Notes

Preface and acknowledgments

1. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations [1776] (Everyman edn, 1910), p. 430.

2. J. A. Gallagher, The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1982), p. 73.

3. J. Gallagher and R. Robinson, ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade’, Economic History Review New Series, 6, 1 (1953), pp. 1–15.

4. P. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism 1688–2000 (new edn, 2002); J. Darwin, ‘Imperialism and the Victorians’, English Historical Review 112, 447 (1997), p. 616.

5. See C. Bridge and K. Fedorowich (eds.), The British World: Diaspora, Culture and Identity (2003), ‘Introduction’, for an excellent statement of this.

Introduction

1. For an authoritative account of early usage of the term, see A. Parchami, ‘The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana: A Conceptual and Historiographical Study’ (Oxford, DPhil thesis, 2006).

2. The classical account of this process is P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism, 2 vols. (1993). For the emphasis on the speculative and often fraudulent dimension of the City's foreign investment, see I. R. Phimister, ‘Corners and Company-Mongering: Nigerian Tin and the City of London’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 28 (2000), 23.

3. See S. J. Potter, News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System 1876–1922 (Oxford, 2003).

4. The classic account is in S. B. Saul, Studies in British Overseas Trade (Liverpool, 1960).

5. For the ‘Black Indies’, see W. S. Jevons, The Coal Question: An Inquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coal Mines (1865).

6. Calculated by M. G. Mulhall, Dictionary of Statistics (1892), p. 545.

7. University of Texas at Austin, Harry Ransome Center for the Humanities, J. L. Garvin Papers: Milner to J. L. Garvin, 27 May 1917.

8. For the most influential exposition of this, see R. Robinson and J. Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians (1961), esp. pp. 471–2.

9. This is the argument of A. L. Friedberg, The Weary Titan: Britain and the Experience of Relative Decline, 1895–1905 (Princeton, 1988).

10. See J. Ferris, ‘“The Greatest Power on Earth”: Great Britain in the 1920s’; B. McKercher, ‘“Our Most Dangerous Enemy”: Great Britain Pre-eminent in the 1930s’; and G. Martel, ‘The Meaning of Power: Rethinking the Decline and Fall of Great Britain’, all in International History Review, 13 (1991).

11. The grand argument of J. Gallagher, The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1982).

12. For an example of this genre, see A. McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (1995).

13. B. Porter, The Absent-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain (Oxford, 2004).

14. P. J. Jupp, British Politics on the Eve of Reform (1998), p. 338. Sales of the leading London newspapers rose from 16 million per year in 1837 to 31.4 million in 1850. See J. White, London in the Nineteenth Century (2007), p. 230.

15. For this lament, see P. A. Buckner (ed.), Canada and the British Empire (Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series) (Oxford, 2008), Introduction.

16. R. E. Robinson, ‘The Non-European Foundations of European Imperialism: Sketch for a Theory of Collaboration’, in R. Owen and B. Sutcliffe (eds.), Studies in the Theory of Imperialism (1972).

17. Gallagher, Decline, Revival and Fall, p. 75.

18. See S. Ward, Australia and the British Embrace (Melbourne, 2001).

19. For the best accounts of this period, see C. A. Bayly, Imperial Meridian (1989); and the three Presidential Addresses by P. J. Marshall on ‘Britain and the World in the Eighteenth Century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 1998, 1999, 2000. For a longer perspective, see B. Simms, Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, 1714–1783 (2007).

20. B. R. Mitchell, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971), p. 130.

21. The closing lines of the Wealth of Nations.

Chapter 1

1. C. W. Dilke, Greater Britain (1869).

2. For Naoroji's views, see chapter 5.

3. PP 1867–8 (197) VI.789, Select Committee on Duties Performed by the British Army in India and the Colonies: Report, Proceedings.

4. Reflected in the appointment of the Royal (Carnarvon) Commission on Colonial Defence 1879–82. Its report (TNA, CAB 7/2–4) was left unpublished.

5. PP 1837 (425) VII.1, Report of Select Committee on Aborigines in British Settlements, p. 3.

6. For Canning's views and policy, P. J. V. Rolo, George Canning: Three Biographical Studies (1965), pp. 223–33.

7. C. K. Webster, The Foreign Policy of Palmerston 1830–1841 (1951), II, p. 832: Grey to Palmerston, 23 April 1833.

8. E. D. Steele, Palmerston and Liberalism, 1855–1865 (Cambridge, 1991), p. 293.

9. Webster, Palmerston, I, p. 390.

10. C. S. Parker, Sir Robert Peel, 3 vols. (2nd edn, 1899), III, p. 405: Wellington to Peel, 22 September 1845.

11. Webster, Palmerston, II, p. 848: Palmerston to Melbourne, 26 October 1840.

12. Parker, Peel, III, p. 208: Peel to Wellington, 9 August 1845.

13. Webster, Palmerston, II, p. 842: Palmerston to Melbourne, 8 June 1835.

14. For a brilliant survey, see A. Rieber, ‘Persistent Factors in Russian Foreign Policy’, in H. Ragsdale (ed.), Imperial Russian Foreign Policy (Cambridge, 1993).

15. Webster, Palmerston, II, pp. 738–9: Palmerston to J. C. Hobhouse, 14 February 1840.

16. The French expeditionary force was twice the size of the British.

17. Henry Clay, Speech in Defence of the American System against the British Colonial System (Washington, 1832), p. 26. Clay had been Secretary of State in 1825–9, and was a senator in 1831–42.

18. Ibid., p. 18.

19. D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America: Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867 (1993), p. 155. Meinig's is a brilliant analysis of the geopolitical issues.

20. Henry C. Carey, The Past, the Present and the Future (1847). Quoted in D. Ross, The Origins of American Social Science (Cambridge, 1990), p. 46.

21. R. Bullen, Palmerston, Guizot and the Collapse of the Entente Cordiale (1974), pp. 38–41; J. S. Galbraith, The Hudson's Bay Company as an Imperial Factor (Berkeley, 1957), pp. 246, 261.

22. Southampton University Library Palmerston Papers PP/LE/230 (consulted online), Palmerston to Sir G. C. Lewis, 26 August 1861. 10,000 soldiers were to be sent.

23. For New York, see R. G. Albion, The Rise of New York Port (New York, 1939).

24. See S. Bruchey, Cotton and the Growth of the American Economy 1790–1860 (New York, 1967).

25. The presence of the other Western powers in East Asia, remarked Disraeli, meant that ‘a system of political compromise has developed itself like the balance of power in Europe’. See W. C. Costin, Great Britain and China, 1833–1860 (Oxford, 1937), p. 228.

26. See L. Bethell, The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade (Cambridge, 1970).

27. See PP 1843 (596) XXXV.607, Correspondence and Return relating to Military Operations in China.

28. See the Appeal on Behalf of British Subjects Residing in and Connected with the River Plate against Any Further Violent Intervention by the British and French Governments in the Affairs of the Country (1846).

29. PP 1849 (56) XXXII, Return of Numbers on 25 January in… 1829, 1835, 1840 and 1847, p. 93.

30. See PP 1843 (140), Return of Numbers…Serving in Great Britain, Ireland and the Colonies 1792, 1822, 1828, 1830, 1835, 1842.

31. PP 1834 (570) VI, Report of Select Committee on Colonial Military Expenditure, Q.2152 (Sir Rufane Donkin).

32. Ibid., Q. 1873 (Sir Lowry Cole).

33. J. Belich, The New Zealand Wars (Auckland, 1986), ch. 3.

34. R. Graham, Britain and the Onset of Modernization in Brazil 1850–1914 (Cambridge, 1972), pp. 107–8; Bethell, Brazilian Slave Trade; R. Miller, Britain and Latin America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century (1993), pp. 48–59.

35. J. Rutherford, Sir George Grey (1961), pp. 470ff.

36. Parl.Deb., Third Series, Vol. XLIX, 1391 (6 August 1839).

37. R. Cobden, England, Ireland and America (1836), p. 11.

38. J. H. Clapham, An Economic History of Modern Britain: The Early Railway Age 1820-1850 (Cambridge, 1939), p. 211.

39. S. D. Chapman, Merchant Enterprise in Britain from the Industrial Revolution to the First World War (Cambridge, 1992), p. 161.

40. N. Buck, The Development of the Organisation of Anglo-American Trade 1800–1850 (New Haven, 1925), pp. 172–3.

41. J. Stuart and D. McK. Malcolm (eds.), The Diary of Henry Francis Fynn (Paperback edn, Pietermaritzburg, 1986), pp. 40–1.

42. See John Langdon, ‘Three Voyages to the West Coast of Africa 1881–1884’, in B. Wood and M. Lynn (eds.), Travel, Trade and Power in the Atlantic 1765–1884 (Cambridge, 2002).

43. Chapman, Merchant Enterprise, p. 69.

44. Graham, Britain and Brazil, ch. 3.

45. The classic account is M. Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China 1800–1842 (Cambridge, 1951).

46. See D. G. Creighton, The Commercial Empire of the St Lawrence (1937).

47. See PP 1862 (380) XXXIV.881, Return of Applications by Commercial Interests for Ships of War to be Sent to Foreign Stations for Protection of British Interests or Commerce. In the five years (1857–62) covered, there were 102 applications.

48. C. W. Newbury, British Policy Towards West Africa: Select Documents 1786–1874 (Oxford, 1965), p. 120: Lord Palmerston, Minute, 22 April 1860.

49. PP 1867 (178) XLIV.721, Return of Number of Vessels-of-War Employed on Foreign and Colonial Service, p. 5.

50. E. G. Wakefield, England and America (New York, 1834).

51. From around 10,000 chests in 1830–1 to over 80,000 by the early 1860s. See PP 1865 (94) XL.83, Return of Opium Exported to China from Central India via Bombay and Bengal, 1830–1864.

52. PP 1859 (2571) XXXIII.1, Correspondence Relative to Lord Elgin's Special Missions to China and Japan, 1857–59, Clarendon to Elgin, 20 April 1857.

53. B. R. Mitchell, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971), p. 47.

54. C. Erickson, Leaving England, p. 184.

55. W. S. Shepperson, British Emigration to North America: Projects and Opinions in the Early Victorian Period (Oxford, 1957), p. 201.

56. P. Burns, Fatal Success: A History of the New Zealand Company (Auckland, 1989).

57. See Correspondence with the Secretary of State relative to New Zealand, published in The Times, 21 April 1840.

58. The Times, 3 February 1838.

59. R. G. Wood, From Plymouth to New Plymouth (Wellington, 1959).

60. For the Kaipara, see B. Byrne, The Unknown Kaipara: Five Aspects of its History, 1250–1875 (Auckland, 2002); W. Rayburn, Tall Spars, Steamers and Gum: A History of the Kaipara from Early European Settlement, 1854–1947 (Auckland, 1999).

61. Mitchell, Abstract, p. 47.

62. Parl.Deb., Third Series, Vol. 121, col. 956 (21 May 1852).

63. Ibid., Vol. 179, cols. 911–14 (26 May 1865). Cardwell was Colonial Secretary.

64. E. Elbourne, ‘Religion in the British Empire’, in S. Stockwell (ed.), The British Empire: Themes and Perspectives (2008), p. 139.

65. I. Bradley, The Call to Seriousness (1976), p. 90.

66. A. Aspinall (ed.), English Historical Documents 1783–1832 (1959), p. 662: ‘Receipts of the Principal Religious Charities in London’, The Scotsman, 21 July 1821.

67. E. Stock, The History of the Church Missionary Society, 3 vols. (1899), vol. 1, p. 243.

68. Stock, Church Missionary Society, vol. 1, p. 485.

69. C. P. Groves, The Planting of Christianity in Africa, 3 vols. (1948–60), p. 267.

70. See M. Mackinnon (ed.), New Zealand Historical Atlas (Auckland, 1997), Plate 36.

71. Groves, Planting of Christianity, vol. 2, pp. 49, 36.

72. A. J. Broomhall, Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century, vol. I, Barbarians at the Gates (1981), chs. 3, 4.

73. Ibid., p. 278.

74. Broomhall, Hudson Taylor, vol. II, Over the Treaty Wall (1982), p. 161.

75. Stock, Church Missionary Society, vol. I, p. 490.

76. Bradley, Call, p. 141.

77. Ibid., p. 78.

78. The Times, 15 February 1858.

79. www.livingstoneonline.ucl.ac.uk, Livingstone to Lord Palmerston, 13 May 1859.

80. J. Belich, Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders (1996), p. 168; for the request by the chiefs of Bonny in 1848, see J. F. A. Ajayi, Christian Missions in Nigeria 1841–1891 (Ibadan, 1965), p. 56.

81. Ajayi, Missions, p. 29.

82. A. C. Ross, John Phillip (1775–1851): Missions, Race and Politics in South Africa (Aberdeen, 1986), p. 167: Phillip's journal for 28 March 1842.

83. Ibid., pp. 141, 221.

84. See A. Porter, ‘An Overview: 1700–1914’, in N. Etherington (ed.), Missions and Empire (Oxford, 2005), p. 51.

85. Memorial by Aborigine Protection Society to Lord Glenelg (the Colonial Secretary), 3 February 1838. See ‘Early Canadiana Online’ at www.canadiana.org.

86. H. M. Wright, New Zealand 1769–1840: Early Years of Western Contact (Cambridge, MA, 1959), p. 109.

87. See M. Fairburn, The Ideal Society and its Enemies: The Foundations of Modern New Zealand Society (Auckland, 1989), Part One.

88. K. T. Hoppen, The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846–1886 (Oxford, 1998), p. 381.

89. G. Wynn, ‘Industrialism, Entrepreneurship and Opportunity in the New Brunswick Timber Trade’, in L. R. Fischer and E. W. Sager (eds.), The Enterprising Canadians: Entrepreneurs and Economic Development in Eastern Canada, 1820–1914 (St John's, 1979), p. 12.

90. See Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online version).

91. See G. Tulchinsky, ‘The Montreal Business Community, 1837–1853’, in D. S. Macmillan (ed.), Canadian Business History: Selected Studies 1497–1971 (Toronto, 1972), pp. 125–43.

92. See Australian Dictionary of Biography (online version) for details.

93. See J. McAloon, ‘Resource Frontiers, Environment and Settler Capitalism: 1769–1860’, in E. Pawson and T. Brooking (eds.), Environmental Histories of New Zealand (Melbourne, 2002), pp. 52–66; D. A. Hamer, ‘Wellington on the Urban Frontier’, in D. A. Hamer and R. Nicholls (eds.), The Making of Wellington (1990), p. 247; J. H. Millar, The Merchants Paved the Way (Wellington, 1956), pp. 37–8.

94. R. C. J. Stone, Makers of Fortune: a Colonial Business Community and its Fall (Auckland, 1973), p. 9.

95. See M. D. N. Campbell, ‘The Evolution of Hawke's Bay Landed Society’ (PhD, Victoria University Wellington, 1972), pp. 57–8.

96. Graphically described in K. Sinclair, The Origins of the Maori Wars (Wellington, 1957), pp. 58–9.

97. For an excellent description of commando expansion, see P. Delius, The Land Belongs to Us: The Pedi Polity, the Boers and the British in the Nineteenth Century Transvaal (Johannesburg, 1983), pp. 30–40, ch. 6.

98. See J. Carruthers, ‘Friedrich Jeppe: Mapping the Transvaal c. 1850–1899’, Journal of Southern African Studies 29, 4 (2003), 959.

99. See L. Subrahmanian, ‘Banias and the British: The Role of Indigenous Credit in…Imperial Expansion in Western India’, Modern Asian Studies, 21 (1987), 473–510.

100. D. Kumar (ed.), Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. II, c.1757–c.1970 (Cambridge, 1982), p. 916.

101. See D. Kolff, Naukat, Rajah and Sepoy (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 180ff.

102. M. Yapp, Strategies of British India (Oxford, 1980), p. 175, for the ‘horseshoe’.

103. Parl. Deb., vol. 120, cols. 647ff (5 April 1852).

104. Ibid., col. 651.

105. See PP 1857–8 (59), Return of Number of Cadetships Conferred by the East India Company and the President of the Board of Control, 1840–57, p. 2.

106. The Times, 6 August 1853.

107. PP 1847–8 (511) IX.1, Report of Select Committee on the Growth of Cotton in India, p. 307; Speech by John Bright at the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, 20 June 1853, in The Times, 22 June 1853.

108. See A. J. Baster, The Imperial Banks (1929), pp. 101–3.

109. See C. A. Bayly, Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870 (Cambridge, 1996), ch. 9.

110. For the Mutiny, see C. A. Bayly, ‘Two Colonial Revolts: The Java War 1825–1830, and the Indian “Mutiny” of 1857–59’, in "C. A. Bayly and D. H. Kolff (eds.), Two Colonial Empires: Comparative Essays on the History of India and Indonesia in the Nineteenth Century (The Hague, 1986), pp. 111–35; S. David, The Indian Mutiny (2002); F. Robinson, ‘The Muslims of Upper India and the Shock of the Mutiny’, in his Islam and Muslim History in South Asia (New Delhi, 2000), pp. 138–55.

111. PP 1867 (478) VII.197, 553, Select Committee to Inquire into the Duties of the British Army in India and the Colonies: Report, Proceedings, Minutes of Evidence, p. 327: Minute by Lord Dalhousie, 13 September 1854.

112. Graham, Britain and the Modernization of Brazil, chs. 1–3.

113. See P. Gootenburg, Between Silver and Guano: Commercial Policy and the State in Postindependence Peru (Princeton, 1989).

114. Chapman, Merchant Enterprise, pp. 203–4.

115. C. Trocki, Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control (2006), pp. 14–15.

116. Trocki, Singapore, p. 24.

117. Opium made up 33 per cent of Chinese imports in 1868, cotton goods 29 per cent: F. E. Hyde, Far Eastern Trade 1860–1914 (1973), p. 217; for legalisation, see S. T. Wang, The Margary Affair and the Chefoo Agreement (Oxford, 1940), p. 120.

118. N. Pelcovits, The Old China Hands and the Foreign Office (New York, 1948), pp. 35, 42.

119. Pelcovits, Old China Hands, p. 42.

120. Y. P. Hao, The Commercial Revolution in Nineteenth-Century China (1986), p. 355.

121. See PP 1877 (5), Report and Statistical Tables Relating to Emigration and Immigration, 1876, Table XIII.

122. Dilke, Greater Britain (1869), p. vii.

123. For the debate on the motives behind Peel's decision to repeal the Corn Laws, see B. Hilton, ‘Peel: A Reappraisal’, Historical Journal, 22 (1979); B. Hilton, The Age of Atonement: The Influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought 1785–1865 (Oxford, 1988); A. C. Howe, ‘Free Trade and the City of London c.1820–1875’, Economic History Review, New Series, 77, 251 (1992); C. Schonhardt-Bailey, From the Corn Laws to Free Trade: Interests, Ideas and Institutions in Historical Perspective(Cambridge, MA, 2006).

124. From under £4 million to £58 million. Mitchell, Abstract, pp. 333–4.

125. J. A. Froude, ‘England and Her Colonies’, Fraser's Magazine, January 1870, p. 16.

126. Goldwin Smith, The Empire (1863).

127. PP 1866 (3683) XXX, Royal Commission into the Origins, Nature and Circumstances of the Disturbances in…Jamaica: Report, p. 41.

128. R. Cobden, ‘How Wars Are Got up in India’, in Political Writings of Richard Cobden, 2 vols. (1868), vol. 2, pp. 105ff.

129. Bodl. Mss Clarendon dep.c 85: Bowring to Clarendon, 18 January, 10 March, 9 April 1858.

130. H. T. Manning, British Colonial Government after the American Revolution 1782–1820 (New Haven, CT, 1933), p. 361.

131. J. S. Mill, Representative Government (1861), ch. 18.

132. For a detailed reconstruction of British attitudes, focused on Birmingham, the Baptists and Jamaica, C. Hall, Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the British Imagination 1830–1867 (2002), Part Two.

133. Parl. Deb., Third Series, vol. 190, col. 394 (28 November 1867).

134. PP 1872 (C.493) XXXVII.383. Memorandum by Commander-in-Chief on the Secretary of State's Proposals for Organization of Military Land Forces, p. 7.

135. See C. Jones, ‘Business Imperialism and Argentina 1875–1900: A Theoretical Note’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 12, 2 (1980), 437–44.

Chapter 2

1. A. J. H. Latham and L. Neal, ‘The International Market in Wheat and Rice, 1868–1914’, Economic History Review, New Series, 36, 2 (1983), 260–75.

2. BLIOC, Curzon Papers, Mss Eur. F 111, Lord George Hamilton to Curzon (India), 2 November 1899.

3. M. Swartz, The Politics of British Foreign Policy in the Age of Disraeli and Gladstone (1985), p. 13.

4. C. H. Pearson, National Life and Character (1893); B. Kidd, Social Evolution (1894); A. Mahan, The Problem of the Pacific (1900); J. Bryce, The Relations between the Advanced and Backward Peoples (Oxford, 1902); H. Mackinder, ‘The Geographical Pivot of History’, Geographical Journal, 23, 4 (1904), 421–37.

5. Sandford Fleming, quoting Parkin at the Colonial Conference, held in Ottawa in 1894. Proceedings of the Colonial Conference (Ottawa, 1894), p. 89.

6. Mackinder, ‘Geographical Pivot’, p. 422.

7. Kidd, Social Evolution, p. 339.

8. Pearson, National Life, p. 13. For Pearson's career, see J. Tregenza, Professor of Democracy: The Life of C. H. Pearson (Melbourne, 1968).

9. Pearson, National Life, pp. 84–5.

10. Kidd, Social Evolution, p. 50.

11. J. Bryce, ‘The Roman Empire and the British Empire in India’, in Studies in History and Jurisprudence (Oxford, 1901), pp. 1–2.

12. Ibid., pp. 6–7.

13. Ibid., p. 36.

14. See A. Lyall, ‘The Religious Situation in India’, Asiatic Studies 1 (1899), 320–3.

15. See T. Raychaudhuri, Europe Reconsidered: Perceptions of the West in Nineteenth-Century Bengal (Oxford, 1989).

16. S. Teng and J. K. Fairbank (eds.), China's Response to the West (Cambridge, MA, 1979), p. 152.

17. E. W. Blyden, Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race (1887), pp. 20, 65, 387.

18. See A. Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939 (1962).

19. The classic study is B. H. Sumner, Russia and the Balkans 1870–1880 (Oxford. 1937).

20. For this estimate, see R. W. Seton-Watson, Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question (1935), pp. 560–1.

21. See Swartz, The Politics of British Foreign Policy, p. 101.

22. G. Waterfield, Layard of Nineveh (1963), p. 442: Salisbury to Layard, April 1880.

23. See A. Schölch, ‘Egypt for the Egyptians’: The Socio-Political Crisis in Egypt 1879–1882 (1981).

24. See J. R. I. Cole, Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East: The Social and Cultural Origins of the ‘Urabi Movement’ (Princeton, 1993).

25. See Baron Meyendorff (ed.), Correspondance diplomatique de M. de Staal 1884–1900 (Paris, 1929), vol. 1, p. 30: Instruction to De Staal (Russian ambassador in London), 8 June 1884.

26. See D. A. Farnie, East and West of Suez: the Suez Canal in History (Oxford, 1969), esp. p. 294; and A. G. Hopkins’ scintillating critique in ‘The Victorians and Africa: A Reconsideration of the Occupation of Egypt, 1882’, Journal of African History, 27, 2 (1986) 363–91.

27. Robinson and Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians, p. 111.

28. For Egyptian hostility towards Europeans in these two towns in the 1870s, see Cole, Colonialism and Revolution, p. 203.

29. H. C. G. Matthew, The Gladstone Diaries (1881–1883), vol. X (Oxford, 1990), p. 327: Gladstone to Ripon (India), 6 September 1882.

30. B. Holland, The Life of Spencer Compton Eighth Duke of Devonshire (1911), vol I, p. 295.

31. Seton-Watson, Eastern Question, p. 236: Disraeli to the Queen, 3 November 1877.

32. See Farnie, East and West of Suez, ch. 14.

33. Ibid., ch. 12.

34. Ibid., p. 265.

35. The classic account is P. M. Holt, The Mahdist State in the Sudan 1881–1898 (Oxford, 1958).

36. See R. C. Mowat, ‘From Liberalism to Imperialism: The Case of Egypt, 1875–1887’, Historical Journal, 16, 1 (1973), 109–24.

37. P. G. Halpern, The Mediterranean Naval Situation 1908–1914 (Cambridge, MA, 1971), p. 2.

38. For the diplomacy of the Berlin conference, see S. Forster, W. Mommsen and R. E. Robinson, Bismarck, Europe and Africa (Oxford, 1988).

39. For Cromer's ‘reign’ in Egypt, see R. Owen, Lord Cromer (Oxford, 2004); R. L. Tignor, Britain and the Modernization of Egypt 1882–1914 (Princeton, 1966); A. Milner, England and Egypt (1892); and his own magnificent two-volume apologia, Modern Egypt (1908).

40. Essays by the Late Marquess of Salisbury (1905), p. 55 (originally published in 1862).

41. Swartz, British Foreign Policy, p. 25.

42. Essays, p. 12

43. Ibid., p. 53.

44. The best recent analysis of Salisbury's foreign policy can be found in E. D. Steele, Lord Salisbury: A Political Biography (1999).

45. For the pattern of French conquest, see A. S. Kanya-Forstner, The Conquest of the Western Sudan (Cambridge, 1969); M. Klein, Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa (Cambridge, 1998).

46. Quoted by D. Gillard, ‘Salisbury’, in Wilson, Foreign Secretaries, p. 122.

47. E. T. S. Dugdale (ed.), German Diplomatic Documents 1871–1914 (1929), vol. II, pp. 403–4: Hatzfeldt to Holstein, 21 January 1896.

48. See J. A. S. Grenville, Lord Salisbury and Foreign Policy (1964), ch. 6.

49. See G. N. Curzon, Problems of the Far East (1894).

50. Lo Hui-min (ed.), The Correspondence of G. E. Morrison, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1976), vol. I, pp. 35, 40: Chirol to Morrison, 26 May, 11 August 1898.

51. L. K. Young, British Policy in China 1895–1902 (Oxford, 1970), p. 70.

52. Ibid., pp. 92ff.: Salisbury to MacDonald, 23 May 1900. See also T. G. Otte, ‘The Boxer Uprising and British Foreign Policy: The End of Isolation’, in R. Bickers and R. G. Tiedemann (eds.), The Boxers, China and the World (2007), pp. 157–77; and his longer study, The China Question: Great Power Rivalry and British Isolation (Oxford, 2007).

53. Anon., Blackwood's Magazine, 168 (December 1900).

54. See R. Kubicek, The Administration of Imperialism (Durham, NC, 1969).

55. See R. J. Blyth, The Empire of the Raj: India, Eastern Africa and the Middle East, 1858–1947 (2003).

56. A. P. Kaminsky, The India Office 1880–1910 (Westport, CT, 1986), p. 107.

57. For the debate on this question, see J. MacKenzie (ed.), Imperialism and Popular Culture (Manchester, 1983); B. Porter, The Absent-Minded Imperialists: What the British Really Thought About Empire (Oxford, 2004); A. Thompson, The Empire Strikes Back (2006).

58. Its classic expression is in R. Robinson and J. Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians: The Official Mind of Imperialism (1961).

59. For some discussion of the debate, see J. Darwin, ‘Imperialism and the Victorians’, English Historical Review, 112, 447 (1997), 614–42.

60. See P. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism (2nd edn, 2000).

61. Lugard to his brother, 29 August 1895, in M. Perham, Lugard: The Years of Adventure 1858–1898 (1956), p. 555.

62. K. Wilson, ‘Drawing the Line at Constantinople’, in K. Wilson (ed.), British Foreign Secretaries and Foreign Policy: From the Crimean War to the First World War (1986), p. 202: Salisbury to Randolph Churchill, 1 October 1886.

63. Darwin, ‘Imperialism and the Victorians’, p. 628.

64. Bodl. Mss Selborne Box 5, Salisbury to Selborne, 26 August 1897.

65. Salisbury's remark, Robinson and Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians, p. 454.

66. Rhodes House Library, Mss Afr.S 1525, John Holt Papers Box 3/7, George Goldie to George Miller, 13 November 1887.

67. J. Flint, Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria (1960), p. 275: Goldie to Colonial Office, 21 July 1897.

68. Flint, Goldie, p. 258; for the blitz of articles launched by Lugard in the British press in 1895–6, Perham, Lugard: The Years of Adventure, p. 544.

