NOTES

PROLOGUE: ROCKET

1 “the rapid development in industry”  George N. Clark, The Idea of the Industrial Revolution (Glasgow: Jackson, Son & Company, 1953).

2 Carolingian merchants spoke different languages  This has been conclusively demonstrated by dozens of studies, of which the most recent is Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007).

3 The worldwide per capita GDP in 800 BCE  Michael Kremer, “Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 3, Fall 1993. The figures in question are J. Bradford deLong’s slightly different estimates.

4 The nineteenth-century French infant  Numbers from UN and CIA Factbook.

5 A skilled fourth-century weaver  Kirkpatrick Sale, Rebels Against the Future: The Luddites and Their War on the Industrial Revolution—Lessons for the Computer Age (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995).

6 But by 1900  In 1900, the average U.S. hourly wage was $0.22, and a loaf of bread cost about a nickel; in 2000, the average wage was $18.65, and a loaf of bread cost less than $1.79.

7 “[a]bout 1760, a wave of gadgets swept over England”  T. S. Ashton, Industrial Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

8 “fizzled out”  Joel Mokyr, “The Great Synergy: The European Enlightenment as a Factor in Modern Economic Growth,” April 2005, online article at http://faculty.weas.northwestern.edu/jmokyr/Dolfsma.pdf.

CHAPTER ONE: CHANGES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

1 No other steam engines were inspired by it  T. P. Tassios, “Why the First Industrial Revolution Did Not Take Place in Alexandria,” in 10th International Symposium on Electrets, 1999, IEEE, eds. (Athens: IEEE, 2002).

2 “if a light vessel with a narrow mouth”  Hero of Alexandria, Joseph George Greenwood, and Bennett Woodcroft, The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria (London and New York: Macdonald and American Elsevier, 1971).

3 “very satisfactory theory”  Marie Boas, “Hero’s Pneumatica: A Study of Its Transmission and Influence,” in Otto Mayr, ed., Philosophers and Machines (New York: Neale Watson Academic Publications, 1976).

4 Aleotti’s work, and subsequent translations  Ibid.

5 It is testimony to the weight of formal logic  Graham Hollister-Short, “The Formation of Knowledge Concerning Atmospheric Pressure and Steam Power in Europe from Aleotti (1589) to Papin (1690),” History of Technology 25, 2004.

6 “What is so intricate”  Robert Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, cited in Boas, “Hero’s Pneumatica.”

7 Torricelli had not only invented  W. E. Knowles Middleton, “The Place of Torricelli in the History of the Barometer,” Isis: Journal of the History of Science in Society 54, no. 1, March 1963.

8 “technical wonders of its time”  Lynn White, Medieval Technology and Social Change (London: Oxford University Press, 1964).

9 As the air was pumped out of the chamber  Arnold Pacey, The Maze of Ingenuity: Ideas and Idealism in the Development of Technology (London: Lane, 1974).

10 A dispute between King and Parliament  H.C.G. Matthew and B. Harrison, eds., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: In Association with the British Academy: From the Earliest Times to the Year 2000 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

11 “the leading pumping engineer in England”  Allan Chapman, “England’s Leonardo: Robert Hooke and the Art of Experiment in Restoration England,” Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 67, 1996.

12 to anything, in short  Ibid.

13 “those two grand and most catholic principles, matter and motion”  “Robert Boyle” in Noretta Koertge, ed., New Dictionary of Scientific Biography (Detroit: Scribner’s, 2008).

14 halfway to atheism  “Robert Boyle” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

15 “engine philosophy”  Steven Shapin, Simon Schaffer, and Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life, Including a Translation of Thomas Hobbes, Dialogus physicus de natura aeris by Simon Schaffer (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985).

16 England’s most gifted mathematician  Chapman, “England’s Leonardo.”

17 “the best Mechanick this day in the world”  Ibid.

18 Gentleman, free, and unconfin’d”  Ibid.

19 made him the first scientist in British history  Ibid.

