Notes

1. Peggy Wayburn, “The Last True Wilderness,” in Mike Miller and Peggy Wayburn, Alaska: The Great Land (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1974), p. 117.

2. Mark Maslin, Global Warming (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 96.

3. Adeline Knapp, “Some Hermit Homes of California Writers,” Overland, Vol. 35, No. 205 (January 1900).

4. Michael P. Cohen, The Pathless Way: John Muir and American Wilderness (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), p. 42.

5. John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911), p. 205. Also Tom Melham, John Muir’s Wild America (Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1976), p. 9.

6. Bruce Molnia, Glaciers of Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 2001), pp. 5–7. Also see Ned Rozell, “Melting Ice,” Alaska Science Forum, Article No. 1731 (December 30, 2004).

7. John Muir, Travels in Alaska (Boston, MA, and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1915), p. 215.

8. Andromeda Romano-Lax, Chugach National Forest: Legacy of Land, Sea, and Sky (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2007). (In 2008, the Alaska Natural History Association changed its name to the Alaska Geographic Association.)

9. Susan Kollin, Nature’s State: Imagining Alaska as the Last Frontier (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), p. 28.

10. Witt Ball, “The Stickeen River and Its Glaciers,” Scribner’s Monthly, Vol. 17 (1879), pp. 805–815.

11. John Muir, “Yosemite Glaciers,” New York Tribune, December 5, 1871.

12. Dyan Zaslowsky, Tom H. Watkins, and Wilderness Society, These American Lands: Parks, Wilderness, and the Public Lands (Washington, DC: Island, 1994), p. 287.

13. Kollin, Nature’s State, p. 32.

14. Linnie Marsh Wolfe (ed.), John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), p. 245. (Reprint of the original, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1938.)

15. Robert Engberg and Bruce Merrell, John Muir: Letters from Alaska (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2009).

16. Muir, Travels in Alaska, pp. 314–315.

17. John Muir, “Notes of a Naturalist: John Muir in Alaska—Wrangell Island and Its Picturesque Attractions,” San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin (September 6, 1879), p. 1.

18. Melham, John Muir’s Wild America, p. 136.

19. S. Hall Young, Alaska Days with John Muir (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1915), pp. 29–30.

20. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. 21.

21. Kollin, Nature’s State, p. 29.

22. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Anchorage: University of Alaska Press, 1993), p. 40.

23. D. K. Hall, C. S. Benson, and W. O. Field, “Changes of Glaciers in Glacier Bay, Alaska,” in Physical Geography (Elsevier/Geo Abstracts, 1992), pp. 27–41.

24. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. 13.

25. Michael F. Turek, “John Muir, Glacier Bay, and the Tlingit Indians: Rapid Landscape Change and Human Response in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic,” June 15–18, 2005. (ICSU Dark Nature Project, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada.)

26. Melham, John Muir’s Wild America, p. 19.

27. Young, Alaska Days with John Muir, p. 99.

28. Wolfe, John of the Mountains, pp. 272–273. Also Muir, Travels in Alaska, pp. 142–146.

29. Kim Heacox, Alaska’s Inside Passage (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center Public Library, 1997), p. 79.

30. Katherine Hocker, Alaska’s Glaciers: Frozen in Motion (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2006), p. 8.

31. Donald Worster, A Passion for Nature: The Life of John Muir (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 251.

32. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. 156. Also John Muir, “Fort Wrangell, October 16, 1879,” San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin, November 8, 1879, p. 1.

33. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. 145.

34. Young, Alaska Days with John Muir, pp. 108–112.

35. Molnia, Glaciers of Alaska, p. 8.

36. Ibid., pp. 97–111.

37. Ibid., p. 126.

38. Worster, A Passion for Nature, pp. 256–257.

39. Young, Alaska Days with John Muir, p. 71.

40. John Muir, “An Adventure with a Dog and a Glacier,” Century, Vol. 54 (August 1897), p. 771.

41. John Muir, Stickeen (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1910).

42. Worster, A Passion for Nature, pp. 260–261.

43. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. 263.

44. Marcus Baker, Geographic Dictionary of Alaska (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1906).

45. Young, Alaska Days with John Muir, p. 32.

46. Rod Miller, John Muir: Magnificent Tramp (New York: Forge, 2005), p. 112.

47. Author interview with the archivist Michael Wurtz, July 1, 2010.

48. John Muir, Alaska Glacier Drawings, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA. (Unpublished inventory.)

49. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. v.

50. Ibid.

51. Young, Alaska Days with John Muir, pp. 202–206.

52. John Muir, The Writings of John Muir: The Cruise of the Corwin (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917), p. xxvi.

53. Worster, A Passion for Nature, p. 204.

54. Muir, The Writings of John Muir: The Cruise of the Corwin, p. 24.

55. Ibid., p. 91.

56. Dan Flores, Visions of the Big Sky: Painting and Photographing the Northern Rocky Mountain West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010), p. 113.

57. John Burroughs, “Narrative of the Expedition,” in Harriman Alaska Expedition, 13 vols. (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1902), Vol. 1, pp. 18–80.

58. Glaciers in Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 2003), p. 72.

59. Laurie Lawlor, Shadow Catcher: The Life and Work of Edward S. Curtis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005), p. 37.

60. William H. Goetzmann and Kay Sloan, Looking Far North: The Harriman Expedition to Alaska, 1899 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), p. 113.

61. Ibid., pp. 200–206.

62. Nancy Lord, Green Alaska: Dreams from the Far Coast (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1999), p. xix.

63. Quoted in Molnia, Glaciers of Alaska, p. 76.

64. Quoted in “Celebrating Wild Alaska: Twenty Years of the Alaska Lands Act” (Washington, DC: Alaska Wilderness League, December 2000). (Pamphlet.)

65. John Muir to Harry F. Reid, February 26, 1891, Muir Papers, University of the Pacific.

66. Muir, Travels in Alaska, p. 145.

67. Engberg and Merrell, John Muir: Letters from Alaska, pp. xx–xxvi.

68. Knut Hamsun, The Cultural Life of Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969), p. 78.

69. “The Philosophy of John Muir,” in John Muir, Edwin Way Teale, and Henry Bugbee Kane, The Wilderness World of John Muir (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001), p. 315.

1. Charles Emmerson, The Future History of the Arctic (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), p. xiii.

2. Stephen Brown (ed.), Arctic Wings: Birds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 2006), p. 115.

3. Paul Schullery, American Bears: Selections from the Writings of Theodore Roosevelt (Boulder, CO: Robert Rinehart, 1998), p. 77.

4. Laurie Lawlor, Shadow Catcher: The Life and Work of Edward S. Curtis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005), p. 37.

5. Richard Ellis, On Thin Ice: The Changing World of the Polar Bear (New York: Knopf, 2009), pp. 13–68.

6. Theodore Roosevelt, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman: Sketches of Sport on the Northern Cattle Plains (New York: Putnam, 1885).

7. Theodore Roosevelt, The Wilderness Hunter (New York: Putnam, 1893), p. 271. Also Paul Russell Cutright, Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Conservationist (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1985), p. 172.

8. Walter R. Borneman, Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), pp. 18–19.

9. Nancy Lord, Green Alaska: Dreams from the Far Coast (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1999), p. 99.

10. Andromeda Romano-Lax, Chugach National Forest: Legacy of Land, Sea, and Sky (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2007), p. 51.

11. Ibid., pp. 20–21.

12. Barry Lopez, Arctic Dreams: Imagination and Desire in a Northern Landscape (New York: Vintage, 2001), p. 339. (Originally published New York: Scribner, 1986.) Also Georg Wilhelm Steller, Steller’s History of Kamchatka (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2003).

13. Stephen Haycox, Alaska: An American Colony (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), pp. 50–51.

14. Frank Dufresne, “Foreword,” in Corey Ford, Where the Sea Breaks Its Back: The Epic Story of Early Naturalist George Steller and the Russian Exploration of Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1966), p. x.

15. Harry Ritter, Alaska’s History: The People, Land, and Events of the North Country (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1993), pp. 92–93.

16. John Muir, The Writings of John Muir: The Cruise of the Corwin (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1917), p. 91.

17. Terry Gifford, John Muir: His Life and Letters and Other Writings (Seattle: Mountaineers, 1996), p. 804.

18. Lord, Green Alaska, pp. 134–135.

19. Dave Smith, Alaska’s Mammals (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 2007), pp. 7–82.

20. John Muir, Travels in Alaska (Boston, MA, and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1915), p. 56.

21. Lawlor, Shadow Catcher, pp. 37–38.

22. Glenn Holder, Talking Totem Poles (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1973), p. 44.

23. Stacey Bredhoff, America’s Originals (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001), p. 58.

24. “President Talks to Alaskans,” Seattle Sunday Times, May 24, 1903.

25. Peggy Wayburn, “The Last True Wilderness,” in Mike Miller and Peggy Wayburn, Alaska: The Great Land (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1974), p. 127.

26. Ritter, Alaska’s History, p. 47.

27. Joan M. Antonson and William S. Hanable, Alaska’s Heritage, Unit 4, Human History: 1867 to Present (Anchorage: Alaska Heritage Society, 1985), pp. 228–229.

28. The Works of Rudyard Kipling (Wordsworth Editions, 2001), p. 123.

29. Wayburn, “The Last True Wilderness,” p. 127. Also The Alaskans (New York: Time-Life Books, 1977), p. 180.

30. Borneman, Alaska, pp. 102–153.

31. Morgan B. Sherwood, Exploration of Alaska: 1865–1900 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965), pp. 36–56.

32. Frank Graham Jr., Man’s Dominion: The Story of Conservation in America (New York: M. Evans, 1971), p. 185.

33. Rex Beach, The Winds of Change (New York: Putnam, 1945), p. 121.

34. William R. Hunt, North of 53: The Wild Days of the Alaska-Yukon Mining Frontier, 1870–1914 (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1974), p. xv.

35. Miller and Wayburn, Alaska: The Great Land, p. 113.

36. Paul Brooks, The Pursuit of Wilderness (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), p. 59.

37. Claus-M. Naske and Herman E. Slotnick, Alaska: A History of the 49th State (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994), p. 140.

38. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 154.

39. Frank M. Chapman to Theodore Roosevelt, June 10, 1911, Ornithology Department Archive, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

1. John Burroughs, “Narrative of the Expedition,” in Harriman Alaska Expedition (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1902), Vol. 1, pp. 18–80. Also William H. Dall, Alaska and Its Resources (Boston, MA: Lee and Shepard, 1870).

2. George Bird Grinnell, “What We May Learn from the Indian,” Forest and Stream, Vol. 86 (March 1916), p. 846.

3. Linnie M. Wolfe, John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), p. 400.

4. William H. Goetzmann and Kay Sloan, Looking Far North: The Harriman Expedition, 1899 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 116–128.

5. George Kennan, E. H. Harriman: A Biography (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1922).

6. Claus-M. Naske and Herman E. Slotnick, Alaska: A History of the 49th State (Norman: Oklahoma University Press, 1987), p. 3.

7. “Ex-Gov. John G. Brady Dies,” New York Times, December 19, 1918.

8. Harriman Alaska Expedition (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1902), Vol. 2, p. 138.

9. Stephen Haycox and Alexandra J. McClanahan, Alaska’s Scrapbook: Moments in Alaska History 1816–1998 (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2008), pp. 119–120.

10. Ibid., pp. 29–30.

11. Corinne Roosevelt Robinson, “My Brother, Theodore Roosevelt,” Scribner’s, Vol. 69 (1921), p. 132.

12. Goetzmann and Sloan, Looking Far North, p. 90.

13. Laurie Lawlor, Shadow Catcher: The Life and Work of Edward S. Curtis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005), p. 5.

14. Goetzmann and Sloan, Looking Far North, pp. 181–192.

15. Theodore Roosevelt, “Foreword,” in Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian: Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska (Author, 1907). (Foreword is dated October 1, 1906.)

16. Andromeda Romano-Lax, Chugach National Forest: Legacy of Land, Sea, and Sky (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2007), p. 38.

17. Lawrence Martin, “Glacial Scenery in Alaska,” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Vol. 47, No. 3 (1915), p. 173.

18. Ed Marston, “The Genesis of the West,” High Country News, January 11, 2010.

19. Theodore Roosevelt to Serena E. Pratt, March 3, 1906, L. Dennis Shapiro Private Collection, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.

20. Ken Spotwood, “History of the Arctic Brotherhood,” Klondike Sun (Archive of the Arctic Brotherhood, Seattle, WA).

21. “President Talks to Alaskans,” Seattle Sunday Times, May 24, 1903.

22. Pinchot, quoted in Lawrence W. Rakestraw, A History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska (Anchorage: Cooperative Publication of Alaska Historical Commission, Department of Education, State of Alaska, and Alaska Region USDA Forest Service, 1981–2002). (Electronic version available courtesy of Forest History Society.)

23. T. J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880–1920 (New York: Pantheon, 1981).

24. John Muir, Travels in Alaska (Boston, MA, and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1915), p. 13.

25. Jonathan Raban, Passage to Juneau: A Sea and Its Meaning (New York: Random House, 1999), p. 332.

26. Quoted in “The Conservation of Wild Life,” Outlook, Vol. 109 (January 20, 1915).

27. Naske and Slotnick, Alaska, pp. 101–102.

28. Polly Miller and Leon Miller, Lost Heritage of Alaska: The Adventure and Art of the Alaskan Coastal Indians (New York: Bonanza, 1967), pp. 243–252.

29. David E. Conrad, “Creating the Nation’s Largest Forest Reserve: Roosevelt, Emmons, and the Tongass National Forest,” Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 46, No. 1 (February 1977), pp. 65–83.

30. Barry Lopez, Arctic Dreams: Imagination and Desire in a Northern Landscape (New York: Vintage, 2001), p. 210.

31. George T. Emmons, “The Woodlands of Alaska,” Tongass National Forest Archive, Ketchikan, AK.

32. Conrad, “Creating the Nation’s Largest Forest Reserve.”

33. Ibid.

34. Lawrence W. Rakestraw, A History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1981), Foreword.

35. Walter R. Borneman, Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), pp. 4–15.

36. Romano-Lax, Chugach National Forest, p. 75.

37. John Burroughs, Alaska: The Harriman Expedition, 1899 (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1902), p. 69.

38. Nancy Lord, Rock, Water, Wild: An Alaskan Life (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009), p. 73.

39. Haycox and McClanahan, Alaska’s Scrapbook, pp. 29–30.

40. Kathie Durbin, Tongass: Pulp Politics and the Fight for the Alaska Rain Forest (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1999), p. 12.

41. Borneman, Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land, p. 239.

42. Lynn Readicker-Henderson and Ed Readicker-Henderson, Inside Passage and Coastal Alaska, 4th ed. (Edison, NJ: Hunter, 2002), pp. 55–57.

43. Durbin, Tongass, p. 11.

44. Mike Miller, “Discovery and Development,” in Mike Miller and Peggy Wayburn, Alaska: The Great Land (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1974), p. 17.

45. Amy Gulick, Salmon in the Trees (Seattle, WA: Braided River, 2010), p. 13.

46. Lawrence Rakestraw (ed.), “A Mazama Heads North: Letters of William A. Langille,” Oregon Historical Quarterly (June 1975), p. 1010; W. A. Langille, “Proposed Forest Reserve on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska,” in U.S. Senate, Construction of Railroads in Alaska, hearing before the Committee of Territories on 5.48 and 9.133 (63 Congress 1 session, GPO, 1913), pp. 681–699.

47. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 45.

48. Ira N. Gabrielson and Frederick C. Lincoln, Birds of Alaska (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1959), p. 10.

49. Elaine Rhode, National Wildlife Refuges of Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2003), p. 53.

50. Bruce Woods, Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuges (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic, 2003), p. 70.

51. Theodore Roosevelt, Executive Order No. 1039, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Archive, Anchorage, AK.

52. Timothy Egan, The Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Saved America (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009), p. 78.

53. William H. Dall, “Geographical Notes in Alaska,” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Vol. 28, No. 1 (1896), pp. 1–20.

54. Gabrielson and Lincoln, Birds of Alaska, pp. 14–15.

55. Aldo Leopold, Game Management (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1933), p. 17.

56. Ibid., pp. 17–18.

57. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac (New York: Ballantine, 1970).

1. Theodore Roosevelt, “Introduction,” in Robert E. Peary, The North Pole (New York: Cooper Square, 2001), p. xxxvii.

2. Ibid.

3. Theodore Roosevelt to William Robert Foran (September 12, 1909).

4. Barry Lopez, Arctic Dreams: Imagination and Desire in a Northern Landscape (New York: Vintage, 2001), pp. 377–386.

5. Roosevelt, “Introduction,” The North Pole.

6. Alan Anderson, After the Ice: Life, Death, and Geopolitics in the New Arctic (New York: Smithsonian Books, 2009), p. 12.

7. Charles Emmerson, The Future History of the Arctic (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), p. 982.

8. Robert E. Peary, “Roosevelt—the Friend of Man,” Natural History, Vol. 19, No. 1 (January 1919), p. 11.

9. Bill Streever, Cold: Adventures in the World’s Frozen Places (New York: Little, Brown, 2009), p. 179.

10. Peter Matthiessen, Oomingmak: The Expedition to the Musk Ox Island in the Bering Sea (New York: Hastings House, 1967).

11. Theodore Roosevelt, The Wilderness Hunter (New York: Putnam, 1893), p. 271.

12. Theodore Roosevelt, “Is Polar Exploration Worth While?” Outlook (March 1, 1913).

13. Theodore Roosevelt, A Book-Lover’s Holidays in the Open (New York: Scribner, 1916), pp. 336–337.

14. Hamlin Garland, The Trail of the Goldseekers: A Record of Travel in Prose and Verse (Norwood, MA: Norwood, 1899), p. 1.

15. Timothy Egan, The Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Saved America (New York: Houghton Mifflin-Harcourt, 2009), p. 81.

16. Archie Butt, Taft and Roosevelt (New York: Doubleday Doran, 1930), Vol. 1, pp. 244–257.

17. Roosevelt, quoted in Kathleen Dalton, Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life (Vintage Books, 2004), p. 357.

18. Theodore Roosevelt to Gifford Pinchot, June 17, 1910, quoted in The Selected Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (New York: Cooper Square, 2001), p. 529.

19. Dyan Zaslowsky and T. H. Watkins, These American Lands: Parks, Wilderness, and the Public Lands (Washington, DC: Island, 1994), pp. 287–288.

20. Nathan Miller, Theodore Roosevelt: A Life (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 503.

21. Char Miller, Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism (Washington, DC: Island, 2001), p. 231.

22. Theodore Roosevelt to Gifford Pinchot, March 1, 1910, ibid., p. 231.

23. Edward J. Renehan Jr., The Lion’s Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 105–106.

24. Dalton, Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life, p. 358.

25. Douglas Brinkley, The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).

26. Elizabeth A. Tower, Icebound Empire: Industry and Politics on the Last Frontier, 1898–1938 (Anchorage, AK: Publication Consultants, 1996).

27. Egan, The Big Burn, p. 79.

28. Patricia O’Toole, When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt After the White House (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006), pp. 82–83.

29. Gifford Pinchot to R. E. Prouty, February 14, 1930, in Martin Nelson McGeary, Gifford Pinchot: Forester-Politician (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960), p. 116.

30. Katherine Hocker, Alaska’s Glaciers: Frozen in Motion (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2006), p. 11.

31. Egan, The Big Burn, p. 79.

32. Lawrence W. Rakestraw, A History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1981), chap. 3, “The Chugach National Forest Through 1910.”

33. Edmund Morris, Colonel Roosevelt (New York: Random House, 2010), p. 44.

34. Henry Pringle, The Life and Times of William Howard Taft (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1939), p. 480.

35. Egan, The Big Burn, p. 81.

36. Richard Ballinger to William Hutchinson Cowles, December 9, 1909, Richard Ballinger Papers (microfilm), University of Washington, Seattle.

37. Charles Richard Van Hise, The Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1910), p. 12.

38. Tower, Icebound Empire, p. xi.

39. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 45.

40. McGeary, Gifford Pinchot, p. 134.

41. James Wickersham, Old Yukon: Tales, Trails, and Trials (Washington, DC: Law Book, 1938).

42. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy, p. 45.

43. McGeary, Gifford Pinchot, p. 133.

44. Stephen Haycox and Alexandra McClanahan, Alaska Scrapbook: Moments in Alaska History: 1816–1998 (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2008), pp. 43–44.

45. Tower, Icebound Empire, p. 153.

46. Miller, Theodore Roosevelt, p. 503.

47. McGeary, Gifford Pinchot, p. 130.

48. Egan, The Big Burn, p. 86.

49. Major-General A. W. Greely, Handbook of Alaska: Its Resources, Products, and Attractions (New York: Scribner, 1909), pp. 54–55.

50. Egan, The Big Burn, p. 86.

51. Ibid., p. 98.

52. “Are the Guggenheims in Charge of the Department of Interior?” Collier’s (November 13, 1909).

53. George Edwin Mowry, Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1938), p. 86.

54. Gifford Pinchot, Breaking New Ground (Washington, DC: Island, 1998), pp. 498–500.

55. Rakestraw, A History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska, chap. 4.

56. Theodore Roosevelt to Gifford Pinchot, March 1, 1910, in Martin L. Fausold, Gifford Pinchot, Bull Moose Progressive (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1961), p. 36.

57. Theodore Roosevelt to Henry Cabot Lodge, March 4, 1910, in Miller, Gifford Pinchot, p. 176.

58. Elting E. Morison (ed.), The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954), p. 52.

59. Dalton, Theodore Roosevelt, p. 357.

60. McGeary, Gifford Pinchot, p. 176.

61. O’Toole, When Trumpets Call, p. 84.

62. Gifford Pinchot Diary, April 11, 1910, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

63. Pinchot, Breaking New Ground, p. 502.

64. Gifford Pinchot, The Fight for Conservation (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1910), p. 6.

65. Miller, Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism, pp. 228–230.

66. Pinchot, The Fight for Conservation, first page of Introduction.

67. Ibid., p. 146.

68. Dalton, Theodore Roosevelt, p. 360.

69. Miller, Theodore Roosevelt, p. 508.

70. Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time: Shown in His Own Letters (New York: Scribner, 1920), p. 122.

71. Theodore Roosevelt to David Grey, October 5, 1911, in Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 407.

72. Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Recreation (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1920), p. 32.

73. Jerome Jackson, William Davis Jr., and John Tautin (eds.), Bird Banding in North America: The First Hundred Years (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), p. 3.

74. “History of Bird Banding,” Auk, Vol. 38, No. 1 (January 1921), p. 220.

75. Curt Meine, Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988), p. 148. Also H. W. Henshaw, Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1910), p. 11.

76. John F. Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation, 3rd, rev. expanded ed. (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2001), pp. 186–187.

77. Ibid.

78. Rakestraw, A History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska, chap. 4.

79. Samuel Trask Dana, Forest and Range Policy: Its Development in the United States (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956), pp. 178–197; E. A. Sherman, “The Supreme Court of the United States and Conservation Policies,” Journal of Forestry (December 1921), pp. 928–930.

80. Hamlin Garland, Cavanaugh, Forest Ranger: A Romance of the Mountain West (New York: Harper, 1910), p. 29.

81. Keith Newlin and Joseph B. McCullough (eds.), Selected Letters of Hamlin Garland (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998), p. xvi.

82. Gifford Pinchot to Hamlin Garland, March 14, 1910, Pinchot Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

83. Susan Kollin, Nature’s State: Imagining Alaska as the Last Frontier (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), pp. 62–63.

84. John Helper, “Michigan’s Forgotten Son: James Oliver Curwood,” Midwestern Miscellany, Vol. 7 (1979).

85. James Oliver Curwood, The Alaskan (Allison Park, PA: ARose, 2008), pp. 5–14.

86. Ibid., pp. 13–44. Also see G. Edward White, The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience: The West of Frederic Remington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Owen Wister (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968).

87. James Wilson, letter to Gifford Pinchot, February 1, 1905, Pinchot Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

88. Gifford Pinchot, testimony before the U.S. House Committee on the Public Lands, House of Representatives, 63rd Congress, 1913.

89. Robert W. Righter, The Battle over Hetch Hetchy: America’s Most Controversial Dam and the Birth of Modern Environmentalism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005), pp. 1–28.

90. Quoted in Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1967), p. 168.

91. John Muir, The Yosemite (New York: Century, 1912), p. 262.

1. “Roosevelt Puts in a Strenuous Day,” New York Times, June 23, 1910.

2. “Jungle Barks at Camp Fire Dinner,” New York Times, January 10, 1914.

3. “Camp Fire Dinner for Buffalo Jones,” New York Times, December 5, 1909.

4. Aldo Leopold, Game Management (New York: Scribner, 1933), p. 18.

5. “Roosevelt Puts in a Strenuous Day.”

6. “Pinchot to Inspect Adirondack Forests,” New York Times, July 21, 1911.

7. Briton Cooper Busch, The War Against the Seals: A History of the North American Seal Fishery (Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987), p. 96.

8. Ibid.

9. Gary Murphy, “ ‘Mr. Roosevelt Is Guilty’: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for Constitutionalism, 1910–1912,” Journal of American Studies, Vol. 36, No. 3 (December 2002), Part 1: “Looking Backward, Looking Forward: From the Gilded Age to the 1930s,” p. 444.

10. Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia (New York: Roosevelt Memorial Association, 1941), p. 102.

11. David C. Scott and Brendan Murphy, The Scouting Party: Pioneering and Preservation, Progressivism and Preparedness in the Making of the Boy Scouts of America (Dallas, TX: Penland, 2010), p. 7.

12. Quoted in Paul Russell Cutright, Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Conservationist (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985), p. 238.

13. Kathleen Dalton, Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life (New York: Random House, 2002), p. 352.

14. Theodore Roosevelt, “Foreword,” in African Game Trails (New York: Scribner, 1910).

15. Neil Edward Stubbs, “Theodore Roosevelt and Ernest Hemingway,” Theodore Roosevelt Association Journal, Vol. 25, No. 2 (2002), pp. 9–14.

16. Sean Hemingway, “Introduction,” in Hemingway on Hunting (Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot, 2001), pp. xxv–xxvi.

17. “Millions in the Toy Trade,” New York Evening Post, December 19, 1909, p. M2.

18. Dalton, Theodore Roosevelt, p. 356.

19. Ibid., pp. 352–358.

20. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 143.

21. Dan Beard, “The Boy Scouts,” Outlook (July 23, 1916), p. 696.

22. Theodore Roosevelt to James Edward West, February 10, 1911, in Elting Elmore Morison (ed.), The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, The Days of Armageddon, 1909–1914 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954), p. 306.

23. “Boy Scout Leaders Dine Baden-Powell,” New York Times, September 24, 1910, p. 8.

24. David C. Scott to Douglas Brinkley, February 18, 2010.

25. Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, p. 148.

26. “Use Golden Rule in Play: Roosevelt to Boy Scouts,” Washington Post, August 8, 1911, p. 5.

27. Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 95.

28. Theodore Roosevelt to Gifford Pinchot, June 28, 1910.

29. Adolphus Washington Greely, Handbook of Alaska: Its Resources, Products, and Attractions (New York: Scribner, 1909), p. 62.

30. Philadelphia Inquirer, April 17, 1867.

31. John Muir, Our National Parks (Boston, MA, and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1901), p. 11.

32. John Muir, quoted in Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997), p. 48.

33. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 28.

34. Theodore Roosevelt to Theodore Roosevelt Jr., August 23, 1910.

35. Paul Brooks, The Pursuit of Wilderness (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), p. 60.

36. Theodore Roosevelt to Theodore Roosevelt Jr., September 21, 1910.

37. Theodore Roosevelt to Willis Stanley Blatchley, December 9, 1910.

38. Char Miller, Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism (Washington, DC: Island, 2001), p. 357.

39. Theodore Roosevelt to Abraham Walter Lafferty, December 20, 1910.

40. David Harmon, Francis P. McManamon, and Dwight T. Pitcaithley (eds.), The Antiquities Act: A Century of American Archaeology, Historic Preservation, and Nature Conservation (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2006), p. 289.

41. “Sitka National Historical Park” (Sitka, AK: National Park Service Archive).

42. Theodore Roosevelt to Edmund Heller, February 10, 1911, in Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 230.

43. William J. Long, “The Bull Moose,” Independent, July 11, 1912, pp. 85–87.

44. Bruce Woods, Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuges (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 2003), p. 16.

45. William T. Hornaday, Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Practice: Lectures Delivered Before the Forest School of Yale University (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1914), p. 89.

46. Walter B. Borneman, Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), p. 241.

47. Miller, Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism, p. 206.

48. Martin Nelson McGeary, Gifford Pinchot: Forester-Politician (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960), p. 208.

49. Ernest Gruening, The State of Alaska: A Definitive History of America’s Northernmost Frontier (New York: Random House, 1954), pp. 130–135.

50. Gifford Pinchot to W. H. Downing, August 6, 1931, in McGeary, Gifford Pinchot, p. 449.

51. Cleveland Press, October 25, 1911, ibid., p. 209.

52. Theodore Roosevelt to Henry Fairfield Osborn, May 8, 1911, in Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 264.

53. Theodore Roosevelt to William Kent, September 19, 1911, ibid., p. 343.

54. “The Roosevelt Letters,” in Charles James Longman (ed.), The Days of My Life: An Autobiography by Sir. H. Rider Haggard (London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1926), p. 182.

55. Theodore Roosevelt to Henry Rider Haggard, August 22, 1911, in Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 329.

56. Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of the Upper Yukon: A Hunter’s Explorations for Wild Sheep in the Sub-Arctic Mountains (New York: Scribner, 1911).

57. Theodore Roosevelt to Anna Roosevelt Cowles, January 27, 1916, in Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 43.

58. Francis Hobart Herrick, Audubon the Naturalist: A History of His Life and Time (New York: D. Appleton, 1917).

59. Theodore Roosevelt to Francis Hobart Herrick, January 15, 1912, in Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. VII, p. 478.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid.

62. Robert Griggs, “After the Eruption of Katmai, Alaska: The Story of the Effect on Cultivated and Native Vegetation,” Natural History, Vol. 20 (1920), p. 390.

63. Robert F. Griggs, “The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes: National Geographic Society Explorations in the Katmai District of Alaska,” National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 31 (January–June 1917), p. 64.

