; Theodore Parker, The Trial of Theodore Parker . . . (Boston, 1855), v, xviii–xx, 6–9, 42–68, 133, 217; Jane H. Pease and William H. Pease, The Fugitive Slave Law and Anthony Burns: A Problem in Law Enforcement (Philadelphia, 1975); Albert J. Von Frank, The Trials of Anthony Burns: Freedom and Slavery in Emerson’s Boston (Cambridge, Mass., 1998); Earl M. Maltz, Fugitive Slave on Trial: The Anthony Burns Case and Abolitionist Outrage (Lawrence, Kan., 2010); Gordon S. Barker, The Imperfect Revolution: Anthony Burns and the Landscape of Race in Antebellum America (Kent, Ohio, 2010); Cover, Justice Accused, 1–7, 249–52.

12TL, June 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, July 7, 14, 21, 1854; Len Gougeon and Joel Myerson, eds., Emerson’s Antislavery Writings (New Haven, 1995), 57; Christian Duty: Three Discourses . . . (Philadelphia, 1854), 10, 28; Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 443–45; Lewis Perry, Civil Disobedience: An American Tradition (New Haven, 2013), chap. 4.

13TL, April 7, 1854; May 4, 1855; May 1, 1857; Provincial Freeman, March 25, 1854; FDP, December 1, 1854; NE, February 1, 22, 1855; NASS, March 26, 1859; Byron Paine, Unconstitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act . . . [Milwaukee, 1854], 4; H. Robert Baker, The Rescue of Joshua Glover: A Fugitive Slave, the Constitution, and the Coming of the Civil War (Athens, Ohio, 2006), 1–25, 63–64, 77, 91, 96, 152–53, 173–74; Ruby West Jackson and Walter T. McDonald, Finding Freedom: The Untold Story of Joshua Glover, Runaway Slave (Madison, 2007); Frederick J. Blue, No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics (Baton Rouge, 2005), chap. 6; Joseph A. Ranney, “Concepts of Freedom: The Life of Justice Byron Paine,” Wisconsin Lawyer75 (November 2002) http://www.wisbar.org/newspublications/wisconsinlawyer/pages/wisconsin-lawyer.aspx?Volume=75&Issue=11; Michael J. McManus, Political Abolitionism in Wisconsin, 1840–1861 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1998).

14. Shipherd, History of the Oberlin–Wellington Rescue, vii, 2–3, 8, 11–12, 92–95, 131, 176–78, 180–84, 223–25, 247–59, 263–80; TL, January 28, February 18, May 27, June 3, 10, 1859; ASB, April 9, 23, May 28, June 18, July 9, 16, 30, September 10, October 29, 1859; NASS, April 23, June 25, July 2, 16, 23, 30, 1859; Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, vol. 1, 1840–1865 (Philadelphia, 1979), 248–49, 334, 338–39; Nat Brandt, The Town that Started the Civil War (Syracuse, 1990), 44–111, 204–59; R. J. M. Blackett, Beating Against the Barriers: The Lives of Six Nineteenth-Century Afro-Americans (Ithaca, 1989), 185–92; William F. Cheek and Aimee Lee Cheek, John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1829–1865 (Urbana, 1989); Warren Guthrie, “The Oberlin–Wellington Rescue Case, 1859,” in J. Jeffrey Auer, ed., Antislavery and Disunion, 1858–1861 (New York, 1963), 85–97; Cover, Justice Accused, 232, 252–56; J. Brent Morris, Oberlin Hotbed of Abolitionism: College, Community, and the Fight for Freedom and Equality in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill, 2014), 368–90.

15. Still, The Underground Railroad, 53–60, 125; Narrative of Facts in the Case of Passmore Williamson (Philadelphia, 1855), 4–5, 8, 10, 12–16, 18–22; NASS, July 28, August 15, 25, September 8, 22, 29, October 20, 27, November 10, 1855; NE, July 26, August 2, September 8, 13, 20, 27, October 18, 25, November 1, 8, 1855; TL, August 3, September 7, 14, 21, October 19, November 9, December 7, 1855; FDP, August 10, September 28, October 19, 1855; Case of Passmore Williamson . . . (Philadelphia, 1856); Richard Hildreth, ed., Atrocious Judges . . . (New York, 1856), 9–36, 389–432; Passmore Williamson v. John K. Kane . . . (Philadelphia, 1856); Edlie L. Wong, Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel (New York, 2009), 104–14; Phil Lapansky, “The Liberation of Jane Johnson,” http://www.librarycompany.org/JaneJohnson/; May, The Fugitive Slave Law, 47; Nat Brandt and Yanna Brandt, In the Shadow of the Civil War: Passmore Williamson and the Rescue of Jane Johnson(Columbia, S.C., 2007).

16. May, The Fugitive Slave Law, 50–62, 67–68; NASS, February 9, 16, 23, March 15, April 12, May 16, 1856; TL, February 29, March 7, 14, May 16, 23, 1856; May 22, 1857; July 16, 1858; ASB, February 16, December 27, 1856; October 3, November 14, December 12, 1857; January 23, February 25, March 27, June 5, July 31, 1858; June 11, 1859; Steven Weisenburger, Modern Medea: A Family Story of Slavery and Child-Murder from the Old South (New York, 1998), 44–75, 90–106, 123–25, 170–75, 302; Melton A. McLaurin, Celia, A Slave (Athens, Ga., 1991); Stephen Middleton, “The Fugitive Slave Crisis in Cincinnati, 1850–1860: Resistance, Reinforcement, and Black Refugees,” JNH 72 (1987): 20–32; Julius Yanuck, “The Garner Fugitive Slave Case,” MVHR 40 (1953): 47–66; Cynthia Griffin Wolff, “‘Margaret Garner’: A Cincinnati Story,” Massachusetts Review 32 (1991): 417–40.