69. Flint, Goldie, p. 207.

70. Bodl. Mss Milner 3, Milner to Clinton Dawkins, 1 March 1895.

71. Bodl. Mss Milner 3, Dawkins to Milner, 18 February 1895.

72. Bodl. Mss Milner 3, Dawkins to Milner, 17 July 1896.

73. Salisbury's essay was reprinted in P. Smith, Lord Salisbury on Politics (Cambridge, 1972).

74. H. Spencer, The Man Versus the State (1884).

75. D. A. Hamer, John Morley: Liberal Intellectual in Politics (Oxford, 1968), p. 162.

76. R. F. Foster, Lord Randolph Churchill (Oxford, 1981), p. 319.

77. P. Marsh, Joseph Chamberlain: Entrepreneur in Politics (New Haven, 1994), p. 191.

78. W. S. Churchill, Lord Randolph Churchill (new edn, 1951), pp. 375–6.

79. Ibid., p. 521.

80. Kubichek, Administration of Imperialism, p. 76.

81. See J. A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study (1902).

82. G. R. Sloan, The Geopolitics of Anglo-Irish Relations in the Twentieth Century (1997).

83. P. Marsh, The Discipline of Popular Government (1978), p. 303: Salisbury to Cranbrook, 19 October 1900.

84. For a classic expression, see F. W. Hirst, ‘Imperialism and Finance’, in Liberalism and the Empire: Three Essays (1900), p. 75.

85. A. M. Gollin, Proconsul in Politics (1964), p. 106: Milner to Amery, 1 December 1906; B. Porter, The Absentee-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain (Oxford, 2004).

86. See A. S. Thompson, Imperial Britain: The Empire in British Politics c. 1880–1922 (2000), esp. chs. 1, 2, 3. See also his important study, The Empire Strikes Back: The Impact of Imperialism on Britain since the Mid-Nineteenth Century (2005).

87. T. W. Freeman, A Hundred Years of Geography (1961), pp. 58–9.

88. J. MacKenzie, ‘The Provincial Geographical Societies in Britain, 1884–1914’, in M. Bell, R. Butlin and M. Heffernan (eds.), Geography and Imperialism 1820–1940 (Manchester, 1995).

89. C.4715 (1886), Royal Commission on Trade and Industry, Second Report, Appendix Part One, p. 408.

90. Ibid., p. 402.

91. Ibid., p. 406.

92. B. R. Mitchell, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971), pp. 47, 50.

93. For this estimate, see A. N. Porter, ‘Religion and Empire: British Experience in the Long Nineteenth Century’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 20, 3 (1992), 15–31.

94. See the studies in M. Harper (ed.), Emigrant Homecomings: The Return Movement of Migrants 1600–2000 (Manchester, 2007).

95. H. A. L. Fisher, James Bryce (1927) vol. I, p. 172.

96. A. Seal, The Emergence of Indian Nationalism (Cambridge, 1968), pp. 21–2.

97. See J. R. Seeley, The Expansion of England (1883); J. A. Froude, Oceana, or England and Her Colonies (1886); C. W. Dilke, Greater Britain (1869).

98. C. W. Dilke, The Present Position in European Politics (1887), p. 360.

99. See S. Potter, News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System 1876–1922 (Oxford, 2003).

100. For Lord Strathcona, Canadian High Commissioner in London 1896–1914, see B. Willson, The Life of Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal (1915), chs. 21ff. Strathcona was Canada's most prestigious businessman.

101. See C. Kaul, Reporting the Raj: The British Press and India 1880–1922 (Manchester, 2003).

102. S. D. Chapman, Merchant Enterprise in Britain: from the Industrial Revolution to World War I (Cambridge, 1992), p. 203.

103. W. Cronon, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York, 1991), p. 126.

104. For an evocative account, see R. Jefferies, ‘A Wheat Country’, in his Hodge and His Masters (1880).

105. For the peerage (who did better), see A. Adonis, Making Aristocracy Work: The Peerage and the Political System in Britain 1884–1914 (Oxford, 1993), pp. 244–5. For the gentry, see D. Cannadine, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy (1990), p. 126.

106. J. M. Crook, The Rise of the Nouveaux Riches (1999), p. 12.

107. See J. MacKenzie, The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism (Manchester, 1988).

108. Crook, Nouveaux Riches, chs. 1, 2, 4.

109. H. G. Wells, The New Machiavelli (1911), p. 59.

110. See R. McKibbin, ‘Why Was There No Marxism in Great Britain’, English Historical Review, 99, 391 (1984), 297–331.

111. See G. Stedman-Jones, Outcast London: A Study in the Relationship between Classes in Victorian Society (Oxford, 1971), ch. 6. ‘The theory of urban degeneration’.

112. A persistent theme in Froude, Oceana.

113. See G. R. Searle, Corruption in British Politics 1895–1930 (Oxford, 1987).

114. J. Harris, Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870–1914 (Oxford, 1993), p. 12.

115. M. Pugh, The Tories and the People (Oxford, 1985), pp. 87–92.

116. Quoted in E. D. Steele, ‘Imperialism and Leeds Politics c.1850–1914’, in D. Fraser (ed.), History of Modern Leeds (Manchester, 1980), pp. 344–5.

117. G. Chisholm, Handbook of Commercial Geography (7th edn, 1908), p. 58.

118. H. Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas (1902), p. 4.

119. Ibid., p. 11.

120. Ibid.

121. W. C. Hutchinson (ed.), The Private Diaries of Sir Algernon West (1922), p. 259: Ripon to Sir A. West, 26 January 1894.

122. Quoted in W. H. Parker, Mackinder: Geography as an Aid to Statecraft (Oxford, 1982), p. 61.

123. See C. Erickson, Leaving England (Ithaca, 1994), ch. 3; H. L. Malchow, Population Pressures: Emigration and Government in Late Nineteenth-Century Britain (Palo Alto, 1979).

124. A. J. Hammerton, Emigrant Gentlewomen: Genteel Poverty and Female Emancipation 1830–1914 (1979).

125. G. Wagner, Children of the Empire (1982).

126. Cmd. 7695, Report of the Royal Commission on Population (1949), ch. 12.

127. The classic account is J. Roach, ‘Liberalism and the Victorian Intelligentsia’, Cambridge Historical Journal, 13, 1 (1957), 58–81.

128. This transition is explained in E. T. Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India (Oxford, 1959).

129. The key concept in Kidd, Social Evolution.

130. Hobson's ‘anti-imperialism’ did not permit the ‘closed economy’.

131. Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas, pp. 348–9.

132. Rhodes House Library, Mss Afr s.228, C. J. Rhodes Papers, C 27, Milner to Rhodes, 6 August 1898.

133. B. Schwertfeger (ed.), Zur Europaischen Politik 1897: Unveroffentliche Dokumente, vol. I, 1897–1904 (Berlin, 1919), p. 32: Memo by Belgian Foreign Office, 13 June 1898.

134. See N. Blewett, ‘The Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885–1918’, Past and Present, 32 (1965), 27–56; K. T. Hoppen, The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846–1886 (Oxford, 1998), pp. 265–6. The percentage was lower in Scotland and Ireland.

135. R. Shannon, The Age of Salisbury (1996), pp. 553, 556.

136. See D. A. Hamer, Liberal Politics in the Age of Gladstone and Rosebery (Oxford, 1972), ch. 11.

137. Schwertfeger, Europaischen Politik, p. 44: Memo by Belgian Foreign Office, 29 August 1898.

138. See below ch. 6.

139. Speech at the Royal Colonial Institute, 31 March 1897. See Robinson and Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians, p. 404.

Chapter 3

1. I have adapted this term from W. K. Hancock, who derived it from Adam Smith's ‘great mercantile republic’.

2. PP 1898 (344), Return of Public Income and Expenditure…1869–1898, pp. 10, 20, 21.

3. For a vigorous exposition of this, see D. C. North, ‘Conference Summary’, in L. R. Fischer and E. W. Sager (eds.), Merchant Shipping and Economic Development in Atlantic Canada (St John's, Newfoundland, 1982). See generally, D. C. North, Understanding the Process of Economic Change (Princeton, 2005).

4. F. Knight, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit (Boston, 1921), p. 268.

5. Figures from W. Woodruff, The Impact of Western Man (1966), p. 253.

6. D. Headrick, Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850–1914 (1988), p. 105.

7. Woodruff, Impact, p. 289.

8. Ibid., p. 313.

9. R. C. O. Mathews, C. H. Feinstein and J. C. Odling-Smee, British Economic Growth, 1856–1973 (Stanford, CA, 1982), p. 433. The figure for 1964 was 16.3%.

10. B. R. Mitchell, An Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971), p. 334.

11. R. C. Michie, The City of London (1992), p. 72. For an account stressing the diverse interests in the City, see M. J. Daunton, ‘Financial Elites and British Society, 1880–1950’, in R. C. Michie (ed.), The Development of London as a Financial Centre, 4 vols. (2000), vol. II, pp. 355–6.

12. Woodruff, Impact, p. 257.

13. Mitchell, Abstract.

14. M. Edelstein, Overseas Investment in the Age of High Imperialism (1982), p. 48.

15. C. H. Feinstein, ‘Britain's Overseas Investments in 1913’, Economic History Review, New Series, 43, 2 (1990), 288–95.

16. Woodruff, Impact, p. 154.

17. Michie, City, p. 112.

18. Ibid., p. 113.

19. Ibid., p. 114.

20. D. Kynaston, The City of London: Golden Years, 1890–1914 (1995), p. 262.

21. A classic example was the firm of Brown, Shipley and Co. See A. Ellis, Heir of Adventure: The Story of Brown, Shipley and Co., 1810–1960 (privately printed, n.d.).

22. For Rothschilds, see N. Ferguson, The World's Banker: The History of the House of Rothschild (1998); for Barings, see P. Ziegler, The Sixth World Power: A History of One of the Great Banking Families, the House of Barings, 1762–1929 (1988).

23. See S. G. Checkland, ‘The Mind of the City 1870–1914’, Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 9, 3 (1957), 261–78.

24. For a recent study, see R. C. Michie, The London Stock Exchange (Oxford, 2001).

25. Michie, City, p. 134.

26. J. A. Hobson, The Evolution of Modern Capitalism [1894] (rev. edn, 1926), p. 246. For Hobson's views, see P. Cain, Hobson and Imperialism: Radicalism, New Liberalism and Finance, 1887–1938 (Oxford, 2002).

27. C. Harvey and J. Press, ‘Overseas Investment and the Professional Advance of British Metal Mining Engineers, 1851–1914’, Economic History Review, New Series, 42, 1 (1989), 67–8; ‘The City and International Mining, 1870–1914’, Business History 32, 3 (1990), 98–119; J. J. van Helten, ‘Mining, Share Mania and Speculation: British Investment in Overseas Mining 1880–1913’, in J. J. van Helten and Y. Cassis, Capitalism in a Mature Economy (1990).

28. For a graphic description of the speculative and disinformational tendencies to be found in the City, see I. R. Phimister, ‘Corners and Company-Mongering: Nigerian Tin and the City, 1909–1912’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 28, 2 (2000), 23–41.

29. Checkland, ‘The Mind of the City’, pp. 265, 270, 278. For the outlook of bankers, see Y. Cassis, ‘The Banking Community of London, 1890–1914: A Survey’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 13, 3 (1985), 109–26.

30. Thus Salisbury dismissed the suggestion for diplomatic pressure on Argentina at the time of the Barings crisis in 1890 as ‘dreams’. H. S. Ferns, Britain and Argentina in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1960), p. 468.

31. G. R. Searle, Corruption in British Politics 1890–1930 (Oxford, 1987), p. 13.

32. See Imperialism: A Study (1902).

33. Kynaston, Golden Years, p. 383.

34. Ibid., p. 385.

35. J. F. Gilpin, The Poor Relation Has Come into Her Fortune: The British Investment Boom in Canada, 1905–15 (1992), p. 11.

36. The classic expression of this is N. Angell, The Great Illusion (1909).

37. For India's place in Britain's multilateral payments system, S. B. Saul, Studies in British Overseas Trade 1870–1914 (Liverpool, 1960), chs. 3, 8; B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj 1914–1947 (1979), ch. 1.

38. A. J. Sargent, Seaways of the Empire (1918), ch. 1.

39. ‘England…is the telegraph exchange of the world. Every great line of telegraph communication centres in this country’, remarked the head of the Post Office telegraph department in 1893. R. W. D. Boyce, ‘Imperial Dreams and National Realities: Britain, Canada and the Struggle for a Pacific Telegraph Cable, 1879–1902’, English Historical Review, 115, 460 (2000), 57.

40. See the account in J. Schneer, London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (New Haven, 1999).

41. For a superb study, see J. Forbes Munro, Maritime Enterprise and Empire: Sir William Mackinnon and His Business Network, 1823–1893 (Woodbridge, 2003).

42. By the time of Mary Kingsley's visit in 1893, there was a weekly steamship service from Britain to the West Africa ‘Coast’. See M. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa [1897] (4th edn, 1982), Appendix 1.

43. A recent account of this transaction is in A. Amanat, Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831–96 (1997), pp. 424–5.

44. A classic study is M. Lynn, Commerce and Economic Change in West Africa: The Palm Oil Trade in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1997); see also C. Jones, ‘“Business Imperialism” in Argentina: A Theoretical Note’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 12 (1980), 440ff.

45. R. Austen, African Economic History (1987), p. 275.

46. Ibid., p. 114.

47. K. O. Dike, Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830–1885 (Oxford, 1956), is the classic study.

48. J. D. Hargreaves, Prelude to the Partition of West Africa (1966), pp. 35–7.

49. M. Lynn, ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade: The Case of West Africa c.1830–c.1880’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 15, 1 (1986), 22–40.

50. From £29 per ton in 1881 to just over £19 in 1888. J. D. Hargreaves, West Africa Partitioned, vol I, The Loaded Pause, 1885–1889 (1974), p. 252.

51. Goldie's eccentric personality is sketched in D. Wellesley, Sir George Goldie: A Memoir (1934), and his early career in J. Flint, Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria (1960).

52. Flint, Goldie, p. 326.

53. Ibid., Appendix 2.

54. Bodl. RHL Mss Afr. S.1525, John Holt Papers, Box 4.

55. M. Perham, Lugard: The Years of Adventure 1858–1898 (1956), p. 544.

56. Bodl. RHL Mss Afr. S.88, Scarbrough Mss 4: Lugard to Royal Nigeria Company Council, 6 February 1897. If their losses had been heavier, he told his main business partner, ‘we should not have had enough troops left for the work’. Goldie to John Holt, 9 January 1897, Bodl. RHL Mss Afr. S.1525, John Holt Papers Box 3.

57. Perham, Lugard 1858–98, p. 168.

58. The best account is now J. Forbes Munro, Maritime Enterprise and Empire: Sir William Mackinnon and His Business Network 1823–1893 (Woodbridge, 2003).

59. C. P. Groves, The Planting of Christianity in Africa, 4 vols. (1948–58), vol. II, pp. 189–93. For Livingstone's impact in Britain, see chapter 1 above.

60. Bodl. RHL Mss Afr. 229, Rhodes Papers (Le Sueur): G. Portal to F. Rhodes, 23 May 1890.

61. Bodl. RHL Mss Afr. S.106, Gerald Portal Papers: Portal (Zanzibar) to Lord Salisbury, 15 August 1892; Mss Afr. S.113, Portal Papers, Salisbury to Portal, 11 September 1892.

62. Munro, Maritime Enterprise, p. 476.

63. See chapter 6 below.

64. R. Owen, The Middle East and the World Economy 1830–1914 (1981), pp. 192–9.

65. See the views of the financier Ernest Cassel, in Kynaston, Golden Years, p. 513.

66. D. A. Farnie, East and West of Suez: The Suez Canal in History (Oxford, 1969).

67. See G. Baer, A History of Landownership in Modern Egypt (1962).

68. See J. I. Cole, Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East: Social and Cultural Origins of Egypt's ’Urabi Movement (Cairo, 1999).

69. R. Owen, Lord Cromer (Oxford, 2004), chs. 10, 11.

70. Baer, Landownership, p. 67.

71. For this estimate, see Map 6, p. 118 above.

72. For the Egyptian economy, see Owen, Middle East, ch. 9.

73. J. Osterhammel, ‘British Business in China, 1860s to 1950s’, in R. P. T. Davenport and G. Jones (eds.), British Business in Asia since 1860 (Cambridge, 1989).

74. I. Bird, The Yangtse Valley and Beyond (1899), pp. 64ff.

75. For French calculation along these lines, see M. Meuleau, Des pionniers en extrême-orient: histoire de la Banque de l’Indochine 1875–1975 (Paris, 1990), p. 187.

76. Lo Hui-min (ed.), The Correspondence of G. E. Morrison, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1976), vol. I, p. 22: Morrison to J. O. P. Bland, 17 January 1898.

77. R. A. Dayer, Finance and Empire: Sir Charles Addis, 1861–1945 (1988), p. 37.

78. C.-K. Leung, China: Railway Patterns and National Goals (Hong Kong, 1986), Appendix 1.

79. University of Toronto, Thomas Fisher Rare Books Library, J. O. P. Bland Mss (Microfilm) reel 1: Bland to Burkhill, 13 April 1903 (I owe this to Robert Bickers).

80. F. H. H. King, The Hong Kong Bank in the Period of Imperialism and War, 1875–1918 (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 345–6, 378, 404.

81. Morrison Correspondence, vol. I, p. 241: Morrison to Bland, 9 December 1903.

82. N. Pelcovits, The Old China Hands and the Foreign Office (New York, 1948), p. 270; L. K. Young, British Policy in China 1895–1902 (Oxford, 1970), p. 170.

83. King, Hong Kong Bank, pp. 4–11.

84. Ibid., p. 263.

85. R. A. Dayer, Finance and Empire: Sir Charles Addis 1861–1945 (1988), p. 57.

86. J. O. P. Bland Mss, Reel 15, Addis to Bland, 28 March 1906. At this stage, Addis was the London manager of the Hong Kong Bank and in close touch with the Foreign Office.

87. King, Hong Kong Bank, p. 432.

88. For a contemporary lament along these lines, see J. O. P. Bland, Recent Events and Present Policies in China (1912).

89. Dayer, Finance and Empire, p. 63.

90. King, Hong Kong Bank, p. 517.

91. For the general setting, see L. Bethell (ed.), Spanish America after Independence c.1820–c.1870 (Cambridge, 1987), chs, 1, 2; Tulio Halperin Dongi, The Contemporary History of Latin America (new edn, 1993), ch. 4, offers a brilliant survey.

92. See F. B. Pike, Spanish America 1900–1970: Tradition and Social Innovation (New York, 1973), pp. 15–18; J. Moya, Cousins or Brothers: Spanish Immigration to Buenos Aires 1850–1930 (1998), pp. 50–1.

93. For this argument, see D. C. M. Platt, ‘Dependency and the Historian: Further Objections’, in C. Abel and C. M. Lewis (eds.), Economic Imperialism and the Latin American State (Cambridge, 1985), p. 36.

94. Mitchell, Abstract, pp. 322–23.

95. For this figure, see I. Stone, ‘British Long-Term Investment in Latin America, 1865–1913’, Business History Review, 42, 3 (1968), 311–39. In his The Global Export of Capital from Britain 1865–1914 (Basingstoke, 1999), p. 351, the figure for ‘capital called’ (i.e. raised publicly on the Stock Exchange) is c.£800 million.

96. See D. C. M. Platt (ed.), Business Imperialism: An Inquiry Based on British Experience in Latin America (Oxford, 1977).

97. Bodl. Mss Bryce 267. This was Bryce's draft of his subsequent book on his Latin American travels.

98. See R. Graham, Great Britain and the Onset of Modernisation in Brazil (Cambridge, 1968), pp. 90–1.

99. See D. Joslin, A Century of Banking in Latin America (1963), pp. 39–42.

100. H. Blakemore, British Nitrates and Chilean Politics, 1886–1896: Balmaceda and North (1974).

101. For Pearson, see D. J. Jeremy (ed.), Dictionary of Business Biography 5 vols. (1984–6); G. Jones, ‘Weetman Pearson’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; F. Katz, The Secret War in Mexico (Chicago, 1981).

102. For the Bolivar Railway, see L. V. Dalton, Venezuela (1912), pp. 172, 255.

103. D. C. M. Platt, Latin America and British Trade (1972), p. 298.

104. See R. Miller, ‘The Grace Contract: British Bondholders and the Peruvian Government, 1885–1890’, Journal of Latin American Studies 8, 1(1976), 73–100.

105. M. Zeitlin, The Civil Wars in Chile (Princeton, 1984), p. 80.

106. P. R. Calvert, The Mexican Revolution of 1910–1914: The Diplomacy of Anglo-American Conflict (Cambridge, 1968), p. 20.

107. P. Winn, ‘Britain's Informal Empire in Uruguay in the Nineteenth Century’, Past and Present, 73 (1976), 112.

108. Platt, British Trade, p. 294.

109. Winn, ‘Informal Empire’, p. 112.

110. Graham, Brazil, p. 66.

111. Carlos F. Diaz Alejandro, Essays in the Economic History of the Argentine Republic (1970), ch. 1.

112. United States Department of Commerce, Railways in South America, 2 vols. (Washington DC, 1926), vol. I, p. 13.

113. Platt, British Trade, pp. 288–9.

114. Department of Commerce, Railways, vol. I, p. 35.

115. Ibid., p. 60.

116. W. P. McGreevey, An Economic History of Colombia 1845–1939 (Cambridge, 1971), p. 97.

117. Bodl. Mss Milner 2: Dawkins to Milner, 4 January 1892.

118. Ibid.: Dawkins to Milner, 30 July 1893.

119. Graham, Brazil, pp. 102–5.

120. Ferns, Britain and Argentina, pp. 446ff.; Kynaston, Golden Years, ch. 21.

121. Zeitlin, Chile, p. 99.

122. Mss Milner 2, Dawkins to Milner, 16 October 1893.

123. Ferns, Britain and Argentina, p. 468.

124. For the concept of ‘structural power’, see S. Strange, States and Markets (1988), ch. 2; A. G. Hopkins, ‘Informal Empire in Argentina’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 26 (1994), 469–84.

125. Zeitlin, Chile, p. 116.

126. Kynaston, Golden Years, p. 85.

127. Graham, Brazil, pp. 103–5; N. Ferguson, The World's Banker: A History of the House of Rothschild (1998), pp. 869–71.

128. Joslin, A Century of Banking, p. 111.

129. Bodl. Mss Milner 2, Dawkins to Milner, 4 January 1892.

130. Calculated from Sargent, Seaways.

131. Ibid., p. 104. Eighty-five per cent of outward cargoes to Brazil were coal.

132. C. R. Enock, The Republics of Central and South America (1913), p. 497.

133. J. R. Scobie, Argentina: A City and a Nation (1971), p. 32.

134. Moya, Cousins or Brothers, p. 173.

135. M. Wilkins, A History of Foreign Investment in the United States to 1914 (Cambridge, MA, 1989), p. 157.

136. Calvert, Mexican Revolution, p. 22: Minute by Sir Edward Grey, 23 August 1910.

137. Jones, ‘Business Imperialism and Argentina’, p. 440.

138. Moya, Cousins or Brothers, p. 364.

139. Enock, Republics, p. 497.

140. R. Bickers, ‘Shanghailanders: The Formation and Identity of the British Settler Community in Shanghai, 1843–1937’, Past and Present, 159, (1998), 179–80.

141. J. Barnes and D. Nicholson (eds.), The Leo Amery Diaries, Vol. I, 1896–1929 (1980), p. 47: L. S. Amery to Milner, 20 June 1903.

142. See T. O. Ranger, Revolt in Southern Rhodesia 1896–97 (1967), chs. 2, 3; I. R. Phimister, Wangi Kolia: Coal, Capital and Labour in Colonial Zimbabwe 1894–1954 (Johannesburg, 1994).

Chapter 4

1. See J. S. Martell, ‘Intercolonial Communications, 1840–1867’, in G. A. Rawlyk (ed.), Historical Essays on the Atlantic Provinces (Toronto, 1967), p. 177.

2. Earl Grey, The Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell's Administration [1853] (repr. New York, 1971), pp. 34–5.

3. See J. Mouat, ‘Situating Vancouver Island in the British World, 1846–49’, BC Studies, 145 (2005), 25.

4. Thus the powerful voice of the railway promoter Edward Watkin in 1861 proclaimed Canada's future as ‘a great British nation…extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific’. A. A. Den Otter, The Philosophy of Railways: The Transcontinental Railway Ideal in British North America (Toronto, 1997), p. 113.

5. An idea most fully developed in J. A. Froude, Oceana (1887).

6. That it sold 80,000 copies in its first three years may be an indication of this. See J. Parry, The Politics of Patriotism: English Liberalism, National Identity and Europe, 1830–1886 (Cambridge, 2006), p. 342.

7. There were several variants to describe Canada's links with Britain: this was the commonest.

8. Speech in Canadian Parliament, 8 February 1865, in P. B. Waite (ed.), The Confederation Debates in the Province of Canada, 1865 (Toronto, 1963), p. 79.

9. See G. F. G. Stanley, The Birth of Western Canada: A History of the Riel Rebellions [1936] (Toronto, 1961).

10. See W. L. Morton, Manitoba: A History (Toronto, 1957).

11. See M. L. Hansen and J. B. Brebner, The Mingling of the Canadian and American Peoples (1940), vol. I, pp. 183–4.

12. See G. Stewart, The Origins of Canadian Politics (Vancouver, 1986). The classic study of Macdonald remains D. Creighton, John A. Macdonald: The Young Politician (Toronto, 1952) and D. Creighton, John A. Macdonald: The Old Chieftain (Toronto, 1955).

13. See R. W. Cox, ‘The Quebec General Election of 1886’ (Master's thesis, McGill University, 1948).

14. See P. Crunican, Priests and Politicians: Manitoba Schools and the Election of 1896 (Toronto, 1974), pp. 310–16.

15. Goldwin Smith, Canada and the Canadian Question (1891).

16. O. A. Howland, The New Empire: Reflections upon its Origins and Constitution and its Relation to the Great Republic (Toronto, 1891).

17. Howland, New Empire, p. 363.

18. Ibid., p. 360.

19. Ibid., pp. 424, 513.

20. In a speech at Montreal in 1875. ‘A British subject I hope to die’ was his actual phrase. See Creighton, John A. Macdonald: The Old Chieftain, p. 206.

21. ‘The example which he gave to the whole world shall live for ever’, said Laurier on Gladstone's death in 1898. Speech in Canadian House of Commons, 26 May 1898, NAC, Mss Laurier (microfilm) C-1178.

22. Howland, New Empire, p. 363.

23. M. Evans, Sir Oliver Mowat (Toronto, 1992), pp. 201–2, 261ff.

24. See P. Currie, ‘Toronto Orangeism and the Irish Question, 1911–1916’, Ontario History, 87, 4 (1995), 397–409. The strength of Orangeism is referred to frequently in Laurier's political correspondence.

25. For Willison, see A. H. U. Colquhoun, Press, Politics and People: The Life and Letters of Sir J. Willison (Toronto, 1935).

26. D. J. Hall, Clifford Sifton (Toronto, 1981), vol. I, p. 95.

27. In 1901, 91 per cent of its population was of British origin; in 1911, 28 per cent were British born. M. Careless, Toronto to 1918 (Toronto, 1984), pp. 158, 202.

28. C. Oreskovitch, Sir Henry Pellatt: King of Casa Loma (Toronto, 1982).

29. M. Bliss, A Canadian Millionaire: The Life and Times of Sir Joseph Flavelle 1858–1939 (Toronto, 1978).

30. See Sir R. Falconer (president 1907–32) to Sir J. Flavelle, 23 October 1913, Colquhoun, Willison, p. 186.

31. See R. Fleming, The Railway King of Canada: The Life of Sir William Mackenzie (Vancouver, 1991).

32. Careless, Toronto, p. 150. For Walker's views on the role of the banks in making a ‘national’ economy, see his speech at Saratoga in 1895. University of Toronto, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, Mss B. M. Walker, Box 6.

33. Mss Walker Box 7, Glazebrook to Milner, 12 April 1906.

34. Mss Laurier C 769, Wilfrid Laurier to J. Cameron, 14 October 1899. Cameron was editor of the London Advertiser in Western Ontario.

35. Mss Laurier C 769, Cameron to Laurier, 12 October 1899.

36. NAC Mss Henri Bourassa (microfilm) M-722, Bourassa to Laurier, 18 October 1899.

37. La Presse, 14 October 1899, cited in D. Morton, ‘Providing and Consuming Security in Canada's Century’, Canadian Historical Review, 81, 1 (2000), 11.

38. Mss Bourassa M-721: N. A. Belcourt to Bourassa, 21 October 1899.

39. Mss Bourassa M-722: Laurier to Bourassa, 2 November 1899.

40. Some 7,000 Canadian volunteers served in the Boer War.

41. For the Quebec nationaliste alarm, see R. C. Brown and R. Cook, Canada 1896–1921 (Toronto, 1974), pp. 136–9.

42. Mss Laurier C-1178, Speech 17 February 1890.

43. Colquhoun, Willison, pp. 131, 137, 148.

44. Brown and Cook, Canada 1896–1921, p. 168.

45. R. Cook, The Politics of John W. Dafoe and the Free Press (Toronto, 1963), p. 37.

46. See J. Levitt, Henri Bourassa and the Golden Calf (Ottawa, 1969), pp. 8–11, 64ff.

47. C. Murrow, Henri Bourassa and French Canadian Nationalism (Montreal, 1968).

48. Some 1.5 million immigrants arrived between 1900 and 1914.

49. P. F. Sharp, The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada (Minneapolis, 1948), pp. 22–3, 25, 28.

50. Sharp, Agrarian Revolt, p. 75.

51. Mss Laurier C-899: Laurier to J. F. Clark, 5 February 1911.

52. For this view, NAC, MG 27 11 D 10 A: Mss F. D. Monk, vol. I, Bourassa to F. D. Monk, 28 February 1911.

53. Hall, Clifford Sifton, vol II, p. 229.

54. R. D. Cuff, ‘The Toronto Eighteen and the Election of 1911’, Ontario History, 57, 4 (1965), 169–80; for Lash's fierce criticism, Mss Laurier C 899, Lash to Laurier, 10 February 1911.