64. Katmai National Park and Preserve, “History” (Katmai, AK: National Park Service Archive).

65. George Wuerthner, Beautiful America’s Alaska (Portland, OR: Beautiful America, 1995), p. 66.

66. R. Craig Sautter and Edward M. Burke, Inside the Wigwam: Chicago Presidential Conventions, 1860–1996 (Chicago, IL: Wild Onion, 1996), p. 121.

67. Kent Garber, “Teddy Roosevelt, on the Bull Moose Party Ticket, Battles Incumbent William Howard Taft,” U.S. News and World Report, January 17, 2008.

68. Quoted in Cutright, Theodore Roosevelt, p. 238.

69. Quoted in Sidney M. Milkis, Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009), p. 164.

70. Richard Cooley, Politics and Conservation: The Decline of the Alaska Salmon (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), pp. 96–98.

71. Edmund Morris, Colonel Roosevelt (New York: Random House, 2010), p. 234.

72. Daniel Ruddy, Theodore Roosevelt’s History of the United States: In His Own Words (New York: HarperCollins, 2010), p. xv.

73. Milkis, Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy, p. 215.

74. Theodore Roosevelt, The Works of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. XIX (New York: Scribner, 1926), p. 42.

75. T. H. Watkins, Righteous Pilgrim: The Life and Times of Harold L. Ickes, 1874–1952 (New York: Holt, 1990), pp. 9–62.

76. NBC News Address, March 3, 1934, Speeches and Writings, Container 272, Secretary of the Interior File, Harold L. Ickes Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

77. Watkins, Righteous Pilgrim, p. 135.

78. Theodore Roosevelt to Kermit Roosevelt, September 27, 1912, Theodore Roosevelt Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

79. Patricia O’Toole, When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt After the White House (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) p. 218; H. W. Brands, T.R.: The Last Romance (New York: Basic Books, 1997), p. 721.

80. Gifford Pinchot to Theodore Roosevelt, October 25, 1912, McGeary, Gifford Pinchot, p. 231.

81. Theodore Roosevelt to Gifford Pinchot, October 29, 1912, ibid.

82. James Chace, 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs—The Election That Changed the Country (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. 237.

83. Harold L. Ickes, Autobiography of a Curmudgeon (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1943), p. 164.

84. Theodore Roosevelt to Kermit Roosevelt, November 5, 1912, Theodore Roosevelt Papers, Box 3, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

1. Kris Capps, A Wildlife Guide: Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska (Santa Barbara, CA: ARA Leisure Services, 1994), p. 6.

2. Tom Walker, McKinley Station: The People of the Pioneer Park That Became Denali (Missoula, MT: Pictoral Histories, 2009), p. ix.

3. Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of the North Pacific Coast Islands: A Hunter’s Experiences While Searching for Wapiti, Bears, and Caribou on the Larger Coast Islands of British Columbia and Alaska (New York: Scribner, 1912), p. 3.

4. R. O. Polziehn, J. Hamr, F. F. Mallory, and C. Strobeck, “Phylogenetic Status of North American Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) Subspecies,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 76 (1998), pp. 998–1010.

5. Maria Pasitschniak-Arts, “Ursus arctos,” Mammalian Species Report, American Society of Mammalogists (April 23, 1993).

6. Thomas McNamee, The Grizzly Bear (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984), p. 248.

7. Sheldon, The Wilderness of the North Pacific Coast Islands, p. 178.

8. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 4th ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 285.

9. Neil B. Carmony and David E. Brown (eds.), The Wilderness of the Southwest: Charles Sheldon’s Quest for Desert Bighorn Sheep and Adventures with the Havasupai and Seri Indians (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1979), pp. xiv–xv.

10. Ibid., p. xxiii.

11. Ibid., p. 204.

12. Theodore Roosevelt, “The American Hunter-Naturalist,” Outlook (December 9, 1911), pp. 854–856.

13. Douglas Brinkley, The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America (New York: HarperCollins, 2009), pp. 585–630.

14. James B. Trefethen, An American Crusade for Wildlife (New York: Winchester, 1975), p. 192.

15. Theodore Roosevelt to Charles Sheldon, March 13, 1917, Charles Sheldon Papers, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.

16. Theodore Roosevelt to Charles Sheldon, May 5, 1910, Box 3, Folder 10, Roosevelt Correspondence, 1910–1917, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.

17. Jenks Cameron, The Bureau of Biological Survey (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1929), p. 121.

18. Catherine Cassidy and Gary Titus, Alaska’s No. 1 Guide: The History and Journals of Andrew Berg 1869–1939 (Soldotna, AK: Spruce Tree, 2003), p. 314.

19. Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of the Upper Yukon: A Hunter’s Explorations for Wild Sheep in Sub-Arctic Mountains (New York: Scribner, 1911), p. 4.

20. James Gore King, Attending Alaska’s Birds: A Wildlife Pilot’s Story (Victoria, BC: Trafford, 2008), p. 166.

21. Margaret E. Murie, Two in the Far North (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1962), p. 274.

22. D. S. Hik, S. J. Hannon, and K. Martin, “Northern Harrier Predation on Willow Ptarmigan,” Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 98, No. 4 (1986), pp. 597–600.

23. William O. Douglas, My Wilderness: The Pacific West (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1960), pp. 11–12.

24. Sheldon, The Wilderness of the North Pacific Coast Islands, p. 104.

25. Charles Sheldon, “List of Birds Observed in the Upper Toklat River Near Mount McKinley, Alaska, 1907–1908,” Auk, Vol. 26, No. 1 (January 1909).

26. Ira N. Gabrielson and Frederick L. Lincoln, Birds of Alaska (Harrisburg, PA: Stockpole, 1959), p. 114.

27. Tom Murphy, The Comfort of Autumn: The Seasons of Yellowstone (Livingston, MT: Crystal Creek, 2005), p. 100.

28. Sheldon, The Wilderness of the North Pacific Coast Islands, p. 294.

29. Hudson Stuck, Ten Thousand Miles with a Dog Sled (New York: Scribner, 1914).

30. Bill Sherwonit, Andromeda Romano-Lax, and Ellen Bielawski, Travelers’ Tales Alaska (San Francisco, CA: Traveler’s Tales, 2003), p. 14.

31. Hudson Stuck, The Ascent of Denali (New York: Scribner, 1918), p. xi.

32. C. Hart Merriam, “Introduction,” in Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of Denali: Explorations of a Hunter-Naturalist in Northern Alaska (New York: Scribner, 1930).

33. C. Hart Merriam, “Preliminary Synopsis of the American Bears,” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. 10 (1896), pp. 65–83. For more of Merriam’s work on bears, see C. Hart Merriam, The Mammals of the Adirondack Region, Northeastern New York (New York: Henry Holt, 1886).

34. Sheldon, The Wilderness of the North Pacific Coast Islands, p. 48.

35. E. R. Hall, The Mammals of North America, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1981).

36. Charles Sheldon to Dr. C. Hart Merriam, February 20, 1911, Boone and Crockett Club Archives, Missoula, MT.

37. Theodore Roosevelt to Charles Sheldon, January 29, 1917, Sheldon Papers, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.

38. Charles Sheldon, Alaska Diary, March 27–29, 1908, in The Wilderness of Denali (New York: Scribner, 1960).

39. Henry P. “Harry” Karstens, Diary, January 12, 1908, Karstens Papers, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.

40. Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, p. 286.

41. Sheldon, The Wilderness of Denali, p. 405.

42. Ibid., pp. 15–16.

43. James B. Trefethen, Crusade for Wildlife (New York: Stackpole, 1961), p. 179; John Isle, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961), p. 226.

44. Capps, A Wildlife Guide, p. 8.

45. Harry Ritter, Alaska’s History: The People, Land, and Events of the North Country (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1993), pp. 74–75.

46. Madison Grant, “Establishment of Mount McKinley National Park,” in William G. Sheldon (ed.), “A History of the Boone and Crockett Club” (unpublished).

47. Quoted in Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 33.

48. Richard Slotkin, The Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier, 1776–1890 (New York: Atheneum, 1985), p. 20.

49. Sheldon, The Wilderness of the North Pacific Coast Islands, pp. 217–218.

50. Belmore Browne, The Conquest of Mount McKinley (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1956).

51. Charles Sheldon to E. W. Nelson, October 10, 1915, Boone and Crockett Club Archives, Missoula, MT.

52. Reports of the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1918, Vol. 1 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1919).

53. Frank Norris, Crown Jewel of the North: An Administrative History of Denali National Park and Preserve (Anchorage: Alaska Regional Office–National Park Service), p. 37.

54. Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, p. 286.

55. Norris, Crown Jewel of the North, pp. 37–39.

56. Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade, 2010), pp. 104–105.

57. Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, p. 154.

58. Stewart Edward White, The Forest (New York: Phillips, 1903), p. 5.

59. “Park for Camp Fire Club,” New York Times, July 22, 1917.

60. Author interview with Leonard Vallender, July 5, 2010.

61. Linnie Marsh Wolfe (ed.), John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), p. 399.

62. T. S. Palmer to Frederick K. Vreeland, March 21, 1912; Vreeland to Palmer, March 22, 1912, Frederick Vreeland Papers, Box 5, General Correspondence, 1902–1931, Entry 138, Record Group 22, Native Archives, Washington, DC.

63. Frederick K. Vreeland, testimony before the Subcommittee on Public Lands of the Committee on Public Lands for the establishment of Mount McKinley National Park, House of Representatives, Washington, DC, May 4, 1916.

64. Wilfred Osgood, A Biological Reconnaissance of the Base of the Alaska Peninsula, North America Fauna, No. 24 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1904), pp. 25–26.

65. “Visit Alaska: Interest of Outdoor Life,” Anchorage, August 1, 1912.

66. Frederick K. Vreeland to Dr. C. Hart Merriam, November 17, 1921, C. Hart Merriam Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

1. William T. Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life: Its Extermination and Preservation (New York: New York Zoological Society, 1913), p. 15. (Reprint, New York: Arno, 1970.)

2. V. B. Scheffer, “The Weight of the Steller Sea Cows,” Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 53, No. 4 (1972), pp. 912–914.

3. William G. Sheldon, “A History of the Boone and Crockett Club: Milestones in Wildlife Conservation,” Boone and Crockett Club Archives, Missoula, MT.

4. Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life, pp. ix–x.

5. Quinn Hornaday and Aline G. Hornaday (eds), The Hornadays, Root and Branch (Los Angeles, CA: Stockton Trade, 1979), pp. 77–89.

6. Stephen Fox, The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), pp. 157–158.

7. Hornaday and Hornaday, The Hornadays, Root and Branch, p. 86.

8. Frank Graham, Man’s Dominion: The Story of Conservation in America (New York: M. Evans; distributed in association with Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1971), p. 188.

9. “No More Slaughtering of Seals for Five Years,” New York Times, September 1, 1912.

10. Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life, p. 156.

11. Ibid., p. x.

12. Theodore Roosevelt, “Our Vanishing Wild Life,” Outlook (January 25, 1913).

13. Fran Mauer to Douglas Brinkley, September 27, 2010.

14. Roosevelt, “Our Vanishing Wild Life.” Also Arthur K. Willyoung, “Roosevelt the Great Outdoor Man,” Outing, Vol. 74, No. 5 (August, 1919). For the history of the American Game Protection Association, see Fox, The American Conservation Movement, pp. 151–157.

15. Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life, p. 269.

16. Nathan Miller, Theodore Roosevelt: A Life (New York: Morrow, 1992), p. 532.

17. Theodore Roosevelt, “The Conservation of Womanhood and Childhood,” Outlook (December 23, 1911), p. 13.

18. Madison Grant to Dr. E. Lester Jones, January 11, 1915, Boone and Crockett Club Archive, Missoula, MT.

19. Roosevelt, “Our Vanishing Wild Life,” p. 161.

20. Jennifer Price, “Hats Off to Audubon,” Audubon (November–December 2004), p. 50.

21. Roosevelt, “Our Vanishing Wild Life,” p. 161.

22. Ira N. Gabrielson, Wildlife Refuges (New York: Macmillan, 1943), p. 56.

23. Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life, p. 150.

24. Ibid., p. 63.

25. David R. Klein and Robert G. White, “Parameters of Caribou Population Ecology in Alaska,” Biological Papers of the University of Alaska, No. 3 (Fairbanks: University of Alaska, 1978).

26. Ibid., pp. 330–345.

27. Gabrielson, Wildlife Refuges, p. 67.

28. Hornaday, Our Vanishing Wild Life, p. 64.

29. Ibid., pp. 178–179.

30. Ibid., p. 269.

31. Curt Meine, Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988), p. 287.

32. Charles Sheldon to George Bird Grinnell, December 23, 1918, Boone and Crockett Club Archives, Missoula, MT.

33. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 43.

34. William N. Wilson, Railroad in the Clouds: The Alaskan Railroad in the Age of Steam, 1914–1945 (Boulder, CO: Pruett, 1977), pp. 7–11.

1. Curt Meine, Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988), p. 128.

2. Aldo Leopold, Game Management (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986), p. 19.

3. Neil B. Carmony and David E. Brown (eds.), The Wilderness of the Southwest: Charles Sheldon’s Quest for Desert Bighorn Sheep and Adventures with the Havasupai and Seri Indians (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1979), p. 12.

4. “Roosevelt to Cross Grand Canyon,” New York Times, July 15, 1913, p. 2.

5. Theodore Roosevelt, A Book-Lover’s Holidays in the Open (New York: Scribner, 1916), p. 7.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., pp. 1–10.

8. Lawrence W. Rakestraw, A History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1981), chap. 4.

9. Meine, Aldo Leopold, pp. 148–149.

10. Ibid.

11. The inscribed book is at the Leopold Library, University of California, Berkeley.

12. John Muir, The Yosemite (New York: Century, 1912), p. 257.

13. Robert W. Righter, The Battle over Hetch Hetchy: America’s Most Controversial Dam and the Birth of Modern Environmentalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 133.

14. John Muir, John Muir: The Eight Wilderness Discovery Books (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 1992), p. 714.

15. John Muir, Steep Trails (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974), p. 74.

16. Donald Worster, A Passion for Nature: The Life of John Muir (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 464.

17. Theodore Roosevelt, “John Muir: An Appreciation,” Outlook (January 6, 1915), p. 27.

18. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 4th ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 358.

19. John Muir, Travels in Alaska (New York: Modern Library, 2002), p. 4.

20. Ibid., p. 13.

21. Ibid., p. 193.

22. Samuel Hall Young, Alaska Days with John Muir (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell, 1915), pp. 224–226.

23. Meine, Aldo Leopold, pp. 147–156.

24. Theodore Roosevelt to Aldo Leopold, June 18, 1917, Leopold Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

25. Gene Fowler, William “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s obituary, Post (January 1917).

26. Roosevelt, Book-Lover’s Holidays in the Open, p. vii.

27. Bruce Woods, Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuges (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 2003), p. 13.

28. Quoted in Paul S. Sutter, Driven Wild: How the Fight Against Automobiles Launched the Modern Environmental Movement (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), p. 43.

29. Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997), pp. 208–209.

30. Dian Olson Belanger and Adrian Kinnane, Managing American Wildlife (Rockville, MD: Montrose, 2002).

31. Frank Graham Jr., Man’s Dominion: The Story of Conservation in America (New York: M. Evans, 1971), p. 201; James B. Trefethen, An American Crusade for Wildlife (New York: Winchester and Boone and Crockett Club, 1975), pp. 206–208.