17NASS, May 5, 1860; Still, The Underground Railroad, 123–27, 353–54, 384–85; May, The Fugitive Slave Law, 134–35; Weekly Anglo-African, May 12, 1860; Scott Christian-son, Freeing Charles: The Struggle to Free a Slave on the Eve of the Civil War (Urbana, 2010), 52–75, 88–122.

18New York Court of Appeals: Report of the Lemmon Slave Case . . . (New York, 1861), 4–14, 25, 31, 33–35, 42–44, 117; NASS, December 12, 1857; May, The Fugitive Slave Law, 24, 134; TL, May 20, 1859; Paul Finkelman, An Imperfect Union: Slavery, Federalism, and Comity (Chapel Hill, 1981), 296–343; Thomas J. Davis, “Napoleon vs. Lemmon: Antebellum New Yorkers, Antislavery and Law,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 33 (January 2009): 27–46; Wong, Neither Fugitive nor Free, chap. 4; Marie Tyler-McGraw and Dwight T. Picaithley, “The Lemmon Case: Courtroom Drama, Constitutional Crisis, and the Southern Quest to Nationalize Slavery,” Common-Place14 (Fall 2013): http://www.common-place.org/vol-14/no-01/mcgraw/#.U9KBvShy_zI.

19. Still, The Underground Railroad, 15, 128–31, 133–46; Stanley Harrold, “Freeing the Weems Family: A New Look at the Underground Railroad,” CWH 52 (1996): 289–306; Bryan Prince, A Shadow on the Household: One Enslaved Family’s Incredible Struggle for Freedom (New York, 2009); Elizabeth Varon, “‘Beautiful Providences’: William Still, the Vigilance Committee, and Abolitionists in the Age of Sectionalism,” in Richard Newman and James Mueller, eds., Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia: Emancipation and the Long Struggle for Racial Justice in the City of Brotherly Love (Baton Rouge, 2011), 229–45; “Record of Fugitives,” July 25, August 10, 1855, Sydney Howard Gay Papers, CU; Foner, Gateway to Freedom, chap. 7.

20. Stuart Seely Sprague, ed., His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railroad (New York, 1996), 25–27, 30–35, 63–68, 71–105, 118–51; Ann Hagedorn, Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad (New York, 2002), 232–37.

21. Boston Anti-Man Hunting League Records, MHS; Vincent Y. Bowditch, Life and Correspondence of Henry Ingersoll Bowditch, 2 vols. (Boston, 1902), 1:272–80; Still, The Underground Railroad, 102–4; David S. Cecelski, The Fire of Freedom: Abraham Galloway and the Slaves’ Civil War (Chapel Hill, 2012), 13–28.

22Brown’s Three Years in the Kentucky Prisons, From May 30, 1854 to May 18, 1857 (Indianapolis, 1858), 6–9, 13; James M. Prichard, “Into the Fiery Furnace: Anti-Slavery Prisoners in the Kentucky State Penitentiary, 1844–1870,” http://www.ket.org/underground/research/prichard2.htm; Keith P. Griffler, Front Line of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley (Lexington, Ky., 2004), 115–18; Life and Narrative of William J. Anderson . . . (Chicago, 1857), 38–40, 53–57; William M. Cockrum, History of the Underground Railroad as it was Conducted by the Anti-Slavery League (1915; repr., New York, 1969).

23. May, The Fugitive Slave Law, 12, 31; NE, January 2, 1851; Wilson, Freedom at Risk, 51–54, 113–14; Daniel Webster, The Arrest, Trial, and Release of Daniel Webster . . . (Philadelphia, 1859); William M. Mitchell, The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom (London, 1860).

24. William Goodell, The American Slave Code in Theory and Practice . . . (New York, 1853),: 11–12, 15–20, 150–54, 201–38, 305–8, 378–79; Thomas R. R. Cobb, An Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery . . . (Philadelphia, 1858); Richard Hildreth, Despotism in America . . . (Boston, 1854), chap. 5, appendix; L. Maria Child, The Duty of Disobedience to the Fugitive Slave Act . . .(Boston, 1860), 10–17, 21–23, 36; Caroline L. Karcher, The First Woman in the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child (Durham, 1994), 413, 433–38; Thomas D. Morris, Free Men All: The Personal Liberty Laws of the North, 1780–1861 (Baltimore, 1974), 199–218.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN. ABOLITION WAR

1Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court . . . (Boston, 1859).

2. James Oakes, Freedom National: The Destruction of Slavery in the United States, 1861–1865 (New York, 2013); John Fabian Witt, Lincoln’s Code: The Laws of War in American History (New York, 2012).

3. F. B. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters of John Brown . . . (London, 1885), 10–11, 39–41, 66–67, 96–103, 111–14; Richard J. Hinton, John Brown and His Men . . . , rev. ed. (New York, 1894), 654.

4. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 124–33; NS, February 11, 1848; Brown to Willis A. Hodges, December 2, 23, 1848, John Brown Manuscripts, CU; James Redpath, The Public Life of Capt. John Brown . . . (Boston, 1860), 62–64; Hinton, John Brown, chap. 2; John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), 88–92, 118–23, 168–74; Benjamin Quarles, Allies for Freedom: Blacks and John Brown (New York, 1974), 18–28.

5. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 160–66, 171–83, 188–90, 201–20; Edward Everett Hale, Kansas and Nebraska (New York, 1854); Nebraska and Kansas . . . (Boston, 1854), 4–5, 11, 28–32; FDP, September 15, 1854; TL, February 16, 23, July 6, September 7, 1855; Proceedings of the Convention of the Radical Political Abolitionists . . . (New York, 1855), 3–9, 11–22, 49–52, 55–56; William Phillips, The Conquest of Kansas . . . (Boston, 1856), chaps. 5, 7, 9; Thomas H. Gladstone, The Englishman in Kansas . . . (New York, 1857), chaps. 2, 3, 11, 21; Karl Gridley, “‘Willing to Die for the Causes of Freedom’: Free State Emigration, John Brown, and the Rise of Militant Abolitionism in the Kansas Territory,” in Timothy Patrick McCarthy and John Stauffer, eds., Prophets of Protest: Reconsidering the History of American Abolitionism (New York, 2006), 147–64; Michael Fellman, “Rehearsal for the Civil War: Antislavery and Proslavery at the Fighting Point in Kansas,” in Lewis Perry and Fellman, eds., Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists (Baton Rouge, 1979), 287–309; Walter C. Rucker, “Unpopular Sovereignty: African American Resistance and Reactions to the Kansas–Nebraska Act,” in John R. Wunder and Joann M. Ross, eds., The Nebraska–Kansas Act of 1854 (Lincoln, Neb., 2008), 144–47; Jonathan Earle and Diane Mutti Burke, eds., Bleeding Kansas, Bleeding Missouri: The Long Civil War on the Border (Lawrence, Kan., 2013).

6TL, May 30, June 6, 27, July 11, 18, 1856; Manisha Sinha, “The Caning of Charles Sumner: Slavery, Race, and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War,” JER 23 (Summer 2003): 233–62; Williamjames Hull Hoffer, The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism and the Origins of the Civil War (Baltimore, 2010).

7. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 230–48, 258–74, 298–300; Redpath, The Public Life, 120, 177–84; Phillips, The Conquest of Kansas, chaps. 11, 12, 21, 24, 27; Gladstone, The Englishman in Kansas, chaps. 14, 16, 17, 23; Hinton, John Brown, chap. 4; David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (New York, 2005), chaps. 7–8; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays (Boston, 1898), 208; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 195–200.

8TL, April 27, May 4, 11, June 1, 8, July 27, August 17, October 5, December 21, 1855; January 4, 18, February 15, 29, March 14, April 11, May 23, December 5, 1856; April 10, 1857; Elihu Burritt, Twenty Reasons for Total Abstinence from Slave-Labor Produce (Bucklersbury, Eng., ca. 1855), 1–4; Chas. Nothend, ed., Elihu Burritt . . . (New York, 1879), chap. 13; Compensated Emancipation . . . (n.p., 1857), 1–3; New York Times, January 27, 1859; Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men, 143; Betty Fladeland, “Compensated Emancipation: A Rejected Alternative,” JSH 42 (May 1976): 183–86; Merle Curti, ed., The Learned Blacksmith: The Letters and Journals of Elihu Burritt (New York, 1937).

9TL, January 16, 1857; Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays, 215–20; Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 110–13, 349–56, 466–68, 500–511; Hinton, John Brown, chap. 6, 7; Gladstone, The Englishman in Kansas, chap. 25; Jeffrey Rossbach, Ambivalent Conspirators: John Brown, the Secret Six, and a Theory of Slave Violence (Philadelphia, 1983); Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist, chap. 9.

10. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 113–14, 418–36, 450–53, 469–70, 481–83; John Stauffer and Zoe Trodd, eds., The Tribunal: Responses to John Brown and the Harper’s Ferry Raid (Cambridge, Mass., 2012), 26–37; Benjamin Quarles, ed., Blacks on John Brown (Urbana, 1972), 3–6; C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, vol. 4, The United States, 1847–1858(Chapel Hill, 1991), 377–81; Quarles, Allies for Freedom, 38–72; Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist, 244–55, 268–79, 300; Daniel C. Littlefield, “Blacks, John Brown, and a Theory of Manhood,” in Paul Finkelman, ed., His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harper’s Ferry Raid (Charlottesville, Va., 1995), 67–97.

11. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 538–40, 546–60; Hinton, John Brown, chaps. 9–11, 14; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 38–43; Quarles, Allies for Freedom, 93–108, 157–58, 182–84; Carolyn E. Janney, “Written in Stone: Gender, Race, and the Hayward Shepherd Memorial,” CWH 52 (June 2006): 117–41; Hannah Geffert, “Regional Black Involvement in John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry,” in McCarthy and Stauffer, eds., Prophets of Protest, 165–79; Geffert, “They Heard His Call: The Local Black Community’s Involvement in the Raid at Harper’s Ferry,” in Peggy A. Russo and Paul Finkelman, eds., Terrible Swift Sword: The Legacy of John Brown (Athens, Ohio, 2005), 23–45; Tony Horwitz, Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid that Sparked the Civil War (New York, 2011); Steven Lubet, John Brown’s Spy: The Adventurous Life and Tragic Confession of John E. Cook (New Haven, 2012); John R. McKivigan, “His Soul Goes Marching On: The Story of John Brown’s Followers after the Harper’s Ferry Raid,” in McKivigan and Stanley Harrold, eds., Antislavery Violence: Sectional, Racial, and Cultural Conflict in Antebellum America (Knoxville, 1999), 274–97.