55. Montreal Star, 4 February 1911, Copy in Mss Laurier C 899.

56. NAC, Mss Clifford Sifton (microfilm) C 590, T. W. Crothers to C. Sifton, 25 September 1911.

57. Mss Walker Box 9, W. L. Grant to Walker, 15 November 1911.

58. Mss Walker Box 32, Address to Canadian Women's Club, Toronto, 7 March 1911.

59. Mss Sifton H-1014, Statement by Sifton, 22 September 1911.

60. Mss Laurier C 907, Laurier to Botha, 8 November 1911.

61. Mss Laurier C 907, Botha to Laurier, 29 September 1911.

62. On which Carl Berger's classic study concentrates. See C. Berger, The Sense of Power: Studies in Canadian Imperialism (Toronto, 1970).

63. E. Shann, An Economic History of Australia (Cambridge, 1930), p. 234. Shann was a free trader of conservative outlook.

64. N. G. Butlin, Investment in Australian Economic Development 1861–1900 (Cambridge, 1964), p. 9.

65. T. A. Coghlan, Labour and Industry in Australia (Oxford, 1918), vol. IV, p. 1234.

66. Ross Fitzgerald, A History of Queensland from the Dreaming to 1915 (paperback edn, St Lucia, 1986), p. 179.

67. G. Blainey, The Rush that Never Ended (paperback edn, Carlton, Vic., 1969), chs. 14, 20.

68. See G. Davison, Marvellous Melbourne (Melbourne, 1978).

69. G. Blainey, The Tyranny of Distance (paperback edn, South Melbourne, 1966), p. 259.

70. Coghlan, Labour and Industry, vol. IV, p. 2317.

71. Blainey, Tyranny, p. 279.

72. Just 3 per cent of inter-continental migrants in 1815–1920 were attracted to Australia and New Zealand. B. Dyster and D. Meredith, Australia in the International Economy in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1990), p. 20.

73. Butlin, Investment, p. 6.

74. See J. W. McCarty, ‘Australian Regional History’, Historical Studies, 18, 70 (1978), 88–105.

75. P. Loveday and A. W. Martin, Parliament, Faction and Party 1859–1889 (Melbourne, 1966), pp. 152–3.

76. Coghlan, Labour and Industry, vol. III, p. 1649.

77. K. Buckley and T. Wheelwright, No Paradise for Workers (Melbourne, 1988), p. 196.

78. Fitzgerald, Queensland, p. 319; M. McKenna, The Captive Republic: A History of Republicanism in Australia 1788–1996 (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 178–9.

79. Fitzgerald, Queensland, p. 317.

80. Buckley and Wheelwright, No Paradise, pp. 137–8.

81. Buckley and Wheelwright, No Paradise, p. 196; R. Markey, The Making of the Labor Party in New South Wales (Kensington, NSW, 1988).

82. F. K. Crowley (ed.), A New History of Australia (Melbourne, 1974), pp. 240–1; Buckley and Wheelwright, No Paradise, p. 214; P. Grimshaw et al. (eds.), Creating a Nation 1788–1990 (Melbourne, 1994), p. 188.

83. McKenna, Republic, p. 153; Markey, Labor Party, pp. 296, 304–5.

84. Coghlan, Labour and Industry, vol. IV, p. 2318.

85. Howland, New Empire, p. 363.

86. For Australian sub-imperialism, see R. C. Thompson, Australian Imperialism in the South Pacific (Melbourne, 1980).

87. See memo for prime minister Deakin, 6 March 1907: ‘Uninterrupted sea communications is a sine qua non for Australia…Australia, whenever her coasts are closed, must “stop work”.’ N. Meany (ed.), Australia and the World (Melbourne, 1985), p. 165.

88. C. E. Lyne, The Life of Sir Henry Parkes (London, 1987), p. 492.

89. Ibid., p. 495.

90. Ibid., p. 494. For Parkes’ equation of federation and imperial unity, see his speech at the Australasian federation conference at Melbourne in 1890, in C. M. H. Clark (ed.), Select Documents in Australian History 1851–1900 [1955] (paperback edn, London, 1977), pp. 475–6.

91. It was a time, remarked the Melbourne Age, for ‘large aggregations’. H. Irving, To Constitute a Nation: A Cultural History of Australia's Constitution (Cambridge, 1997), p. 29.

92. L. Trainor, British Imperialism and Australian Nationalism: Manipulation, Conflict and Compromise in the Late Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1994), p. 141 n.45. Deakin became the leading political figure in Victoria; Barton was influential in New South Wales. Both were to be federal prime ministers.

93. Irving, Nation, pp. 64ff.

94. Ibid., pp. 204–5.

95. Ibid., p. 160. Kingston was premier of South Australia.

96. Trainor, British Imperialism, p. 158.

97. See W. G. Osmond, Frederic Eggleston: An Intellectual in Australian Politics (Sydney, 1985), p. 53, for Deakin's hopes for an educated, professional elite. Acording to C. M. H. Clark in A History of Australia, vol. V, 1888–1915 (Melbourne, 1981), p. 293, Deakin was an Anglican who thought that empire stood between Australia and revolution. In fact, by contemporary British standards, Deakin was a radical who found Charles Dilke the most sympathetic of British politicians.

98. For Labor suspicions, see Clark, Select Documents, p. 494.

99. G. Davison, ‘Sydney and the Bush: An Urban Context for the Australian Legend’, Historical Studies, 18, 71 (1978), 191–209.

100. The Sydney Bulletin was established in 1880 as a weekly, and achieved a circulation of 80,000 by 1890. Apart from its racial-radical-republican politics, it made a point of publishing the work of local writers. Its editor from 1886 to 1902 was the republican J. F. Archibald. See G. Serle, From Deserts the Prophets Came: the Creative Spirit in Australia 1788–1972 (Melbourne, 1973), pp. 60–1.

101. Irving, Nation, p. 132.

102. For the link between racism and egalitarianism, see Terry Irving, ‘Labour, State and Nation-building in Australia’, in S. Berger and A. Smith (eds.), Nationalism, Labour and Ethnicity 1870–1939 (Manchester, 1999), p. 214.

103. C. N. Connolly, ‘Class, Birthplace, Loyalty: Australian Attitudes to the Boer War’, Historical Studies, 18, 71 (1978), 221.

104. See, for example, the opinions of J. F. Archibald and Rolf Boldrewood in I. Turner (ed.), The Australian Dream (Melbourne, 1968), pp. 270, 142.

105. For the panic over a declining birth-rate, which led to the appointment of a Royal Commission, see C. L. Bacchi, ‘The Nature-Nurture Debate in Australia 1900–1914’, Historical Studies, 19, 75 (1980), 200.

106. Connolly, ‘Class, Birthplace, Loyalty’, pp. 213–17.

107. From Deakin (see J. A. La Nauze, Alfred Deakin (Melbourne, 1965), vol. II, p. 482) to the Bulletin (Meany (ed.), Australia, p. 145).

108. See chapter 7.

109. Australia, it was remarked in the Colonial Office, was ‘ill-qualified to deal with native questions’. Meany (ed.), Australia, pp. 192ff.

110. For the angry reaction of the (London-based) Australian Mercantile Land and Finance Company (employing a capital of around £2.3 million) to the absentee land tax imposed by the Labor government in 1910, see J. D. Bailey, A Hundred Years of Pastoral Banking (Oxford, 1966), p. 200.

111. L. V. Harcourt (Secretary of State for the Colonies) to Sir A. Bigge, 28 December 1910. Bodleian Library, Mss L. V. Harcourt 462. Sir Arthur replied that Fisher could attend the coronation in ordinary dress but would have to wear court dress at any court function.

112. New Zealand's population in 1854 was 33,000; in 1864, 172,000; in 1871, 267,000; in 1878, 471,000; in 1891, 624,000; in 1911, 1,006,000.

113. The classic account is Andrew Hill Clark, The Invasion of New Zealand by People, Plants and Animals [1949] (Westport, 1970).

114. See K. Sinclair, A Destiny Apart (Auckland, 1987), p. 108.

115. William Pember Reeves, The Long White Cloud: Ao Tea Roa (London, 1898), p. 5. This was the most widely read and influential history of New Zealand until the 1950s. See E. Olssen, ‘Where to from Here?’, New Zealand Historical Journal, 26, 1(1992), 57.

116. See F. E. Maning, Old New Zealand: A Tale of the Good Old Times (1863). For a modern use of the term, see J. Belich, Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders (London, 1996), pp. 187ff.

117. See P. Burns, Fatal Success: A History of the New Zealand Company (Auckland, 1989); P. Adams, Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand 1830–1847 (Auckland, 1977).

118. What the Maori chiefs thought they had agreed to has become the central controversy in the history of colonial New Zealand. See Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi (Auckland, 1987).

119. See M. Mackinnon (ed.), New Zealand Historical Atlas (Auckland, 1997), Plate 12, for the probable extent of grassland in 1840.

120. For the growth (and later decline) of a Maori trading and agricultural economy near Auckland, see P. Monin, ‘The Maori Economy of Hauraki 1840–1880’, New Zealand Journal of History, 29, 2 (1995), 197–210.

121. K. Sinclair, The Origins of the Maori Wars (Wellington, 1957), pp. 75ff.

122. Sinclair, Origins, pp. 239–42. For the eagerness in the Colonial Office to avoid becoming New Zealand's ‘tributary’, see E. Cardwell to Governor Sir G. Grey, 26 September 1864, in F. Madden (ed.), Select Documents, vol. IV, Settler Self-Government 1840–1900 (Westport, 1990), pp. 510–11.

123. J. Belich, The New Zealand Wars (Penguin edn, 1988), p. 309.

124. Ibid., p. 310.

125. J. McAloon, ‘The Colonial Wealthy in Canterbury and Otago: No Idle Rich’, New Zealand Journal of History, 30, 1 (1996), 58–60.

126. A large wooden panel showing the dense network of coastal routes established by the USC can be seen in the Museum of Transport in Dunedin.

127. M. D. N. Campbell, ‘The Evolution of Hawke's Bay Landed Society 1850–1914’ (PhD thesis, Victoria University Wellington, 1972), pp. 57ff., 373; R. Arnold, New Zealand's Burning: The Settler World of the 1880s (Wellington, 1994), p. 30.

128. See G. H. Scholefield (ed.), The Richmond-Atkinson Papers (Auckland, 1960).

129. Arnold, New Zealand's Burning, pp. 117ff.

130. For example, the Manawatu round Palmerson North (see D. A. Hamer, ‘Wellington on the Urban Frontier’, in D. A. Hamer and R. Nicholls (eds.), The Making of Wellington 1800–1914 (Wellington, 1990), pp. 247–52) and the ‘Seventy Mile Bush’ in Hawke's Bay.

131. Arnold, New Zealand's Burning, pp. 133–4, 138. R. J. C. Stone, Makers of Fortune: A Colonial Business Community and its Fall (Auckland, 1973); R. J. C. Stone, The Father and His Gifts (Auckland, 1987).

132. See R. Dalziel, Julius Vogel: Business Politician (Auckland, 1986).

133. Ibid., p. 81.

134. Railway mileage stood at 50 in 1870 but had reached 1,613 by 1886.

135. Dalziel, Vogel, p. 179.

136. Ibid., p. 190.

137. W. H. Oliver and B. R. Williams (eds.), The Oxford History of New Zealand (Oxford, 1981), pp. 210ff.

138. For Reeves’ political career, see K. Sinclair, Willliam Pember Reeves (Oxford, 1965).

139. Tom Brooking, ‘Lands for the People’? (Dunedin, 1996), pp. 131–41.

140. K. Sinclair, A History of New Zealand (Harmondsworth, 1959) (since its publication, the most influential single-volume history).

141. See W. H. Oliver, ‘Reeves, Sinclair and the Social Pattern’, in P. Munz, The Feel of Truth (Wellington, 1969), pp. 163–78.

142. Oliver, ‘Social Pattern’, p. 170.

143. Cf. Sinclair, New Zealand, pp. 185, 296.

144. See E. Olssen, ‘Towards a New Society’, in Oliver and Williams (eds.), Oxford History. W. H. Oliver, ‘Social Welfare: Social Justice or Social Efficiency’, New Zealand Journal of History, 13, 1 (1979), 25–33.

145. A phrase attributed to Seddon.

146. See J. Stenhouse and B. Moloughney, ‘“Drug-Besotted Sin-Begotten Sons of Filth”: New Zealanders and the Oriental Other’, New Zealand Journal of History, 33, 1 (1999), 43–64.

147. C. G. F. Simkin, The Instability of a Dependent Economy: Economic Fluctuations in New Zealand 1840–1914 (Oxford, 1951), p. 174. In 1911, wool exports were worth £6.5 million; and meat, butter and cheese exports £6.3 million.

148. Simpkin, Instability, p. 175.

149. See M. King, Frank Sargeson: A Life (Auckland, 1995), ch. 7. The classic account in fiction is J. Mulgan, Man Alone (1939).

150. M. Fairburn, ‘The Rural Myth and the New Urban Frontier: An Approach to New Zealand Social History’, New Zealand Journal of History, 9, 1 (1975), 3–21.

151. Reeves, Long White Cloud, p. 407.

152. For the persistence of this outlook up to 1940, see C. Hilliard, ‘Stories of Becoming: The Centennial Surveys and the Colonization of New Zealand’, New Zealand Journal of History, 33, 1 (1999), 4.

153. Dalziel, Vogel, p. 276.

154. D. K. Fieldhouse, ‘New Zealand, Fiji and the Colonial Office 1900–1902’, Historical Studies, 8, 30 (1958), 114.

155. R. J. Burdon, King Dick (London and Wellington, 1955), p. 211.

156. New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, vol. 110, pp. 75–6 (28 October 1899).

157. Ibid. p. 77.

158. Brooking, ‘Lands for the people’?, p. 217; Madden, Select Documents, vol. V, The Dominions and India since 1900 (Westport, 1993), pp. 16–17.

159. Though some MPs resisted the idea of a military contribution to the Boer War. See New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, vol. 110, p. 82 (Carson, Taylor).

160. Any differences with the Crown since 1840, remarked Honi Heke, MP for the Northern Maori, ‘have not interfered with our duty to the Crown’: New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, vol. 110, 28 October 1899.

161. For important statements of this, see P. A. Buckner, ‘Whatever Happened to the British Empire’, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, 4 (1993), 1–31; P. A. Buckner and C. Bridge, ‘Reinventing the British World’, The Round Table, 368(2003), 77–88; C. Bridge and K. Fedorowich, ‘Mapping the British World’, in C. Bridge and K. Fedorowich (eds.), The British World: Diaspora, Culture and Identity (2003), pp. 1–15.

162. J. R. Seeley, The Expansion of England (1883), p. 75.

163. For Seeley's opposition to Irish Home Rule, see J. Roach, ‘Liberalism and the Victorian Intelligentsia’, Historical Journal (1957), 58–81.

164. See A. Jones and B. Jones, ‘The Welsh World and the British Empire c.1851–1939: An Exploration’, in Bridge and Fedorowich (eds.), The British World, pp. 57–81.

165. See D. MacKay, The Square Mile: Merchant Princes of Montreal (Vancouver, 1987).

166. K. Fedorowich, ‘The British Empire on the Move, 1760–1914’, in S. Stockwell (ed.), The British Empire: Themes and Perspectives (Oxford, 2008), p. 85.

167. See B. S. Elliott, ‘Emigration from South Leinster to Eastern Upper Canada’, in D. H. Akenson (ed.), Canadian Papers in Rural History, vol. VIII (Gananoque, Ontario, 1992), pp. 277–306.

168. Fedorowich, ‘British Empire on the Move’, p. 83.

169. For D’Arcy McGee, see Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online version); for Gavan Duffy and Coghlan, see Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Chapter 5

1. Indian exports were worth Rupees 329 million (1860) and Rs 2,490 million (1913). D. Kumar (ed.), Cambridge Economic History of India (Cambridge, 1982), vol. II, pp. 833–4, 837

2. S. B. Saul, Studies in British Overseas Trade (Liverpool, 1960), p. 62.

3. Railway mileage in India: 20 (1853), 4,771 (1870), 15,842 (1890), 23,627 (1900). See I. J. Kerr, Building the Railways of the Raj 1850–1900 (Delhi, 1997), pp. 211–12.

4. PP LVIII, 847 (1900): East India (Return of Wars and Military Operations Wars on or beyond the Borders of British India), pp. 2–15; ibid. (1908), p. 1.

5. See M. Adas, The Burma Delta (Madison, 1971).

6. See Claude Markovits, ‘Indian Merchant Networks’, Modern Asian Studies, 33, 4 (1999), 883–911 at 892.

7. C. Markovits, ‘Indian Communities in China’, in R. Bickers and C. Henriot (eds.), New Frontiers: Imperialism's New Communities in East Asia, 1842–1953 (Manchester, 2000), pp. 55–74.

8. W. S. Churchill, My African Journey (1908), ch. 3, for Churchill's opinions.

9. PP 1893–4, LXV, 16, Report of Committee on Indian Currency.

10. Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. II, p. 940.

11. B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj 1914–1949 (1949), p. 19.

12. Cd. 131 (1900), Report of the Royal Commission on the Administration of the Expenditure of India (the ‘Welby Report’), vol. I, p. 79.

13. Lord Curzon, Speeches in India (Calcutta, 1900), vol. I, p. xiii.

14. Ibid., p. xi.

15. Salisbury to Sir Henry Northcote (Bombay), 8 June 1900. R. L. Greaves, Persia and the Defence of India 1884–1892 (1959), p. 16.

16. Consulates paid for by the Indian government were set up at Mohammerah (1890), Kerman (1895), Seistan (1899), Shiraz (1903), Bandar Abbas (1904) and the Makran (1905).

17. Despatch from GoI to Secretary of State for India, 2 November 1892. PP 1893–4 LXIII, Further Papers Respecting Proposed Changes in the Indian Army System, C. 6987 (1893), pp. 5–9.

18. Welby Report, pp. 126–7.

19. Lord Rosebery had insisted on this in 1895. Welby Report, vol. I, p. 116.

20. Lord George Hamilton to Elgin, 12 August 1897. P. L. Malhotra, The Administration of Lord Elgin in India (New Delhi, 1979), p. 159.

21. The number of letters and postcards exchanged between Britain and India, reported the Islington Commission, rose from 8.5 million in 1901–2 to 27 million in 1911–12: Report of Royal Commission on Public Services in India, Cd 8382 (1917), p. 12.

22. See T. Raychaudhuri, Europe Reconsidered (Delhi, 1988), especially the essay on Bhudev Mukhopadhyay.

23. J. B. Fuller, The Empire of India (1913), p. 275. Fuller's figure is 687.

24. B. Cohn, ‘The Census, Social Structure and Objectification in South Asia’, in his An Anthropologist among the Historians (Delhi, 1987).

25. See E. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (1983).

26. As an embattled Indian Secretary complained: Viscount Morley, Recollections (1914), vol. II, pp. 211, 256.

27. For this evolution, see E. Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India (1959), Part IV, ch. 3; J. Roach, ‘Liberalism and the Victorian Intelligentsia’, Cambridge Historical Journal, 13, 1 (1957), 58–81.

28. A term only applied much later to ‘Eurasians’ of mixed Indian and European parentage.

29. 3rd edn (1894). Chesney had been Secretary in the military department of the Indian government, and a member of the Viceroy's Council. He was MP for Oxford 1892–5.

30. Indian Polity, p. 389.

31. Ibid., p. 390.

32. Hunter to A. P. Watt, 10 June 1897. F. H. Skrine, The Life of Sir William Wilson Hunter (1901), p. 468.

33. W. W. Hunter, History of British India (1899), vol. I, introduction.

34. Welby Report vol. I, p. 111.

35. Speech in House of Common, 8 August. F. Madden and D. K. Fieldhouse (eds.), The Dependent Empire and Ireland: Select Documents in the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth, vol. V (Westport, CT, 1991), p. 114.

36. For Lord Salisbury's view, Madden, Select Documents, vol. V, p. 99, n. 1.

37. It was likely to alienate the Raj's closest Indian allies.

38. H. H. Risley, The People of India [1908] (2nd edn, 1915), p. 283 (Risley was the Indian government's census expert).

39. A. Seal, The Emergence of Indian Nationalism (Cambridge, 1968), pp. 246ff.

40. Bengal District Administration Report (1913), cited in J. H. Broomfield, Mostly about Bengal (New Delhi, 1982), p. 4.

41. See T. Raychaudhuri, Europe Reconsidered (New Delhi, 1988).

42. R. C. Palit (ed.), Speeches by Babu Surendra Nath Banerjea 1876–1880 (Calcutta, 1891), vol. I, p. 8.

43. Palit, Speeches, vol. I, p. 223.

44. Palit, Speeches (Calcutta, 1894), vol. II, p. 60 (14 January 1884).

45. Ibid., vol, I, p. 119.

46. J. R. B. Jeejeebhoy (ed.), Some Unpublished and Later Speeches of Sir Pherozeshah Mehta (Bombay, 1918), p. 30.

47. B. R. Nanda, Gokhale (New Delhi, 1977), p. 125.

48. Ibid., pp. 22ff.

49. ‘An Appreciation by Babu Aurobindo Ghose’, in The Writings and Speeches of B. G. Tilak (Madras, 1919), p. 6.

50. R. I. Cashman, The Myth of the Lokmanya (Berkeley, 1975), pp. 54–6.

51. Described cautiously by Gandhi as a ‘misguided patriot’, and later by J. Nehru as a ‘predatory adventurer’. Cashman, The Lokmanya, pp. 121–2.

52. I have adopted this term from Irish history. See E. Curtis, A History of Ireland (1936), ch. 10.

53. See chapter 2 above.

54. Seal, Indian Nationalism, p. 179.

55. Palit (ed.), Speeches (Calcutta, 1896). vol. V.

56. Ibid.

57. Macdonnell to (Viceroy) Elgin, 16 July 1897. Bodl. Mss Eng. Hist. c.353.

58. Chesney, Indian Polity, p. 385.

59. Skrine, Hunter, p. 388.

60. See D. Rothermund, ‘Emancipation or Reintegration: The Politics of Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Herbert Hope Risley’, in D. A. Low (ed.), Soundings in Modern South Asian History (1968), pp. 131–58.

61. See Imran Ali, The Punjab under Imperialism 1885–1947 (Princeton, 1988).

62. D. Gilmartin, Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan (1988), pp. 13–24; P. M. H. van den Dungen, The Punjab Tradition (1972).

63. G. Johnson, Provincial Politics and Indian Nationalism (Cambridge, 1973), p. 64.

64. See Macdonnell to Elgin, 16 July 1897, Bodl. Mss Eng. Hist. c.353: the question was whether recent unrest amounted to ‘a general movement of the country against us’.

65. D. Dilks, Curzon in India (1969), vol. I, pp. 64–5.

66. S. Gopal, British Policy in India 1858–1905 (Cambridge, 1965), p. 255.

67. Lord Ronaldshay, The Life of Lord Curzon (1928) vol. II, p. 89.

68. Thomas R. Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 151ff.

69. For a summary, see Report of Calcutta University Commission (1919), vol. I, pp. 65ff.

70. Risley to Curzon, 7 February 1904, D. Banerjee, Aspects of Administration in Bengal 1898–1912 (New Delhi, 1980), p. 61.

71. Curzon to Secretary of State for India, 17 February 1904. Banerjee, Aspects, p. 61.

72. Curzon to Secretary of State for India, 2 February 1905, F. Madden and J. Darwin (eds.). The Dominions and India since 1900: Select Documents in the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth (Westport, CT, 1993), pp. 660–1.

73. R. Guha, ‘Discipline and Mobilize’, in P. Chatterjee and G. Pandey (eds.), Subaltern Studies (1992), vol. VII, pp. 76–90. Even Banerjea urged social boycott to coerce backsliders.

74. Curzon to Selborne, 21 May 1903. Bodl. Mss Selborne 10: ‘I spoke on behalf of a unanimous Cabinet of my own with a constituency of 300 millions behind.’

75. Curzon, India's Place in the Empire (1909), esp. pp. 7–9.

76. ‘Strong currents of democratic feeling [are] running breast high in the House of Commons’. J. Morley, Recollections (1913) vol. I, p. 171.

77. Arthur Hirtzel's diary. S. Wolpert, Morley and India 1906–1910 (Berkeley, 1967), p. 43.

78. Morley to Minto, 15 June 1906. Morley, Recollections, vol. I, p. 174.

79. B. R. Nanda, Gokhale (Delhi, 1977), p. 249. ‘Mere animal gathering in India’, said Tilak, ‘would be of no avail’.

80. Morley to Minto, 2 August 1906. Morley, Recollections, vol. I, p. 181.

81. Ibid.

82. For the Arundel Committee report, 12 October 1906, Morley Collection, BLIOC, Ms Eur. D 573/32.

83. The Government of India's ‘reforms despatch’, 21 March 1907, is printed in ibid.

84. Ibid.

85. See his speech at Calcutta, 2 January 1907, ‘Tenets of a New Party’. Writings and Speeches, pp. 56–65.

86. Ibid.

87. R. K. Ray, Social Conflict and Political Unrest in Bengal 1875–1927 (Delhi, 1984), pp. 154ff; Guha, ‘Discipline and Mobilize’, pp. 76–90.

88. See P. Heehs, The Bomb in Bengal (Delhi, 1993).

89. Motilal Nehru to Jawaharlal Nehru, 17 May 1907. R. Kumar and D. N. Panigrahi (eds.), Selected Works of Motilal Nehru (Delhi, 1982), vol. I, pp. 124–5.

90. Motilal Nehru to Jawaharlal Nehru, 23 April 1908, Selected Works, vol. I, p. 137.

91. Nanda, Gokhale, p. 311.

92. Morley to Minto, 17 June 1908. Nanda, Gokhale, p. 297.

93. A. P. Kaminsky, The India Office 1880–1910 (1986), p. 145.

94. Ibid., p. 144.

95. Wolpert, Morley, p. 191.

96. Minto to Lansdowne, 18 March 1909. Nanda, Gokhale, p. 318.

97. For the electoral system, see Banerjee, Aspects, p. 129. For Congress and the elections of 1912–13, see Broomfield, Mostly about Bengal, pp. 55–78.

98. Motilal Nehru to Jawaharlal Nehru, 30 August 1909, Selected Works, vol. I, p. 17.

99. Motilal Nehru to Jawaharlal Nehru, 29 April 1910, Selected Works, vol. I, p. 145.

100. For the 1910 Press Act, see N. Barrier, Banned! (Columbia, MO, 1974).

101. Summary of the Administration of the Earl of Minto in the Home Department 1905–1910 (Simla, 1910), p. 19.

102. R. Popplewell, Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire 1907–1924 (1993), pp. 51ff. For a sceptical view of its value, See R. Chandavarkar, Imperial Power and Popular Politics (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 208–9.

103. Sir R. Craddock to Sir J. Meston, 5 January 1913, BLIOC Mss Eur. F 136/3.

104. C. A. Bayly, The Local Roots of Indian Politics (Oxford, 1975), pp. 199–200.

105. For Minto's ‘non-interference’ speech at Udaipur, 3 November 1909, see Madden and Darwin, Select Documents, vol. VI, pp. 801–2.

106. Hardinge to Crewe, 25 August 1911 (the ‘Delhi Despatch’). C. P. Ilbert, The Government of India (3rd edn, Oxford, 1916), Appendix III.

107. PP 1908 XLIV, Report of the Royal Commission on Decentralisation in India, vol. I, pp. 301ff. For Meston's views, see Report, vol. X, pp. 820–7.

108. See Delhi Despatch, Ilbert, India, Appendix III.

109. V. S. Srinivasa Sastri, Speeches and Writings (Madras, n.d.), p. 4.

110. President's speech, Bankipore, 1912. Congress Presidential Addresses, Second series (Madras, 1934), p. 67.

111. Ibid.

112. President's speech, Karachi, 1913. Presidential Addresses, p. 151.

113. Ibid., p. 152.

114. President's speech, 1914. Presidential Addresses, p. 171.

115. ‘The Two Empires’, The Times, 24 May 1911. India and the Durbar: A Reprint of the Indian Articles in the ‘Empire Day’ Edition of The Times (1911), pp. 2–3.

116. Speech by Lord Hardinge in the Indian Legislative Council, 17 September 1913. Speeches of Lord Hardinge of Penshurst 1913–1916 (Madras, n.d.), p. 16.

117. Ibid., pp. 20–1.

118. Presidential Addresses, pp. 58–9.

119. Motilal Nehru, evidence to Royal Commission on Public Services in India, Lucknow, 4 April 1913. Selected Works, vol. I, p. 256.