32. Tanana Valley Association History (Fairbanks, AK: Tanana Valley Association Archive, April 23, 2009).

33. Theodore Roosevelt, “Is Polar Exploration Worth While?” Outlook (March 1, 1913).

34. Elaine Rhode, National Wildlife Refuges of Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2003), pp. 10–12.

35. Roosevelt, “Is Polar Exploration Worth While?”

36. Madison Grant, “The Conditions of Wildlife in Alaska,” in George Bird Grinnell (ed.), Hunting at High Altitudes (New York: Harper, 1913), p. 375.

37. Robert A. Jones, “Alaska Parks: Battle Lines Form Around Last Frontier,” Los Angeles Times, September 5, 1977, p. 5.

38. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac (New York: Ballantine, 1970), p. 278.

39. Grant, “The Conditions of Wildlife in Alaska,” p. 375.

40. John Muir, The Writings of John Muir: The Cruise of the Corwin (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1917), p. 258.

41. John Branson, historian of Lake Clark–Iliamna National Park, is writing a biography of John W. Clark. He greatly helped me understand the history of this beautiful part of Alaska.

42. John B. Branson, The Canneries, Cabins, and Caches of Bristol Bay, Alaska (Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, 2007), pp. 1–10.

43. Brian Fagan, “Where We Found a Whale”: A History of Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 2008), pp. 118–122.

44. Frederick K. Vreeland to E. A. Preble, November 29, 1921, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Record Unit 7176, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

45. John Branson (ed.), Lake Clark–Iliamna, Alaska 1921: Travel Diary of Colonel A. J. Macnab (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 1996). (Booklet reprint.)

46. Ibid., p. 8.

47. Ibid., p. 27.

48. Colonel A. J. Macnab Diaries, August 18 and August 20, quoted in Branson, Lake Clark–Iliamna, Alaska 1921.

49. Branson, Lake Clark–Iliamna, Alaska 1921, p. 29. Special thanks to Branson for helping me get the expedition straight.

1. Rockwell Kent, Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska (New York: Putnam-Knickerbocker, 1920), p. 191.

2. Ibid., p. 6.

3. Barry Lopez, Arctic Dreams (New York: Vintage, 2001), pp. 390–391.

4. Kent, Wilderness, p. 24.

5. Rockwell Kent, Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1996), p. xxxii. (From Los Angeles, CA: Wilderness, 1970.) Henceforth cited as Wesleyan University Press edition.

6. Kesler E. Woodward (ed.), Painting in the North: Alaskan Art in the Anchorage Museum of History and Art (Anchorage, AK: Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1993). (From a plaque describing Sydney M. Laurence’s Mount McKinley, oil on canvas, 1929.)

7. Linda Cook and Frank Norris, A Stern and Rock-Bound Coast (Anchorage, AK: National Park Service, Kenai Fjords National Park 1998); Doug Capra, letter to Douglas Brinkley, May 29, 2010.

8. Grace Glueck, “Celebrating an Artist’s Spiritual Searches and Realist Findings,” New York Times, August 26, 2005.

9. Judith H. Dabrzynski, “Adirondack Vistas in the Artist’s Eye and the Visitor’s,” New York Times, July 23, 1999.

10. Rockwell Kent, It’s Me, O Lord: The Autobiography of Rockwell Kent (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1955), p. 204.

11. Constance Martin, Distant Shores: The Odyssey of Rockwell Kent (Chesterfield, MA: Chameleon, 2000), p. 23.

12. Rockwell Kent, N by E (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1966), p. xvi.

13. Kent, It’s Me, O Lord, p. 121.

14. Edward Hoagland, “Foreword,” in Kent, N by E, pp. xvi–xvii.

15. “Rockwell Kent’s Artistic Discovery of Alaska,” Current Opinion, Vol. 67 (1919), p. 52.

16. Kent, It’s Me, O Lord, p. 328.

17. Kent, Wilderness, p. 27.

18. Barry Lopez, Winter Count (New York: Vintage, 1999), p. 94.

19. “Historic Harrington Cabin” (Homer, AK: Homer Foundation, Pratt Museum, 2001). (Brochure.)

20. Kent, Wilderness, p. xi.

21. Bill Streever, Cold: Adventures in the World’s Frozen Places (New York: Little, Brown, 2009).

22. Martin, Distant Shores, p. 26.

23. Kent, Wilderness (Wesleyan University Press edition), p. xx.

24. Rockwell Kent to Christian Brinton, winter 1919, Rockwell Kent Papers, Smithsonian Archives of American Art.

25. Kent, Wilderness, p. 161.

26. Jenks Cameron, The Bureau of Biological Survey (New York: Arno, 1974), pp. 124–127.

27. Doug Capra, “Introduction,” in Kent, Wilderness, p. xi. (Wesleyan University Press edition.)

28. Martha Gruening, “The Freedom of Wilderness,” Freeman (April 28, 1920), pp. 165–166.

29. Kent, Wilderness, p. 217.

30. Grace Glueck, “Cast into the Wilderness by Choice, He Found a Friend in the Landscape,” New York Times, August 18, 2000.

31. Hoagland, “Foreword,” in Kent, N by E, p. viii.

32. Garnett McCoy, “The Rockwell Kent Papers,” Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1 (January 1972), p. 6.

33. Scott R. Ferris, “Introduction,” in Rockwell Kent, Salamina (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2003), p. xxi.

34. Kent, It’s Me, O Lord, p. 328.

35. Gail Levin, Twentieth-Century American Painting: The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection (New York: Sotheby’s, 1987), p. 60.

36. Gary Snyder, “Raven’s Beak River at the End,” in Mountains and Rivers Without End (New York: Counterpoint, 1997), p. 65.

1. Nathan Miller, Theodore Roosevelt: A Life (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), p. 560.

2. Theodore Roosevelt, speech to Colorado Livestock Association, Denver, August 29, 1910.

3. Edmund Morris, Colonel Roosevelt (New York: Random House, 2010), p. 576.

4. Patricia O’Toole, When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt After the White House (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005), p. 401.

5. “Stop City Work in Colonel’s Honor,” New York Times, January 9, 1919, p. 4.

6. Aïda DiPace Donald, Lion in the White House: A Life of Theodore Roosevelt (New York: Basic Books, 2007), p. 265.

7. Edward Wagen Knecht, The Seven Worlds of Theodore Roosevelt (New York: Longmans, 1958), p. 20.

8. Morris, Colonel Roosevelt, p. 577.

9. Frederick S. Wood (ed.), Roosevelt as We Knew Him (Philadelphia, PA: Winston, 1927), p. 380.

10. “Wants Roosevelt Spirit Perpetuated,” New York Times, February 19, 1919.

11. Hamlin Garland Diary, January 6, 1919, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

12. Natural History: The Journal of the American Museum, Vol. 19 (January 1919).

13. Michael J. Robinson, Predatory Bureaucracy: The Exterminators of Wolves and the Transformation of the West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005), p. 180.

14. “Want Park to Bear Name of Roosevelt,” New York Times, January 14, 1919, p. 6.

15. Douglas Brinkley, The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).

16. Gifford Pinchot, “Overturning Roosevelt’s Work,” Christian Science Monitor, February 24, 1919, p. 3.

17. John B. Branson, The Canneries, Cabins, and Caches of Bristol Bay, Alaska (Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, 2007), p. vi.

18. John Morton Blum, The Republican Roosevelt (New York: Atheneum, 1962), p. 146.

19. David Brower, “Foreword,” in David Brower (ed.), Wilderness: America’s Living Heritage (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1961), p. viii.

20. John Burroughs Journal, July 9, 1919, Berg Collection, New York Public Library.

21. Richard Lour, Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 2005), pp. 1–11.

22. John Burroughs, The Writings of John Burroughs (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1917), p. 16.

23. Edward Renehan, John Burroughs: An American Naturalist (Hensonville, NY: Black Dome, 1998), p. 313.

24. Jenks Cameron, The Bureau of Biological Survey (New York: Arno, 1974), pp. 118–119.

25. Carolyn Sheldon, “Vermont Jumping Mice of the Genus Zapus,” Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 19, No. 3 (August 1938), pp. 324–332.

26. Neil B. Carmony and David E. Brown (eds.), The Wilderness of the Southwest: Charles Sheldon’s Quest for Desert Bighorn Sheep and Adventures with the Havasupai and Seri Indians (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1979), pp. xli–xlii.

27. William Sheldon, The Book of the American Woodcock (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1971).

28. Carmony and Brown, The Wilderness of the Southwest, pp. xl–xlii.

29. Charles Sheldon to George Bird Grinnell, February 28, 1920, Boone and Crockett Club Archives, University of Montana, Missoula.

30. Ben Casselman and Guy Chazan, “Disaster Plan Lacking at Deep Rigs,” Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2010, p. 1.

31. Joan M. Antonson and William S. Hanable, Alaska’s Heritage, Unit 4, Human History: 1867–Present (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Center, 1985), pp. 422–423.

32. Irvin Palmer Jr., “The History of Alaska Oil,” Alaska Business Monthly, March 3, 2007.

33. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac (New York: Ballantine, 1970), p. 244.

34. Susan L. Flader and J. Baird Callicott, The River of the Mother of God and Other Essays by Aldo Leopold (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), p. 52.

35. Ernest Walker, “Circular Letter to Fur Wardens,” April 1921, General Correspondence, Bureau of Biological Survey, Record Group 22, National Archives, Washington, DC.

36. Aldo Leopold, “Threatened Species,” American Forests, Vol. 42, No. 3 (March 1936), pp. 116–119.

37. Stephen Fox, The American Conservation Movement (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 244–250.

38. Leopold, “Threatened Species.”

39. Morgan Sherwood, Big Game in Alaska: A History of Wildlife and People (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981), p. 8.

40. Frank Dufresne, Alaska’s Animals and Fishes (Portland, OR: Metropolitan, 1946); Frank Dufresne, My Way Was North: An Alaskan Autobiography (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966); Frank Dufresne, No Room for Bears (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965).

41. Frank Dufresne, “Alaska General Correspondence,” in Alaska Reports, January 1924, General Bureau of the Biological Survey, Record Group 22, National Archives, Washington, DC.

42. Quoted in Sherwood, Big Game in Alaska, p. 55.

43. Dufresne, Alaska’s Animals and Fishes, pp. 296–297.

1. James Garfield Diary, October 4, 1909, James R. Garfield Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

2. Warren G. Harding, Executive Order 3421, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.

3. Hasia Diner, “Teapot Dome, 1924,” in Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. and Robert Burns (eds.), Congress Investigates: A Documented History, 1792–1974 (New York: Chelsea House, 1975).

4. Thomas Fleming, “History’s Revenge,” New York Times, February 23, 1998.

5. Warren Harding, Executive Order No. 3797-A, February 27, 1923. Also David L. Spencer, Claus-M. Naske, and John Carnahan, National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska: A Historical Perspective (Anchorage, AK: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979), p. 102.

6. Morgan Sherwood, Big Game in Alaska: A History of Wildlife and People (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981), p. 73. See also Stephen Haycox and Alexandra J. McClanahan, Alaska Scrapbook (Anchorage, AK: CIRI Foundation, 2007), p. 95.

7. Stephen Haycox, Alaska: An American Colony (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), p. 235.

8. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 53.

9. June Allen, “What Did Kill Warren G. Harding,” Stories in the News (Ketchikan, AK), July 23, 2003.

10. Actually a misquotation, according to the Calvin Coolidge Memorial Foundation.

11. Bill Mares, Fishing with the Presidents (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 1999), pp. 66–70.

12. Judith St. George, The Mount Rushmore Story, Part 2 (New York: Putnam, 1985), p. 128.

13. T. H. Watkins, Righteous Pilgrim: The Life and Times of Harold L. Ickes, 1874–1952 (Holt, 1992), pp. 318–319.

14. William Skinner Cooper, “The Recent Ecological History of Glacier Bay, Alaska,” Ecology, Vol. 4 (1923), pp. 93–128.

15. Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of Denali (New York: Scribner, 1930).

16. Quoted in Kendrick A. Clements, Hoover, Conservation, and Consumerism: Engineering the Good Life (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000), p. 69.

17. Benjamin Franklin to Sarah Bache, January 26, 1784. Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, DC.

18. Peter Matthiessen, Wildlife in America (New York: Viking, 1959), p. 170.

19. Aldo Leopold to Karl T. Frederick, December 20, 1935, Leopold Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

20. Susan L. Flader and J. Baird Callicott (eds.), The River of the Mother of God and Other Essays by Aldo Leopold (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), p. 77.

21. Robert Lewis Taylor, “Oh, Hawk of Mercy!” New Yorker, April 17, 1948.

22. Keith L. Bildstein, Migrating Raptors of the World: Their Ecology and Conservation (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006), p. ix.

23. Dyana Z. Furmansky and Rosalie Edge, Hawk of Mercy: The Activist Who Saved Nature from the Conservationists (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009), p. 130.

24. Ibid., pp. 164–165.

25. Barry Lopez, Arctic Dreams: Imagination and Desire in a Northern Landscape (New York: Vintage, 2001), p. 390.

26. Kim Heacox, Alaska’s Inside Passage (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 1997), p. 99.

27. Scott R. Ferris, “Introduction,” in Rockwell Kent, Salamina (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2003), p. xiii.

28. Sherwood, Big Game in Alaska, pp. 92–93.

29. Heacox, Alaska’s Inside Passage, p. 99.

30. Sherwood, Big Game in Alaska.

31. Matthiessen, Wildlife in America, p. 170.

1. Roderick Nash, “The Strenuous Life of Bob Marshall,” Forest History (October 1966), p. 19. See also Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2000). Kaye’s extraordinary book has informed this chapter. It explains fully how Marshall promoted the idea of wilderness in the 1930s.

2. Paul Schaefer, “Bob Marshall, Mount Marcy, and—the Wilderness,” Living Wilderness (Summer 1966), pp. 12–16.

3. Charles Reznikoff (ed.), Louis Marshall, Champion of Liberty: Selected Papers and Addresses, Vol. 2 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1957), p. 1174.

4. Morton Rosenstock, Louis Marshall, Defender of Jewish Rights (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University, 1965), p. 19.

5. Edmund Morris, Colonel Roosevelt (New York: Random House, 2010), p. 739.

6. Quoted in James M. Glover, A Wilderness Original: The Life of Bob Marshall (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 1986), p. 13.

7. Robert Marshall, “The Problem of the Wilderness,” Scientific Monthly (February 1930), pp. 141–148.

8. Terrence Cole, “Preface,” in Robert Marshall, Arctic Village (Anchorage: University of Alaska Press, 2000), p. xiii. (Reprint.)

9. George Marshall, “Adirondacks to Alaska: A Biographical Sketch of Robert Marshall,” Ad-i-ron-dac (March–June 1951), p. 44.

10. Robert Marshall, “Why I Want to Become a Forester in the Future,” April 17, 1918, Robert Marshall Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. (Typescript.)

11. David A. Bernstein, “Bob Marshall: Wilderness Advocate,” Western Studies Jewish Historical Quarterly, Vol. 13 (October 1980), p. 29.

12. Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 2.