12. Sanborn, ed., The Life and Letters, 500, 562–85, 610–11, 621–32; The Life, Trials and Execution of Captain John Brown . . . (New York, 1859), 39–95; Thomas Drew, The John Brown Invasion . . . (Boston, 1860); Weekly Anglo-African, November, December 1859; Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays, 231–34; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 117–19; Robert E. McGlone, “John Brown, Henry Wise, and the Politics of Insanity,” in Finkelman, ed., His Soul Goes Marching On, 213–52; Brian McGinty, John Brown’s Trial (Cambridge, Mass., 2009).

13TL, May 11, 1855, April 11, 1856; February 12, March 12, June 4, 1858; C. Peter Ripley ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers: The United States, 1859–1865 (Chapel Hill, 1992), 5:59, 65–66; J. Sella Martin, The Hero and the Slave (Boston, 1862); Anglo-African Magazine, December 1859; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment and Other Writings, R. D. Madison, ed. (New York, 1997), 194; Higginson, Black Rebellion: Five Slave Revolts, James M. McPherson, ed. (New York, 1969); Tilden G. Edelstein, Strange Enthusiasm: A Life of Thomas Wentworth Higginson (New Haven, 1968), 245–46; George E. Levesque, “Boston’s Black Brahmin: Dr. John S. Rock,” CWH 26 (December 1980): 326–46; Dean Grodzins, “Why Theodore Parker Backed John Brown: The Political and Social Roots of Support for Abolitionist Violence,” in Russo and Finkelman, eds., Terrible Swift Sword, 3–22; Grodzins, “Theodore Parker vs. John S. Rock on the Anglo-Saxon and the African,” in A House Divided: The Antebellum Slavery Debates in America, 1776–1865 (Princeton, 2003), 299–310; Paul Teed, “Romantic Nationalism and Its Challengers: Theodore Parker, John Rock, and the Antislavery Movement,” CWH 41 (June 1995): 142–60; Michael Fellman, “Theodore Parker and the Abolitionist Role in the 1850s,” JAH 61 (1974): 666–84; Peter Wirzbicki, “Black Intellectuals, White Abolitionists, and Revolutionary Transcendentalists: Creating the Radical Intellectual Tradition in Antebellum Boston” (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 2012), chap. 7; Franny Nudelman, John Brown’s Body: Slavery, Violence, and the Culture of War (Chapel Hill, 2004).

14TL, February 4, October 21, 28, November 4, 11, 18, 25, December 2, 9, 16, 1859; Louis Ruchames, ed., The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 4, From Disunionism to the Brink of War, 1850–1860 (Cambridge, Mass., 1975), 660–61; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 102–4; Henry David Thoreau, A Plea for Captain John Brown . . .(Boston, 1859); Wendell Phillips, Speeches, Lectures, and Letters (Boston, 1872), 263–64, 268–72, 280–81, 292; Henry C. Wright, The Natick Resolution . . . (Boston, 1859), 3–6, 11–18, 22–24, 26–32; William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, eds., The Antislavery Argument (Indianapolis, 1965), 474–79; Parker Pillsbury, Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles(Concord, N.H., 1883), 145; Lewis Perry, Radical Abolitionism: Anarchy and the Government of God in Antislavery Thought (Ithaca, 1973), chap. 8; Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist, 344–47, 363–69, 398–406; Paul Finkelman, “Manufacturing Martyrdom: The Antislavery Response to John Brown’s Raid,” in Finkelman, ed., His Soul Goes Marching On, 41–66.

15. Brown to Giddings, September 7, 1848, John Brown Manuscripts, CU; Joshua R. Giddings, The Exiles of Florida . . . (Columbus, 1858), vi; Joshua R. Giddings, History of the Rebellion . . . (New York, 1864), 437–41; George W. Julian, The Life of Joshua R. Giddings (Chicago, 1892), 365–71; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 77–78, 99, 126–27, 188–89, 210–12, 303–7; Edward L. Pierce, ed., Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner, vol. 3, 1845–1860 (Boston, 1894), 602–3; John Niven, Salmon P. Chase: A Biography (New York, 1995), 211; Frederick J. Blue, Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics (Kent, Ohio, 1987), 119.

16Correspondence Between Lydia Maria Child and Gov. Wise and Mrs. Mason, of Virginia (Boston, 1860), 3–7, 14–19, 26; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 226–27, 261; L. Maria Child, The Patriarchal Institution . . . (New York, 1860), 49–53; The Right Way the Safe Way . . . (New York, 1862), 95–96; Wendy Hamand Venet, “‘Cry Aloud and Spare Not’: Northern Antislavery Women and John Brown’s Raid,” in Finkelman, ed., His Soul Goes Marching On, 98–115; Bonnie Laughlin-Schultz, The Ties That Bound Us: The Women of John Brown’s Family and the Legacy of Radical Abolitionism (Ithaca, 2013).