120. Ibid., p. 258.

121. See J. Zavos, The Emergence of Hindu Nationalism in India (New Delhi, 2000), chs. 3, 4.

122. ‘Muhammadans are drifting…into the arena of political warfare’, said Fazl Huq in April 1913. Broomfield, Mostly about Bengal, p. 93.

123. J. Pouchepadass, Champaran and Gandhi (New Delhi, 1999), ch. 6.

124. Report of Calcutta University Commission, vol. I, p. 27.

125. For the rising ambitions of ‘rural-local bosses’, see D. A. Washbrook, The Emergence of Provincial Politics (Cambridge, 1976), pp. 82ff.

Chapter 6

1. For a general account, see P. J. Van der Merwe, Die Trekboer in die Geskiedenis van die Kaap, trans. R. Beck (Ohio, 1995). An outstanding recent study is N. Penn, The Forgotten Frontier (Cape Town, 2005). The most brilliant introduction to South African history remains C. W. De Kiewiet, History of South Africa: Social and Economic (1941).

2. J. S. Marais, Maynier and the First Boer Republic (Cape Town, 1944), pp. 78–9.

3. See C. Hamilton (ed.), The Mfecane Aftermath (Johannesburg, 1995); J. Laband, Rope of Sand (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 13–15; N. Etherington, The Great Treks (2001).

4. M. Legassick, ‘The Northern Frontier to 1840’, in R. Elphick and H. Giliomee (eds.), The Shaping of South African Society 1652–1840 (2nd edn, 1989), pp. 390–6.

5. Sir P. Maitland to Lord Stanley, 1 August 1845, G. M. Theal (ed.), Basutoland Records [1883] (repr. Cape Town, 1964), vol. I, pp. 93–100.

6. Sir H. Smith to Earl Grey, 3 February 1848, Ibid., vol. I, p. 165.

7. Minute by Earl Grey, June 1848, K. N. Bell and W. B. Morrell (eds.), Select Documents on British Colonial Policy 1830–1860 (Oxford, 1928), pp. 510–11.

8. For the conflict between the British and the Xhosa, see J. T. Peires, The Dead Shall Arise: Nonqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856–7 (1989); C. Bundy, The Rise and Fall of the South African Peasantry (2nd edn, 1988), ch. 2; J. Rutherford, Sir George Grey 1812–1898: A Study in Colonial Government (1961), chs. 20–9.

9. S. Trapido, ‘Reflections on Land, Office and Wealth in the South African Republic, 1850–1900’, in S. Marks and A. Atmore (eds.), Economy and Society in Pre-industrial South Africa (1980), pp. 350–9.

10. The Transvaal was barely a state before 1880: see J. A. I. Agar-Hamilton, The Native Policy of the Voortrekkers (Cape Town, 1928), p. 205.

11. C. J. Uys, In the Era of Shepstone (Lovedale, 1933), p. 77; C. W. De Kiewiet, The Imperial Factor in South Africa (1937), p. 29.

12. J. Benyon, Proconsul and Paramountcy in South Africa 1806–1910 (Pietermaritzburg, 1980), pp. 144–5.

13. Uys, Shepstone, chs. 11, 12.

14. P. Delius, The Land Belongs to Us (Johannesburg, 1983), pp. 244–5.

15. D. M. Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger (1969), pp. 164–5.

16. For the absorption of the Xhosa lands into Cape Colony, see C. C. Saunders and R. Derricourt, Beyond the Cape Frontier (1974).

17. For the Convention's terms, see Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger, Appendix I.

18. Ibid., p. 323.

19. Ibid., ch. 6.

20. Ibid., p. 422.

21. M. H. De Kock, Economic History of South Africa (Cape Town, 1924), pp. 242, 392, 398.

22. For Rhodes’ career, see R. Rotberg, The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power (Oxford, 1989).

23. H. Giliomee, ‘The Beginnings of Afrikaner Nationalism 1870–1915’, South African Historical Journal, 19 (1987); T. R. M. Davenport, The Afrikaner Bond 1880–1911 (1966).

24. For Rhodes' sometimes fraught relations with Nathan Rothschild, his main backer in London, see N. Ferguson, The World's Banker: The History of the House of Rothschild (1998), pp. 881–94.

25. See C. W. Newbury, The Diamond Ring (Oxford, 1989).

26. J. S. Galbraith, Crown and Charter: The Early History of the British South Africa Company (Berkeley, 1974), chs. 2, 3, 4.

27. W. D. Mackenzie, John Mackenzie: South African Missionary and Statesman (1902), pp. 432–5.

28. Ibid., p. 433.

29. ‘As a purely Cape politician’, Milner remarked of Rhodes in 1889, ‘he was (is perhaps) Africander. As the author of enterprises that look far beyond the Cape and the Transvaal and reach to the Zambesi, and beyond the Zambesi, he must know (he is much too shrewd not to know) that without Imperial backing he is lost.’ Mackenzie, John Mackenzie, pp. 433–4.

30. See M. Tamarkin, Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners (1996).

31. See I. R. Phimister, ‘Rhodes, Rhodesia and the Rand’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 1,1 (1974), 74–90.

32. For Fitzpatrick's insistence on this as Rhodes’ motive, see Fitzpatrick to his wife, 10 January 1896, A. H. Duminy and W. R. Guest (eds.), Fitzpatrick, South African Politician: Selected Papers (Johannesburg, 1976), pp. 29ff.; National English Literary Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa, Mss Percy Fitzpatrick A/L I: same to same, 7 January 1896.

33. See J. Butler, The Liberal Party and the Jameson Raid (Oxford, 1968), pp. 41, 275.

34. For a recent scholarly collection on the Raid, see the contributions of G. Cuthbertson and others in The Jameson Raid: A Centennial Retrospect (Johannesburg, 1996).

35. Selborne's memo, 26 March 1896, enclosed in Selborne to Salisbury, 30 March 1896. D. G. Boyce (ed.), The Crisis of British Power: The Imperial and Naval Papers of the Second Earl of Selborne, 1895–1910 (1990), pp. 34–7.

36. A. Milner, England and Egypt (1892).

37. Milner to Selborne, 16 July 1897, Boyce (ed.), Crisis, p. 51.

38. Conyngham Greene to Selborne, 18 June 1897, Boyce (ed.), Crisis, pp. 52–3.

39. Bodl. Milner Mss 220: Milner to Goschen, 28 September 1897.

40. J. Chamberlain to Milner, 5 July 1897, C. Headlam (ed.), The Milner Papers: South Africa 1897–1899 (1931), pp. 71–2.

41. Milner to Selborne, 2 June 1897, Headlam, Milner Papers 1897–1899, pp. 105–6.

42. Ibid., p. 107.

43. Milner to Clinton Dawkins, 25 August 1897, Headlam, Milner Papers 1897–1899, p. 87.

44. Ibid.

45. Milner to Asquith, 18 November 1897, Headlam, Milner Papers 1897–1899, pp. 177–80.

46. Mss Fitzpatrick B/A I: J. D. Forster to Percy Fitzpatrick, 8 October 1897.

47. P. Lewsen (ed.), Select Correspondence of John X. Merriman, 1890–1898 (Van Riebeek Society, 1963), p. 302.

48. J. X. Merriman to James Rose Innes, 26 January 1898, Lewsen, Merriman 1890–1898, p. 291.

49. Rhodes to Milner n.d. but March 1898, Headlam, Milner Papers 1897–1899, p. 154.

50. Mss Milner 219: Milner to J. Chamberlain, 22 March 1898.

51. Milner to Rhodes, 7 March 1898, Headlam, Milner Papers 1897–1899, pp. 152–4.

52. Rhodes House Library, Mss Rhodes C4: Grey to Rhodes, 11 June 1898.

53. Milner Mss 205: C. Greene to Milner, 27 May 1898.

54. Mss Rhodes C4: Wilson Fox to Rhodes, 1 July 1898.

55. Rotberg, The Founder, pp. 610–11.

56. Ibid., pp. 615–16; L. Michell, The Life of Cecil Rhodes (1910), vol. II, p. 244.

57. For Rhodes’ campaign in 1898–9, see James Rose-Innes to James Bryce, 25 July 1899, in H. M. Wright (ed.), Sir James Rose-Innes: Select Correspondence (1884–1902) (Van Riebeek Society, 1972), pp. 257ff.

58. J. P. Fitzpatrick, The Transvaal from Within (1899), pp. 267ff.

59. I. R. Smith, The Origins of the South African War 1899–1902 (1996), p. 243.

60. Originally a telegram, Milner to Chamberlain, 4 May 1899. See Headlam, Milner Papers 1897–1899, pp. 349–53.

61. See A. Thompson, ‘Imperial Propaganda during the South African War’, in G. Cuthbertson, A. Grundlingh and M.-L. Suttie (eds.), Writing a Wider War: Gender, Race and Identity in the South African War 1899–1902 (Athens, OH, 2002), pp. 303–27.

62. The Times, 2 May 1899.

63. Selborne to Milner, 25 June 1899, Boyce (ed.), Crisis, p. 83.

64. Mss Milner 220: Milner to Selborne 12 July 1899.

65. Selborne to Chamberlain, 3 July 1899, Boyce (ed.), Crisis, p. 88.

66. A. N. Porter, The Origins of the South African War: Joseph Chamberlain and the Diplomacy of Imperialism (Manchester, 1980), pp. 243–5.

67. W. K. Hancock and J. Van Der Poel (eds.), Selections from the Smuts Papers (Cambridge, 1966), vol. I, p. 82.

68. For Smuts’ account, dated 14 September 1899 of his discussions with Conyngham Green, the British Agent in Pretoria, see Smuts Papers, vol. I, pp. 283–99; see also Smuts to J. H. Hofmeyr, 22 August 1899, Ibid., p. 301.

69. For this critical stage, see Smith, Origins, pp. 350–4. Once he grasped the meaning of Smuts’ conditions, Chamberlain insisted in his Birmingham speech of 26 August 1899 that the question of who was the paramount power had to be settled. See The Times, 28 August 1899.

70. S. Marks and S. Trapido, ‘Lord Milner and the South African State’, History Workshop, 8 (1979), 50–80.

71. P. Harries, ‘Capital, State and Labour on the 19th Century Witwatersrand: A Reassessment’, South African Historical Journal, 18 (1986), 25–45; R. Mendelsohn, Sammy Marks: The ‘Uncrowned King of the Transvaal’ (Cape Town, 1991).

72. R. Robinson and J. Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians (1961), ch. 14.

73. For a deft portrait of Uitlander society and its divisions, see D. Cammack, The Rand at War: The Witwatersrand and the Anglo-Boer War 1899–1902 (1990); E. Katz, The White Death: Silicosis and the Witwatersrand Gold Miners 1886–1910 (Johannesburg, 1994), pp. 76–90.

74. Cammack, The Rand at War, pp. 10–15, 29–30.

75. See T. Gutsche, Old Gold: The History of the Wanderers Club (Cape Town, 1966), chs. 6, 7.

76. T. R. Adlam, ‘Sunrise and Advancing Morn’, in M. Fraser (ed.), Johannesburg Pioneer Journals 1888–1909 (Van Riebeek Society, 1985), p. 85. The passage is in a letter from Adlam's father to his mother dated 13 June 1899.

77. Privately circulated from June, but not published until September.

78. J. S. Marais, The Downfall of Kruger's Republic (Oxford, 1961), p. 233.

79. See F. C. Mackarness to J. X. Merriman, 10 March 1899, in P. Lewsen (ed.), Selections from the Correspondence of John X. Merriman (Van Riebeek Society, 1966), pp. 19–20.

80. J. G. Lockhart and C. M. Woodhouse, Rhodes (1963), pp. 424ff.

81. Fitzpatrick to J. Wernher, 24 April 1899, Duminy and Guest (eds.), Fitzpatrick Papers, p. 208.

82. Fitzpatrick's speech, 13 March 1899, Fitzpatrick Papers, pp. 197–8.

83. Memo by J. C. Smuts, 4 September 1899, Smuts Papers, vol. I, pp. 313–29.

84. ‘You know as well as I do’, wrote Smuts at the end of the war, ‘that this has been a civil war.’ Smuts to T. L. Graham, 26 July 1902, Smuts Papers (Cambridge, 1966), vol. II, p. 115.

85. Royal Commission on the War in South Africa, Report, Cd. 1789 (1903), para. 152.

86. Bodl. Mss Selborne 12: Confidential report by Major E. Leggett, n.d. but July 1905.

87. See J. Krikler, Revolution from Above, Revolution from Below: The Agrarian Transvaal at the Turn of the Century (Oxford, 1993).

88. For a notorious case, see W. Nasson, Abraham Esau's War: A Black South African War in the Cape, 1899–1902 (Cambridge, 1991). For Milner's reports on atrocities, see Headlam (ed.), Milner Papers 1899–1905, pp. 233–4. See also Cd. 821 (1901), Correspondence relative to the Treatment of Natives by the Boers.

89. For Kitchener's terms, see Mss Milner 235: Kitchener to Botha, 7 March 1901, enclosed in Milner to J. Chamberlain, 7 March 1901. The negotiations were published as Cd. 663 (1901), Further Papers relating to Negotiations between Commandant Louis Botha and Lord Kitchener.

90. For a recent assessment, see L. Scholtz, Why the Boers Lost the War (Basingstoke, 2005).

91. The detailed drafting of the terms is described in Headlam (ed.), Milner Papers 1899–1905, ch. IX. The crucial concession on the franchise had been made at Middelburg.

92. Ibid., p. 410.

93. Mss Selborne 12: Milner to Selborne, 14 April 1905.

94. Mss Rhodes C 27: Milner to Rhodes, 30 January 1902.

95. See M. Fraser and A. Jeeves, All That Glittered: Selected Correspondence of Lionel Phillips 1890–1924 (Cape Town, 1977), p. 115.

96. See J. Darwin, ‘The Rhodes Trust in the Age of Empire’, in A. Kenny (ed.), The Rhodes Trust (Oxford, 2002).

97. Mss Rhodes C 27: Milner to Rhodes, 30 January 1902.

98. Milner to J. Chamberlain, 6 February 1901, Headlam, Milner Papers 1899–1905, p. 201.

99. Milner hoped that, in five years’ time, the British would enjoy a narrow majority among the 1.2 million whites. Headlam, Milner Papers 1899–1905, p. 280. In fact, the 1911 census showed that Dutch Reformed Church communicants (a good proxy for Afrikaners) formed over 54 per cent of the white population. See L. M. Thompson, The Unification of South Africa (Oxford, 1960), p. 488.

100. Milner to Sir Charles Crewe, 27 April 1904, Headlam, Milner Papers 1899–1905, pp. 508–9. Crewe was the leading loyalist politician in the Eastern Cape.

101. For this ambition, see Cory Library, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Mss Edgar Walton 17/142, Crewe to Edgar Walton, 29 April 1904. Walton (like Crewe a newspaper proprietor) was the leading political figure of Port Elizabeth.

102. Headlam, Milner Papers 1899–1902, p. 322.

103. Mss Edgar Walton 17/142: Milner to Walton, 8 April 1903.

104. Mss Edgar Walton 17/142: Crewe to Walton, 29 April 1902; Milner to Walton, 5 May 1902.

105. Mss Edgar Walton 17/142: O. Lewis to Walton, 6 May 1902.

106. Fraser and Jeeves (eds.), All That Glittered, p. 123.

107. Milner to Lyttelton, 2 May 1904, Headlam, Milner Papers 1899–1905, p. 523. Lyttelton was Colonial Secretary succeeding Chamberlain.

108. For the labour question, see D. Yudelman, The Emergence of Modern South Africa: State, Capital and the Incorporation of Organised Labour on the South African Gold Fields, 1902–1939 (Cape Town, 1984), ch. 2.

109. For Natal, see David Torrance, The Strange Death of the Liberal Empire (1996), p. 145. Thompson, Unification, remains the authoritative account of white politics after 1902.

110. Mss Fitzpatrick A/LB IV: Fitzpatrick to G. Cox, 3 May 1904.

111. Smuts to J. X. Merriman, 30 August 1906, Smuts Papers, vol. II, p. 298.

112. Fraser and Jeeves (eds.), All That Glittered, p. 145; Yudelman, Emergence, pp. 62, 65.

113. Mss Fitzpatrick A/LB I: Fitzpatrick to Julius Wernher, 5 June 1902.

114. See, for example, Smuts to J. X. Merriman, 13 March, 30 August, 23 December 1906, Smuts Papers, vol. II, pp. 242–3, 298, 309.

115. Mss Selborne 71: Selborne to Lionel Curtis, 11 November 1907.

116. Mss Selborne 9: Selborne to J. Chamberlain, 24 February 1908.

117. Mss Selborne 71: Selborne to Walter Long, 21 December 1907; to E. Pretyman, 13 January 1909.

118. For Selborne’s ideas, see Torrance, Strange Death, pp. 180–92.

119. Mss Selborne 5: Selborne to (fourth) Marquess of Salisbury, 18 May 1907.

120. Mss Selborne 6: same to same, 22 August 1908; Fraser and Jeeves (eds.), All That Glittered, p. 172.

121. Torrance, Strange Death, pp. 155ff.

122. For Progressive divisions, see Jagger Library, University of Cape Town, Mss Patrick Duncan, D.16.1: Patrick Duncan to L. S. Amery, 29 June 1908.

123. For Fitzpatrick's initial opposition, see Fraser and Jeeves (eds.), All That Glittered, p. 172.

Chapter 7

1. PP 1904 Cd. 1789, Royal Commission on the War in South Africa [RCWSA], Report (1903), Appendix D, p. 225: Memo by Secretary of State for War, 1 June 1891.

2. This distribution is based on PP 1897 (349), Statistical Report on the Health of the Navy: 1896.

3. See A. Preston and J. Major, Send a Gunboat (1967).

4. RCWSA, Report, Appendix D, p. 289: Memo by Lord Lansdowne, 4 December 1896. There were also the Guards regiments.

5. See WO 33/256, 23 December 1902: ‘The Cost of Principal British Wars 1857–1899’.

6. C. E. Callwell, Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice (3rd edn, 1906), p. 76.

7. RCWSA, Report, Appendix D, p. 213: Minute by Lord Wolseley, 22 February 1896.

8. W. R. Langer, European Alliances and Alignments 1871–1890 (2nd edn, New York, 1950), p. 400: Salisbury to Queen Victoria, 10 February 1887.

9. Bodl. Mss Selborne Box 12: Milner to Lord Selborne, 31 January 1900.

10. PP 1904 Cd. 1790, RCWSA, Evidence, vol. 1, p. 175, Q.4134 (Sir E. Wood), 29 October 1902.

11. L. S. Amery, The Times History of the War in South Africa (1902), vol. II, p. 41.

12. M. Howard, The Continental Commitment (1974), p. 19.

13. D. G. Boyce (ed.), The Crisis of British Power: The Imperial and Naval Papers of the Second Earl of Selborne, 1895–1910 (1990), pp. 105–6: Selborne to Hicks Beach, 29 December 1900.

14. Boyce, Crisis, pp. 124–6: Memo by Selborne, 4 September 1901.

15. Boyce, Crisis, p. 115: Selborne to Curzon, 10 April 1901.

16. G. Monger, The End of Isolation (1963), p. 64: Balfour to Lansdowne, 12 December 1901.

17. Boyce, Crisis, p. 154: Selborne to Curzon, 4 January 1903.

18. R. Williams, Defending the Empire: The Conservative Party and British Defence Policy 1899–1915 (1991), ch. 4.

19. A. J. Marder, Fear God and Dread Nought: The Correspondence of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone, 2 vols. (1956); R. F. Mackay, Fisher of Kilverstone (Oxford, 1974).

20. Boyce, Crisis, p. 190: Cabinet memo by Selborne, 6 December 1904, ‘Distribution and Mobilization of the Fleet’.

21. Marder, Fear God, vol. II, p. 59.

22. D. Gillard, The Struggle for Asia 1828–1914 (1977), p. 176.

23. For a brilliant contemporary expression, see A. Colquhoun, 1912: Germany and Sea Power (1909).

24. N. Tracy (ed.), The Collective Naval Defence of the Empire, 1900–1940 (Navy Records Society, 1997), p. 92.

25. See D. C. Gordon, Dominion Partnership in Imperial Defence (Baltimore, 1965).

26. See I. L. D. Forbes, ‘German Informal Imperialism in South America before 1914’, Economic History Review, New Series, 31, 3 (1978), 396–8.

27. For a recent interpretation along these lines, see B. B. Hayes, Bismarck and Mitteleuropa (Toronto, 1994).

28. See I. N. Lambi, The Navy and German Power Politics (Boston, 1983), pp. 426–7.

29. For Russian expansion in Asia, see D. Geyer, Russian Imperialism: The Interaction of Domestic and Foreign Policy 1860–1914 (Eng. trans., Leamington, 1987), ch. 9.

30. For a brilliant study, see A. Rieber, ‘Persistent Factors in Russian Foreign Policy’, in H. Ragsdale (ed.), Imperial Russian Foreign Policy (Cambridge, 1993).

31. Rieber, ‘Factors’, pp. 343ff.

32. Russian attempts to prevent the Austrian annexation of Bosnia ended in diplomatic humiliation.

33. See D. Lieven, Russia and the Origins of the First World War (1983).

34. D. Lieven, Russia's Rulers under the Old Regime (New Haven, 1989), p. 228.

35. Grand Admiral Von Tirpitz, My Memoirs (Eng. trans., 1919), pp. 178–9.

36. D. A. Yerxa, Admirals and Empire: The United States Navy and the Caribbean 1898–1945 (Columbia, SC, 1991), p. 20. This was in February 1903.

37. See D. McCullough, The Path between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal 1870–1914 (New York, 1977).

38. See K. Bourne, Britain and the Balance of Power in North America (1967).

39. H. and M. Sprout, Towards a New Order of Sea Power (1944), p. 288.

40. See P. Calvert, The Mexican Revolution 1910–1914: The Diplomacy of Anglo-American Conflict (Cambridge, 1968); F. Katz, The Secret War in Mexico (Chicago, 1981), p. 68, for the scare of 10,000 Japanese invading the United States.

41. Yerxa, Admirals and Empire, ch. 2.

42. W. Tilchin, Theodore Roosevelt and the British Empire (New York, 1997), p. 236.

43. Ibid., p. 237.

44. J. A. S. Grenville, ‘Diplomacy and War Plans in the United States, 1890–1917’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th Series, 11 (1961), 1–21.

45. P. P. O’Brien, British and American Sea Power 1900–1936 (Westport, CT, 1998), chs. 3, 5.

46. G. P. Gooch and H. Temperley (eds.), British Documents on the Origins of the First World War 12 vols. (1927–38), vol. III, pp. 402–3: Memo by Eyre Crowe, 1 January 1907.

47. A. J. Marder, From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: vol. I, The Road to War 1904–14 (Oxford, 1961), p. 322.

48. E. W. R. Lumby (ed.), Policy and Operations in the Mediterranean 1912–1914 (Navy Records Society, 1970), pp. 62ff.: Committee of Imperial Defence, 117th meeting, 4 July 1912.

49. See Lumby, Mediterranean, pp. 24–30, for Churchill's memo, ‘The Naval Situation in the Mediterranean’, 15 June 1912, and pp. 32–3, for the Admiralty memo of 21 June 1912.

50. New Zealand National Archives, Wellington, Sir James Allen Papers, Box 14: Nelson Evening Mail, 29 November 1912.

51. New Zealand National Archives, Sir James Allen Papers Box 14: Speech at Vancouver, 15 May 1913.

52. Tracy, Collective Naval Defence, p. 198.

53. PP 1913 (30), Return of Net Income and Expenditure of British India, 1901–1911, pp. 475–7: net military expenditure of the Government of India, £20.6 million (1904–5), £19.1 million (1909–10), £19.5 million (1911–12). Between £4 million and £5 million was spent annually in Britain.

54. Gooch and Temperley, British Documents, vol. 10, p. 534: Grey to Goschen (Berlin), 13 June 1913.

55. Ibid., ch. xcv.

56. See P. Lowe, Great Britain and Japan 1911–1915 (1969).

57. D. Gillard (ed.), British Documents on Foreign Affairs, Part 1, Series B, The Near and Middle East 1856–1914 (1984), vol. 14, Persia, Britain and Russia 1907–1914, pp. 358–65: Townley (Teheran) to Grey, 21 December 1913 encl. Smart (Tabriz) to Townley, 18 November 1913.

58. Gooch and Temperley, British Documents, vol. 10, p. 38: Hardinge (Viceroy of India) to Nicolson (Foreign Office), 29 March 1911.

59. Production of crude steel, 1910 (in metric tonnes): Britain: 6,476,000; Germany: 13,100,000; United States: 26,514,000. B. R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics: Europe 1750–1988 (3rd edn, 1992), p. 457; Mitchell, International Historical Statistics: The Americas 1750–1988 (2nd edn, 1993), p. 353.

60. R. C. Michie, The City of London (1992), p. 73.

61. See R. C. O. Matthews, C. H. Feinstein and J. C. Odling-Smee, British Economic Growth 1856–1973 (Stanford, 1982), p. 440, Figs. 14.7, 14.8.

62. W. Woodruff, The Impact of Western Man (1966), p. 313.

63. G. Chisholm, Handbook of Commercial Geography (7th edn, 1908), pp. 610–17.

64. B. R. Mitchell, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971), p. 219.

65. Ibid., pp. 334–5

66. W. Schlote, British Overseas Trade from 1700 to the 1930s (Eng. trans., Oxford, 1952), p. 126.

67. Matthews, Feinstein and Odling-Smee, British Economic Growth, p. 433.

68. Ibid., p. 164.

69. Mitchell, Abstract, p. 334.

70. Ibid., p. 50.

71. Dominion of Canada Customs Department, Report (Ottawa, 1913), p. 9.

72. Woodruff, Impact, Table VII/17.

73. Ibid., Table VII/14.

74. A. Sommariva and G. Tullio, German Macroeconomic History 1880–1979 (1986), p. 47.

75. V. Bulmer-Thomas, Economic History of Latin America since Independence (Cambridge, 1994), p. 104.

76. Of France's total in 1913, 56 per cent was in Europe, 16 per cent in the Americas and 12 per cent in the Near East. See Rondo E. Cameron, France and the Economic Development of Europe 1800–1914 (Princeton, 1961), p. 486.

77. M. Cowen, ‘Capital, Nation and Commodities: The Case of the Forestal Land, Timber and Railway Company in Argentina and Africa’, in Y. Cassis and J. J. Van Helten (eds.), Capitalism in a Mature Economy (1990), p. 192.

78. As in the case of the Bagdadbahn. See L. Gall, G. D. Feldman, H. James, et al., The Deutsche Bank 1870–1995 (Eng. trans., 1995), pp. 71–2.

79. A. I. Bloomfield, Short-Term Capital Movements under the Pre-1914 Gold Standard (Princeton, 1963), p. 46.

80. For an account of this mechanism, see J. B. Condliffe, The Commerce of Nations (1951), p. 397; P. M. Acena, J. Reis and A. L. Rodriguez, ‘The Gold Standard in the Periphery: An Introduction’, in P. M. Acena and J. Reis (eds.), Monetary Standards in the Periphery: Paper, Silver and Gold 1854–1933 (2000), pp. 1–17.

81. See chapter 4 above.

82. M. H. De Kock, Economic History of South Africa (Cape Town, 1924), pp. 242, 249.

83. African mineworkers 1902/3: 77,000; 1913: 214,000. A. Jeeves, Migrant Labour in South Africa's Mining Economy (Kingston and Montreal, 1985), pp. 265–6. White mineworkers 1907: 18,600; 1913: 29,710. D. Yudelman, The Emergence of Modern South Africa: State, Capital and Organised Labour 1902–1939 (Cape Town, 1984), p. 132.

84. M. Fraser and A. Jeeves (eds.), All That Glittered: Selected Correspondence of Lionel Philipps 1890–1924 (Cape Town, 1977), p. 9.

85. J. Krikler, White Rising: The 1922 Insurrection and Racial Killing in South Africa (Manchester, 2005), ch. 1.

86. Yudelman, Emergence, p. 127. The Afrikaner proportion of the white workforce rose from 17.5 per cent in 1907 to 36.2 per cent in 1913. See Yudelman, Emergence, p. 132.

87. N. J. Butlin, Australian Economic Development 1861–1900 (Cambridge, 1964), p. 436.

88. E. Shann, Economic History of Australia (Cambridge, 1930), p. 415.

89. A. R. Hall, The London Capital Market and Australia (Canberra, 1963), pp. 181–2.

90. D. B. Copland, ‘The Finance of Industry, Banking and Credit’, in Copland (ed.), ‘An Economic Survey of Australia’, Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science (Philadelphia, 1931), p. 100.

91. C. G. F. Simkin, The Instability of a Dependent Economy (Oxford, 1951), pp. 176, 41.

92. Ibid., p. 51.

93. J. B. Condliffe, New Zealand in the Making (1930), pp. 326–7; Simkin, Instability, p. 90.

94. For the gold exchange standard and its effects, see A. K. Bagchi, The Presidency Banks and the Indian Economy, 1870–1914 (Calcutta, 1989), pp. 102ff.; B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj 1914–1947 (1979), pp. 18–23. The fund in London reached £25 million by 1912, about the same size as India's deficit with Britain.