13. “The Alumnae,” in The Harvard Forest 1907–1934 (Cornwall, NY: Cornwall, 1935), p. 8.

14. Author interview, James N. Levitt, director of the Program on Conservation Innovation at Harvard Forest, Harvard University.

15. Robert Marshall, “Mountain Ablaze,” Nature (June–July 1953).

16. Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 73.

17. Robert Marshall, “Forest Devastation Must Stop,” Nation (August 1929); Robert Marshall, “A Proposed Remedy for Our Forestry Illness,” Journal of Forestry (March 28, 1930).

18. Robert Marshall, Arctic Wilderness (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956).

19. John M. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 1992), pp. 16–22.

20. Martin Wilmking and Jens Ibendorf, “An Early Tree-Line Experiment by a Wilderness Advocate: Bob Marshall’s Legacy in the Brooks Range, Alaska,” Arctic, Vol. 57, No. 1 (March 2004), pp. 106–109.

21. Robert Marshall, Alaska Wilderness: Exploring the Central Brooks Range (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956, 1970, 2005).

22. Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 122.

23. “A Letter to Foresters,” February 7, 1930, Robert Marshall Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

24. Robert Marshall to Gerry and Lily Kempff, March 3, 1930, in Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 114.

25. Robert Marshall to family and others, October 16, 1930, Robert Marshall Papers, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry. (Mimeographed letter.)

26. Robert Marshall, Arctic Village (New York: Literary Guild, 1933), pp. 57–58.

27. Marshall, Alaska Wilderness, p. 103.

28. Rick Bass, “Foreword to the Third Edition,” ibid., p. xiii.

29. Roger Kaye, The Last Great Wilderness: The Campaign to Establish the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2006).

30. Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1967), p. 274.

31. Frank Graham Jr., The Adirondack Park: A Political History (New York: Knopf, 1978), pp. 195–196.

32. Glover, A Wilderness Original, pp. 141–145.

33. Dayton Duncan and Ken Burns, The National Parks: America’s Best Idea (New York: Knopf, 2009), p. 281.

34. Robert Marshall to E. Flint, February 21, 1933, Marshall Papers, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library.

35. Gifford Pinchot to Franklin D. Roosevelt, January 20, 1933; in Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 150; Edgar B. Nixon (ed.), Franklin D. Roosevelt and Conservation, 1911–1945, Vol. 1 (Hyde Park, NY: General Services Administration, 1957), pp. 129–132.

36. Address at the Laying of the Cornerstone of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York, November 19, 1939, in The Presidential Papers of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Vol. 8, 1939 (New York: Macmillan, 1941), p. 580.

37. John F. Sears, “Grassroots Democracy: F.D.R. and the Land,” in David B. Woolner and Henry L. Henderson (eds.), F.D.R. and the Environment (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), chap. 1, p. 15.

38. U.S. Forest Service, Tongass National Forest, “Forest Facts: Ranger Boats,” http://www.fs.fed.us/r10/tongass/forest _facts/resources/heritage/rangerboats .html, accessed March 13, 2010.

39. Curt Meine, Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988), p. 342.

40. Quoted in Robert Sterling Yard to Aldo Leopold [n.d.], Leopold Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

41. Bruce Woods, Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuges (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 2003), p. 16.

42. Ira N. Gabrielson to Corey Ford, March 15, 1941, General Correspondence Relating to Wildlife Management—Kenai, 1932–1943, Record Group 22, National Archives.

43. John Leshy, “F.D.R.’s Expansion of Our National Patrimony: A Model for Leadership,” in David B. Woolner and Henry L. Henderson (eds.), F.D.R. and the Environment (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 178.

44. Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 162.

45. Robert Marshall to Mardy Murie, July 31, 1933, Marshall Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

46. Robert Marshall, The People’s Forests (New York: Smith and Haas, 1933), p. 219.

47. Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 163.

48. Franklin Reed, “The People’s Forest,” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 32 (January 1934), pp. 104–107. (Review.)

49. Quoted in Richard N. L. Andrews, “Recovering F.D.R.’s Environmental Legacy,” in David B. Woolner and Henry L. Henderson (eds.), F.D.R. and the Environment (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 226.

50. Duncan and Burns, The National Parks, p. 290.

51. T. H. Watkins, “The Terrible Tempered Mr. Ickes,” Audubon (March 1994), pp. 93–111.

52. William Cronon, “Foreword: Why Worry About Roads?” in Paul S. Sutter, Driven Wild: How the Fight Against Automobiles Launched the Modern Wilderness Movement (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002), p. xii.

53. B. Mackaye to H. A. Slattery, October 22, 1934, Robert Marshall Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

54. Ansel Adams, “Give Nature Time,” Commencement Address, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA, June 11, 1967.

55. Anthony B. Wolbarst, Solutions for an Environment in Peril (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), p. 79.

56. Meine, Aldo Leopold.

57. Glover, A Wilderness Original, p. 177.

58. “The Wilderness Society,” January 20, 1935, Wilderness Society Archive, Washington, DC. (Founding document.)

59. Stephen Fox, “We Want No Straddlers,” Wilderness, Vol. 48, No. 167 (1984), pp. 5–19.

60. Ibid.

61. Joel H. Hildebrand, “Maintenance of Recreation Values in the High Sierra,” Sierra Club Bulletin, Vol. 23 (1938), pp. 85–96.

62. Dyan Zaslowsky and T. H. Watkins, These American Lands: Parks, Wilderness, and the Public Lands (Washington, D.C.: Island, 1994), p. 292.

63. Robert Marshall, Alaska Wilderness, p. 123.

64. Robert Marshall, “Comments on the Report of Alaska’s Recreational Resources Committee,” Alaska—Its Resources and Development, U.S. Congress, House Doc. 485, 75th Congress, 3rd Session, Appendix B, p. 213.

65. Robert Marshall and Douglas K. Midgett (contributing author), The People’s Forests (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2002), pp. 64–65.

1. Verlyn Klinkenborg, “Margaret Murie’s Vision,” New York Times, October 24, 2003.

2. John Muir, Travels in Alaska (New York: Modern Library, 2002), pp. 277–278.

3. Harry Ritter, Alaska’s History: The People, Land, and Events of the North Country (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Books, 1993), p. 98.

4. Charles Craighead and Bonnie Kreps, Arctic Dance: The Mardy Murie Story (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2006), pp. 12–22.

5. William Henry Smith, The Life and Speeches of Hon. Charles Warren Fairbanks: Republican Candidate for Vice President (Indianapolis, IN: W.B. Burford), p. 199.

6. Dermot Cole, Historic Fairbanks: An Illustrated History (San Antonio, TX: Historical Publishing Network, 2006), p. 7.

7. Syun-Ichi Akasofu, The Northern Lights: Secrets of the Aurora Borealis (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 2009), p. 8.

8. Ibid., p. 16.

9. Craighead and Kreps, Arctic Dance.

10. Jeff Schultz, Dogs of the Iditarod (Seattle, WA: Sasquatch, 2003), pp. 12–15.

11. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), pp. 47–48.

12. Craighead and Kreps, Arctic Dance, p. 29.

13. Ibid., p. 31.

14. Stephen R. Fox, The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), p. 267.

15. John F. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range: The Ultimate Mountains (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 2005), p. 83.

16. Olaus J. Murie, Journeys to the Far North (Palo Alto, CA: Wilderness Society/American West, 1973), pp. 104–106.

17. Olaus J. Murie to Mardy Murie, December 23, 1922.

18. Craighead and Kreps, Arctic Dance, p. 51.

19. Jenks Cameron, The Bureau of Biological Survey (New York: Arno, 1974), pp. 118–121.

20. Tom Walker, Caribou: Wanderer of the Tundra (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2008), p. 22.

21. Margaret E. Murie, Two in the Far North (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1962), p. 217.

22. There is a photo of the carved motto in Craighead and Kreps, Arctic Dance, p. 113.

23. Stephen Haycox and Alexandra J. McClanahan, Alaska Scrapbook (Anchorage, AK: CIRI Foundation, 2008), pp. 109–110.

24. Melody Webb, The Last Frontier (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985), p. 264.

25. Frank Dufresne, Alaska’s Animals and Fishes (New York: A.S. Barnes, 1946), pp. x–xv.

26. Fox, The American Conservation Movement, pp. 267–268.

27. Margaret and Olaus Murie, Wapiti Wilderness (New York: Knopf, 1966), p. 7.

28. John Bowlby, Charles Darwin: A New Life (New York: Norton, 1992), p. 174.

29. Adolph Murie, Ecology of the Coyote in Yellowstone, Fauna of the National Parks of the U.S. Bulletin No. 4 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1940).

30. Debbie S. Miller, Midnight Wilderness: Journeys in Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Portland, OR: Alaska Northwestern, 2000), pp. 163–164.

31. Dyan Zaslowsky and T. H. Watkins, These American Lands: Parks, Wilderness, and the Public Lands (Washington, DC: Island, 1994), p. 293.

32. Wolves, Bears, and Their Prey in Alaska: Biological and Social Challenges in Wildlife Management (Washington, D.C.: National Academy, 1997), p. 55.

33. Aldo Leopold to Frederic Walcott, January 10, 1932, Leopold Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

34. Edward Abbey, The Journey Home: Some Words in Defense of the American West (New York: Plume, 1991), p. 223.

35. William O. Douglas, Go East, Young Man (New York: Random House, 1974), p. 467.

36. William O. Douglas, “America’s Vanishing Wilderness,” Ladies’ Home Journal, Vol. 81 (July 1964), pp. 37–41.

37. Douglas, Go East, Young Man, p. 143.

38. Victor B. Scheffer, Adventures of a Zoologist (New York: Scribner, 1980), p. 15.

1. David L. Mech, The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1970), p. 348.

2. Adolph Murie, Ecology of the Coyote in Yellowstone, National Park Service Fauna Series, No. 4 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1940).

3. Adolph Murie, A Naturalist in Alaska (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1961), p. 208.

4. Michael J. Robinson, Predatory Bureaucracy: The Extermination of Wolves and the Transformation of the West (Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 2005), p. 1.

5. John McPhee, Coming into the Country (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976), p. 242.

6. Linda S. Franklin, “Adolph Murie: Denali’s Wilderness Conscience,” MA thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (May 2004), p. 5.

7. Jim Rearden, Alaska’s Wolf Man: The 1915–1955 Wilderness Adventures of Frank Glaser (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories, 1998), p. xii.

8. Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of Denali: Explorations of a Hunter-Naturalist in Northern Alaska (New York: Scribner, 1960), p. 161.

9. Belmore Browne, The Conquest of Mount McKinley (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1956), p. 210.

10. Robinson, Predatory Bureaucracy, p. 184.

11. Biological Survey, “Report of Chief of Bureau of Biological Survey, 1924,” Record Unit 717, Box 24, Smithsonian Institute Archives, Washington, DC.

12. Aldo Leopold, Game Management (New York: Scribner, 1933), p. 19.

13. Olaus Murie to Aldo Leopold, October 30, 1931, Aldo Leopold Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

14. Barry Lopez, Of Wolves and Men (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. 3.

15. Concordia College diploma, granting Adolph Murie a bachelor of science degree (June 1925), Adolph Murie Collection, Box 3, Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

16. F. C. Evans, “Lee Raymond Dice,” Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 59 (August 1978), pp. 635–644.

17. Robinson, Predatory Bureaucracy, p. 184.

18. Franklin, “Adolph Murie: Denali’s Wilderness Conscience,” p. 30.

19. David L. Mech, The Wolves of Isle Royale, Fauna Series No. 7 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966), p. 22.

20. Adolph Murie, Mammals from Guatemala and British Honduras, Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications No. 26 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1935).

21. Adolph Murie, Following Fox Trails, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications, No. 32 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1936), p. 44.

22. Louise Murie Macleod, “Adolph Murie 1899–1974” [n.d.], Adolph Murie Reference File, Denali National Park and Preserve Museum.

23. Victor H. Cahalane, “The Evolution of Predator Control Policy in the National Parks,” Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 3 (1939), p. 235.

24. Murie, A Naturalist in Alaska, p. 220.

25. Adolph Murie, The Wolves of Mount McKinley, U.S. National Park Service Fauna Series 5 (Washington, DC: U.S. National Park Service, 1944), p. 3.

26. Stanley P. Young and Edward A. Goldman, The Wolves of North America, Vol. 1 (New York: Dover, 1944).

27. Joan M. Antonson and William S. Hanable, Alaska’s Heritage: 1867 to Present (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1985), p. 286.

28. Terrence Cole, “Foreword,” in Brian Garfield, The Thousand-Mile War: World War II in Alaska and the Aleutians (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1995), p. xi.

29. Samuel Eliot Morison, “Aleutians, Gilberts, and Marshalls, June 1942–April 1944,” in History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, No. 1.7 (Boston, MA: Brown, 1951), pp. 3–4.

30. Herman E. Slotnick, Alaska: A History of the 49th State (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987), p. 131.

31. Douglas Brinkley, “Introduction,” in Phillip J. Merrell (ed.), The World War II Black Regiments That Built the Alaska Military Highway (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2002), pp. 5–12.

32. Harold L. Ickes to Harold W. Snell, September 25, 1944, Ickes papers.

33. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac with Essays on Conservation from Round River (New York: Ballantine, 1970), p. 138.

34. Ibid., pp. 138–139.

35. Thomas R. Dunlap, Saving America’s Wildlife: Ecology and the American Mind, 1850–1990 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988), p. 75.

36. Murie, A Naturalist in Alaska, p. 79.

37. Ibid.

38. Sale, A Complete Guide to Arctic Wildlife, p. 396.

39. Murie, A Naturalist in Alaska, pp. 79–80.

40. Douglas H. Chadwick, “Wolf Wars,” National Geographic, Vol. 217, No. 3 (March 2010), pp. 34–55.

41. William Brown, Symbol of the Alaskan Wild: An Illustrated History of the Denali–Mount McKinley Region, Alaska (Denali National Park: Alaska Natural History Association, 1993).

42. Franklin, “Adolph Murie: Denali’s Wilderness Conscience,” p. 50.

43. Brown, Symbol of the Alaskan Wild, p. 184.

44. Adolph Murie to Robert Sterling Yard, January 15, 1935, Adolph Murie Collection, Box 4, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

45. Olaus Murie to Adolph Murie, March 21, 1951, Martin Murie (personal papers), University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

46. Karsten Heuer, Being Caribou: Five Months on Foot with an Arctic Herd (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 2005).

47. Dunlap, Saving America’s Wildlife, p. 105.

48. Lopez, Of Wolves and Men, pp. 159–160.

49. “History of Wolf Control in Alaska” (Washington, DC: Defenders of Wildlife, March 2010).

1. William O. Douglas, The Autobiography of William O. Douglas: The Court Years, 1939–1975 (New York: Random House, 1980), p. 371; William O. Douglas, Go East, Young Man (New York, Random House, 1974), p. 206.

2. William O. Douglas, My Wilderness: The Pacific West (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968), p. 10.

3. Henry David Thoreau, Walden or Life in the Woods (New York: New American Library, 1960), p. 10.

4. Douglas, My Wilderness, p. 199.

5. Ibid.

6. Bruce Allen Murphy, Wild Bill: The Legend and Life of William O. Douglas (New York: Random House, 2003), p. 454.

7. Reprinted in Christopher Stone, Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects (Palo Alto, CA: Tioga, 1988).

8. Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972).

9. “Mr. Justice Douglas, Dissenting,” Living Wilderness (Summer 1972), pp. 19–29.

10. Murphy, Wild Bill, pp. 454–457.

11. Author interview, June 14, 2010.

12. James O’Fallon, Nature’s Justice: Writings of William O. Douglas (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2000), pp. 293–294.

13. Douglas, My Wilderness, p. 160.

14. Adam W. Sowards, The Environmental Justice: William O. Douglas and American Conservation (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2009), pp. 10–13.

15. William Douglas, Of Men and Mountains: The Classic Memoir of Wilderness Adventure (Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot, 2001), pp. 33–34.

16. Ibid., p. 168.

17. O’Fallon, Nature’s Justice, p. 70.

18. Mark Wyman, Hoboes: Bindlestiffs, Fruit Tramps, and the Harvesting of the West (New York: Hill and Wang, 2010), p. 273.

19. Current Biography, Vol. 17 (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1942), pp. 233–235.

20. Douglas, Of Men and Mountains, p. 11.

21. O’Fallon, Nature’s Justice, p. 38.

22. Douglas, Of Men and Mountains, p. 15.

23. O’Fallon, Nature’s Justice, p. 5.

24. James F. Simon, Independent Journey: The Life of William O. Douglas (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), p. 72.

25. Ibid., p. 73.

26. Ibid., p. 75.

27. Douglas, Go East, Young Man, p. 137.

28. Ibid., p. 151.

29. O’Fallon, Nature’s Justice, pp. 8–12.

30. Douglas, Go East, Young Man, p. 309.

31. Ibid., pp. 310–311.

32. Stephen Fox, The American Conservation Movement (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), p. 212.

33. Stewart L. Udall, The Quiet Crisis (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963), p. 155.

34. William O. Douglas, A Wilderness Bill of Rights (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1965), pp. 178–179.

35. Kesler E. Woodward (ed.), Painting in the North: Alaskan Art in the Anchorage Museum of History and Art (Anchorage, AK: Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1993).

36. Claus-M. Naske and Herman E. Slotnick, Alaska: A History of the 49th State (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994).

37. Glenn Holder, Talking Totem Poles (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1973), pp. 66–67.

38. “Glacier Bay National Monument,” National Park Service History Report, Gustavus, AK.

39. William S. Cooper, “A Contribution to the History of the Glacier Bay National Monument” (Gustavus, AK: Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Archive, March 1954).

40. Stephen Haycox and Alexandra McClanahan, Alaska Scrapbook: Moments in Alaska History (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2008), pp. 119–120.

41. David L. Lendt, Ding: The Life of Jay Norwood Darling (Iowa City, IA: Maecenas, 2000).

42. Eric Jay Dolin and Bob Dumaine, The Duck Stamp Story (Iola, WI: Krause, 2000), p. 49.

43. Roosevelt to Henry L. Stimson, November 28, 1941, in Edgar B. Nixon (ed.), Franklin D. Roosevelt and Conservation, 1911–1945, 2 vols. (Hyde Park, NY: General Services Administration, 1957), Vol. 2, pp. 540–541.

44. Fox, The American Conservation Movement, pp. 220–223.

45. Raymond Blaine Fosdick, John D. Rockefeller, Jr.: A Portrait (New York: Harper, 1956), p. 129.

46. Tom H. Watkins, Righteous Pilgrim: The Life and Times of Harold L. Ickes, 1874–1952 (New York: Holt, 1990), p. 829.

47. Douglas, A Wilderness Bill of Rights, p. 134.

48. Alden Whitman, “Vigorous Defender of Rights,” New York Times, January 20, 1980, p. 28.

49. George Bookman, “Wonderful World of Walking,” Living Wilderness, Vol. 20, No. 52 (Spring–Summer 1955), p. 1.

50. William O. Douglas, “The C&O Canal . . . 1959,” Living Wilderness, Vol. 24, No. 68 (Spring 1959), p. 2.

51. Thoreau, Walden, p. 40.

52. Timothy Egan, The Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Saved America (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009), pp. 271–272.

53. Michael J. Robinson, Predatory Bureaucracy: The Extermination of Wolves and the Transformation of the West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005), p. 292.

54. David Brower, Wilderness: America’s Living Heritage (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1961), pp. 102–103.

55. Murphy, Wild Bill, p. 455.

56. Ibid., pp. 454–457.

1. Ansel Adams, An Autobiography (New York: Little, Brown, 1996), p. 236.

2. Ibid.

3. Kristin G. Congdon and Kara Kelley Hallmark, Twentieth Century United States Photographers (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2008), p. 10.

4. Jonathan Spaulding, Ansel Adams and the American Landscape: A Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 236.

5. Mary Street Alinder and Andrea Gray Stillman (eds.), Ansel Adams: Letters 1916–1984 (New York: Bulfinch, 2001), p. 402.

6. Ibid., p. 33.

7. Robert Turnage, “Ansel Adams: The Role of the Artist in the Environmental Movement,” Living Wilderness (March 1980).

8. Dayton Duncan and Ken Burns, The National Parks (New York: Random House, 2009), p. 303.

9. Richard J. Orsi, Alfred Runte, and Marlene Smith-Baranzini, Yosemite and Sequoia: A Century of California National Parks (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993); see also Mike White, Kings Canyon National Park: A Complete Hiker’s Guide (Berkeley, CA: Wilderness, 2004).

10. Duncan and Burns, The National Parks, pp. 304–305.

11. Mary Street Alinder, Ansel Adams: A Biography (New York: Holt, 1996), pp. 213–214.

12. Author interview with Michael Adams, June 8, 2010 (Carmel, CA).

13. Douglas Brinkley and Patricia Nelson Limerick (eds.), The Western Paradox: A Bernard De Voto Conservation Reader (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007), pp. 196–197.

14. Ansel Adams to Ted Spencer, February 8, 1947, in Alinder and Stillman, Ansel Adams, p. 190.

15. Adams, An Autobiography, p. 236.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid., p. 238.

18. Alinder and Stillman, Ansel Adams, p. 217.

19. Adams, An Autobiography.

20. Ibid.

21. Spaulding, Ansel Adams and the American Landscape, pp. 235–236.

22. Author interview with Michael Adams, June 2, 2010 (Carmel, CA).

23. Robert Hirsch, Seizing the Light: A History of Photography (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp. 246–248.

24. Ibid.

25. Ansel Adams, Examples: The Making of 40 Photographs (New York: Little, Brown, 1983).

26. Susanne Lomatch, Black and White Luminaries: Insights into Adams and Garrett (Boise, ID: Idaho Photographic Workshop, February 21, 2010).

27. Spaulding, Ansel Adams and the American Landscape, p. 236.

28. Author interview with Michael Adams, June 2, 2010 (Carmel, CA).

29. Adams, An Autobiography, p. 241.

30. Julie Dunlap and Kerry Maguire, Eye on the Wild: A Story About Ansel Adams (Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook, 1995), p. 50.

31. Ansel Adams to Beaumont Newhall, July 11, 1949, in Mary Street Alinder and Andrea Gray Stillman (eds.), Ansel Adams: Letters and Images 1916–1984 (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 209.

32. Ibid., pp. 208–209.

33. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 291.

34. Author interview with Virginia Wood, June 2010.

35. Ibid.

36. Virginia Wood to Mom, February 19, 1943, Wood Personal Papers, Fairbanks, AK.

37. Virginia Wood scrapbooks, private collection, Fairbanks, AK.

38. Author interview with Virginia Wood.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Christine Barnes, Great Lodges of the National Parks, Vol. 2 (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts, 2008), p. 150.

42. Dayton Duncan, The National Parks: America’s Best Idea (New York: Knopf, 2010), p. 307.

1. Neal Gabler, Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination (New York: Random House, 2006), p. 388.

2. Robert A. Henning (ed.), Island of the Seals: The Pribilofs (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1982), p. 55.

3. Dave Ostlund, interview with Rachel Sibley, Kodiak Military History Museum at Miller Point, Fort Abercrombie, Kodiak, July 13, 2010.

4. Francis E. Caldwell, Beyond the Trails: With Herb and Lois Crisler in Olympic National Park (Port Angeles, CA: Anchor, 1998), pp. 152–189.

5. Richard Schickel, The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art, and Commerce of Walt Disney (Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, 1997), p. 278.

6. David Starr Jordan, Leonhard Hess Stejneger, Frederic A. Lucas, et al., The Fur Seals and Fur-Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean: Special Papers Relating to the Fur Seal and to the Natural History of the Pribilof Islands (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1899).

7. Ira N. Gabrielson, Wildlife Refuges (New York: Macmillan, 1943), p. 77.

8. Schickel, The Disney Version, pp. 270–280.

9. Craig A. Hansen, “Seals and Sealing,” in Islands of the Seals: The Pribilofs (Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1982), p. 55.

10. Gabler, Walt Disney, p. 446.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., p. 447.

13. Schickel, The Disney Version, p. 290.

14. Ralph H. Lutts, “The Trouble with Bambi: Walt Disney’s Bambi and the American Vision of Nature,” Forest and Conservation History, Vol. 36 (October 1992), pp. 160–171.

15. Susan Killon, Nature’s State: Imagining Alaska as the Last Frontier (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), p. 96.

16. “Forest and Conservation History,” Forest History Society, Vols. 36–37 (1992), p. 162.

17. Lutts, “The Trouble with Bambi.”

18. Ibid.

19. Lois Crisler, “Santayana’s Definition of Beauty,” MA thesis (1925), University of Washington, Seattle, Manuscripts and University Archives, University of Washington Libraries, Seattle.

20. Caldwell, Beyond the Trails, p. 191.

21. Ibid., p. 189.

22. Lois Crisler Papers, University of Washington Archives, Seattle.

23. Lois Crisler, “The True Mountaineer,” Natural History (November 1950), pp. 422–428.

24. Sally Patrick Johnson, Everyman’s Ark: A Collection of True First-Person Accounts of Relationships Between Animals and Men (New York: Harper, 1962), p. 178.

25. William O. Douglas, jacket copy for Lois Crisler, Arctic Wild (New York: Lyons, 1999).

26. Caldwell, Beyond the Trails, p. 207.

27. David Mech, “Foreword,” in Crisler, Arctic Wild, p. x.

28. Rachel Carson to Lois Crisler, March 4, 1959, Rachel Carson Papers, Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

29. Crisler, Arctic Wild, p. 22.

30. Ibid., p. 290.

31. Jon T. Coleman, Vicious: Wolves and Men in America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), p. 160.

32. Lois Crisler, Captive Wild (New York: Lyons Press, 2000).

33. William O. Douglas, Go East, Young Man (New York: Random House, 1974), p. 207.

34. Jim Rearden, Alaska’s Wolf Man: The 1915–1955 Wilderness Adventures of Frank Glaser (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories, 1998), pp. 323–324.

35. William O. Douglas, “For Every Man and Woman Who Loves the Wilderness,” Living Wilderness, No. 58 (Fall and Winter 1956–1957).

36. Ibid.

37. J. Louis Giddings, Ancient Men of the Arctic Wild (New York: Knopf, 1967).

38. Gabler, Walt Disney, pp. 611–612.

1. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), p. 70.

2. Ibid., p. 111.

3. Stephen Brown (ed.), Arctic Wings: Birds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 2006), p. 74.

4. Margaret E. Murie, Two in the Far North (New York: Knopf, 1962), p. i.

5. Ibid., p. 254.

6. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1991), p. 185.

7. George L. Collins to Louis Giddings Jr., Appendix B, “Genesis of the Arctic International Wildlife Range Idea, 1952,” in George L. Collins, The Art of Politics and of Park Planning and Preservation, 1920–1929 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 345.

8. Benton MacKaye, “Dam Site vs. Norm Site,” Scientific Monthly (October 1950), pp. 241–247.

9. Hank Lentfer and Carolyn Servid, Arctic Refuge: A Circle of Testimony (Minneapolis, MN: Milkwood, 2001), p. 1.

10. Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness: The Campaign to Establish the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2006), pp. 36–39.

11. Speaking to the U.S. Armed Forces Committee, 1952. Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations, 15th ed. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1980), p. 817.

12. Bosley Crowther, “The Legend of Lobo,” New York Times, June 8, 2010.

13. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, pp. 14–17. I couldn’t have written this chapter without this pioneering work; it is far and away the most comprehensive book on the history of the Arctic Refuge.

14. Author interview with Virginia Wood, June 18, 2010.

15. Martha Sonntag Bradley, “Glen Canyon Dam Controversy” Utah History to Go, State of Utah online database, May 2010.

16. Ibid.

17. David Brower, For Earth’s Sake: The Life and Times of David Brower (Salt Lake City, UT: Peregrine Smith, 1990), p. 347; Kevin Wehr, America’s Fight over Water: The Environmental and Political Effects of Large-Scale Water Surplus (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 212.

18. Brower, For Earth’s Sake, p. 369.

19. “George Leroy Collins for 1959,” Biological File, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK. See also A. Frank Willis, Do Things Right the First Time: Administrative History of the National Park Service and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1985).

20. John M. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range: The Ultimate Mountains (Mountaineers Books: 1992), p. 97.

21. George Collins and Lowell Sumner, “Background Information for Use in Connection with a Proposal for an Arctic International Wildlife Refuge,” University of British Columbia Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 1 (June 1971), pp. 3–11.

22. Roderick Nash, quoted in Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy, p. 34.

23. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range, pp. 100–101.

24. Kaye, The Last Great Wilderness, p. 24.

25. George L. Collins Diaries, April 20 and 24, 1952, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, George L. Collins Papers, File No. 207–10, Alaska and Polar Regions Department, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

26. Barry H. Lopez, Of Wolves and Men (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), p. 144.

27. Larry Meyers, “He Wrestled a Wolf,” Alaska Sportsman, No. 6 (June 1952), pp. 14–17, 40–45.

28. “Protect the Sacred Place Where Life Begins” (Fairbanks, AK: Gwich’in Steering Committee, 2010).

29. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range, p. 103.

30. Ibid., p. 81.

31. Charles Craighead and Bonnie Kreps, Arctic Dance: The Mardy Murie Story (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2006).

1. Olaus Murie, “Alaska with O. J. Murie,” Living Wilderness, No. 58 (Winter 1956–1957), pp. 28–30.

2. “National Wildlife Refuges in Region 6,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Report (Shepherdstown, WV: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1960).

3. Margaret Murie Diary, June 3, 1956, in Margaret E. Murie, Two in the Far North (Anchorage, AK: Northwest, 1962), p. 272.

4. Robert Krear, “The Olaus Murie Brooks Range Expedition,” Roger Kaye Papers, Fairbanks, AK. (Unpublished manuscript.) Quoted in Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness: The Campaign to Establish the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

5. Charles Craighead and Bonnie Kreps, Arctic Dance: The Mardy Murie Story (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2006), p. 6.

6. William H. Rodgers Jr., “The Fox and the Chickens: Mr. Justice Douglas and Environment Law,” in He Shall Not Pass This Way Again: The Legacy of William O. Douglas (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990), pp. 215–223. Also William O. Douglas, “The C&O Canal . . . 1959,” Living Wilderness, Vol. 24, No. 68 (Spring 1959), pp. 1–2.