17. Quarles, ed., Blacks on John Brown, 7–44, 54–66, 85–91; A Tribute of Respect . . . (Cleveland, 1859), 16–23; TL, December 9, 1859; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 149–65, 192–93, 228–30, 277–81, 440–41, 451–53, 488–89, 515–17; Quarles, Allies for Freedom, 110, 114–19, 125–63, 171–82; R. Blakeslee Gilpin, John Brown Still Lives! America’s Long Reckoning with Violence, Equality and Change (Chapel Hill, 2011), 56–61, 82–87.

18. James Redpath, The Roving Editor, or Talks with Slaves in the Southern States, John R. McKivigan, ed. (University Park, Pa., 1996), 3–4, 7–8, 34, 40–44, 46, 50, 55, 72, 85–87, 108, 117, 119–20, 157–58, 185–86, 221–29, 239–52; Alexander Milton Ross, Recollections and Experiences of an Abolitionist . . . (Toronto, 1875), 6–24, 48–65; Otis K. Rice, “Eli Thayer and the Friendly Invasion of Virginia,” JSH 37 (November 1971): 575–96; Albert J. Von Frank, “John Brown, James Redpath, and the Idea of Revolution,” CWH 52 (June 2006): 142–60.

19. Redpath, The Public Life, 3, 7–10; Redpath, Echoes of Harper’s Ferry (Boston, 1860), 3–4, 74–75, 80–86, 92–93, 174, 306–9, 457–59; Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 90–91, 198–99, 215–18, 459–61, 476–77; Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays, chap. 7; William Keeney, “Hero, Martyr, Madman: Representations of John Brown in the Poetry of the John Brown Year, 1859–1860,” in Russo and Finkelman, eds., Terrible Swift Sword, 141–61; John McKivigan, Forgotten Firebrand: James Redpath and the Making of Nineteenth-Century America (Ithaca, 2008).

20. James Redpath, A Guide to Hayti (Boston, 1861), 171–75; Howard H. Bell, ed., Black Separatism in the Caribbean 1860 (Ann Arbor, 1970), introduction, 21–27, 63–66, 103, 167–68; Anglo-African Magazine, June, July, August, September, October, November 1859; Weekly Anglo-African, February 18, April 14, May 26, 1860; Pine and Palm May 18, 25, June 2, 15, 22, 29, July 6, 13, 20, 27, August 31, September 7, 14, 28, December 7, 1861; January 23, May 1, September 4, 1862; J. R. Beard, Touissant L’Ouverture . . . (Boston, 1863); Robert S. Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, A Documentary Reader (Chapel Hill, 2003), 363–72; DM, November 1860; March, July 1861; Floyd J. Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787–1863 (Urbana, 1975), 108–15, 232–49, 267; David M. Dean, Defender of the Race: James Theodore Holly, Black Nationalist Bishop (Boston, 1979); McKivigan, Forgotten Firebrand, chap. 4; Chris Dixon, African America and Haiti: Emigration and Black Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 2000), chaps. 3–5; David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge, 1989), 130–47.

21TL, December 31, 1858; February 11, March 11, April 22, 1859; John W. Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One, vol. 3, Speeches, Debates, and Interviews 1855–63 (New Haven, 1985), 303–4, 315–18; Quarles, Allies for Freedom, 164–66; Sibyl Ventress Brownlee, “Out of the Abundance of the Heart: Sarah Ann Parker Remond’s Quest for Freedom” (Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1997), chap. 4; R. J. M. Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830–1860 (Baton Rouge, 1983), 160; J. Ewing Glasgow, The Harpers Ferry Insurrection . . . (Edinburgh, 1860); Stauffer and Trodd, eds., The Tribunal, 340–41, 367–72, 386–90, 395–96, 399, 409–10, 457–58; Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays, 220; Seymour Drescher, “Servile Insurrection and John Brown’s Body in Europe,” in Finkelman, ed., His Soul Goes Marching On, 253–95; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 206.

22. Roy P. Basler, ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 1, 1824–1848 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1953), 74–75, 109–15; Manisha Sinha, “Abraham Lincoln’s Competing Political Loyalties: Antislavery, Union, and the Constitution,” in Nicholas Buccola, ed., Abraham Lincoln and Liberal Democracy (Lawrence, Kan., Forthcoming); Dorothy Ross, “Lincoln and the Ethics of Emancipation: Universalism, Nationalism, and Exceptionalism,” JAH 96 (September 2009): 379–99; Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York, 2010), chaps. 1, 2.

23. Roy P. Basler, ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 2, 1848–1858 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1959): 20–22, 121–32, 247–83; Lewis E. Lehrman, Lincoln at Peoria: The Turning Point (Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2008).

24. The Revised Dred Scott Case Collection, http://digital.wustl.edu/dredscott/browse.html; Lea VanderVelde, Mrs. Dred Scott: A Life on Slavery’s Frontier (New York, 2009), 75, 130, 197–99, 227–29, 233–36, 243, 261–68, 276–83; Lea VanderVelde, Redemption Songs: Suing for Freedom Before Dred Scott (New York, 2014); Lucy A. Delaney, From the Darkness Cometh the Light or Struggles for Freedom (St. Louis, ca. 1883); Kelly Marie Kennington, “Law, Geography, and Mobility: Suing for Freedom in Antebellum St. Louis,” JSH 80 (August 2014): 575–604; Eric Gardner, Unexpected Places: Relocating Nineteenth-Century African American Literature (Jackson, Miss., 2009), 27–55; Cyprian Clamorgan, The Colored Aristocracy of St. Louis, Julie Winch, ed. (Columbia, Mo., 1999), 47; Julie Winch, The Clamorgans: One Family’s History of Race in America (New York, 2011); Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics (New York, 1978), chaps. 9–11.