95. D. Kumar (ed.), The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. II, c. 1757–1970 (Hyderabad, 1982), p. 837.

96. Ibid., vol. II, pp. 873–4; Tomlinson, Raj, p. 16.

97. See C. J. Baker, A Rural Economy, 1880–1955: The Tamilnad Countryside (Oxford, 1984), pp. 107ff.; O. Goswami, Industry, Trade and Peasant Society in the Jute Economy of Eastern India (Delhi, 1991), pp. 58–9.

98. Tomlinson, Raj, p. 29.

99. F. E. Hyde, Far Eastern Trade 1860–1914 (1973), pp. 120, 126, 131–2.

100. Value of Gold Coast exports of cocoa 1900: £27,280; 1913: £2,489,218. Value of (all) Nigerian exports 1900: £2.08 million; 1913: £7.4 million. See A. MacMillan, The Red Book of West Africa: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial (1920), pp. 161, 43.

101. I. R. Phimister, ‘Corners and Company-mongering: Nigerian Tin in the City of London, 1909–1912’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 28, 2 (2000), 23–41.

102. See A. G. Hopkins, Economic History of West Africa (1973), ch. 6; W. I. Ofanagoro, Trade and Imperialism in Southern Nigeria 1881–1929 (1979).

103. Despite the 60 per cent increase in government spending between 1895 and 1913, Lloyd George achieved consistent surpluses in 1910–14. See B. K. Murray, The People's Budget (Oxford, 1980), pp. 292–3.

104. S. J. Potter, News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System 1876–1922 (Oxford, 2003).

105. See J. E. Kendle, The Round Table Movement and Imperial Union (Toronto, 1975).

106. See H. Weinroth, ‘British Radicals and the Agadir Crisis’, European Studies Review, 3, 1 (1973), 54. For the decline of radical opposition to naval spending, see A. J. A. Morris, Radicals Against War 1906–1914 (1972), p. 345.

107. Bodl. Mss Robert Brand Box 185: Milner to R. H. Brand, 20 April 1908.

108. Ibid.

109. Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Cory Library, Mss Edgar Walton 17/142: Hennessy to Walton, 14 March 1910. The programme as adopted on 24 May 1910 is in the C. P. Crewe Papers, also in the Cory Library.

110. National English Literary Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa, Mss J. P. Fitzpatrick A/LB VIII: Fitzpatrick to Milner, 15 February 1909; Mss Fitzpatrick B/A V: Jameson to Fitzpatrick, 28 April 1910.

111. Mss Fitzpatrick A/LC IV: Fitzpatrick to Milner, 3 March 1911.

112. Mss Walton 17/142: Eastern Province Herald, 15 June 1910.

113. Mss Crewe: Walter Long to Crewe, 25 October 1912.

114. Mss Fitzpatrick B/A V: Milner to Fitzpatrick, 10 April 1911.

115. Mss Fitzpatrick A/LB VIII: Fitzpatrick to Milner, 15 February 1909.

116. PP 1913 (130), Return of Indian Financial Statement and Budget for 1913–14 and…Proceedings of Legislative Council, p. 258 (24 March 1913).

117. D. Kimble, The Political History of Ghana 1850–1928 (Oxford, 1963), ch. 11.

118. For an excellent description, see Akintola Wyse, H. C. Bankole-Bright (Cambridge, 1990).

119. TNA, CO 446/99, Governor Bell to Colonial Office, 30 August 1911.

120. PP 1919 (468), Report by Sir F. Lugard, 9 April 1919, para. 29.

121. For the 1907 constitution of the Gold Coast Aborigine Rights Protection Society, founded 1897, see F. Madden and J. Darwin (eds.), The Dependent Empire 1900–1948: Select Documents in the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth (1994), vol. VIII, p. 614. For the views of a leading protagonist, see J. E. Casely-Hayford, Gold Coast Native Institutions (1903).

122. TNA, CO 583/80: Clifford to Milner, 3 December 1919.

123. For a recent survey, see S. Doyle, Crisis and Decline in Bunyoro (Oxford, 2006), ch. 3.

124. D. A. Low, ‘Uganda: The Establishment of a Protectorate 1894–1919’, in V. T. Harlow and E. M. Chilvers (eds.), History of East Africa (Oxford, 1965), vol. II.

125. G. H. Mungeam (ed.), Kenya: Select Historical Documents 1884–1923 (Nairobi, 1978), pp. 458–62: Colonists’ Association to Colonial Secretary (London), 23 August 1905.

126. R. G. Gregory, India and East Africa: A History of Race Relations within the British Empire, 1890–1939 (Oxford, 1971).

127. Mungeam, Kenya: Select Documents, p. 477.

128. See A. Hourani, Islam in European Thought (Cambridge, 1990).

129. G. Bell, The Desert and the Sown (1907), p. 228.

130. R. Storrs, Orientations [1937] (definitive edn, 1943), p. 82.

131. A. T. Wilson, South West Persia; A Political Officer's Diary (1942), 15 September 1912.

132. Lord Cromer, Modern Egypt (1908), vol. II, pp. 170–1.

133. B. Fuller, The Empire of India (1913), pp. 170–1.

134. Quoted in Cromer, Modern Egypt, vol. II, p. 202.

135. M. Perham, Lugard: The Years of Authority 1898–1945 (1960), p. 156.

136. A. Gailey, Ireland the Death of Kindness: The Experience of Constructive Unionism 1895–1905 (Cork, 1987).

137. Library of Trinity College, Dublin, Mss Donoughmore K/10/21: Donoughmore to Sir W. Hely-Hutchinson, 30 January 1906.

138. P. Bew, Conflict and Conciliation (1987), p. 19.

139. Ibid.

140. Childers, Framework, p. 148.

141. Mss Donoughmore K/27/10: C. H. Clarke to Donoughmore, 27 November 1908; Bew, Conflict, p. 82.

142. T. Garvin, Nationalist Revolutionaries in Ireland 1858–1928 (Oxford, 1987), p. 2.

143. Ibid., p. 79.

144. M. Wheatley, ‘John Redmond and Federalism in 1910’, Irish Historical Studies, 32, 27 (2001), 354–63.

145. Childers, Framework, p. 104.

146. See Sir Gilbert Parker, ‘Home Rule and the Colonial Analogy’ (n. d.), copy in Mss Donoughmore K/27/15.

147. P. Buckland, ‘The Southern Irish Unionists, the Irish Question and British Politics 1906–1914’, in A. O’Day (ed.), Reactions to Irish Nationalism (1987), p. 381.

148. See A. Jackson, The Ulster Party (Oxford, 1989).

149. P. Jalland, The Liberals and Ireland (Brighton, 1980), p. 115.

150. N. Blewett, The Peers, the Parties and the People: The General Elections of 1910 (1972), p. 407.

Chapter 8

1. D. French, British Economic and Strategic Planning 1905–1915 (1982), p. 27.

2. For the best recent study, see A. Offer, The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (Oxford, 1989).

3. The best account is N. Stone, The Eastern Front 1914–1917 (1975).

4. See B. Millman, Pessimism and British War Policy, 1914–1918 (2001), pp. 12ff.

5. The best recent study is D. French, The Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition 1916–1918 (Oxford, 1995).

6. Bodl. Mss Milner 355: Milner to Lloyd George, 20 March 1918.

7. C. E. Callwell, Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: His Life and Diaries, 2 vols. (1927), vol. II, p. 76.

8. Bodl. Mss Milner 355: Milner to Wilson, 8 April 1918.

9. Callwell, Wilson, vol. II, p. 90.

10. Burton J. Hendrick, The Life and Letters of Walter Hines Page (1924), p. 391 (10 June 1918).

11. Bodl. Mss Milner (Additional) c696: Milner to Lloyd George, 9 June 1918.

12. Ibid.

13. Grey to Cambon, 16 May 1916, conveniently reprinted in W. Laqueur (ed.), The Israel–Arab Reader (3rd edn, New York, 1976), p. 13.

14. D. Vital, A People Apart: The Jews in Europe 1789–1939 (Oxford, 1999), pp. 688–92; A. Verrier (ed.), Agents of Empire (1995), p. 210.

15. French, Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition, p. 192.

16. Millman, Pessimism, p. 208.

17. J. Darwin, Britain, Egypt and the Middle East (1981), p. 156.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., p. 158.

20. For British anxieties, see W. B. Fowler, British–American Relations 1917–1918: The Role of Sir William Wiseman (Princeton, 1969).

21. Fowler, British–American Relations, pp. 224–5.

22. E. Johnson (ed.), Collected Works of John Maynard Keynes, vol. XVI, Activities 1914–1919, the Treasury and Versailles (Cambridge, 1971), p. 23: Keynes’ article in the Morning Post, 11 August 1914.

23. Ibid., vol. XVI, Activities, pp. 110–11.

24. Ibid., p. 125.

25. Ibid., pp. 185ff.

26. J. Wormell, The Management of the National Debt of the United Kingdom 1900–1932 (2000), p. 243; Johnson, Collected Works, vol. XVI, Activities, p. 224.

27. Ibid., p. 244.

28. Ibid., p. 250.

29. Ibid., p. 268: Keynes to his mother, 24 December 1917.

30. By April 1917, the United States was an international creditor. See D. Kennedy, Over Here: The First World War and American Society (New York, 1980), p. 306.

31. Exports and re-exports in 1919, £385 million; 1913, £634 million. Both in 1913 prices. See A. W. Kirkcaldy (ed.), British Finance during and after the War 1914–1921 (1921), pp. 364–8.

32. See R. Miller, ‘British Trade with Latin America 1870–1950’, in P. Mathias and J. A. Davis (eds.), International Trade and British Economic Growth from the 18th Century to the Present Day (Oxford, 1996), p. 137.

33. Kennedy, Over Here, p. 325.

34. Ibid., p. 322.

35. Wormell, National Debt, p. 382.

36. Ibid., p. 151.

37. Johnson, Collected Works, vol. XVI, Activities, p. 418.

38. Total government debt 1913: £625 million; 1920: £7809 million. See B. R. Mitchell, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971), p. 403.

39. Wormell, National Debt, p. 151.

40. Mitchell, Abstract, pp. 334–35.

41. Ibid., p. 476.

42. Ibid., p. 491.

43. Wormell, National Debt, p. 299.

44. Bodl. Mss Robert Brand, Box 8: P. Duncan to Robert Brand, 8 February 1917.

45. Wormell, National Debt, p. 296.

46. Mss Robert Brand, Box 5B: R. Brand to E. S. Montagu, 18 July 1916.

47. Mss Robert Brand, Box 9: Note (n.d.) by Robert Brand.

48. Wormell, National Debt, pp. 151, 288.

49. PP 1917–18, XXIV, p. 12: Financial Statement by Finance Member, Government of India, 1 March 1917.

50. B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj 1914–1947 (1979), pp. 106–7.

51. PP 1917–18, XXIV, p. 101: Indian Legislative Council Proceedings, 7 March 1917.

52. Tomlinson, Political Economy, p. 109.

53. PP 1919, XXXVII, p. 4: Statement by Finance Member, 1 March 1919.

54. Kennedy, Over Here, p. 332.

55. Ibid., p. 99.

56. Ibid., p. 341.

57. Ibid., p. 342.

58. H. Strachan, The First World War, vol. 1, To Arms (Oxford, 2001), p. 965.

59. Strachan, First World War, p. 908.

60. See J. M. Atkin, ‘Official Regulation of British Overseas Investment 1918–1931’, Economic History Review, 2nd series, 23 (1970).

61. R. Michie, The London Stock Exchange (Oxford, 1999), p. 181.

62. Ibid., p. 173.

63. Mss Robert Brand 26: Notes for a Speech/Article on Anglo-Canadian Relations, ?1913.

64. The argument advanced by Ramsay MacDonald. See D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (1977), p. 167.

65. See A. M. Gollin, Proconsul in Politics (1964), for the best discussion of this group.

66. J. M. McEwen (ed.), The Riddell Diaries 1908–23 (1986), p. 186.

67. Ibid., p. 219.

68. For a contemporary study of pre-war conditions, see J. Orr, Report on Agriculture in Berkshire (1916).

69. Mss Milner (Additional) c696: Milner to Lloyd George, 6 September 1918.

70. BLIOC, Curzon Papers, Mss Eur. F 112/122: Milner to Curzon, 23 January 1918.

71. C. Wrigley, Arthur Henderson (Cardiff, 1990), p. 113; Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald, p. 217.

72. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, 2 vols. (1936), vol. II, pp. 1595ff.

73. By comparison, 27 per cent of British adult males served overseas, 50 per cent were casualties, and over 900,000 were killed.

74. Documents on Canadian External Relations, vol. I, 1909–1918 (Ottawa, 1967), pp. 93–4: Prime Minister to Assistant High Commissioner, 30 October 1915.

75. Ibid., p. 104: Prime Minister to Assistant High Commissioner, 4 January 1916.

76. Ibid., p. 115: Borden to Perley, 24 February 1916.

77. A. F. Madden and J. Darwin (eds.), Select Documents in the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth, vol. VI, The Dominions and India since 1900 (Westport, CT, 1993), p. 42.

78. Mss Milner 361: Draft Report of Committee of Prime Ministers, 20 August 1918.

79. Ibid.

80. Documents on Canadian External Relations, vol. I, p. 218: Borden to Lloyd George, 29 October 1918; ibid., p. 220: Hughes to Borden, 10 November 1918.

81. National Archives of Canada, J. W. Dafoe Papers, M-73 (microfilm): Wilfrid Laurier to J. Dafoe, 8 November 1912.

82. D. Morton, ‘Providing and Consuming Security in Canada's Century’, Canadian Historical Review, 81, 1 (2000), 11; this compared with some 18 per cent in its counterpart, the Australian Imperial Force.

83. See speech, 12 January 1910, National Archives of Canada, Borden Mss, C-412 (microfilm).

84. National Archives of Canada, Dafoe Papers, M-73: Sifton to Dafoe, 21 September 1914.

85. M. Westley, Remembrance of Grandeur: The Anglo-Protestant Elite of Montreal 1900–1950 (Montreal, 1990), pp. 112ff.

86. J. M. Bliss, ‘The Methodist Church and World War One’, in C. Berger (ed.), Conscription 1917 (Toronto, 1970), p. 40.

87. National Archives of Canada, Dafoe Papers M-73: Dafoe to T. Coté, 6 April 1916.

88. Ibid., Dafoe to Coté, 1 January 1916.

89. B. G. Ferguson, Remaking Liberalism: The Intellectual Legacy of Adam Shortt, O. D. Skelton, W. C. Clark and W. A. Mackintosh, 1890–1925 (Montreal and Kingston, 1993), p. 151.

90. National Archives of Canada, Henri Bourassa Papers M-721 (microfilm): Bourassa to C. H. Cahan, 3 October 1914.

91. Ibid., Bourassa to J. S. Ewart, 18 September 1915.

92. National Archives of Canada, Wilfrid Laurier Papers C-908 (microfilm): Laurier to Senator Dandurand, 17 January 1915.

93. National Archives of Canada, Bourassa Papers M-721: Bourassa to W. D. Gregory, 24 November 1916.

94. National Archives of Canada, Clifford Sifton Papers H-1014 (microfilm): Sifton to Senator Bostock, 23 July 1917.

95. National Archives of Canada, Robert Borden Papers C-412 (microfilm): Meighen to Borden, 17 October 1916.

96. National Archives of Canada, Laurier Papers C-915 (microfilm): Laurier to Sir C. Russell, 27 December 1917.

97. National Archives of Canada, Borden Papers C-412: R. N. Gosnell to Borden, 20 December 1917.

98. National Archives of Canada, Laurier Papers C-915: Skelton to Laurier, 18 December 1917.

99. E. M. Andrews, The Anzac Illusion (Cambridge, 1993), p. 11: 146,602 in 1913.

100. R. Evans, Loyalty and Disloyalty: Social Conflict on the Queensland Home Front, 1914–1918 (Sydney, 1987), p. 7.

101. Andrews, Anzac Illusion, pp. 28, 41.

102. J. McQuilton, Rural Australia and the Great War (Melbourne, 2001), p. 19.

103. Ibid., p. 42.

104. The figures were 1,160,033 to 1,087,557.

105. 1,181,747 to 1,015,159.

106. D. Day, John Curtin: A Life (Sydney, 1999), p. 229.

107. Evans, Loyalty, p. 9.

108. Ibid., p. 96.

109. Day, Curtin, p. 243.

110. Evans, Loyalty, p. 100.

111. S. Alomes, A Nation at Last? (North Ryde, NSW, 1988), pp. 67–8.

112. On 25 September 1914. New Zealand National Archives, Acc. 556, Sir James Allen Papers, Box 12.

113. Ibid., Allen to T. Todd, 16 April 1915.

114. For Allen's speech in the New Zealand parliament, The Dominion, 9 August 1916, Allen Papers, Box 4.

115. James Belich, Paradise Reforged (2002), p. 111.

116. A. B. Keith, War Government in the British Dominions (1921), p. 97.

117. New Zealand National Archives, Allen Papers, Box 9: Allen to Massey, 8 November 1916.

118. University of Cape Town, Jagger Library, Patrick Duncan Papers, D.5.8: Duncan to Lady Selborne, 20 August 1914.

119. Ibid., D.5.9: Duncan to Lady Selborne, 20 January 1915.

120. Ibid., Duncan to Lady Selborne, 27 January 1915.

121. Ibid., Duncan to Lady Selborne, 2 April 1915.

122. Ibid., D.1.34: Sir Thomas Smartt to Duncan, 28 August 1915.

123. I. S. Uys, ‘South Africans at Delville Wood’, South African Military History Journal, 7, 2 (1986), 45–58; Keith, War Government, p. 107.

124. University of Cape Town, Jagger Library, Patrick Duncan Papers, A.1.2: Duncan to J. H. Hofmeyr, 10 March 1919.

125. M. Hasan (ed.), Mohamed Ali in Indian Politics: Selected Writings (New Delhi, 1987), vol. II, p. 115.

126. BLIOC, Chelmsford Coll., Mss Eur. E 264/2: Viceroy to Secretary of State for India, 27 May 1916.

127. Chelmsford Coll., Mss Eur. E 264/8: Viceroy to Secretary of State for India, 18 May 1917.

128. Madden and Darwin, Select Documents, vol. VI, pp. 678–9.

129. See clauses 12d and 16 of the Congress–League scheme, printed in L. Curtis, Letters to the People of India on Responsible Government (1918), appendix.

130. Trinity College, Cambridge, Edwin Montagu Papers: Montagu to Lloyd George, 27 June 1917.

131. E. S. Montagu, An Indian Diary (1930), p. 216.

132. Ibid., p. 216.

133. Curtis, Letters, pp. 70–4.

134. Montagu, Indian Diary, p. 358: this was (Sir) William Marris, later governor of the United Provinces.

135. Report of the Indian National Congress Special Session, 29 August–1 September 1918.

136. Ibid., p. 103: this was B. C. Pal of Bengal.

137. Montagu Papers: Montagu to Chelmsford, 27 April 1918.

138. Montagu Papers: Notes prepared on the Rowlatt Act, n.d.

139. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. XIV, pp. 486–7: Gandhi to S. Sastri, 18 July 1918.

140. Recruiting Appeal, 22 June 1918, in M. Desai, Day to Day with Gandhi, vol 1, November 1917 to March 1919 (Eng. trans., Benares, 1968). Desai was Gandhi's personal secretary.

141. F. Robinson, Separatism among Indian Muslims (Cambridge, 1974), p. 289.

142. Montagu Papers: draft, Montagu to Lloyd George, 27 June 1917.

143. W. E. Vaughan (ed.), The New History of Ireland, vol. VI, Ireland under the Union, Part 2 (Oxford, 1996), p. 218.

144. Hansard, HC Debs., 5s, 91, col. 446, 7 March 1917.

145. Ibid., col. 477, 7 March 1917.

146. See R. B. McDowell, The Irish Convention 1917–18 (1970).

147. Vaughan (ed.), New History of Ireland, vol. VI, Part 2, p. 607.

148. See E. O’Malley, On Another Man's Wound [1936] (paperback edn, 1979), ch. 6.

149. I. Bowman, The New World: Problems in Political Geography (1921).

Chapter 9

1. M. G. Fry, Illusions of Security: North Atlantic Diplomacy 1918–1922 (Toronto, 1972), pp. 6ff.

2. For Smuts' urging along these lines, see his speech, ‘The Commonwealth Conception’, 15 May 1917, reprinted in J. C. Smuts, Plans for a Better World (1942), p. 42.

3. Fry, Illusions, pp. 8–9.

4. H. and M. Sprout, Towards a New Order of Sea Power (2nd edn, Princeton, 1946,) p. 285.

5. Foreign Office memorandum on the Neutralisation of the Rhineland, 7 April 1923, in W. N. Medlicott, D. Dakin and M. E. Lambert (eds.), Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1st series, vol. XXI (1978) p. 195.

6. House of Lords Record Office, Bonar Law Papers 111/12/40, Bonar Law to Curzon, 7 December 1922.

7. BLIOC, Curzon Papers, Mss Eur. F112/286, R. McNeill to Curzon, 28 January 1923.

8. The Anglo-American agreement was eventually signed on 18 June 1923. See A. Orde, British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 233–7.

9. Memo by Austen Chamberlain, 4 January 1925. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1st series, vol.XXVII (1986), p. 256.

10. Note by Hankey, 23 January 1925, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1st series, vol. XXVII (1986), pp. 286–7.

11. Memo by H. Nicolson, 20 February 1925, circulated to Cabinet. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1st series, vol. XXVII (1986), p. 316.

12. P. Towle, ‘British Security and Disarmament Policy in Europe in the 1920s’, in R. Ahmann, A. Birke and M. Howard (eds.), The Quest for Stability (1993), pp. 129–30.

13. Note by Chamberlain, 12 October 1925, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1st series, vol. XXVII, p. 866.

14. I. Bowman, The New World (4th edn, New York, 1928), p. 745. Bowman played a leading part in founding the Council on Foreign Relations. For his career, see N. Smith, American Empire: Roosevelt's Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2003).

15. Sprout and Sprout, Sea Power, p. 106.

16. Fry, Illusions, pp. 41–4.

17. Ibid., pp. 50–61.

18. On 11 December 1919. Sprout and Sprout, Sea Power, p. 112.

19. See W. R. Louis, British Strategy in the Far East 1918–1939 (Oxford, 1971), pp. 19–39; Memo by Sir B. Alston, 1 August 1920, in R. Butler, J. P. T. Bury and M. E. Lambert (eds.), Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1st series, vol. XIV (1966), pp. 83–5.

20. M. A. Barnhart, Japan and the World since 1868 (1995), pp. 67–79.

21. Winston Churchill to Baldwin, 15 December 1924, in M. Gilbert (ed.), Winston S. Churchill Companion, vol. V, Part 1, The Exchequer Years 1922–1939 (1979), p. 305.

22. See H. R. C. Greaves, The League Committees and World Order (1931).

23. For this consensus, see R. S. Sayers, The Bank of England 1891–1944 (Cambridge, 1976), vol. I, p. 111.

24. D. Kynaston, The City of London, 5 vols. (1994–2001), vol. III, Illusions of Gold 1914–1945, p. 115.

25. W. Schlote, British Overseas Trade from 1700 to the 1930s (Oxford, 1952), p. 151. All in 1913 prices.

26. Ibid., 1939 = 100.

27. See Mitchell, Abstract, pp. 334–5.

28. D. Hope, A New History of British Shipping (1990), p. 366.

29. Ibid., p. 368.

30. Ibid., p. 358.

31. For the Peninsular and Oriental Group, see S. Jones, Trade and Shipping: Lord Inchcape 1852–1932 (Manchester, 1989). For the fate of Harrison's, a Liverpool based line, see F. E. Hyde, Shipping Enterprise and Management 1830–1939: Harrison’s of Liverpool (Liverpool, 1967).

32. See I. M. Drummond, Imperial Economic Policy 1917–1939 (1974), pp. 26–7, 423, 429.

33. Hansard, 168 HC Deb., 5s, col. 482, 15 November 1923; for a recent discussion, see P. Williamson, Stanley Baldwin (Cambridge, 1999), p. 28.

34. J. M. Atkin, British Overseas Investment 1918–1931 (New York, 1977), pp. 27–49.

35. Ibid., p. 53.

36. Ibid., p. 321.

37. I. Stone, The Global Export of British Capital, 1865–1914 (1999), p. 411. The figure was £349 million.

38. R. Gravil, ‘Anglo-American Trade Rivalry’, in D. Rock (ed.), Argentina in the Twentieth Century (1975), p. 56.

39. A. Velasco (ed.), Trade, Development and the World Economy: Selected Essays of Carlos Diaz-Alejandro (Oxford, 1988), p. 238.

40. Robertson (British ambassador) to Craigie, 10 May 1929, R. Gravil, The Anglo-Argentine Connection 1900–1939 (1985), p. 162.

41. E. K. S. Fung, The Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat (Hong Kong, 1991), pp. 37–54.

42. For a harsh contemporary view, see A. Loveday, Britain and World Trade (1931), p. 163.

43. A. Marrison, British Business and Protection (Oxford, 1996), p. 433.

44. J. Atkin, Investment, pp. 13–16.

45. See the jeremiad in G. Peel, The Economic Impact of America (1928), pp. 192–5.

46. Atkin, Investment, p. 311. They were estimated (by The Economist) at £100 million, compared with £836 million in 1913, not allowing for the 40 per cent fall in real value.

47. Eastern Committee, 42nd minutes, 9 December 1918, in J. Darwin, Britain, Egypt and the Middle East: Imperial Policy in the Aftermath of War (1981), p. 160.

48. For his views on Kurdistan, see Darwin, Middle East, p. 195.

49. See R. Pipes, The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism 1917–1923 (rev. edn, Cambridge, MA, 1964); R. Ullman, Britain and the Russian Civil War (1968).

50. For the origins of the Arab nationalist movement, see G. Antonius, The Arab Awakening (1938); A. Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939 (1962); P. S. Khoury, ‘Continuity and Change in Syrian Political Life: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’, American Historical Review, 96, 5 (1991), 1374–95

51. See resolutions of the General Syrian Congress, 2 July 1919, printed in Antonius, Awakening, pp. 440ff.

52. See Butrus Abu-Manneh, ‘The Rise of the Sanjak of Jerusalem in the Late Nineteenth Century’, in I. Pappé (ed.), The Israel–Palestine Question (1999), pp. 46–8.

53. For the Baghdad notables under Ottoman rule, see A. Hourani, ‘Ottoman Reform and the Politics of Notables’, in A. Hourani, P. S. Khoury and M. Wilson (eds.), The Modern Middle East (1993), pp. 83–109.

54. B. L. Add. Mss 52455, A. T. Wilson Papers: Civil Commissioner to Secretary of State for India, 29 July 1920.

55. Wilson Papers, 52459B: Wilson's draft reply to War Office, 3 September 1920.

56. Darwin, Middle East, pp. 66–79.

57. For the recruitment of traditional religious elites into a form of ‘Kemalo-Islamism’, see M. E. Meeker, A Nation of Empire: The Ottoman Legacy of Turkish Modernity (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2002), p. 81.

58. For an account of the negotiations, see Darwin, Middle East, chs. 4, 5.

59. Curzon Papers, F 112/294: Note by Middle East Department, CO, 7 December 1922.

60. Bulent Gokay, A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism (1997), pp. 155ff.

61. Although its existence was strongly suspected, no oil was found in Iraq until 1927. In 1920, Middle East oil made up 1 per cent of world production.

62. For a review of Anglo-Persian relations, see Harold Nicolson to Austen Chamberlain, 30 September 1926, Documents on British Foreign Policy, Series 1A, vol. II, pp. 812–20.

63. Bodl. Milner Mss 164: Memo by Lord Milner, n.d.

64. Curzon Papers F 112/208: Curzon to Milner, 3 January 1920.

65. The Seven Pillars of Wisdom was published for general circulation in 1935.

66. The title of the classic study by Elizabeth Monroe (1963).

67. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. XVII, p. 371: Gandhi to Home-Rule League, Navajivan, 2 May 1920.

68. R. Gordon, ‘Non-cooperation and Council-Entry, 1919–1920’, Modern Asian Studies, 7, 3 (1973), 458.

69. D. Page, Prelude to Partition: The Indian Muslims and the Imperial System of Control 1920–1932 (Oxford, 1982), p. 33.

70. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. XVIII, p. 253: Speech at Calcutta Congress, 8 September 1920.

71. Ibid., p. 350: Speech at Lucknow, 15 October 1920.

72. Ibid., vol. XVIII, p. 270: ‘Swaraj in One Year’, Young India, 22 September 1920.

73. BLIOC, Sir F. Whyte Diaries, Mss Eur. D 761/VI, p. 24, 16 June 1923.

74. Reforms Inquiry Committee, 1924: Views of Local Governments, Cmd. 2361 (1925), p. 143: evidence of United Provinces Government.

75. R. Hunt and J. Harrison, The District Officer in India 1930–1947 (1980), ch. 3.

76. See Report of the Reforms Inquiry Committee, 1924, Cmd. 2360 (1925), p. 102.

77. See Report of Committee Appointed to Enquire into the Administration and Organisation of the Army in India, Cmd. 943 (1920).