7. Author interview, George McGovern, June 16, 2010.

8. Murie, Two in the Far North.

9. William O. Douglas, “The Black Silence of Fear,” New York Times Magazine, January 13, 1952, sec. 6, p. 7.

10. William O. Douglas, “People vs. Trout: A Majority Opinion,” New York Times Magazine, April 2, 1950.

11. John F. Simon, Independent Journey: The Life of William O. Douglas (New York: Harper and Row, 1980).

12. William O. Douglas, My Wilderness: The Pacific West (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1960), p. 18.

13. James O’Fallon, Nature’s Justice: Writings of William O. Douglas (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2000), pp. 290–292.

14. Douglas, My Wilderness, pp. 65–74.

15. William O. Douglas, Go East, Young Man (New York: Random House, 1974), p. 207.

16. Ibid., pp. 206–207.

17. Bruce Allen Murphy, Wild Bill: The Legend and Life of William O. Douglas (New York: Random House, 2003).

18. Douglas, Go East, Young Man, pp. 469–470.

19. Douglas, My Wilderness, p. 23.

20. Murie, Two in the Far North, p. 335.

21. Douglas, My Wilderness, p. 15.

22. Stephen Fox, The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), p. 244.

23. “Wilderness System Bill Urged,” Living Wilderness, No. 58 (Winter 1956–1957), p. 30.

24. David Brower, quoted in Sierra Club Bulletin (June 1954).

25. John M. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range: The Ultimate Mountains (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 1992), p. 33.

26. Olaus J. Murie, “Wilderness Philosophy,” quoted in Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness: The Campaign to Establish the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2006), chap. 4.

27. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 84.

28. Murie, “Alaska with O. J. Murie,” pp. 28–30.

29. Douglas, My Wilderness, p. 30.

30. George L. Collins, The Art and Politics of Park Planning and Preservation, 1920–1979 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 190.

31. Douglas, My Wilderness, p. 9.

1. James I. McClintock, “Gary Snyder’s Poetry and Ecological Science,” American Biology Teacher, Vol. 54, No. 2 (February 1992), pp. 80–84.

2. John Halper (ed.), Gary Snyder: Dimensions of a Life (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1991), p. 340.

3. Jerry Crandall, “Mountaineers Are Always Free,” in John Halper, Snyder: Dimensions of a Life (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1991), p. 4.

4. John Suiter, Poets on the Peaks: Gary Snyder, Phillip Whalen, and Jack Kerouac (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 2007), p. 54.

5. J. Michael Mahar, “Scenes from the Sidelines,” in John Halper, Gary Snyder: Dimensions of a Life (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1991), p. 9.

6. Author interview with Gary Snyder, April 17, 2010.

7. Lauren Danner, “Ice Peaks National Park,” Columbia (Fall 2009).

8. Roger Tory Peterson, A Field Guide to Western Birds (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1961).

9. Mahan, “Scenes from the Sidelines,” p. 11.

10. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, p. 34.

11. Ibid., p. 3.

12. Rod Phillips, “Forest Beatnicks” and “Urban Thoreaus”: Gary Snyder, Jack Kerouac, Lew Welch, and Michael McClure (New York: Peter Lang, 2000), p. 14.

13. Gary Snyder, A Place in Space (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1996), p. 57.

14. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, pp. 12–13.

15. Gary Snyder, Earth House Hold: Technical Notes and Queries to Fellow Dharma Revolutionaries (New York: New Directions, 1969), p. 12.

16. Ibid.

17. Gary Snyder, “A Berry Feast,” in The Back Country (New York: New Directions, 1971), p. 3.

18. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, p. 14.

19. Jeanne Abbot, “Gary Snyder,” Anchorage Daily News, October 7, 1976.

20. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, pp. 15–38.

21. Crandall, “Mountaineers Are Always Free,” p. 3.

22. Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism (New York: Grove, 1961), p. 262.

23. Jeremy Anderson, “My First Encounter with a Real Poet,” in John Halper (ed.), Snyder: Dimensions of a Life (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1991), p. 30.

24. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, p. 45.

25. John Suiter, “Rolling Toward the Mountain: Jack Kerouac’s Last Great Adventure,” Sierra (March–April 1958).

26. Ed Zahniser (ed.), Where Wilderness Preservation Began: Adirondack Writings of Howard Zahniser (Utica, NY: North Country, 1992), p. 1.

27. Han Shan, Cold Mountain Poems (Boston, MA: Shambhala, 2009), p. 30.

28. Quoted in Carol Baker, “1414 SE Lambert Street,” in John Halper (ed.), Snyder: Dimensions of a Life (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1991).

29. Edward Abbey (ed.), The Best of Edward Abbey (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1984), p. 243.

30. Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Penguin, 1976), p. 12.

31. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, p. 66.

32. William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (New York: Trianon, 1975), p. xxii.

33. Suiter, Poets on the Peaks, p. 71. It is impossible to write about Snyder at Sourdough without drawing on Suiter’s book. All of my understanding of Snyder in the North Cascades emanates from Poets on the Peaks.

34. Travis Nicholas, “ ‘How Do You Like Your World?’ The Zen of Philip Whalen,” Poetry Foundation, March 25, 2008. (At Web site.)

35. Henry David Thoreau, Walden (London: J.M. Dent, 1955), p. viii.

36. Howard Zahniser, “The Need for Wilderness Areas,” Living Wilderness, No. 59 (Winter–Spring 1956–1957), pp. 37–43.

37. Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness: The Campaign to Establish the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2006), p. 93.

38. Margaret E. Murie, Two in the Far North (New York: Knopf, 1962), p. 371.

39. Trevor Carolan, “The Wild Mind of Gary Snyder,” Shambhala Sun Online (April 29, 2010).

40. Allen Ginsberg, Howl and Other Poems (San Francisco, CA: City Lights, 1956), p. 17.

41. Rod Phillips, “Forest Beatnicks” and “Urban Thoreaus,” pp. 1–2.

42. Allen Ginsberg to John Allen Ryan (mid-September 1955), quoted in Bill Morgan and Nancy J. Peters (eds.), Howl on Trial: The Battle for Free Expression (San Francisco, CA: City Lights, 2006), p. 36.

43. Author interview with Michael McClure, July 7, 2010.

44. Michael McClure, Humans to St. Geryon and Other Poems (San Francisco, CA: Auerhahn, 1959), pp. 7–8.

45. Jonah Raskin, American Scream: Allen Ginsberg, Howl, and the Making of the Beat Generation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), pp. 18–21.

46. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation from Round River (New York: Ballantine, Random House, Oxford University Press, 1970), p. 137.

47. Ginsberg, Howl and Other Poems.

48. Kerouac, The Dharma Bums, p. 14.

49. Michael McClure, Scratching the Beat Surface: Essays on New Vision from Blake to Kerouac (New York: Penguin, 1994), p. 13.

50. Norman Chance, “Project Chariot: The Nuclear Legacy of Cape Thompson, Alaska,” Arctic Circle, Resource Database. Accessed July 7, 2010.

51. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 291.

52. Paul Brooks, The Pursuit of Wilderness (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), p. 67.

53. Dan O’Neill, The Firecracker Boys: H-Bombs, Eskimos, and the Roots of the Environmental Movement (New York: Basic Books, 1994), pp. 36–37.

54. Author interview with Virginia Wood, June 18, 2010.

55. Chance, “Project Chariot.”

56. Ibid.

57. Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: The President, Vol. 2 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), pp. 479–480.

58. Gary Snyder, The Back Country (New York: New Directions, 1971), pp. 4–6.

59. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, “ ‘Howl’ at the Frontiers,” in Bill Morgan and Nancy J. Peters (eds.), Howl on Trial (San Francisco, CA: City Lights, 2006), p. xiv.

60. Snyder, The Back Country, p. 7.

61. Author interview with Ed Sanders, May 6, 2010.

62. Grace Glueck, “Cast into the Wilderness by Choice, He Found a Friend in the Landscape,” New York Times, August 18, 2000.

63. Author interview with Lawrence Ferlinghetti, July 4, 2010.

64. Crick is quoted in Tom Montag (ed.), Margins: A Review of Little Magazines and Small Press Books, Issues 16–17 (1975), p. 24.

65. Gary Snyder, The Back Country (New York: New Directions, 1968), p. 20.

66. Gary Snyder, Turtle Island (New York: New Directions, 1974), p. 77.

1. Allen Ginsberg to Robert LaVigne, August 3, 1956, in Bill Morgan (ed.), The Letters of Allen Ginsberg (New York: Da Capo, 2008), p. 139.

2. Stephen Haycox and Alexandra McClanahan, Alaska Scrapbook: Moments in Alaska History (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2008), pp. 31–32.

3. Ginsberg to LaVigne, August 3, 1956.

4. Allen Ginsberg to Rebecca Ginsberg, August 11, 1956, in Morgan, The Letters of Allen Ginsberg, pp. 140–141.

5. Allen Ginsberg to Jack Kerouac, August 12–18, 1956, ibid., pp. 327–328.

6. Jack Kerouac, The Scripture of the Golden Eternity (New York: Corinth, 1960).

7. Allen Ginsberg to Carolyn Kizer, September 10, 1956, in Bill Morgan, The Letters of Allen Ginsberg (New York: Da Capo, 2008), pp. 141–143.

8. Jack Kerouac, Lonesome Traveler (New York: Grove, 1989), p. 182.

9. Steven Watson, The Birth of the Beat Generation: Visionaries, Rebels, and Hipsters 1944–1960 (New York: Pantheon, 1995), p. 214.

10. Lindianne “Lady Greensleeves” Sarno-Glasgow (writer) and Mike “Spoonguy” Glasgow (proposal co-drafter), “Proposal to Sourdough Express” (Homer, AK: 2010). (Unpublished.)

11. Linnie Marsh Wolfe, John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), p. 67.

12. Dolly Garza, Common Edible Seaweeds in the Gulf of Alaska (Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program, 2005), pp. 3–4.

13. Janet R. Klein, The Homer Spit: Coal, Gold, and Con Men (Homer, AK: Kachemak Country, 1996), p. 55.

14. John Burroughs, Far and Near (Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1904), p. 80.

15. Thomas Locker, John Muir: America’s Naturalist (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 2003), p. 12.

16. Steve Turner, Jack Kerouac: Angel-Headed Hipster (New York: Viking, 1996), p. 161.

17. Martha Ellen Anderson, Brother Asaiah (Parker, CO: Thornton, 2006), p. 63.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., p. 322.

20. Author interview with Martha Ellen Anderson, July 3, 2010 (Homer, AK).

21. Jay Hammond, “Preface,” in Anderson, Brother Asaiah, pp. 4–5.

22. Frederic Laugrand and Jarich Oosten, The Sea Woman: Sedna in Inuit Shamanism and Art in the Eastern Arctic (Anchorage: University of Alaska Press, 2009), pp. 34–108.

23. Gerald Nicosia, Memory Babe: A Critical Biography of Jack Kerouac (New York: Grove, 1983), p. 563.

24. Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Penguin, 1976), p. 154.

25. Michael McClure, Lighting the Corners: On Art, Nature, and the Visionary (Albuquerque, NM: An American Poetry Book, 1993), p. 320.

26. Kerouac, Lonesome Traveler, p. 183.

27. Norman Podhoretz, “The Know Nothing Bohemians,” Partisan Review, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Spring 1958).

28. Kerouac, The Dharma Bums, p. 77.

29. Ibid., p. 225.

30. Jack Kerouac, Big Sur (New York: Penguin, 1992), p. 45.

31. Kerouac, Lonesome Traveler, p. 175.

32. Ibid., p. 173.

1. Peter Matthiessen, Wildlife in America (New York: Viking, 1959), pp. 104–105.

2. Matthew J. Dufala, “Piece of History Finds Its Way to the 910th,” Airstream, Vol. 17, Issue 8 (August 2001), p. 2.

3. Author interview with Dorothy Jones, August 26, 2010.

4. Richard P. Emanuel, “Robert ‘Sea Otter’ Jones, Alaska Geographic, Vol. 22, No. 2 (1995), p. 38.

5. Ibid., p. 32.

6. John Muir, The Cruise of the Corwin (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1917), pp. 6–7.

7. L. J. Campbell, Penny Rennick, and Alaska Geographic Society, The Aleutian Islands, Vol. 22 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995), p. 41.

8. Kenneth F. Wilson and Jeff Richardson, The Aleutian Islands of Alaska: Living on the Edge (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2008), p. 130.

9. James B. Trefethen, An American Crusade for Wildlife (Missoula, MT: Boone and Crockett Club, 1975), p. 335.

10. Robert Jones Reports, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Federation (Homer, AK, 1959).

11. Emanuel, “Robert ‘Sea Otter’ Jones,” p. 42.

12. C. M. Mobly interview, Robert D. Jones, February 7, 1998, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Archive, Shepherdstown, WV.

13. Author interview with Dorothy Jones, August 26, 2010.

14. Alan Anderson, After the Ice: Life, Death, and Geopolitics in the New Arctic (New York: Smithsonian Books, 2009), p. 4.

15. Roderick Frazier Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 291.

16. Author interview with Peter Matthiessen, June 17, 2010.

17. “A Conversation with Author Peter Matthiessen,” Charlie Rose (PBS), May 27, 2008.

18. Author interview with Peter Matthiessen, June 18, 2010.

19. Ibid.

20. Matthiessen, Wildlife in America, p. 77.

21. Quoted in Diane Stupay, “Peter Matthiessen” (February 7, 2006). (Unpublished essay.)

22. Author interview with Peter Matthiessen, June 18, 2010.

23. Matthiessen, Wildlife in America, p. 233.

24. Author interview with Peter Matthiessen, June 18, 2010.

25. Peter Matthiessen, “In the Great Country,” in Subhankar Banerjee (ed.), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 2003), pp. 40–57.

26. Matthiessen, Wildlife in America, p. 249.

27. Author interview with Peter Matthiessen, June 18, 2010.

28. Peter Matthiessen, Oomingmak: The Expedition of the Musk-Ox in the Bering Sea (New York: Hastings House, 1967), p. 28.

29. Author interview with Peter Matthiessen, November 15, 2010.

30. Peter Matthiessen, “Inside the Endangered Arctic Refuge,” New York Review of Books (October 19, 2006); “Alaska: Big Oil and the Inupiat-Americans,” New York Review of Books (November 22, 2007).

31. Matthiessen, “In the Great Country,” p. 57.

1. Robert C. Harris, Johnny Appleseed: Source Book (privately published, 1945), pp. 17–18.

2. Neal Gabler, Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination (New York: Random House, 2006), pp. 514–516.

3. Science News Letter (November 8, 1958).

4. Gregg Mitman, Reel Nature: America’s Romance with Wildlife on Film (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 115.

5. “Cruelty to Animals in the Entertainment Business,” Canada Broadcasting Corporation, April 1982.

6. Lois Crisler, Arctic Wild (New York: Lyons, 1999), p. 151.

7. David Mech, “Introduction,” in Lois Crisler, Arctic Wild (New York: Lyons, 1999), pp. ix–xi. (Reprint.)

8. Walt Disney to Olaus Murie, December 4, 1953, Box 264, Olaus Murie Papers, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado.