25. Benjamin Howard, Report of the Decision of the Supreme Court . . . (Washington, 1857), 9–11, 14–17, 45–60, 79–81, 139, 156–95, 239; Austin Allen, Origins of the Dred Scott Case: Jacksonian Jurisprudence and the Supreme Court, 1837–1857 (Athens, Ga., 2006); Earl. M. Maltz, Dred Scott and the Politics of Slavery (Lawrence, Kan., 2007); Mark A. Graeber, Dred Scott and the Problem of Constitutional Evil (New York, 2006); Timothy S. Huebner, “Roger B. Taney and the Slavery Issue: Looking Beyond—and Before—Dred Scott,” JAH 97 (June 2010): 17–38; Michael A. Schoeppner, “Status Across Borders: Roger Taney, Black British Subjects, and a Diplomatic Antecedent to the Dred Scott Decision,” JAH 100 (June 2013): 46–67; Stuart Streichler, Justice Curtis in the Civil War Era: At the Crossroads of American Constitutionalism (Charlottesville, Va., 2005).

26TL, March 13, 20, April 3, 10, 24, May 1, 8, June 5, 12, 1857; George B. Cheever, D.D., Guilt of Slavery and the Crime of Slaveholding . . . (Boston, 1860), iv, 179–80; Anglo-African Magazine, May 1859; Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, 3:143–83.

27Historical and Legal Examination . . . (New York, 1858), 30, 121–30; Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case, 472–74; VanderVelde, Mrs. Dred Scott, 320–33.

28. Basler, ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 2:398–410, 461–69; ibid., vol. 3, 1858–1860, 146–47, 408; Blassingame, ed., The Frederick Douglass Papers, 3:233–37; Don E. Fehrenbacher, Prelude to Greatness: Lincoln in the 1850s (Stanford, Calif., 1962), chaps. 3, 4.

29. Basler, ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 2:222–23, 553; ibid., 3:9, 15–16, 38, 127–34, 179, 249, 296–97, 306–18, 366–69, 400–424, 463–70; John Burt, Lincoln’s Tragic Pragmatism: Lincoln, Douglas, and Moral Conflict (Cambridge, Mass., 2013); David Zarefsky, Lincoln, Douglas and Slavery: In the Crucible of Public Debate(Chicago, 1990); Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates That Defined America (New York, 2008); James Oliver Horton, “Naturally Anti-Slavery: Lincoln, Race, and the Complexity of American Liberty,” in Sean Wilentz, ed., The Best American History Essays on Lincoln (New York, 2009), 63–84; George M. Fredrickson, Big Enough to Be Inconsistent: Abraham Lincoln Confronts Slavery and Race(Cambridge, Mass., 2008); Brian Dirck, ed., Lincoln Emancipated: The President and the Politics of Race (DeKalb, Ill., 2007); Henry Louis Gates Jr., ed., Lincoln on Race and Slavery (Princeton, 2009); Lerone Bennet Jr., Forced into Glory: Abraham Lincoln’s White Dream (Chicago, 2000).

30. Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 30, 66, 144–48, 187–88; NS, January 21, November 18, 1848; June 29, 1849; June 27, 1850; Martin Robison Delany, The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People . . . (Philadelphia, 1852), 10, 12, 23–30, 48–49, 67, 147–60, 169, 209–14; FDP, July 23, 1852; Victor Ullman, Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism (Boston, 1971); Dorothy Sterling, The Making of an Afro-American: Martin Robison Delany, 1812–1885 (New York, 1971); Cyril E. Griffith, The African Dream: Martin R. Delany and the Emergence of Pan-African Thought (University Park, Pa., 1975).

31FDP, May 6, June 17, August 19, September 30, November 18, December 2, 1853; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 175–79, 217–23, 238–44; Robert S. Levine and Ivy G. Wilson, eds., The Works of James M. Whitfield: America and Other Writings by a Nineteenth-Century African American Poet (Chapel Hill, 2011), introduction, 41, 109–68; Proceedings of the Colored National Convention . . . (Rochester, 1853), 3–5, 8–11, 16–18, 39–41, 57; David W. Blight, ed., Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written By Himself, with Related Documents (New York, 2003), 156–59; Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 137–43; R. J. M. Blackett, Beating Against the Barriers: The Lives of Six Nineteenth-Century Afro-Americans (Ithaca, 1989), chap. 5; Robert S. Levine, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass and the Politics of Representative Identity (Chapel Hill, 1997); Manisha Sinha, “An Alternative Tradition of Radicalism: African American Abolitionists and the Metaphor of Revolution,” in Sinha and Penny Von Eschen, eds., Contested Democracy: Freedom, Race, and Power in American History (New York, 2007), 24–25.

32FDP, January 13, March 31, 1853; September 8, 15, December 22, 1854; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 245–90; Ullman, Martin R. Delany, 163–71; Griffith, The African Dream, 24–29, 122–26; Tunde Adeleke, Without Regard to Race: The Other Martin Robison Delany (Jackson, Miss., 2003); Adeleke, Unafrican Americans: Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalism and the Civilizing Mission (Lexington, Ky., 1998), chap. 3; Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 148–56; Proceedings of the Colored National Convention, Held in Franklin Hall, Sixth Street, Below Arch, Philadelphia, October 16th, 17th and 18th 1855 (Salem, N.J., 1856), 4, 17, 30–33.