78. R. Kumar and H. D. Sharma (eds.), Selected Works of Motilal Nehru (New Delhi, 1986), vol. IV, p. 110: M. Nehru to M. R. Jayakar, 21 March 1925.

79. Page, Prelude, p. 127.

80. For the speech of C. R. Das at the 1924 Congress, see Report of the 39th Congress at Belgaum, December 1924, pp. 36–7.

81. Page, Prelude, p. 134.

82. Formally six, since Newfoundland enjoyed dominion status until its bankruptcy in 1933.

83. For the best study of King's policy, see P. Wigley, Canada and the Transition to Commonwealth: British-Canadian Relations 1917–1926 (Cambridge, 1977).

84. D. Greasley and L. Oxley, ‘A Tale of Two Dominions: The Macro-economic Record of Australia and Canada since 1870’, Economic History Review, New Series, 51, 2 (1998), p. 305.

85. Queen's University, Kingston, Douglas Library, Charles G. Power Papers, Box 6: C. G. Power to E. Lapointe, 19 November 1925. For a similar view from a very different political quarter, see University of Manitoba, Elizabeth Dafoe Library, J. W. Dafoe Papers, Box 9: Clifford Sifton to J. W. Dafoe, 17 February 1921.

86. For King's early career, see H. S. Ferns and B. Ostry, The Age of Mackenzie King: The Rise of the Leader (1955).

87. See J. Macfarlane, Ernest Lapointe and Quebec's Influence in Foreign Policy (Toronto, 1999), pp. 11–12.

88. Dafoe Papers, Box 12: King to Clifford Sifton (proprietor of the Manitoba Free Press), 17 August 1923; Sifton to Dafoe, August 1923.

89. For King's unease at the 1923 Imperial Conference, see J. W. Dafoe's diary for September and October 1923, Dafoe Papers Box 1.

90. Dafoe Papers Box 11: D. B. McRae to Dafoe, 4 November 1926.

91. See S. Trofimenkoff, Action française: French-Canadian Nationalism in the Twenties (Toronto, 1975); L. Groulx, Mes mémoires, 4 vols. (Montreal, 1971).

92. Dafoe Papers Box 4: Dafoe to Clifford Sifton, 29 January 1923.

93. Dafoe Papers Box 6: Bourassa to Dafoe, 26 April 1928.

94. National Archives of Canada, Arthur Meighen Papers (microfilm) C-3439: L. Christie to Meighen, 17 February 1926. Meighen told Christie, ‘On matters of external affairs I value your judgment more than that of anyone I know.’ Meighen to Christie, 13 January 1926, in ibid.

95. S. Macintyre, Oxford History of Australia: vol. IV, The Succeeding Age (Oxford, 1986), pp. 227–8. Labour did better in the states.

96. S. Alomes, A Nation at Last: The Changing Character of Australian Nationalism 1880–1988 (North Ryde, NSW, 1988), pp. 66–70.

97. See P. Spartalis, The Diplomatic Battles of Billy Hughes (Sydney, 1983), ch. 6.

98. Ibid., p. 246.

99. Ibid.

100. House of Representatives, 30 September 1921. F. K. Crowley, Documents in Australian History (1973), pp. 349–51.

101. To parliament in June 1924. N. Meaney (ed.), Australia and the World (Melbourne, 1983), p. 347.

102. See his article ‘The Status of the Australian States’, The Australian Geographer 1,1 (1928), 28.

103. A stimulating discussion of these themes can be found in K. Tsokhas, Making a Nation State: Cultural Identity, Economic Nationalism and Sexuality in Australian History (Melbourne, 2001), chs. 7, 8.

104. House of Representatives, 10 September 1919. Crowley, Documents, vol. I, p. 324.

105. House of Representatives, 3 August 1926. Meaney, Australia and the World, pp. 356–7.

106. Macintyre, Succeeding Age, p. 229.

107. D. Day, John Curtin: a Life (Sydney, 1999), p. 295.

108. Bruce in the Australian Parliament, 27 June 1924. Meaney, Australia and the World, p. 348.

109. See Isobel Hofmeyr, ‘Building a Nation from Words: Afrikaans Language, Literature and Ethnicity 1902–1924’, in S. Marks and S. Trapido (eds.), The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa (1987), pp. 95–123.

110. M. H. De Kock, The Economic History of South Africa (Cape Town, 1924), p. 455.

111. Ibid., pp. 132–3: the value of agricultural production fell from £111 million in 1919–20 to £65.7 million in 1921–2.

112. Ibid., pp. 253–4.

113. Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Cory Library, Sir Edgar Walton Papers 17/142: Sir T. Smartt to Sir E. Walton, 17 March 1922. The reference was to the Rand rising of 1914 and the Boer rebellion of 1914–15.

114. J. Van Der Poel (ed.), Selections from the Smuts Papers, vol. V, pp. 96–7.

115. See Smuts to Bonar Law, 20 November 1922, Smuts Papers, vol. V, pp. 147–8. Bonar Law had just become prime minister.

116. Smuts to Alice Clark, 9 April 1920, Smuts Papers, vol. V, p. 39.

117. Smuts to L. S. Amery, 25 November 1924, Smuts Papers, vol. V, pp. 238–9.

118. National English Literary Museum, Grahamstown, Percy Fitzpatrick Papers B/A IX: Smuts to P. Fitzpatrick, 15 February 1921. Fitzpatrick was a leading ex-Unionist.

119. The National party won 63 seats, the South African Party 53 and Labour 18 in a house of 135.

120. Fitzpatrick Papers A/LC IV: Fitzpatrick to Milner, 30 June 1924.

121. Fitzpatrick Papers A/LC I: Fitzpatrick to Amery, 30 June 1924.

122. University of Cape Town, Jagger Library, Patrick Duncan Papers, D.5.18.6: Duncan to Lady Selborne, 22 October 1924.

123. University of Stellenbosch Library, D. F. Malan Papers, 1/1/692: Hertzog to Malan, 21 November 1923.

124. For Balfour's role at the conference, see D. Judd, Balfour and the British Empire (1968), ch. 20.

125. C. M. Van Den Heever, General J. B. M. Hertzog (Eng. trans., Johannesburg, 1946), p. 213.

126. Balfour to Esher, 24 November 1926, Judd, Balfour, p. 337.

127. Wigley, Canada and the Transition to Commonwealth, p. 275.

128. See P. Canning, British Policy towards Ireland 1921–1941 (Oxford, 1985).

129. See Tom Garvin, 1922: The Birth of Irish Democracy (Dublin, 1996), chs. 2, 4. Garvin emphasises the abuse of local power by the IRA units.

130. F. Costello, The Irish Revolution and its Aftermath 1916–1923 (Dublin, 2003), pp. 312–13.

131. For the significance of this claim for popular sovereignty, see L. Kohn, The Constitution of the Irish Free State (1934), p. 113–14.

132. Canning, British Policy, pp. 91–2.

133. See Mary E. Daly, Industrial Development and Irish National Identity 1922–39 (Syracuse, 1992), ch. 2.

134. G. Keown, ‘Taking the World Stage: Creating an Irish Foreign Policy in the 1920s’, in M. Kennedy and J. M. Skelly (eds.), Irish Foreign Policy 1919–1966 (Dublin, 2000), pp. 25–43; D. Keogh, The Vatican, the Bishops and Irish Politics 1919–39(Cambridge, 1986); D. Lowry, ‘New Ireland, Old Empire and the Outside World 1922–1949: The Strange Evolution of a “Dictionary republic”’ in M. Cronin and J. M. Regan (eds.), Ireland: The Politics of Independence 1922–49 (2000), pp. 164–216.

135. See D. O’Corrain (ed.), James Hogan: Revolutionary, Historian and Political Scientist (Dublin, 2001).

136. See John M. Regan, The Irish Counter-Revolution 1921–36 (Dublin, 1999), ch. 11.

137. J. Campbell, F. E. Smith, First Earl of Birkenhead (1983), p. 793.

138. The classic account is M. Cowling, The Impact of Labour (Cambridge, 1970).

139. R. Skidelsky, J. M. Keynes, vol. II, The Economist as Saviour (1992), p. 133.

140. Skidelsky, Keynes, vol. II, p. 131; R. McKibbin, Classes and Cultures: England 1918–1951(Oxford, 1998), p. 115.

141. McKibbin, Classes and Cultures, p. 115.

142. P. Cain, Hobson and Imperialism: Radicalism, the New Liberalism and Finance, 1887–1938 (Oxford, 2002), p. 199.

143. See F. Lee, Fabianism and Colonialism: The Life and Political Thought of Lord Sydney Olivier (1988).

144. Lee, Fabianism and Colonialism, ch. 5.

145. Lord Lugard, The Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa (1922).

146. J. Darwin, ‘The Chanak Crisis and the British Cabinet’, History, 65, 113 (1980), 32–48.

147. In a letter published in The Times and the Daily Express, 7 October 1922. See R. Blake, The Unknown Prime Minister: The Life and Times of Andrew Bonar Law 1858–1923 (1955), p. 448.

148. For a magisterial study of MacDonald's career, see D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (1977).

149. McKibbin, Classes and Cultures, p. 521.

Chapter 10

1. See A. Zimmern, The Third British Empire (Oxford, 1926).

2. See S. Constantine, ‘Migrants and Settlers’, in J. M. Brown and W. R. Louis (eds.), Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. IV, The Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999), p. 165, Table 7.2.

3. Churchill College Archives, Lord Lloyd of Dolobran Mss, GLLD 17/15: Speech at Central Council of National Union, 4 December 1934, Press Cutting.

4. H. Kantorowicz, The Spirit of British Policy (1931), p. 507. The main aim of the book had been to demolish the ‘myth of German encirclement’ by a machiavellian British diplomacy.

5. Siegfried, England's Crisis, p. 231.

6. Memo by R. Craigie, 12 November 1928, quoted in B. L. McKercher, The Second Baldwin Government and the United States, 1924–1929 (Cambridge, 1984), p. 174.

7. See D. A. Yerxa, Admirals and Empire: The United States Navy and the Caribbean 1898–1945 (Columbia, SC, 1991), p. 95.

8. See McKercher, Baldwin Government, chs. 7, 8; O. Babij, ‘The Second Labour Government and British Maritime Security’, Diplomacy and Statecraft, 6, 3 (1995), 645–71; D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (1977), pp. 504–14.

9. C. Tsuzuki, The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan 1825–1995 (Oxford, 2000), chs. 11, 12, 13, for a recent analysis.

10. For a contemporary account, see I. Bowman, ‘A Modern Invasion: Mongolia and Manchuria’, in his The Pioneer Fringe (New York, 1931).

11. Foreign Office Memo, 8 January 1930. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 2nd series, vol. VIII, pp. 18–19.

12. Bodl. Mss Dawson 76, Note by Geoffrey Dawson of talk with Sir John Simon, the Foreign Secretary, 14 March 1932. Dawson was editor of The Times in 1912–19 and 1922–41.

13. See Memo by C. Orde, 14 December 1933, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 2nd series, vol. XX (1984), pp. 119ff.; Lampson to Simon, 24 August 1933 (received 7 November), Documents on British Foreign Policy, 2nd series, vol. XI, pp. 558–97, esp. p. 592.

14. The Tshushima Strait lies between Japan and Korea.

15. The best account of the Sub-Committee's proceedings is now K. Neilson, ‘The Defence Requirements Sub-Committee, British Strategic Foreign Policy, Neville Chamberlain and the Path to Appeasement’, English Historical Review, 118, 477 (2003), 651–84.

16. See D. H. Cole, Imperial Military Geography (8th edn, 1935), pp. 148–50.

17. For this view in the Foreign Office, see G. Kennedy, Anglo-American Strategic Relations in the Far East 1933–1939 (2002), p. 53.

18. For the First Sea Lord's memo of 14 March 1934, urging a two-power standard, see Kennedy, Strategic Relations, p. 140.

19. For Chamberlain's support for a non-aggression pact with Japan, see Kennedy, Strategic Relations, p. 176.

20. Neilson, ‘Defence Requirements Sub-Committee’, p. 677.

21. See Kennedy, Strategic Relations, chs. 2, 3.

22. Ibid., pp. 186ff., 202.

23. For the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of June 1935, see J. Maiolo, The Royal Navy and Nazi Germany 1933–1939 (1998).

24. CAB 4/23, Annual Review by Chiefs of Staff Sub-Committee, 29 April 1935, para. 19.

25. Minute, 25 February 1935, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 2nd series, vol. XIV, p. 166.

26. Minute, 8 June 1935, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 2nd series, Vol. XIV, p. 318.

27. Chatfield to Vansittart, 8 August 1935, ibid., p. 465.

28. L. R. Pratt, East of Malta, West of Suez: Britain's Mediterranean Crisis 1936–1939 (Cambridge, 1975), p. 23.

29. CAB 4/24, Chiefs of Staff Sub-Commiteee, Memo, 1 April 1936, p. 2.

30. CAB 4/24, Defence Requirements Sub-Committee, Third Report, 21 November 1935, p. 38.

31. Pratt, East of Malta, p. 47.

32. At the Imperial Conference in May 1937. See S. Roskill, Hankey, Man of Secrets (1974), vol. II, p. 282.

33. In November 1936, Germany and Japan had made their Anti-Comintern Pact.

34. In his lecture, ‘Quo Vadimus’ (1934), cited in D. Edgerton, Warfare State: Britain, 1920–1970 (Cambridge, 2005), p. 56.

35. FO 371/20475, Chamberlain to Eden, 25 August 1936. For Hitler's reaffirmation of these policies in September 1936, see A. Tooze, The Wages of Destruction (2005), pp. 219ff.

36. G. Jones, Merchants to Multinationals (Oxford, 2000), p. 87.

37. Down from 3,057 million linear yards in 1913 to 375 million in 1936. G. E. Hubbard, Eastern Industrialization and its Effect on the West (2nd edn, 1938), p. 340.

38. Post-tax returns on capital slumped to less than 4 per cent. See Jones, Merchants, p. 95.

39. Averaging £33 million a year compared with £200 million (much more in real terms) before 1914. P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism (1992), vol. II, p. 87.

40. For the contemporary view that Britain's population growth was over, see W. K. Hancock, Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs: Problems of Economic Policy vol. I, (1940), pp. 156–77.

41. Except in the Netherlands, Belgium, Britain and the Irish Free State. See W. A. Mackintosh, The Economic Background to Dominion-Provincial Relations ([1939] Toronto, 1978), p. 110.

42. Hubbard, Eastern Industrialization, p. 340.

43. For London's dealings with New Delhi, see I. M. Drummond, The Floating Pound and the Sterling Area 1931–1939 (Cambridge, 1981), ch. 2; B. R. Tomlinson, ‘Britain and the Indian Currency Crisis 1930–1932’, Economic History Review, 2nd series 32 (1979), 88–9.

44. In Australia and New Zealand, at the lower level of 1.25:1.

45. See G. C. Peden, The Treasury and Public Policy 1906–1959 (Oxford, 2000), p. 256: the Account was managed ‘on a day to day basis by the Bank’.

46. For this analysis, see Drummond, Floating Pound, pp. 258–9.

47. See D. Kynaston, The City of London, vol. III, Illusions of Gold (2000), p. 361.

48. See R. Self (ed.), The Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters, vol. III, The Heir Apparent 1928–1933 (2002), pp. 30–6.

49. Chamberlain had replaced Philip Snowden as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

50. Self (ed.), Chamberlain Diary Letters, vol. III, pp. 39–40.

51. For this estimate, see I. M. Drummond, British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919–1939 (1972), p. 102.

52. For an example, see L. S. Amery's pamphlet, Empire and Prosperity (1930).

53. What British ministers thought they had got is summarised in their telegram to London, 14 August 1932, printed in I. M. Drummond, Imperial Economic Policy 1917–1939: Studies in Expansion and Protection (1974), pp. 290–5.

54. See Tim Rooth, British Protectionism and the International Economy: Overseas Commercial Policy in the 1930s (Cambridge, 1992), ch. 4.

55. Ibid., pp. 146–56.

56. Ibid., pp. 318–19.

57. P. J. Hugill, Global Communications since 1844: Geopolitics and Technology (Baltimore, 1999), p. 28.

58. Rooth, British Protectionism, p. 320.

59. League of Nations, The Network of World Trade (1942), p. 19. In 1938, Britain absorbed one-sixth of the world's imports, twice as much as the United States. See T. Rooth, ‘Britain's Other Dollar Problem: Economic Relations with Canada 1945–1950’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 27, 1 (1999), 103.

60. See P. Clavin, ‘Shaping the Lessons of History: Britain and the Rhetoric of American Trade Policy, 1930–1960’, in A. Marrison (ed.), Free Trade and its Reception 1815–1960: Freedom and Trade (1998), pp. 287–307.

61. H. James, The End of Globalization (Cambridge, MA, 2001), p. 48.

62 The National Government won 62.9 per cent of votes and 554 seats in 1931; 54.8 per cent with 432 seats in 1935.

63. Wales, for example, lost 450,000 people by migration in 1921–39; and London gained 458,000 in 1931–9. See B. Thomas, Migration and Urban Development (1972), pp. 181–2.

64. See R. McKibbin, Classes and Cultures: English History 1918–1951 (1998), p. 115.

65. For this, see Ibid., p. 68.

66. For a superb analysis of Baldwin's style and rhetoric, see P. Williamson, Stanley Baldwin: Conservative Leadership and National Values (Cambridge, 1999).

67. See The Economist, 1 May 1937.

68. Newfoundland's status lapsed with bankruptcy in 1933; in Southern Rhodesia, despite wide internal self-government, the Imperial government retained reserved powers over ‘native policy’.

69. For this complication, see the ‘Report of the Conference on the Operation of Dominion Legislation and Merchant Shipping Legislation,1929, Part V’, quoted in R. M. Dawson, The Development of Dominion Status 1900–1936 (1936), pp. 381–9.

70. CAB 23/65, Cab. 51(30), 17 September 1930.

71. Bodl. Sankey Papers, Mss Eng. Hist. e285: Diary, 3 December 1931.

72. CAB 23/65, Cab. 51(30), 17 September 1930.

73. Bodl. Sankey Papers, Mss Eng. Hist. c547, Note by Sir M. Gwyer, June 1931.

74. The Times, 21 November 1931.

75. Ibid.

76. For the report on the debate, see The Times, 25 November 1931.

77. The Times, 20 November 1931.

78. Bodl. Sankey Papers, Mss Eng. Hist. c509, Notes on Cabinet meeting after Ottawa, 27 August 1932.

79. See P. Rich, Race and Empire in British Politics (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 69–84.

80. Churchill College, Cambridge, Lord Lloyd of Dolobran Papers, GLLD 17/62, D. O. Malcolm to H. V. Hodson, 6 July 1934. Malcolm was a director of the British South Africa Company and, like Amery, Curtis and Hodson, a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.

81. For Macmillan's disagreements with Curtis, see D. Lavin, From Empire to International Commonwealth: A Biography of Lionel Curtis (Oxford, 1995), pp. 235–9.

82. 329 Conservatives supported the bill, and 79 voted against. The bill was carried by 404 to 133.

83. See S. Ball, Baldwin and the Conservative Party (1988), p. 114.

84. See his speeches at Worcester, May 1933, The Times, 1 May 1933; at Manchester in June 1933, The Times, 30 June 1933; at the Conservative Central Council (i.e. the annual conference), 4 December 1934, press cutting in Lloyd Papers, GLLD 17/16.

85. Speech in House of Commons, March 1931, The Times, 12 March 1931.

86. Ibid.

87. P. Williamson and E. Baldwin (eds.), Baldwin Papers: A Conservative Statesman 1908–1947 (Cambridge, 2004), p. 307.

88. As note 8 above.

89. For Reading's view that, without an agreed constitution, ‘it will be a case of troops and money from here when we can spare neither’, see his letter to MacDonald, 28 November 1931, Sankey Papers, Mss Eng. Hist. c539.

90. See the Union of Britain and India's pamphlet series: between May and August 1933, the UBI issued ten pamphlets and organised forty-three meetings; C. Bridge, Holding India to the Empire: The British Conservative Party and the 1935 Constitution (1986), pp. 100–1.

91. ‘The House of Commons would misunderstand’ a reference to dominion status, said Hoare, the Secretary of State for India, somewhat archly. See Cabinet Committee on India, 15 January 1935, copy in Sankey Papers, Mss Eng. Hist. c512. For the bargain with Austen Chamberlain, see Bridge, India, pp. 117–18.

92. See F. W. S. Craig, British General Election Manifestos 1918–1966 (Chichester, 1976), p. 8.

93. Bodl. Mss Edward Grigg, Microfilm 1003, Neville Chamberlain to Edward Grigg, 30 September 1931. I owe this reference to Alex May.

94. For the usage of race, see the discussion of eugenic concerns in the 1930s in R. A. Soloway, Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birth-rate in Twentieth Century Britain (1990).

95. Siegfried, England's Crisis, p. 207.

96. The phrase is J. C. Smuts’: ‘We of the Dominions are the Newer World.’ Speech, 28 January 1930. See J. Van Der Poel (ed.), Selections from the Smuts Papers (Cambridge, 1973), vol. V, p. 450.

97. See W. J. Hudson and M. J. Sharp, Australian Independence (Melbourne, 1988), pp. 111–16. The National party opposition insisting on inserting a clause in the parliamentary resolution approving the bill that the Australian parliament, and not just the government, would have to agree to any request for legislation by the Imperial Parliament. See The Times, 18 July 1931.

98. Alexander Turnbull Library, J. G. Coates Papers, MS 1785/041, Note by A. G. Park, Secretary to New Zealand Treasury, 1 July 1931.

99. The Times, 13 September 1930. For an authoritative study, see C. D. Schedvin, Australia and the Great Depression (Sydney, 1970).

100. See his press statement, 25 September 1930, The Times, 26 September 1930.

101. John T. Lang, Why I Fight (Sydney, 1934), preface, pp. 54, 219.

102. The Times, 8 December 1931.

103. See S. Alomes, A Nation at Last (1988), pp. 74–98.

104. A. W. Martin, Robert Menzies: A Life (Melbourne, 1993), vol. I, p. 166.

105. The Times, 4 November 1932.

106. D. Day, John Curtin: A Life (2000), p. 346.

107. A trend broken off by the trade dispute of 1936. See P. Jones, ‘Trading in a “Fool's Paradise”? White Australia and the Trade Dispute of 1936’, in P. Jones and V. Mackie (eds.), Relationships: Japan and Australia 1870s–1950s (Melbourne, 2001), pp. 133–62.

108. Report on Mission to the East, The Times, 7 July 1934.

109. Quoted in I. Turner (ed.), The Australian Dream (Melbourne, 1968), p. 296.

110. Turner (ed.), Australian Dream, pp. 297–8.

111. Bodl. Sankey Papers, Mss Eng. Hist. c509, Notes on Cabinet meeting after Ottawa, 27 August 1932.

112. R. Self, Neville Chamberlain (2006), p. 84.

113. See copy in National Archives of Canada, R. B. Bennett Papers, microfilm, M 3176.

114. Copy in R. B. Bennett Papers, M 1271.

115. Queen's University, Kingston, Douglas Library, T. A. Crerar Papers, Box 98, Crerar to A. K. Cameron, 10 December 1941.

116. T. A. Crerar Papers, Box 98, Crerar to Cameron, 23 December 1932.

117. In the 1931 census, the three prairie provinces had a population of 2,353,529, of whom 1,195,084 were of British origin. The Times, 16 June 1933.

118. J. H. Thompson, Forging the Prairie West (Toronto, 1998), p. 133.

119. R. B. Bennett Papers, microfilm, M 1289, Second and Final Report of Parliamentary Committee on Radio Broadcasting, 1932.

120. National Archives of Canada, MG-32, B 5, Brooke Claxton Papers, vol. 19, Claxton to M. Lubbock, 12 November 1935. On Claxton's politics, see D. Owram, The Government Generation: Canadian Intellectuals and the State 1900–1945 (Toronto, 1986), p. 224; D. J. Bercuson, True Patriot: The Life of Brooke Claxton (Toronto, 1993).

121. Brooke Claxton Papers, vol. 18, Claxton to W. D. Herridge, 26 December 1934.

122. See R. Cook, The Politics of John W. Dafoe and the Free Press (Toronto, 1963).

123. University of Manitoba, Elizabeth Dafoe Library, J. W. Dafoe Papers Box 2, Dafoe to J. S. Ewart, 9 January 1928.

124. Dafoe Papers, Box 1, Dafoe to W. Martin, 2 August 1932.

125. National Archives of Canada, J. W. Dafoe Papers, microfilm, M 74, Dafoe to A. Hawkes, 6 January 1928.

126. Brooke Claxton Papers, vol. 19, Claxton to K. Lindsay, 26 June 1934; Dafoe Papers Box 1, Dafoe to Lord Lothian, 10 October 1934.

127. A. R. M. Lower, ‘Geographical Determinants of Canadian History’, in R. Flenley (ed.), Essays in Canadian History (Toronto, 1939), p. 251.

128. Dafoe Papers, Box 1, Dafoe to H. F. Armstrong, 25 July 1935.

129. See the account of his interview with Grant Dexter in Dafoe Papers, Box 12, Dexter to Dafoe, 16 October 1932.

130. For this interpretation of Bennett's policy, see Dafoe Papers Box 1, Dafoe to Geoffrey Dawson, 19 October 1932. Dawson was a close ally of Baldwin.

131. For King's views, see J. Macfarlane, ‘Double Vision: Ernest Lapointe, Mackenzie King and the Quebec Voice in Canadian Foreign Policy, 1935–1939’, Journal of Canadian Studies, 34, 1 (1999), 94–5.

132. The Times, 3 April 1935.

133. L. Groulx, Mes mémoires, 4 vols. (Montreal, 1971), vol. II, p. 305.

134. See S. M. Trofimenkoff, The Dream of Nation: A Social and Intellectual History of Quebec (Toronto, 1983), chs. 14, 15; B. St Aubin, Maurice Duplessis et son époque (Montreal, 1979).

135. For a survey, see S. Marks and S. Trapido (eds.), The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Africa (1987), chs. 1, 2.

136. University of Cape Town, Jagger Library, Patrick Duncan Papers, D 5.24.17, Duncan to Lady Selborne, 28 April 1932.

137. H. J. Schlosberg, The King's Republics (1929). Hertzog contributed a foreword.

138. Ibid., pp. 49–50. Perhaps surprisingly, Schlosberg, ibid., p. 43, denied the right of secession as this would mean abolishing the Crown.

139. Quoted in M. Roberts and A. E. G. Trollip, The South African Opposition 1939–1945: An Essay in Contemporary History (1947), p. 11.

140. See H. Giliomee, The Afrikaners: Biography of a People (2003), p. 397.

141. Jagger Library, H. G. Lawrence Papers, BC 640, Speech at Kalk Bay, 21 June 1927.

142. Speech at Pretoria, 30 April 1929, in J. Van Der Poel (ed.), Selections from the Smuts Papers (Cambridge, 1973), vol. V, p. 401.

143. See extract from Smuts' speech at Ermelo, January 1929, lovingly preserved in Stellenbosch University Library, D. F. Malan Papers, 1/1/822.

144. Duncan Papers D 5.24.11, Duncan to Lady Selborne, 17 May 1932.

145. Smuts to Heaton Nicholls, 14 November 1932, Van Der Poel (ed.), Smuts Papers, vol. V, p. 524.

146. J. Lewis. ‘The Germiston By-Election of 1932’, in P. Bonner (ed.), Working Papers in South African Studies (Johannesburg, 1981), vol. II, pp. 97–120.

147. Duncan Papers, D 5.26.9, Duncan to Lady Selborne, 12 April 1934; for Smuts’ speech, 11 April 1934, see Van Der Poel (ed.), Smuts Papers, vol. V, pp. 582–96; for his estimate of its influence, see ibid., p. 596, Smuts to M. C. Gillet, 15 April 1934.

148. Duncan Papers, D 5.26.23, Duncan to Lady Selborne, 1 August 1934.

149. See H. G. Lawrence Papers, BC 640, C.16.18.

150. H. G. Lawrence Papers, BC 640, C.16.4, East London Daily Dispatch, 2 April 1935, Speech by Major P. van Der Byl, an Afrikaner of impeccable ‘empire’ credentials.

151. Giliomee, Afrikaners, p. 409.

152. See Isobel Hofmeyr, ‘Popularising History: The Case of Gustav Preller’, Journal of African History, 29, 3 (1988), 521–35.

153. For an impression of this, see South African Who's Who (Social and Business) 1931–1932 (Cape Town, 1931).

154. The Times, 12 December 1935.

155. See the proposals of Walter Nash, the finance minister, The Times, 18 June 1936, 4 December 1936, 16 January 1937.

156. See D. McMahon, Republicans and Imperialists (1982).

157. In India, Britain was moving from power to influence, declared Lord Halifax, Viceroy (as Lord Irwin) 1926–31. The Times, 22 July 1937.

158. Dafoe Papers, Box 2: Dafoe to J. S. Ewart, 9 January 1928.

159. Milner's Egyptian Diary, 5 December 1919, cited in Darwin, Britain, Egypt and the Middle East, p. 89.

160. B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj 1914–1947 (1979), p. 46. See also B. Chatterji, ‘Business and Politics in the 1930s: Lancashire and the Making of the Indo-British Trade Agreement, 1939’, Modern Asian Studies, 15, 3 (1981), 527–73.