9. Olaus Murie to Walt Disney, September 18, 1950, ibid.

10. Olaus Murie, “Wilderness Is for Those Who Appreciate,” Living Wilderness, Vol. 5 (1940), p. 5.

11. Mitman, Reel Nature, p. 123.

12. Frank Graham Jr., Since Silent Spring (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1970), p. 198.

13. Rachel Carson to Lois Crisler, August 19, 1961, Rachel Carson Papers, Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

14. Author interview with Cathy Stone (Douglas’s fourth wife), August 19, 2010.

15. Adam W. Sowards, The Environmental Justice: William O. Douglas and American Conservation (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2009), p. 119.

16. William O. Douglas, A Wilderness Bill of Rights (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1965), p. 166.

17. Edwin O. Wilson, “Afterword,” in Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002), p. 357.

18. Sally Ann Grumaer Rannery, “Heroines and Hierarchies: Female Leadership in the Conservation Movement,” in Donald Snow (ed.), Voices from the Environmental Movement (Washington, DC: Island, 1992), p. 115.

19. Isabella Bird, A Lady’s Life in the Rocky Mountains (New York: Putnam, 1900), p. 167.

20. Grumaer Rannery, “Heroines and Hierarchies: Female Leadership in the Conservation Movement,” pp. 116–119.

21. Edna Ferber, Ice Palace: A Novel for Alaska Statehood (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958), p. 18.

22. Mitman, Reel Nature, p. 116.

23. Vera Norwood, Made from This Earth (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993), p. 162.

24. Audubon (November–December 2004), pp. 52–53.

25. Paul Brooks, The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1989), p. 253.

1. Margaret E. Murie, “Foreword,” in Debbie S. Miller, Midnight Wilderness: Journeys in Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuge (Portland, OR: Alaska Northwest, 2000), p. x.

2. T. H. Watkins, Vanishing Arctic: Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuge (Washington, DC: Aperture Foundation, 1988), p. 47.

3. Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness (Anchorage: University of Alaska Press, 2006), pp. 106–107.

4. Olaus J. Murie to George L. Collins, November 29, 1956, Margaret Murie Papers, Box 2, Folder 18, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

5. Gary Snyder, Look Out: A Selection of Writings (New York: New Direction, 2002), pp. 115–116.

6. Rick Bass, Caribou Rising: Defending the Porcupine Herd, Gwich-’in Culture, and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 2004), p. 109.

7. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 107.

8. Daniel Nelson, Northern Landscapes: The Struggle for Wilderness Alaska (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 2004), p. 45.

9. Mark Harvey, Wilderness Forever: Howard Zahniser and the Path to the Wilderness Act (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005), p. xii.

10. Olaus Murie, in Living Wilderness, Vol. 58 (1956), p. 30.

11. Murie to Collins, November 29, 1956.

12. Lois Crisler to Olaus Murie, October 24, 1956, Margaret Murie Papers, Box 2, Folder 18, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

13. Olaus J. Murie to Fairfield Osborn, November 4, Margaret Murie Papers, Box 2, Folder 18.

14. Lois Crisler, “Where Wilderness Is Complete,” Living Wilderness, Vol. 60, (Spring 1957), p. 4.

15. Ibid., pp. 1–4.

16. Tom Walker, Caribou: Wanderer of the Tundra (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 2005), p. 24.

17. Crisler, “Where Wilderness Is Complete.”

18. Bass, Caribou Rising, p. 109.

19. Ernest Thompson Seton, The Arctic Prairies (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1911), p. 209.

20. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 114.

21. Olaus Murie to Fairfield Osborn, February 18, 1957.

22. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Hearing Before the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Subcommittee on S. 1899, 86th Congress, 1st Session, June 30, 1959, p. 55.

23. Quoted in Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 119.

24. David Backes, The Life of Sigurd F. Olson (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), p. 254.

25. Ibid., p. 271.

26. “Fred Seaton,” Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. (Biography.)

27. “Fred A. Seaton, Interior Chief Under Eisenhower, Dies at 64,” New York Times, January 18, 1974.

28. Ibid.

29. Dermot Cole, “The Road to Statehood,” in Alaska 50: Celebrating Alaska’s 50th Anniversary of Statehood 1959–2009 (Tampa, FL: Faircount Media Group, 2008), p. 23.

30. F. Seaton, speech at the Eisenhower Library.

31. Herb and Lois Crisler to Secretary of the Interior Fred Seaton, May 14, 1958.

32. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 246.

33. “Wildlife Range—Boon to State,” Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, May 21, 1959. (Editorial.)

34. Debbie S. Miller, Midnight Wilderness: Journeys in Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuge (Portland, OR: Alaska Northwest, 2000), p. 172.

35. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, pp. 119–121.

36. Peter A. Coates, The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy (Anchorage: University of Alaska Press, 1993), p. 92.

37. Miller, Midnight Wilderness, p. 158.

38. Ibid., p. 174.

39. Clarence J. Rhode to Olaus Murie, May 21, 1957, Margaret Murie Papers, Box 2, Folder 18.

40. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 83.

41. Margaret Murie, Two in the Far North (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1962), p. 357.

42. Miller, Midnight Wilderness, p. 170.

43. John M. Kauffmann, Alaska’s Brooks Range: The Ultimate Mountains (Seattle, WA: Mountaineers, 2005), p. 102. See also Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, pp. 121–125.

44. Elaine Rhode, National Wildlife Refuges of Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2003), p. 20.

45. Neil M. Maher, Nature’s New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Roots of the American Environmental Movement (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 5.

46. Miller, Midnight Wilderness, p. 172.

47. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 132.

48. William O. Douglas, My Wilderness: The Pacific West (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968), pp. 16–17.

49. Gerald E. Bowke, Reaching for a Star: The Final Campaign for Alaskan Statehood (Fairbanks, AK: Epicenter, 1989).

50. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 138.

51. Dermot Cole, “The Road to Alaska’s Statehood,” in Alaska 50: Celebrating Alaska’s 50th Anniversary of Statehood 1959–2009 (Tampa, FL: Faircount Media Group, 2008), p. 19.

52. Ross Coen, “Eisenhower Was Reluctant Supporter of Alaska Statehood,” Anchorage Daily News, July 6, 2008.

53. Claus-M. Naske and Herman E. Slotnick, Alaska: A History of the 49th State (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979), p. 174.

54. Miller, Midnight Wilderness, p. 155.

55. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 151.

56. John A. Murray, The Mountain Reader (Old Saybrook, CT: Globe Pequot, 2000), p. 110.

57. Ansel Adams to J. F. Carithers, December 19, 1959. Personal papers of Douglas Carithers, Tucson, AZ.

1. William O. Douglas, “Foreword,” in Farewell to Texas: A Vanishing Wilderness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

2. William O. Douglas, My Wilderness: The Pacific West (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968), p. 94.

3. Ibid., pp. 30–31.

4. William O. Douglas, A Wilderness Bill of Rights (New York: Little, Brown, 1965), p. 86.

5. James F. Simon, Independent Journey (London: Penguin, 1981), p. 328. (Originally published New York: Harper and Row, 1980.)

6. Author interview with Ethel Kennedy, June 20, 2010.

7. Terry Tempest Williams, The Open Space of Democracy (Barrington, MA: Orion Society, 2004).

8. William H. Rodgers Jr., “The Fox and the Chickens: Mr. Justice Douglas and Environmental Law,” in He Shall Not Pass This Way Again: The Legacy of William O. Douglas (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990), pp. 48–219.

9. Celia Hunter, “Statement: Before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,” October 20, 1954, Arctic Wildlife Range–Alaska.

10. Author interview with Virginia Wood, June 18, 2010.

11. Ibid.

12. Alaska Conservation Society Newsletter, No. 1 (March 1960).

13. Virginia Wood testifying on behalf of Alaskan wilderness preservation, quoted in Roger Kaye, Last Great Wilderness (Anchorage: University of Alaska Press, 2006), p. 196.

14. David Backes, The Life of Sigurd F. Olson (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997), pp. 298–299.

15. Sigurd F. Olson, “Alaska’s Land and Scenic Grandeur,” Living Wilderness (Winter 1971–1972).

16. Backes, The Life of Sigurd F. Olson, p. 298.

17. Author interview with Virginia Wood, June 16, 2010.

18. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 202.

19. “Governor’s Office—News Release,” September 26, 1960. Alaska Conservation Society Papers, Box 57, Folder 623, Fairbanks, AK.

20. David L. Spencer, Claus-M. Naske, and John Carnahan, National Wildlife Refuges of Alaska (January 1979), p. 109.

21. Sigurd F. Olson to George L. Collins, December 2, 1970, Sigurd Olson Papers, Box 80, Arctic Range Folder, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

22. Douglas, My Wilderness, pp. 30–31.

23. Author interview with Stewart Udall, March 16, 2009.

24. Margaret Murie, Two in the Far North (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1962).

25. “Secretary Seaton Establishes New Arctic National Wildlife Range,” Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, December 7, 1960.

26. David Petersen, Elkheart, A Personal Tribute to Wapiti and Their World (Black Earth, WI: Big Earth, 1998), p. 100.

27. Kaye, Last Great Wilderness, p. 206.

28. Author interview with Stewart Udall, September 6, 2009.

29. Ibid.

30. Douglas Brinkley, “Eisenhower: His Farewell Speech as President Inaugurated the Spirit of the 1960s,” American Heritage, Vol. 52 (September 2001).

31. Author interview with Carl Rowan, March 19, 1997.

32. William Schwarz (ed.), Voices for the Wilderness (New York: Ballantine, 1969), pp. 109–121.

33. Geoffrey L. Haskett, “Background: ANWR,” Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 66 (April 7, 2010). (Notice 17764.)

34. Curt Meine, Correction Lines: Essays on Land, Leopold, and Conservation (Washington, DC: Island, 2009), p. 108.

35. Mardy Murie to Fairfield Osborn, January 7, 1961, Margaret Murie Papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

36. Author interview with Cathy Stone, August 18, 2010.

37. William O. Douglas, Muir of the Mountains (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books for Children, 1961), p. 57.

38. Adam W. Sowards, The Environmental Justice: William O. Douglas and American Conservation (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2009), pp. 2–3.

39. William O. Douglas, My Wilderness: East to Katahdin (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966), pp. 31–33.

40. Douglas, Muir of the Mountains, p. 101.

* Roosevelt would probably have been amazed at the report by National Geographic in 2009 that DNA (genetic) testing had confirmed the existence of a grizzly–polar bear hybrid in the Arctic.

* In 1909 President William Howard Taft spoke to the Arctic Brotherhood on a visit to Seattle’s Yukon-Pacific Exposition. He was given the title Post Grand Arctic Chief. Unlike TR, Taft agreed to wear the brotherhood’s ridiculous Arctic robe with its polar bear collar. The current Arctic Brotherhood Web site mocks Taft (perhaps inadvertently) for wearing “the gayest-looking costume any president has dared to wear.” In 1907 the federal organization Pioneers of Alaska had been formed to preserve historical relics. Igloo No. 1 was founded in Nome.

* The fierce debate over who first reached the north pole persists in academic circles. Cook claimed to have reached it on April 21, 1908—a year before Peary. Critics of Cook claim he had once faked climbing to the top of Mount McKinley and wasn’t to be trusted.

* Nevertheless, Hornaday stayed a member of the Boone and Crockett Club.

* When he was in northern California, Roosevelt liked to stay at the ranch of the former secretary of state William Seward, near Lassen Volcanic National Park, in order to study the volcanoes.

* Although elk aren’t native to Alaska, they have been reintroduced to Afognak Island, Etolin Island, and Raspberry Island. Elk had lived there during the Pleistocene but became extinct before Euroamericans arrived.

* Pinchot had ghostwritten some of the chapter on conservation in Roosevelt’s An Autobiography, published with great fanfare in 1913. He self-servingly focused the book on the more than 150 national forests he and Roosevelt had founded together from 1901 to 1909. Pinchot viewed Hornaday as a bomb-thrower, constitutionally incapable of moderation or calm bureaucratic infighting.

* In 1921, Leopold wrote an important article for the Journal of Forestry: “The Wilderness and Its Place in Forest Recreational Policy.” He argued that every state needed to have at least one large wilderness area with no commercialism and no roads. Leopold was advocating “virgin stands,” a forest policy that he believed offered human psychic renewal, in contrast to urbanization.

* Sheldon’s voluminous personal papers are now housed at different locations: University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Smithsonian Institution, Dartmouth College, and the Boone and Crockett Club.

* Today the Great Bear Wilderness, the Bob Marshall Wilderness, and the Scapegoat Wilderness form the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex, totaling more than 1.5 million acres.

* According to the raptor ecologist Joel E. (Jeep) Pagel of U.S. Fish and Wildlife, in Asia golden eagles are known to hunt wolves. In North America, however, golden eagles have never been seen to seize a wolf, although they do eat coyote pups.

* Olaus Murie, however, was a fan of Ernest Thompson Seton, who had been his literary hero during his boyhood. He once encountered Seton at an event in Washington, D.C., and said, “Oh, my, I know all your books. My friends and I grew up with them. We just lived Two Little Savages, along the Red River in Minnesota. We did everything you wrote about in there, and we built a tipi but we could never make the smoke go up right.” Seton replied, “I never could either.”

* In 1980, Denali National Park was expanded by 4 million acres. Today it encompasses a total of 6,075,107 acres. The original 2 million acres are commonly called the “old park” and are designated wilderness.

* Some scholars believe that it is impossible to overcome polio. But the historian David Oshinsky, author of a Pulitzer Prize–winning work on polio, knows that this is indeed possible.

* Snyder did like computers. He even wrote a poem for his Macintosh, designed by Apple Inc.

* Nike and New Balance, perhaps influenced by Brother Asaiah, did design a “barefoot shoe” post-Y2K with a special Vibram Fivefingers sole; it was like a latex glove for the foot.

* In the 1920s five federal game wardens had been appointed to the Aleutians: Doug Gray, Frank Beals, Donald Stevenson, C. C. Loy, and D. A. Friden. None had a college degree.

* What would become the Arctic National Wildlife Range in 1960 was later enlarged from 8.9 million acres to 19.3 million acres and redesignated the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA). As Roger Kaye points out in Last Great Wilderness, throughout the 1950s the designations range and refuge were essentially synonyms. Oil-gas companies call the area ANWR. Environmentalists call it the Arctic Refuge. I prefer Arctic NWR.

* On September 29, 1957, the New York Times ran a story saying that Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton planned to virtually disallow oil and gas drilling in wildlife refuges.

* The Eisenhower Presidential Library provided me with a batch of Eisenhower-Arctic NWR articles that inform this chapter.

* In 1942 President Franklin D. Roosevelt delegated his authority to withdraw public lands to the secretary of the interior. In 1952 that delegation was amended and Executive Order No. 10355 was issued, delegating to the secretary of the interior central authority over operation of the federal government’s withdrawal process. Thus the secretary’s action in a public land order (PLO) is equivalent to that of the president. Nevertheless, in a “big deal” such as the Arctic NWR, a secretary would certainly discuss it with the president before signing the order.

* Little could Douglas have known that President Jimmy Carter would pay him the honor of redesignating the Arctic NWR as William O. Douglas Arctic Wildlife Range. The new name, however, stuck only for ten months in 1980. When the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act became law in December 1980, Congress renamed it the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR).

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