33NS, March 2, 1849; FDP, August 20, September 2, 1853; Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 170–98; Fortieth Annual Report of the American Colonization Society . . . , in The Annual Reports, 35–38; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 2:270–78; Anglo-African Magazine, March 1859; Weekly Anglo-African, September 10, 19, October 22, 1859; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 326; Benjamin Coates, Cotton Cultivation in Africa . . . (Philadelphia, 1858); Emma J. Lapansky and Margaret Hope Bacon, eds., Back to Africa: Benjamin Coates and the Colonization Movement in America, 1848–1880 (University Park, Pa., 2005), 1–53, 60–68, 72–75, 105–6, 110–19, 122–23, 125–26, 135–39, 141–42, 145–47; Earl Ofari, Let Your Motto Be Resistance: The Life and Thought of Henry Highland Garnet (Boston, 1972), 79–93, 183–5; Joel Schor, Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1977), chap. 8; Beverly C. Tomek, Colonization and Its Discontents: Emancipation, Emigration, and Antislavery in Antebellum Pennsylvania (New York, 2011), 171–75, 181–86.

34. M. R. Delany, Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party (London, 1861), 10–27, 50–52; Weekly Anglo-African, July 23, August 13, September 24, October 1, 1859; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:447–52; Robert Campbell, A Few Facts . . . (Philadelphia, 1860), 4–8, 10–17; Campbell, A Pilgrimage to My Motherland . . .(New York, 1861), 11, 18, 29–30, 36–39, 60–65, 115; Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 198–216; Lamin Sanneh, Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa (Cambridge, Mass., 1999), 145–47; James Campbell, Middle Passages: African American Journeys to Africa, 1787–2005 (New York, 2006), 76–93; R. J. M. Blackett, “Return to the Motherland: Robert Campbell, a Jamaican in Early Colonial Lagos,” Phylon 40 (December 1979): 375–86.

35. Delany, Official Report, 27–33, 35–50, 53–61, 71; Weekly Anglo-African, March 3, 31, 1860; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 358–64; Frank A. Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany (Boston, 1883), chap. 12; Ullman, Martin R. Delany, 232–46; Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 1:488–90, 497–509, 519–23; Griffith, The African Dream, 53–57; Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 217–32; Sanneh, Abolitionists Abroad, 170–77; Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, 175–94; African Civilization Society, Constitution of the African Civilization Society . . . (New Haven, 1861), 3–7, 32–38; Tunis Campbell, Hotel Keepers, Head Waiters, and Housekeepers Guide(Boston, 1848); Russell Duncan, Freedom’s Shore: Tunis Campbell and the Georgia Freedmen (Athens, Ga., 1986); Ofari Hutchinson, Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 95–98; Schor, Henry Highland Garnet, 178–81.

36. Bell, ed., Black Separatism in the Caribbean, 73–75, 172–84; Speech of Honorable Francis P. Blair, Jr. . . . (Washington, 1858), 3, 10–13; Francis P. Blair Jr., Colonization and Commerce . . . (Cincinnati, 1859), 2–5; Blair, The Destiny of Races of this Continent . . . (Washington, 1859), 4–7, 21–26, 29–33; The Acquisition of Cuba . . . (Washington, 1859), 5–7; Speech of J. R. Doolittle . . . (Washington, 1862), 1–2; An Appeal to the Senate . . . (Washington, 1868), 7–12.

37Letter on the Relation of the White and African Races in the United States . . . (Washington, 1862), 7–9, 17–22; Report of the Select Committee on Emancipation and Colonization . . . (Washington, 1862), 1, 19–24, 37–59; Speech of Honorable H. Winter Davis of Maryland . . . (Washington, 1864), 7; Pine and Palm, January 2, March 20, April 3, 10, May 15, 29, June 5, 12, 19, July 10, 24, 31, August 7, 21, 28, September 4, 1862; Christian Recorder, September 27, 1862; Eric Foner, “Lincoln and Colonization,” in Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World (New York, 2008), 135–66; Levine, ed., Martin R. Delany, 485; W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York, 1903), 184; Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality, 250–66; Ofari, Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 122–23; Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Alexander Crummell: A Study in Civilization and Discontent (New York, 1989), 135–45, 196, 208–11, 225–28.

38TL, February 4, March 4, June 17, July 1, 1859; April 20, 27, June 1, 8, 22, July 13, 20, August 24, September 28, October 26, 1860; July 12, 1861; The Impending Crisis of the South . . . (New York, 1857); David Brown, Southern Outcast: Hinton Rowan Helper and the Impending Crisis of the South (Baton Rouge, 2006); Caroline L. Karcher, The First Woman in the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child (Durham, 1994), 390; Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War, chap. 2; Edward Magdol, Owen Lovejoy: Abolitionist in Congress (New Brunswick, N.J., 1967), 223–43; Sinha, “The Caning of Charles Sumner,” 256–57; William F. Moore and Jane Ann Moore, Collaborators for Emancipation: Abraham Lincoln and Owen Lovejoy (Urbana, 2014).