161. For the fear that if the rupee was devalued the government of India would be unable to pay the Home Charges, see BLIOC, Reading Collection, Mss Eur. E 238/10, Memo by Secretary of State for India, October 1931.

162. Note by India Office official, December 1930. Tomlinson, Political Economy, p. 127.

163. For these recommendations, see Report of Indian Statutory Commission, vol. II, Recommendations, Parts 2, 4, 5.

164. The classic account is R. J. Moore, The Crisis of Indian Unity (Oxford, 1974).

165. S. and S. Bose (eds.), Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (Delhi, 1997), p. 211.

166. See W. M. Hogben, ‘An Imperial Dilemma: The Reluctant Indianization of the Indian Political Service’, Modern Asian Studies, 15, 4 (1981), 751–69.

167. Dafoe Papers Box 12, Willingdon to J. W. Dafoe, 17 January 1931. Willingdon complained that the ICS were ‘hanging on desperately to their jobs’.

168. See D. Potter, ‘Manpower Shortage and the End of Colonialism: The Case of the Indian Civil Service’, Modern Asian Studies, 17, 1 (1973), 47–73.

169. D. Potter, India's Political Administrators: From ICS to IAS (Delhi. 1996), p. 40.

170. E. Blunt, The Indian Civil Service (1938), pp. 261–2.

171. See B. R. Nanda (ed.), Selected Works of Govind Ballabh Pant (Delhi, 1997), vol. VII, pp. 463–5, (Governor) Haig to (Viceroy) Linlithgow, 8 August 1937.

172. Ibid., vol VIII, pp. 445–7, Haig to Linlithgow, 5 March 1938.

173. N. Charlesworth, ‘The Problem of Government Finance in British India: Taxation, Borrowing and the Allocation of Resources in the Inter-War Period’, Modern Asian Studies, 19, 3 (1985) 521–48.

174. See D. Omissi, The Sepoy and the Raj (1994), p. 160.

175. Ibid., p. 187.

176. J. M. Brown, Gandhi and Civil Disobedience 1928–1934 (Cambridge, 1977), pp. 83–4.

177. All Parties Conference 1928 (Allahabad, 1928), pp. 100–24, ‘Recommendations’; R. Kumar and H. D. Sharma (eds.), Selected Works of Motilal Nehru (New Delhi, 1993), vol. V, p. 308.

178. Forty-Ninth Session of Congress (Allahabad, n.d.), p. 26.

179. Ibid., p. 28.

180. See The Times, 15 March 1937, for this verdict.

181. Speech by Lord Hailey, a former governor of the Punjab and the United Provinces, and one of the major ICS architects of the reforms. The Times, 29 May 1937.

182. See N. B. Khare, My Political Memoirs (Nagpur, 1959).

183. V. Damodaran, Broken Promises: Popular Protest, Indian Nationalism and the Congress Party in Bihar, 1935–46 (Delhi, 1992); C. Markovits, ‘Indian Business and the Congress, 1937–39’, Modern Asian Studies, 15, 3 (1981), 514.

184. J. Sarkar, ‘Power, Hegemony and Politics: Leadership Struggle in the Congress in the 1930s’, Modern Asian Studies, 40, 2 (2006), 336.

185. D. Rothermund, India in the Great Depression 1929–1939 (New Delhi, 1992), p. 209.

186. Markovits, ‘Indian Business’, p. 511.

187. See his Haripura address as Congress president in 1938. S. and S. Bose (eds.), Essential Writings.

188. Nehru to G. B. Pant, 25 November 1937, Rothermund, Depression, p. 249.

189. D. H. Cole, Imperial Military Geography (1935), ch. XI, pp. 290–4.

190. ‘The Suez Canal of the Air: A Stay in Bahrein’, The Times, 12 June 1935.

191. See D. K. Fieldhouse, Western Imperialism in the Middle East 1914–1958 (Oxford, 2006), ch. 3; H. Batatu, The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq (Princeton, 1978), Parts 1 and 2; D. Silverfarb, Britain's Informal Empire in the Middle East: A Case Study of Iraq 1929–1941 (1986).

192. J. Kostiner, The Making of Saudi Arabia 1916–1936 (Oxford, 1993), p. 140; C. Leatherdale, Britain and Saudi Arabia 1925–1939: The Imperial Oasis (1983), p. 126.

193. FO 371/ 20116, Minute on Anglo-Egyptian relations 1929–34, 9 August 1936.

194. FO 371/13841, Minute by J. Murray, 13 June 1929.

195. Middle East Centre, St Antony's College, Oxford, Killearn Collection: Lampson's diary, 18 April 1935.

196. See the account by T. Swedenburg, ‘The Role, of the Palestine Peasantry in the Great Revolt of 1936–1939’, in Ilan Pappé (ed.), The Israel/Palestine Question (1999), p. 143.

197. Ibid., p. 144.

198. See Butrus Abu-Manneh, ‘The Rise of the Sanjak of Jerusalem in the Late Nineteenth Century’, in Pappé (ed.), Israel/Palestine Question, p. 46.

199. M. E. Yapp (ed.), Politics and Diplomacy in Egypt: The Diaries of Sir Miles Lampson 1935–1937 (1997), p. 392 (11 December 1935).

200. See the Cabinet discussions on 6 and 20 May 1936 in FO 371/20106, 20108.

201. FO 371/20110, Conclusions of Cabinet Anglo-Egyptian Relations Committee, 15 June 1936.

202. Ibid., 16 June 1936.

203. FO 371/20111, Memo by Foreign Secretary, 19 June 1936.

204. Ibid.

205. Cmd. 5308 (1936), Map to Illustrate the Treaty of Alliance with Egypt.

206. FO 371/22006, Lampson to Halifax, 30 June 1938.

207. FO 371/22006, Annual Report for 1937, 30 June 1938.

208. FO 371/20109, Lampson to Foreign Office, 28 May 1936.

209. S. J. Potter, ‘The BBC, the CBC, and the Royal Tour of Canada, 1939’, Cultural and Social History, 3 (2006), 432.

Chapter 11

1. A. Toynbee and F. Ashton-Gwatkin (eds.), Survey of International Affairs: The World in March 1939 (1952), pp. 454–6.

2. For an up-to-date account, see A. Best, British Intelligence and the Japanese Challenge in Asia, 1914–1941 (Basingstoke, 2002), chs. 6, 7.

3. Toynbee and Ashton-Gwatkin (eds.), The World in March 1939, pp. 454–6.

4. See R. Boyce, ‘World Depression, World War: Some Economic Origins of the Second World War’, in R. Boyce and E. M. Robertson (eds.), Paths to War (1989), pp. 55–95.

5. See A. Tooze, The Wages of Destruction (2006), for a brilliant description of the policies pursued by Schacht.

6. For the dilemmas and opportunities of Japanese economic policy in the 1930s, see C. Howe, The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy (1996), ch. 6.

7. H. James, The End of Globalisation (2001), p. 199.

8. M. J. Bonn, The Crumbling of Empire (1938), pp. 194–5.

9. For this analysis, see League of Nations, The Network of World Trade (1942), p. 95.

10. For the general setting, see M. Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (1998), ch. 1.

11. If Hitler's New Order triumphed, ‘we should be the blockaded party’. E. Staley, ‘The Myth of the Continents’ (first published in Foreign Affairs, April 1941) in H. Weigert and V. Stefansson (eds.), The Compass of the World (1943), p. 99.

12. J. Darwin, ‘Imperialism in Decline?’, Historical Journal, 23, 3 (1980), 673–7.

13. For a passionate (Indian) statement of this view, see K. M. Pannikar, India and the Indian Ocean (1945).

14. M. Ceadel, Semi-Detached Idealists (Oxford, 2000), p. 346.

15. See N. Angell, The Defence of Empire (1937).

16. University of Texas at Austin, Harry Ransome Humanities Centre, J. L. Garvin Papers: Lothian to J. L. Garvin, 29 October 1936, 18 November 1937; L. S. Amery to Garvin, 23 March, 10 June, 26 October 1936; Grigg to Garvin, 7 February 1938.

17. See E. H. Carr, The Twenty Years Crisis [1939] (new edn, 2001), p. lxxvi; C. Jones, E. H. Carr and International Relations: A Duty to Lie (Cambridge, 1998), p. 61.

18. For a brilliant discussion of this theme in Liddell Hart, see A. Gat, Fascist and Liberal Theories of War (Oxford, 2000), pp. 146–265.

19. CAB 27/599, Cabinet Memo by Anthony Eden, 11 February 1936, enclosing Note by Vansittart, 3 February 1936.

20. J. Neidpath, The Singapore Naval Base and the Defence of Britain's Eastern Empire (Oxford, 1981), p. 131.

21. CAB 24/270, Memo by Chancellor of Exchequer, 25 June 1937.

22. For Eden's views on Japan, see M. Murfett, Fool-Proof Relations: The Search for Anglo-American Naval Co-operation during the Chamberlain Years (Singapore, 1984), pp. 157–61.

23. For an early expression of his views on Japan, see Chamberlain to Simon, 1 September 1934, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 2nd series, vol. XIII, pp. 24–32.

24. For the pessimistic calculations of the Chiefs of Staff, see their memo, ‘Military Implications of German Aggression against Czechoslovakia’, March 1938. CAB 27/627. Intriguingly, the Chiefs of Staff did not consider the possibility of a Soviet alliance.

25. J. Maiolo, The Royal Navy and Nazi Germany, 1933–1939 (Basingstoke and London, 1998), pp. 155–6.

26. W. Murray, The Change in the European Balance of Power 1938–1939 (Princeton, 1984), pp. 247, 363.

27. Maiolo, Royal Navy and Nazi Germany, p. 156.

28. Except for the section given to Poland.

29. The authoritative study is S. Newman, March 1939: The British Guarantee to Poland (Oxford, 1976).

30. I. Cowan, Dominion or Decline: Anglo-American Naval Relations in the Pacific 1937–1941 (Oxford, 1996), pp. 144–5.

31. CAB 27/627. Report by Chiefs of Staff Sub-committee on Far East Situation, 18 June 1939.

32. Ibid.

33. See P. Lowe, Great Britain and the Origins of the Pacific War 1937–41 (Oxford, 1977), pp. 73–89.

34. Maiolo, Royal Navy and Nazi Germany, p. 183.

35. CAB 24/287, CP 149 (39), Note on Financial Situation, 3 July 1939.

36. CAB 23/100, Cabinet 36 (39), 5 July 1939.

37. Canadian House of Commons Debates, vol. 220, p. 2422, col. 2 (30 March 1939).

38. Ibid., p. 2467, col. 2 (31 March 1939).

39. For the strength of ‘Britannic’ feeling in Ontario, see Terry Copp, ‘Ontario 1939: The Decision for War’, Ontario History, 86 (1974), 269–78.

40. ‘We have … been relegated to the role of a Crown Colony’, raged Oscar Skelton, head of the External Affairs department, in his memorandum of 25 August 1939. J. Munro (ed.), Documents on Canadian External Relations (Ottawa, 1972), vol. 6, pp. 1247–9.

41. Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, vol. 159, p. 198, col. 2 (9 May 1939). Quoted in speech by Sir H. Gullett, the external affairs minister.

42. R. G. Menzies, in Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, vol. 159, p. 234, col. 1 (9 May 1939). For Menzies’ statement of 6 September 1939, see ibid., vol. 161, pp. 28–36.

43. New Zealand Parliament Debates, vol. 254, p. 20 (5 September 1939).

44. For Hertzog's views, see C. M. van den Heever, General J. B. M. Hertzog (English trans., Johannesburg, 1946), pp. 275–86.

45. University of Cape Town, Jagger Library, Patrick Duncan Papers E.10.19.1, 4, Duncan to Lady Duncan, 1, 4 September 1939.

46. See South Africa House of Assembly, Debates, vol. 36, 4 September 1939.

47. See the ‘Neutrality Debate’, 2 September 1939, in Dail Eireann Parliamentary Debates.

48. PP XX (1938–9), Cmd. 6121, India and the War, Appendix C, Resolution by All-India Congress Committee, 10 October 1939.

49. See the Nehru–Jinnah correspondence in J. Nehru, A Bunch of Old Letters (Bombay, 1958), pp. 392–4, 403–10.

50. See Chamberlain to Churchill, 16 September 1939; Churchill to Chamberlain, 18 September 1939; Military Co-ordination Committee, Minutes, 5 December 1939, in M. Gilbert (ed.), The Churchill War Papers, vol. I, At the Admiralty (1993), pp. 101, 111, 466.

51. Fortune, July 1940, p. 136.

52. Churchill to Roosevelt, 24 December 1939. Gilbert, War Papers, vol. I, p. 560.

53. Fortune, July 1940, p. 138.

54. Churchill to Wavell (Commander-in-Chief, Middle East), 26 January 1941, Gilbert, Churchill War Papers, vol. III, The Ever-Widening War (2000), p. 136.

55. Churchill to Margesson, 29 January 1941, Gilbert, War Papers, vol. III, p. 153.

56. J. Granatstein, Canada's War: The Politics of the Mackenzie King Government 1939–1945 (Toronto, 1975), p. 25.

57. National Archives of Canada, Dafoe Papers M-79 (microfilm): T. A. Crerar to J. W. Dafoe, 10 June 1940; Queen's University Kingston, Douglas Library, T. A. Crerar Papers 119: Crerar to King, 23 February 1941.

58. National Archives of Canada, R. B. Bennett Papers M-3175 (microfilm), R. B. Hanson to R. B. Bennett, 17 September 1940.

59. National Archives of Canada, Mackenzie King Papers 4566 (microfilm), Mackenzie King to Churchill, 16 September 1940.

60. J. W. Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, vol. I, 1939–1944 (Toronto, 1960), p. 203.

61. It was to be a permanent joint board.

62. Pickersgill, Mackenzie King Record, vol. 1, p. 204.

63. See R. Sarty, Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic (Montreal, 1998).

64. N. Meaney (ed.), Australia and the World (Melbourne, 1985), p. 459: R. G. Menzies to S. Bruce (Australian High Commissioner in London), 11 September 1939.

65. I. M. Cumpston, Lord Bruce of Melbourne (Melbourne, 1989), pp. 178, 181–4.

66. J. Grey, A Military History of Australia (Cambridge, 1999), p. 144.

67. D. Day, John Curtin: A Life (Sydney, 1999), p. 43.

68. J. Belich, Paradise Reforged (Auckland, 2001), p. 273; Grey, Military History, pp. 145–7.

69. Quoted in K. H. Bailey, ‘Australia in the Empire’, Australian Outlook, 14, 1 (1942), 13.

70. The Economist, 10 May 1941, p. 614.

71. See A. Grundlingh, ‘The King's Afrikaners: Enlistment and Ethnic Identity in the Union of South Africa's Defence Force during the Second World War, 1939–45’, Journal of African History, 40 (1999), 354.

72. J. Van Der Poel (ed.), Selections from the Smuts Papers (Cambridge, 1973), vol. VI, pp. 373–7: Smuts to F. H. Theron, 21 July 1942.

73. R. Hyam and P. Henshaw, The Lion and the Springbok (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 130–1.

74. M. Roberts and A. E. G. Trollip, The South African Opposition 1939–1945 (1947), p. 159.

75. Ibid., p. 174.

76. N. Prasad, Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War 1939–1945: The Expansion of the Armed Forces and Defence Organization (Calcutta, 1956), pp. 54, 60.

77. Viceroy's statement, 8 August 1940. PP X (1939–40) Cmd. 6219, ‘India and the War’.

78. See the development of Jinnah's views, in A. Jalal, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan (Cambridge, 1985).

79. See I. Talbot, Khizr Tiwana: The Punjab Unionist Party and the Partition of India (Karachi, 2002), p. 134.

80. For this fear, see the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, to Hallett, 16 March 1942, N. Mansergh (ed.), Constitutional Relations between Britain and India: The Transfer of Power 1942–47, vol. I, The Cripps Mission (London, 1970), p. 430.

81. Amery to Linlithgow, 2 March 1942, Mansergh (ed.), Constitutional Relations, p. 295; Churchill to Linlithgow, Mansergh (ed.), Constitutional Relations, pp. 394–5.

82. War Cabinet Memo, 2 February 1942, Mansergh (ed.), Constitutional Relations, p. 112.

83. The authoritative account of the Cripps Mission is R. J. Moore, Churchill, Cripps and India 1939–1945 (Oxford, 1979).

84. Until mid-June 1945. J. M. Brown, Nehru (2003), p. 139.

85. The Economist, 20 November 1937, ‘British Capital Abroad’, p. 359.

86. The Economist, 6 August 1938, p. 281.

87. The Economist, 20 November 1937, p. 363.

88. For the best account of Anglo-American commercial relations, see I. M. Drummond, The Floating Pound and the Sterling Area, 1931–1939 (Cambridge, 1981).

89. D. Hall, North American Supply (1955), p. 269: down from $4,483 million to $2,167 million.

90. The Economist, 22 November 1941, p. 630.

91. J. M. Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries: The Years of Urgency 1938–41 (Boston, 1965), pp. 217–18.

92. The senator in charge of the lend–lease bill suggested a lien on Malayan rubber and tin.

93. R. Skidelsky, The Life of J. M. Keynes: Fighting for Britain (2000), ch. 4.

94. D. Moggridge (ed.), The Collected Works of John Maynard Keynes: External War Finance (Cambridge, 1979), p. 222: Keynes to Sir F. Phillips, 14 June 1942.

95. Ibid., p. 233: Keynes to Sir H. Wilson, 9 June 1942.

96. Fortune, May 1942, pp. 59–60.

97. A. Warren, Singapore, 1942 (2002), pp. 117–18.

98. Quoted in The Economist, 21 February 1942.

99. A. Danchev and D. Todman (eds.), War Diaries 1939–1945: Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke (paperback edn, 2002), p. 229 (12 February 1942).

Chapter 12

1. Speech by Anthony Eden, 30 October 1942, The Times, 31 October 1942.

2. By 1944, the US was spending four times as much as Britain on armaments.

3. Speech by Smuts, 25 November 1943, The Times, 3 December 1943.

4. British Documents on the End of Empire: S. R. Ashton and S. E. Stockwell (eds.), Imperial Policy and Colonial Practice 1925–1945, Part 1 (1996), pp. 231–44: Memo by Post-Hostilities Planning Staff, ‘The Security of the British Empire’, 29 June 1945. CAB 81/46, PHP(45)29(0) Final.

5. To 29 per cent by 1943. W. K. Hancock and M. Gowing, British War Economy (1949), p. 354.

6. See Ibid., ch. 18.

7. See J. M. Keynes, ‘Our Overseas Financial Prospects’, 13 August 1945, in D. Moggridge (ed.), Collected Works of John Maynard Keynes, vol. XXIV, Activities 1944–1946 (Cambridge, 1979), pp. 398–414.

8. See Memo by Deputy Minister of Labour, 27 November 1943, National Archives of Canada, Mackenzie King Papers C-7054 (microfilm).

9. See M. Milner, Canada's Navy: The First Century (Toronto, 1999), pp. 119, 157.

10. Quoted in D. Day, John Curtin: A Life (Sydney, 1999), pp. 438–9.

11. The Times, 16 August 1943, 7 September 1943.

12. The Times, 7 September 1943.

13. E. Grigg, The British Commonwealth: Its Place in the Service of the World (1943), p. 164.

14. Copy in Brooke Claxton Mss, NAC MG 32 B-5, vol. 22.

15. W. L. Mackenzie King Diary, 15 May 1944, consulted online at http://king.collections.canada.ca.

16. Day, Curtin, p. 518.

17. Ibid., p. 543.

18. The Times, 19 May 1942.

19. The Times, 3 December 1943.

20. J. Barnes and D. Nicholson (eds.), The Empire at Bay: The Leo Amery Diaries 1929–1945 (1988), p. 947 (14 October 1943).

21. The Times, 9 September 1943.

22. Mackenzie King Diary, 5 May 1944.

23. Ibid., 9 May 1944.

24. Speech, 27 August 1943. Brooke Claxton Mss, NAC MG 32 B-5, vol. 22.

25. Mackenzie King Diary, 4 May 1944.

26. Queen's University, Kingston, Douglas Library, C. G. Power Mss, Box 1: Political Jottings, July 1943.

27. C. G. Power Mss, Box 1: Memo by C. G. Power, 10 December 1944.

28. Mackenzie King Diary, 11 May 1944.

29. J. Ehrman, Grand Strategy, vol. VI (1956), p. 118.

30. Memo by H. Caccia, 26 October 1944. D. Ellwoood, Italy 1943–1945 (Leicester, 1985), p. 118.

31. G. M. Alexander, The Prelude to the Truman Doctrine: British Policy in Greece 1944–1947 (Oxford, 1982), p. 48.

32. R. Wilson, ‘Economic Aspects of Arab Nationalism’, in M. J. Cohen and M. Kolinsky (eds.), Demise of the British Empire in the Middle East: Britain's Response to Nationalist Movements, 1943–1955 (1998), p. 67.

33. By 1948, it was nearly 40 per cent. W. B. Fisher, The Middle East (1950), pp. 242–4.

34. Thus the British ambassador in Cairo had been authorised to use force in April 1944 to prevent the dismissal of his favoured prime minister. See M. Kolinsky, ‘Lampson and the Wartime Control of Egypt’, in Cohen and Kolinsky (eds.), Demise of the British Empire in the Middle East, p. 108.

35. Quoted in J. Darwin, Britain, Egypt and the Middle East: Imperial Policy in the Aftermath of War 1918–1922 (1981), p. 160.

36. Sir M. Hallet (Governor of the United Provinces) to Linlithgow (Viceroy), 9 March 1943. N. Mansergh (ed.), Constitutional Relations between Britain and India: The Transfer of Power, 12 vols. (London, 1970–83), vol. III, p. 778.

37. Linlithgow to Amery (Secretary of State for India), 19 July 1943. Ibid., vol. IV, p. 53.

38. Amery to Churchill, 16 April 1943. Ibid., vol. III, p. 895.

39. Wavell to Amery, 10 July 1944. Ibid., vol. IV, p. 1075.

40. Wavell to Amery, 28 August 1944. Ibid., vol. IV, p. 1228.

41. Ibid., vol. IV, p. 165.

42. In his cabinet memo. 2 February 1942. Ibid., I, pp. 110–12.

43. M. Perham, ‘The Colonial Empire: Capital, Labour and the Colonial Colour Bar’, The Times, 14 March 1942.

44. For a vehement attack on indirect rule, see W. M. Macmillan, Africa Emergent (1938).

45. The Times, 11 January 1943. Morrison was Home Secretary.

46. V. H. Rothwell, Britain and the Cold War 1941–1947 (1982), p. 248.

47. Ibid., p. 252.

48. For a brilliant description of Keynes’ tortured negotiation, see R. Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain 1937–1946 (2000), pp. 403–52. For an analysis that draws on the sceptical view from the Bank of England, see J. Fforde, The Bank of England and Public Policy 1941–1958 (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 62–87.

49. HC Deb., 5th series, vol. 417, col. 442.

50. Speech in House of Lords, 18 December 1945. D. Moggridge (ed.), Collected Works of John Maynard Keynes, vol. XXIV, Activities 1944–1946, p. 620.

51. CAB 128/5, Cabinet 54(46), 3 June 1946.

52. CAB 128/7, Cabinet 55(46), 5 June 1946, Confidential Annex.

53. See R. Smith and J. Zametica, ‘The Cold Warrior: Clement Attlee Reconsidered 1945–47’, International Affairs, 61, 2 (1985), 237–52.

54. Conclusions of Prime Ministers’ Meeting (46)5. See W. J. Hudson and W. Way (eds.), Australia and the Post-War World: Documents 1947 (Canberra, 1995), p. 320.

55. Attlee's views can be traced in his memoranda on ‘The Future of the Italian Colonies’, 1 September 1945 and 2 March 1946; his letter to Bevin, 1 December 1946, and his minute to Bevin on ‘Near Eastern Policy’, 5 January 1947; all in R. Hyam (ed.), British Documents on the End of Empire: The Labour Government and the End of Empire 1945–1951, Part III, Strategy, Politics and Constitutional Change (1992), pp. 207–8, 213–15, 221–2, 223–6.

56. Minute by Bevin to Attlee, 9 January 1947. Hyam, Labour Government, Part III, p. 228.

57. Of the huge literature on the end of the Raj, the best survey is R. J. Moore, Escape from Empire: The Attlee Government and the Indian Problem (Oxford, 1983).

58. CAB 128/5, Cabinet 73(46) 25 July 1946.

59. M. J. Cohen, Palestine and the Great Powers 1945–1948 (Princeton, 1982), is the standard account of the British withdrawal.

60. Fforde, Bank of England, pp. 101–2.

61. A. P. Dobson, The Politics of the Anglo-American Special Economic Relationship, 1940–1987 (1988), pp. 109–13.

62. Canadian High Commissioner, London to Secretary of State for External Affairs, 8 April 1946. D. M. Page (ed.), Documents on Canadian External Relations, vol. 12 (1946) (Ottawa, 1977), p. 1242.

63. See J. Darwin, Britain and Decolonization: The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World (1988), pp. 94–5.

64. P. Williams (ed.), The Diary of Hugh Gaitskell (1983), p. 54 (30 January 1948).

65. Bevin's Cabinet Memo, 19 October 1949. Hyam, Labour Government, Part 3, p. 382.

66. CAB 129/28, CP (48) 171, Memo by A. Creech Jones, 1 July 1948.

67. See British Documents on the End of Empire: J. Kent (ed.), Egypt and the Defence of the Middle East, 3 vols. (1998), ‘Introduction’, pp. liv–lv.

68. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, Alister McIntosh Papers, MS 6759/050: Attlee to Fraser, 14 January 1948.

69. PREM 8/950: Sir N. Brook, Draft Report on Proceedings of Official Committee on Commonwealth Relations, 24 March 1948.

70. CAB 131/5, Cabinet Defence Committee, DO 19 (48), 18 September 1948.

71. G. C. Peden, The Treasury and Public Policy 1906–1959 (Oxford, 2000), p. 407.

72. CAB 129/29, CP (48) 206, Prime Minister's Memo, 24 August 1948.

73. S. Constantine, ‘Migrants and Settlers’, in W. R. Louis and J. M. Brown (eds.), The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999), p. 186.

74. P. W. Bell, The Sterling Area in the Post-War World (Oxford, 1956), p. 316–17.

75. R. Hyam and P. Henshaw, The Lion and the Springbok (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 135–6.

76. Peden, Treasury, p. 392.

77. See J. Tomlinson, ‘The Attlee Government and the Balance of Payments, 1945–1951’, Journal of Twentieth Century British History, 2, 1 (1991), 59.

78. J. Fred Rippy, ‘Point Four Background: A Decade of Income from British Overseas Investment’, Journal of Business of the University of Chicago, 26, 4 (1953), 231–7.

79. HC Deb., 5th series, vol. 450, col. 1318.

80. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, Alister McIntosh Papers MS 6759/050, Prime Minister to Berendsen, Secret and Personal Telegram, 4 October 1947.

81. W. Reynolds, Australia's Bid for the Atomic Bomb (Carlton, Vic., 2000), p. 47.

82. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, Chifley to Attlee, 22 January 1948, copy in Alister McIntosh MS 6759/050.

83. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, Alister McIntosh Papers MS 6759/050: Report on Visit to Australia in Memo by McIntosh for Prime Minister Fraser, 1 March 1948.

84. I. McGibbon (ed.), Undiplomatic Dialogue: Letters between Carl Berendsen and Alister McIntosh 1943–1957 (Auckland, 1993), p. 174.

85. It was approved by 568,427 to 160,998.

86. New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, vol. 277, p. 595 (21 August 1947).

87. A. W. Martin, Robert Menzies: A Life (Melbourne, 1993), vol. I, p. 166, quoting Menzies in 1935.

88. Martin, Menzies (Melbourne 1999), vol. II, p. 95.

89. See B. MacFarlane, ‘Australian Post-War Economic Policy 1947–1953’, in A. Curthoys and J. Merritt (eds.), Australia's First Cold War 1945–1953 (1984), p. 41.

90. Martin, Menzies, vol. II, p. 222.

91. The commitment was eventually approved by the Australian cabinet in December 1951. See H. Donohue, From Empire Defence to Long Haul: Post-War Defence and its Impact on Naval Force Structure and Planning 1945–1955 (Canberra, 1996), p. 111.

92. See D. Lowe, Menzies and the ‘Great World Struggle’: Australia's Cold War 1948–1954 (Sydney, 1999), p. 96.

93. G. P. Grant, The Empire, Yes or No (Toronto, 1945).

94. National Archives of Canada. Brooke Claxton MS Mic. H-1422: St Catherine's Standard, 12 March 1948.

95. See P. Buckner, ‘The Long Goodbye: English Canadians and the British World’, in P. Buckner and R. D. Francis (eds.), Rediscovering the British World (Calgary, 2005), pp. 181–207.

96. National Archives of Canada, Mackenzie King MS C-11051: Mackenzie King to St Laurent, 3 October 1948.

97. J. Hilliker (ed.), Documents on Canadian External Relations, vol. 11 (Ottawa. 1990), pp. 1262–7: Memo by Senior Canadian Army Member, Permanent Joint Board of Defence, 2 August 1945.

98. B. W. Muirhead, The Development of Post-War Canadian Trade Policy (Montreal and Kingston, 1992), pp. 183–6.

99. Muirhead, Trade Policy, p. 43.

100. See Canadian High Commissioner in London to Secretary of State for External Affairs, 14 November 1949, H. Mackenzie (ed.), Documents on Canadian External Relations, vol. 15 (Ottawa, 1995), pp. 1318–20.

101. For two contemporary estimates, see Tom MacDonald, Jan Hofmeyr: Heir to Smuts (Cape Town, 1948); A. Keppel-Jones, When Smuts Goes (Cape Town, 1947).

102. See note 75 above.

103. DO 121/75, Memo, ‘The Commonwealth Relationship: Constitutional Questions’, February 1949, containing Congress Party Resolution, 16 December 1948.

104. PREM 8/950, Fifth Report of Official Committee, January 1949.

105. PREM 8/950, Report by Sir N. Brook on Consultations with Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 14 September 1948.

106. PREM 8/950, Cabinet Committee on Commonwealth Relations, 2nd Conclusions, 8 February 1949.

107. Ibid.

108. PREM 8/950, Listowel (Wellington) to Commonwealth Relations Office, 22 March 1949.

109. PREM 8/950, Attlee to Nehru, Top Secret and Personal, 20 March 1949.

110. PREM 8/950, Note by Sir N. Brook, 22 April 1949.

111. CAB 129/35, CP (49) 141, 21 June 1949, ‘The Commonwealth Relationship: Republicanism in South Africa’: Evelyn Baring to P. Noel-Baker, 7 June 1949.

112. PREM 8/950, Commonwealth Prime Ministers Meeting, 27 April 1949.

113. See M. Bassett and M. King, Tomorrow Comes the Song: A Life of Peter Fraser (Auckland, 2000), p. 325.

114. For Attlee's note on Commonwealth nomenclature, 30 December 1948, see Hyam, Labour Government, Part 4, pp. 178–80.

115. See British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent, Egypt, vol. I, p. 289: Bevin to Alexander, 13 September 1948.

116. FO 371/73465, Sir W. Strang to E. A. Chapman-Andrews (Cairo), 21 September 1949.

117. FO 371/73464, Minute by G. Clutton, 24 June 1949.

118. FO 371/69274: Note on ‘Operation Bystander’, by Colonel Jenkins, 14 July 1948.

119. CAB 131/9, DO (50) 40, Cabinet Defence Committee, 19 May 1950, Appendix 1.

120. CAB 131/11, DO (51) 12, 17 February 1951, Chiefs of Staff Memo, 17 February 1951.

121. The Times, 29 September 1950.

122. See e.g. CAB 129/36, CP (49) 176, Memo by Minister of Fuel and Power, 18 August 1949.

123. See Z. Mikdashi, A Financial Analysis of Middle Eastern Oil Concessions 1901–1965 (New York, 1966), p. 110. Compare the figure of £36 million in tax in J. Bamberg, History of the British Petroleum Company, vol. II, The Anglo-Iranian Years 1928–1954 (Cambridge, 1994), p. 325. The difference refers to the percentage of revenue attributable to the company's Iranian operations.

124. E. Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Princeton, 1982), ch. 5.

125. W. R. Louis, The British Empire and the Middle East 1945–1951 (Oxford, 1984), p. 666.

126. Louis, Middle East, p. 688.

127. See Circular Dispatch from Secretary of State for the Colonies to the African Governors, 25 February 1947, in British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam, Labour Government, Part I, pp. 119–29.

128. Governor Arden-Clarke to A. B. Cohen, 5 March 1951, British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam, Labour Government, Part III, p. 65. For the motives behind constitutional change, see Cabinet Memo by A. Creech-Jones, 8 October 1949, ibid., p. 47.

129. See D. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged (2005), ch. 1.

130. See T. N. Harper, The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya (Cambridge, 1999). chs. 2, 3, 4, offer a brilliant analysis.

131. CAB 129/26, CP (48) 91: Memo by P. Gordon Walker, March 1948.

132. National Archives of Australia, A4933, OCR, Chancellor of Exchequer to Treasurer, 15 January 1951, enclosed in 24th Report of Inter-departmental Dollar Committee.

133. The Times, 2 March 1951.

134. Fforde, Bank of England, p. 420.

135. See draft dated 18 January 1952 in Sir Alister McIntosh Mss, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, 6759/063.

136. See Bell, Sterling Area, p. 382.

137. National Archives of Australia, A 11099, 1/16, Cabinet Notebooks 1952: Cabinet of 3 June 1952.

138. CAB 159/11, Joint Intelligence Committee (52) 2, 3 January 1952.

139. FO 371/90119, British Middle East Office to Foreign Office, 17 November 1951.

140. CAB 128/23, Cabinet (51) 20, 28 December 1951; (51) 21, 29 December 1951.

141. CAB 129/48, Cabinet (51) 40, Memo by Foreign Secretary, 6 December 1951.

142. Minute by Sir P. Dixon, 23 January 1952, FO 371/96920, in British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent, Egypt, Part 2, p. 320.

143. Ibid.

Chapter 13

1. See M. J. Daunton, Just Taxes: The Politics of Taxation in Britain, 1914–1979 (Cambridge, 2001).

2. E. Shuckburgh, Descent to Suez: Diaries 1951–56 (1987), p. 93. Shuckburgh was Eden's Private Secretary at the Foreign Office.

3. British Documents on the End of Empire: D. Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957 (1994), Part 1, International Relations, pp. 344–8: ‘India and the Colonial Problem’, a note by R. C. Ormerod, Commonwealth Relations Office, 7 July 1955.

4. See G. Kahin, The Asian-African Conference at Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955 (Ithaca, NY, 1956).

5. W. R. Louis, ‘Public Enemy Number One: Britain and the United Nations in the Aftermath of Suez’, in W. R. Louis, Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez and Decolonization (2006).

6. British Documents on the End of Empire: A. J. Stockwell (ed.), Malaya, Part 2, The Communist Insurrection 1948–1953 (1995), p. 330: Cabinet Memo by O. Lyttelton, 21 December 1951.

7. British Documents on the End of Empire: Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 2, Politics and Administration, p. 188: Cabinet Conclusions, 12 February 1952.

8. Ibid., p. 203: Cabinet Memo by O. Lyttelton, 4 September 1953.

9. See M. Lynn, ‘“We Cannot Let the North Down”: British Policy and Nigeria in the 1950s’, in M. Lynn (ed.), The British Empire in the 1950s: Retreat or Revival (2006), pp. 144–63.

10. British Documents on the End of Empire: Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 2, p. 247: Sir E. Baring to Lyttelton, 29 October 1953.

11. See J. Darwin, Britain and Decolonization: The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World (1988), pp. 202–6.

12. British Documents on the End of Empire: Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 2, p. 23: Memo by Lord Swinton, 16 June 1954.

13. Ibid., p. 30: Cabinet Memo by Lord Swinton, 11 October 1954.

14. Ibid., Part 1, p. 99: Note on ‘The Probable Development of the Commonwealth’, June 1956.

15. Ibid., p. 100.

16. See K. Larres, Churchill's Cold War (2002).

17. See Fortune, November 1952, ‘The Colonial Big Five’.

18. See T. Shaw, Eden, Suez and the Mass Media: Propaganda and Persuasion during the Suez Crisis (1996), p. 197.

19. S. Howe, Anti-Colonialism in British Politics 1918–1964: The Left and the End of Empire (Oxford, 1993).

20. See S. Ward, Australia and the British Embrace: The Demise of the Imperial Ideal (Melbourne, 2001), ch. 1. For the economic strains, see D. Lee, ‘Australia, the British Commonwealth and the United States, 1950–53’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 20, 3 (1992), 445–69.

21. J. Jupp, From White Australia to Woomera (Cambridge, 2002), p. 12.

22. See Megan Hutchings, Long Journey for Sevenpence: Assisted Immigration to New Zealand from the United Kingdom, 1947–1975 (Wellington, 1999), pp. 45ff.

23. A. McIntosh to C. Berendsen, March 1949, I. McGibbon (ed.), Undiplomatic Dialogue: Letters between Carl Berendsen and Alister McIntosh 1943–1952 (Auckland, 1993), p. 177.

24. Press Statement, 21 February 1952, Alister McIntosh Papers, Ms 6579/063, Alexander Turnbull Library.

25. M. Templeton, Ties of Blood and Empire: New Zealand's Involvement in Middle East Defence and the Suez Crisis, 1947–1957 (Auckland, 1994), p. 183.

26. Holland's notes on Suez Crisis and New Zealand policy, 6 November 1956. Alister McIntosh Papers Ms 6759/079. For the private reservations in the New Zealand cabinet, see R. Pfeiffer, ‘New Zealand and the Suez Crisis of 1956’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 21, 1 (1993), 126–52.

27. See Anna Green, British Capital, Antipodean Labour: Working the New Zealand Waterfront 1915–1951 (Dunedin, 2001), p. 16.

28. ‘The Boom That Made Canada’, Fortune, August 1952, p. 91.

29. See P. Buckner, ‘The Long Goodbye: English Canadians and the British World’, in P. Buckner and D. Francis (eds.), Rediscovering the British World (Calgary, 2005), pp. 181–207. For Canada's increasing economic detachment, see T. Rooth, ‘Britain's Other Dollar Problem: Economic Relations with Canada 1945–50’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 27, 1 (1999), 81–108.

30. See R. Hyam and P. Henshaw, The Lion and the Springbok: Britain and South Africa since the Boer War (Cambridge, 2003), ch. 10.

31. See D. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged (2006).

32. British Documents on the End of Empire: Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 2, pp. 282–3: Cabinet Memo by Lord Ismay and O. Lyttelton, 9 November 1951.

33. R. C. O. Matthews, C. H. Feinstein and J. Odling Smee, British Economic Growth 1856–1973 (Stanford, 1982), p. 128.

34. R. Michie, The City of London: Continuity and Change 1850–1990 (1992), p. 113.

35. W. H. Branson, H. Giersch and P. G. Peterson, ‘Trends in United States International Trade and Investment since World War II’, in M. Feldstein (ed.), The American Economy in Transition (1980), p. 184.

36. See the briefing by Sir F. Brundrett, July 1956. Alister McIntosh Ms 6759/081, Alexander Turnbull Library.

37. N. Tiratsoo and J. Tomlinson, The Conservatives and Industrial Efficiency, 1951–1964: Thirteen Wasted Years? (1998), pp. 155ff.

38. See S. Strange, Sterling and British Policy (1971), pp. 4–5, for the definition of ‘master currency’, ‘top currency’ etc.

39. S. N. Broadberry, The Productivity Race: British Manufacturing in International Perspective, 1850–1990 (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 94–6.

40. The Economist, 25 January 1958, p. 356.

41. For the origins of ROBOT, see J. Fforde, The Bank of England and Public Policy 1941–1958 (Cambridge, 1992), ch. 6.

42. Ibid., pp. 442–3.

43. For Eden's hostile reaction, see Shuckburgh, Descent to Suez, pp. 36–8.

44. For an authoritative account of the approach to convertibility, see Fforde, Bank of England, pp. 585–605.

45. The Economist, 3 January 1959, p. 12.

46. Broadberry, Productivity Race, pp. 94–6.

47. See J. Black, ‘The Volumes and Prices of British Exports’, in G. N. Worswick and P. Ady (eds.), The British Economy in the 1950s (Oxford, 1962), pp. 129–30.

48. See G. C. Peden, The Treasury and British Public Policy 1906–1959 (Oxford, 2000), p. 450.

49. British Documents on the End of Empire: Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 3, Economic and Social Policies, p. 122.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., p. 126: Cabinet Conclusions, 14 September 1956.

52. Ibid., p. 128.

53. Ibid., p. 131.

54. Ibid., p. 134: Joint Cabinet Memo, 6 November 1956.

55. For a critical view, see The Economist, 13 September 1958, p. 815: ‘Which Gospel at Montreal?’.

56. Cmnd. 827 (1959), Report of the Committee on the Working of the Monetary System, p. 657.

57. Ibid., p. 739.

58. Broadberry, Productivity Race, pp. 393ff.

59. For this view, see The Economist, 13 February 1960, p. 642.

60. British Documents on the End of Empire: J. Kent (ed.), Egypt and the Defence of the Middle East, Part 2, 1949–1953 (1998): Memo by Chiefs of Staff, ‘Defence Policy and Global Strategy’, 17 June 1952.

61. British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent (ed.), Middle East, Part 2, pp. 538–9: Cabinet Memo by Anthony Eden, 14 January 1953, annex.

62. Ibid., pp. 346–8: Sir R. Stevenson to Eden, 25 February 1952.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid., pp. 355–6: Eden's Minute to Churchill, 10 March 1952.

65. Ibid., p. 387: Memo by R. Allen, 1 May 1952.

66. No hint of the coup had reached British intelligence, noted the Joint Intelligence Committee. See CAB 159/12: JIC (52) 83, 30 July 1952.

67. FO 371/102796: Minute by R. Allen, 14 February 1953.

68. T. L. Hanes III, ‘Sir Hubert Huddleston and the Independence of the Sudan’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 20, 2 (1992), 248–73.

69. For Neguib's outlook and attitudes, see General Neguib, Egypt's Destiny (1955).

70. FO 371/102803: Cresswell to Allen, 30 March 1953.

71. CAB 158/ 18: JIC (53) 50, 14 May 1953.

72. British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent (ed.), Middle East, Part 3, 1953–1956, p. 147: Hankey to Eden, 23 November 1953. Hankey was the son of Lord Hankey, the former Cabinet Secretary who was a sharp critic of the evacuation policy. His appointment at the instigation of Churchill was regarded by some Egyptians as a wrecking move. See FO 371/102848: C. B. Duke (Cairo) to R. Allen, 23 July 1953.

73. Ibid.

74. FO 371/102823: Churchill's Minute, 11 December 1953.

75. Ibid.: Eden's Minute, 12 December 1953.

76. British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent (ed.), Middle East, Part 3, p. 156: Eden's Minute to Churchill, 1 December 1953.

77. FO 371/102824: Eden's Minute for Churchill, 21 December 1953.

78. CAB 129/61: Memo by Acting Foreign Secretary, 4 July 1953, C (53) 190. See also M. Thornhill, ‘Britain, the United States and the Rise of an Egyptian Leader: The Politics and Diplomacy of Nasser's Consolidation of Power 1952–4’, English Historical Review, 119, 483 (2004), 892–921.

79. British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent (ed.), Middle East, Part 3, p. 163: Eisenhower to Churchill, 21 December 1953.

80. Ibid., p. 82: Eden's Cabinet Memo, 7 January 1954.

81. See The Times, 26 March, 29 March 1954.

82. CAB 129/69, Note by Minister of State, ‘Egypt: Defence Negotiations’, 6 July 1954, C (45) 220.

83. See the sardonic remarks of Charles Waterhouse in the House of Commons. The Times, 3 November 1954.

84. Which began as an Iraqi-Turkish agreement in February 1955.

85. CAB 158/18: Report by JIC, JIC (54) 72 (Final), 11 November 1954.

86. British Documents on the End of Empire: Kent (ed.), Middle East, Part 3, p. 437: Minute by E. Shuckburgh, 23 September 1955.

87. Ibid., p. 447: Cabinet Conclusions, 4 October 1955.

88. Shuckburgh, Descent, p. 345.

89. Ibid., p. 346.

90. The best accounts of the Suez crisis can be found in D. Carlton, Anthony Eden (1981); W. R. Louis and R. Owen (eds.), Suez 1956: The Crisis and its Consequences (Oxford, 1989); K. Kyle, The Suez Conflict (1989); and D. J. Dutton, Anthony Eden: A Life and a Reputation (1997). D. R. Thorp, Eden: The Life and Times of Anthony Eden (2003), offers a more sympathetic view of Eden than most. The best recent short account is in R. Hyam, Britain's Declining Empire (Cambridge, 2006).

91. In his poem, ‘The Lesson’.

92. A. Nutting, No End of a Lesson (1967).

93. J. G. Ballard, Miracles of Life (2007), p. 21.

94. W. Webster, Englishness and Empire (Oxford, 2005), p. 140.

95. On this theme, see W. R. Louis, ‘Public Enemy Number One: Britain and the United Nations in the Aftermath of Suez’, in W. R. Louis, Ends of British Imperialism (2006), pp. 689–724.

96. Fforde, Bank of England, p. 544.

97. See D. Kunz, The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis (Durham, NC, 1991), p. 132.

98. Fforde, Bank of England, p. 555.

99. For Commonwealth reactions, see J. Eayrs (ed.), The Commonwealth and Suez: A Documentary Survey (1964).

100. For a recent account, see Barry Turner, Suez 1956 (2006), which stresses the muddle and uncertainty of British operations.

101. See R. Worrall, ‘Britain and Libya: A Study of Military Bases and State Creation, 1945–1956’ (DPhil., Oxford University, 2007 ).

Chapter 14

1. For two recent surveys, see S. Howe, ‘When If Ever Did Empire End? Internal Decolonization in British Culture since the 1950s’, in M. Lynn (ed.), The British Empire in the 1950s: Retreat or Revival (2005); W. Webster, Englishness and Empire 1939–1965 (Oxford, 2005).

2. British Documents on the End of Empire: D. Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 2, (1994), pp. 202–4: Cabinet Memo by Colonial Secretary, 4 September 1953.

3. British Documents on the End of Empire: Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Part 2, pp. 206–12: Cumming-Bruce to Laithwaite, 19 August 1955.

4. British Documents on the End of Empire: R. Hyam and W. R. Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire, 1957–1964, Part 1, High Policy, Political and Constitutional Change (2000), p. 341: Memo by Colonial Secretary for Cabinet Colonial Policy Committee, 7 May 1957.

5. Ibid., p. 356: Cabinet Memo, 20 October 1958.

6. Ibid., p. 91: Cabinet Memo, 24 February 1960, Report of Officials’ Committee on ‘Future Policy Study 1960–1970’.

7. CO 554/2147, Carter to Axworthy, 10 May 1960; Colonial Secretary (Macleod) to Sir E. Windley (the Governor), 7 March 1961.

8. CO 554/1568, Minute by C. G. Eastwood, 11 March 1959.

9. See D. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged (2006).

10. CO 822/1200: Baring to Colonial Secretary, 7 March 1954.

11. CO 822/1200: Brief for Colonial Secretary, October 1954.

12. Multiracialism was abandoned as a constitutional principle in 1958.

13. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 1, pp. 371–81: Memo by Colonial Secretary for Cabinet Colonial Policy Committee, 10 April 1959.

14. Ibid., p. 383: Cabinet Colonial Policy Committee, Minutes, 17 April 1959.

15. FO 371/137970: Note by Foreign Office for Cabinet Africa (official) Committee, ‘Africa: The Next Ten Years. Talks with the Americans’, 12 October 1959.

16. Ten per cent of post-war investment in Africa had flowed to the Federation, The Economist reported in December 1958.

17. Welensky had been born in poverty in Southern Rhodesia but his career as a railwayman, trade unionist and politician had been built in Northern Rhodesia.

18. The best account of the Emergency is now C. Baker, State of Emergency: Crisis in Central Africa, Nyasaland 1959–1960 (1997); see also J. Darwin, ‘The Central African Emergency, 1959’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 21 (1993), 217–34.

19. Baker, Emergency, pp. 153–68.

20. The best biography of Macleod is R. Shepherd, Iain Macleod (1994).

21. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 1, p. 413: ‘I do not believe that we should bow to expediency’ and release Kenyatta, he told Macmillan in April 1961.

22. Ibid., pp. 476–80: Memo by Colonial Secretary for Colonial Policy Committee, 12 November 1959.

23. Ibid., p. 479.

24. Ibid., p. 485: Macleod's Minute, 28 July 1960.

25. Ibid., p. 494: Macleod to Turnbull (Governor of Tanganyika), 11 February 1961.

26. Ibid., p. 497: Memo 27 February 1961.

27. CO 822/2262, Draft Memo for Colonial Policy Committee, January 1960; Colonial Secretary to Officer Administering the Government, 12 February 1960.

28. CO 822/2262: Minutes of Cabinet Colonial Policy Committee, 8 February 1960.

29. CO 822/2263, Minute by F. D. Webber, 15 July 1960.

30. CO 822/2264, Monson to Crawford (Governor of Uganda), 30 August 1961.

31. CO 822/2264, Coutts to Monson, 24 January 1962.

32. Shepherd, Iain Macleod, pp. 156–7.

33. CO 822/1427, Webber to Renison (Governor of Kenya), 1 December 1959.

34. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 1, p. 180: Macleod to Macmillan, 31 May 1960.

35. CO 822/2235, Colonial Secretary to Governor of Kenya, 14 April 1961.

36. CO 822/2241, Colonial Secretary to Governor of Kenya, 9 May 1961, 19 May 1961.

37. The Times, 12 June 1961: Report by Africa Correspondent.

38. 16 May 1961.

39. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 1, p. 529: Memo by Colonial Secretary for Cabinet Colonial Policy Committee, 30 January 1962. A draft of this can be found in CO 822/2238.

40. Ibid., p. 531: Cabinet Memo by Colonial Secretary, 6 February 1962.

41. Ibid.

42. British Documents on the End of Empire: P. Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Part 1, Closer Association 1945–1958 (2005), p. 433: Note by B. Trend for Macmillan, 17 November 1958.

43. Ibid., Part 2, Crisis and Dissolution 1959–1965, p. 131: Macleod to Macmillan, 3 April 1960.

44. The Nyasaland Emergency had been followed by those in Northern and Southern Rhodesia.

45. Macmillan to Welensky, 17 April 1959. Quoted in J. R. T. Wood, The Welensky Papers (Durban, 1982), p. 665.

46. Wood, Welensky Papers, p. 733.

47. British Documents on the End of Empire: Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Part 2, p. 93: Macleod's Minute to Macmillan, 3 December 1959.

48. British Documents on the End of Empire: Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Part 2, p. 182: Macleod's Minute to Macmillan, 29 November 1960.

49. Wood, Welensky Papers, p. 790.

50. British Documents on the End of Empire: Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Part 2, p. 95: Macleod's Minute to Macmillan, 3 December 1959.

51. Ibid., p. 131: Macleod (Zomba) to Macmillan, 3 April 1960.

52. Cmnd. 1148 (1960), Report of the Advisory Commission on the Review of the Constitution of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, para. 27.

53. For Macleod's calculations, see British Documents on the End of Empire: Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Part 2, pp. 232–35: Macleod to Sandys, 26 May 1961.

54. Cmnd. 1291 (1961). Report of the Southern Rhodesian Constitutional Conference, February 1961.

55. PREM 11/2784, Report by Burke Trend, 13 October 1959.

56. Shepherd, Iain Macleod, p. 212.

57. British Documents on the End of Empire: Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Part 1, Introduction, p. lxxxvii.

58. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire, 1957–1964, Part 2, pp. 455–62, for the valedictory report by Sir John Maud, 14 May 1963.

59. See R. F. Holland, Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus 1954–1959 (Oxford, 1998), pp. 300–20.

60. Macmillan's diary, 15 September 1957. P. Catterall (ed.), The Macmillan Diaries: The Cabinet Years, 1950–1957 (2003), p. 599.

61. Peden, Treasury, p. 501.

62. See P. Mangold, The Almost Impossible Ally: Harold Macmillan and Charles De Gaulle (2006), p. 79.

63. See E. B. Geelhoed (ed.), The Macmillan–Eisenhower Correspondence, 1957–1965 (2005).

64. See N. Ashton, ‘Harold Macmillan and the “Golden Days” of Anglo-American Relations Revisited, 1957–1963’, Diplomatic History, 29, 4 (2005), 70. For the declaration, British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 2, p. 227.

65. For this suggestion, see Ashton, ‘Harold Macmillan and the “Golden Days”’, p. 699.

66. See W. A. Nielsen, The Great Powers and Africa (1969), chs. 8, 9 and Table 20.

67. For this episode, see Ashton, ‘Harold Macmillan and the “Golden Days”’, p. 710.

68. Mangold, Impossible Ally, p. 127.

69. Ibid., p. 128.

70. Ibid., p. 136.

71. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 2, pp. 214–15, for the Cabinet discussion.

72. Macmillan's diary, 28 January 1963. Quoted in Mangold, Impossible Ally, p. 205.

73. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 2, p. 198: Cabinet Conclusions, 26 April 1961.

74. See G. H. Souton, L’alliance incertaine: les rapports politico-strategiques franco-allemands, 1954–1991 (Paris, 1996); P. M. H. Bell, France and Britain 1940–1994: The Long Separation (1997), pp. 176–8; C. Wurm, ‘Two Paths to Europe’, in C. Wurm (ed.), Western Europe and Germany: The Beginnings of European Integration 1945–1960 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 186–8; W. Kaiser, ‘Against Napoleon and Hitler: Background Influences in British Diplomacy’, in W. Kaiser and G. Staerck (eds.), British Foreign Policy 1955–1964: Contracting Options (2000), pp. 122–3; Mangold, Impossible Ally, chs. 14–20.

75. National Archives of Australia, A1209/64, Special Committee on Blue Streak, 22 March 1960.

76. British Documents on the End of Empire: Hyam and Louis (eds.), The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Part 2, p. 283: Cabinet Memo by Foreign Secretary, 2 September 1964.

77. R. H. S. Crossman, Diaries of a Cabinet Minister (1976), vol. II, p. 639 (7 January 1968).

78. A. Cairncross, Managing the British Economy in the 1960s: A Treasury Perspective (Basingstoke, 1996), pp. 92–5.

79. Ibid., p. 172.

80. Ibid., p. 178.

81. For the Middle East role, see G. Balfour-Paul, The End of Empire in the Middle East: Britain's Relinquishment of Power in Her Last Three Arab Dependencies (Cambridge, 1991); for Southeast Asia and the containment of Indonesia, see J. Subritzski, Confronting Sukarno: British, American, Australian and New Zealand Diplomacy in the Malaysian–Indonesian Confrontation, 1961–1965 (2000).

82. R. C. O. Matthews, C. H. Feinstein and J. Odling-Smee, British Economic Growth 1856–1973 (Stanford, 1982), p. 164.

83. Cmnd. 2764 (1965), pp. 6, 70–1.

84. British Documents on the End of Empire, Series A, Vol. 5: S. R. Ashton and W. R. Louis (eds.), East of Suez and the Commonwealth, Part III, Dependent Territories, Africa, Economics, Race (2004), p. 496: Treasury Memo, 26 April 1968.

85. The authoritative study of British policy is now Phuong Pham, ‘The End of East of Suez: The British Decision to Withdraw from Malaysia and Singapore 1964 to 1968’ (DPhil., Oxford, 2001), shortly to be published by Oxford University Press. See also J. Darwin, ‘Britain's Withdrawal from East of Suez’, in C. Bridge (ed.), Munich to Vietnam: Australia's Relations with Britain and the United States since the 1930s (Carlton, Vic., 1991), pp. 140–58.

86. Cmnd. 2901, Statement on Defence Estimates, 1966, p. 8.

87. Cmnd. 3203, Statement on Defence Estimates, 1967, p. 7.

88. Crossman, Diaries of a Cabinet Minister, vol. II, p. 86 (22 October 1966).

89. Cmnd. 3357, Supplementary Statement on Defence Policy, 1967, pp. 5ff.

90. The Gulf rulers offered to meet the costs of the British military presence. For the background, see S. C. Smith, Britain's Revival and Fall in the Gulf: Kuwait, Qatar and the Trucial States 1950–1971 (2004).

91. HC Debs., 5th series, vol. 756, col. 1991, 18 January 1968.

92. See J. R. T. Wood, So Far and No Further!: Rhodesia's Bid for Independence during the Retreat from Empire 1959–1965 (Johannesburg, 2005), p. 167. Wood's account is based on both British and Rhodesian records, including the papers of Ian Smith.

93. Ibid., ch. 26, for the Anglo-Rhodesian dispute over the role a commission might play.

94. For Minister of Defence Denis Healey's calculation two months after UDI, see his minute of 20 January 1966, British Documents on the End of Empire: Ashton and Louis (eds.), East of Suez and the Commonwealth 1964–1971, Part II, Europe, Rhodesia and the Commonwealth, p. 232.

95. For the negotiations, see E. Windrich, Britain and the Politics of Rhodesian Independence (1978).

96. Of the twenty-six Commonwealth member states in 1967, eleven were African and five Asian.

97. This map, labelled ‘Secret’, can be found in British Documents on the End of Empire: Ashton and Louis (eds.), East of Suez and the Commonwealth 1964–1971, Part II: Europe, Rhodesia, Commonwealth, following p. 100.

98. Quoted in J. Darwin, Britain and Decolonisation (1988), p. 324.

Conclusion

1. A. Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan (1999), p. 42.

2. Churchill in the House of Commons, HC Deb., 5th series, vol. 247, col. 702 (26 January 1931).

3. H. Dalton, High Tide and After: Memoirs 1945–1960 (1962), p. 105.

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