39. Basler, ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 3:480, 522–50; TL, May 25, September 21, 1860; Harold Holzer, Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech that Made Abraham Lincoln President (New York, 2004); Donald E. Reynolds, Texas Terror: The Slave Insurrection Panic of 1860 and the Secession of the Lower South (Baton Rouge, 2007); Foner, The Fiery Trial, 144.

40TL, December 21, 28, 1860; January 4, 25, 14, February 1, 8, 22, 29, April 5, 19, 24, 1861; [William Lloyd Garrison], The New “Reign of Terror” . . . (New York, 1860); Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (Chapel Hill, 2000).

41Proceedings of the American Anti-Slavery Society at Its Third Decade . . . (New York, 1864), 112; James Oakes, Freedom National: The Destruction of Slavery in the United States, 1861–1865 (New York, 2013); Witt, Lincoln’s Code; Manisha Sinha, “Allies for Emancipation?: Lincoln and Black Abolitionists,” in Eric Foner, ed., Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World (New York, 2008), 168–98; William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life . . . , vol. 4, 1861–1879 (New York, 1889), 132; Foner, The Fiery Trial, 90; Ira Berlin et al., Slaves No More: Three Essays on Emancipation and the Civil War (Cambridge, Eng., 1992); David Williams, I Freed Myself: African American Self-Emancipation in the Civil War Era (New York, 2014).

EPILOGUE

1William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life . . . , vol. 4, 1861–1879 (New York, 1889), chaps. 4–6; TL, May 20, 27, November 18, 1864; May 19, December 29, 1865; James M. McPherson, The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction (Princeton, 1964), chaps. 12, 13; W. Caleb McDaniel, The Problem of Democracy in the Age of Slavery: Garrisonian Abolitionists and Transatlantic Reform (Baton Rouge, 2013), chap. 10; La Wanda Cox, Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership (Columbia, S.C., 1981); Wendy Hamand Venet, Neither Ballots nor Bullets: Women Abolitionists and the Civil War (Charlottesville, Va., 1991), chap. 5; Manisha Sinha, “Did He Die an Abolitionist? Abraham Lincoln’s Evolving Antislavery,” American Political Thought 4 (Summer 2015): 439–52; Martha Hodes, Mourning Lincoln (New Haven, 2015).

2Proceedings of the American Anti-Slavery Society at Its Third Decade . . . (New York, 1864), 111; McPherson, The Struggle for Equality, chap. 17; James Brewer Stewart, Wendell Phillips: Liberty’s Hero (Baton Rouge, 1986), 294–95; Carol Faulkner, Women’s Radical Reconstruction: The Freedmen’s Aid Movement (Philadelphia, 2004); Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (New York, 1988); Amy Dru Stanley, “Instead of Waiting for the Thirteenth Amendment: The War Power, Slave Marriage, and Inviolate Human Rights,” AHR (June 2010): 732–65; David Montgomery, Beyond Equality: Labor and the Radical Republicans, 1862–72 (New York, 1967); A. J. Aiseirithe, “Piloting the Car of Human Freedom: Abolitionists, Woman Suffrage, and the Problem of Radical Reform” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2007); Faye E. Dudden, Fighting Chance: The Struggle over Woman Suffrage and Black Suffrage in Reconstruction America (New York, 2011); Proceedings of the Eleventh National Woman’s Rights Convention (New York, 1866), 45–48.

3. David Roediger, Seizing Freedom: Slave Emancipation and Liberty for All (New York, 2014); Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1998), 616; Louis Filler, ed., Wendell Phillips on Civil Rights and Freedom (New York, 1965), 192, 207; William S. McFeely, Frederick Douglass (New York, 1991), 360–62, 376–81; Heather Cox Richardson, To Make Men Free: A History of the Republican Party (New York, 2014); Nell Irvin Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (New York, 1996), 244–46; John W. Blassingame and John R. McKivigan, eds., The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One: Speeches, Debates and Interviews, vol. 4, 1864–80 (New Haven, 1991), 503–8.

4. Manisha Sinha, “Memory as History, Memory as Activism: The Forgotten Abolitionist Struggle After the Civil War,” Common-place 14 (Winter 2014): http://www.common-place.org/vol-14/no-02/sinha/#.VOJBCihy_zI; Julie Roy Jeffrey, Abolitionists Remember: Antislavery Autobiographies and the Unfinished Work of Emancipation (Chapel Hill, 2008).

5. Alex Gourevitch, From Slavery to Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, Eng., 2015), 69; Lawrence Goodwyn, Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America (New York, 1976); Samuel Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor: An Autobiography (New York, 1925), 1:18–19; Stephen Fox, The Guardian of Boston: William Monroe Trotter (New York, 1970); James M. McPherson, The Abolitionist Legacy: From Reconstruction to the NAACP (1975; repr. Princeton, 1995), 390; Nick Salvatore, Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist (Urbana, 1982); Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World (Chicago, 1969); Lewis Perry, Civil Disobedience: An American Tradition (New Haven, 2013), 2; Howard Zinn, “Abolitionists, Freedom Riders, and the Tactics of Agitation,” in Martin Duberman, ed., The Antislavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists (Princeton, 1965), 446–51; Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York, 2010); Joel Quirk, The Anti-Slavery Project: From the Slave Trade to Human Trafficking (Philadelphia, 2011).

6William Lloyd Garrison, 1805–1879: The Story of His Life . . . (New York, 1885), 1:177; McPherson, The Abolitionist Legacy, x.

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