20 It took until 1665  “Robert Hooke” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

21 “mere Empiricks”  Shapin, Schaffer, and Hobbes, Leviathan and the Air-Pump.

CHAPTER TWO: A GREAT COMPANY OF MEN

1 In 1671, he got the chance  Cornelis D. Andriesse, Huygens: The Man Behind the Principle (Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

2 In the 1686 issue of Philosophical Transactions  White, Medieval Technology and Social Change.

3 “Since it is a property of water”  Milton Kerker, “Science and the Steam Engine,” Technology and Culture 2, no. 4, Autumn 1961.

4 By the time he built a demonstration submarine  Richard S. Westfall, The Galileo Project (Rice University), at http://galileo.rice.edu/.

5 “to Raise Water from Lowe Pitts by Fire”  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

6 “was responsible for the design and fabrication”  Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Social Context of Innovation: Bureaucrats, Families, and Heroes in the Early Industrial Revolution, As Foreseen in Bacon’s New Atlantis (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982).

7 “a place of resort for artists, mechanics”  A 1640 letter to Robert Boyle, cited in ibid.

8 “at a potter’s house in Lambeth”  Ibid.

9 to refill the boiler at least once a minute  Richard L. Hills, Power from Steam (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

10 “Mr. Savery… entertained the Royal Society”  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society XXI, p. 228.

11 “one of the great original synthetic inventions”  Eugene S. Ferguson, “The Steam Engine before 1830” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967).

12 The 1712 engine of Thomas Newcomen  Howard Jones, Steam Engines: An International History (London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1973).

13 (sometimes a plumber)  David Richards, “Thomas Newcomen and the Environment of Innovation,” Industrial Archaeology 13, no. 4, Winter 1978.

14 of the latter’s progress  Kerker, “Science and the Steam Engine.”

15 “could he [Papin] make a speedy vacuum”  Abbott Payson Usher, A History of Mechanical Inventions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954); also Samuel Smiles, Men of Invention and Industry (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1885). The story of the Newcomen-Hooke correspondence dates from 1797, when it was reported by Dr. John Robison, a friend of James Watt, whose other recollections have almost uniformly proven valid. In the absence of corroborating documentary evidence, however, some scholars accept it, others not—though much of the doubt seems to come from the belief that the fifty-two-year-old Hooke would have had little to say to a twenty-four-year-old ironmonger; in short, retroactive snobbishness.

16 For purposes of the experiment  Martin Triewald’s 1734 Short Description of the Atmospheric Steam Engine, quoted in Hills, Power from Steam.

17 “not being either philosophers”  “Thomas Newcomen” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

18 Newcomen and Calley replaced  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

19 “the Air makes a Noise”  Hills, Power from Steam.

20 “the valve still functioned perfectly”  Ibid.

21 They also tell of the years he spent  Sir William Fairbairn, The Life of Sir William Fairbairn (London, 1877), quoted in Cohen.

22 Now imagine producing such a fitting  Joseph W. Roe, English and American Tool Builders (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1916).

23 “partly because they were equipped”  David Wolman, A Left-hand Turn Around the World: Chasing the Mystery and Meaning of All Things Southpaw (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2005).

24 The hand has led the brain to evolve  Richard Sennett, The Craftsman (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).

25 “It is only with Leonardo”  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

26 “Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets”  E. S. Ferguson, “The Mind’s Eye: Nonverbal Thought in Technology,” Science 197, no. 4306, August 1977.

27 “both dead and living”  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

28 “During the up-stroke”  Hills, Power from Steam.

29 “the greatest single act of synthesis”  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

30 “designing to turn his engines”  Newcommen (sic) v. Harding, TNA: PRO, C11/1247/38, 39, at http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk

31 “divided the profit to arise”  “Thomas Savery” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

32 Though Newcomen’s take  Eric Roll of Ipsden, An Early Experiment in Industrial Organisation, Being a History of the Firm of Boulton & Watt, 1775–1805 (London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1930).

33 “Whereas the invention for raising water”  “Thomas Newcomen” in ibid.

CHAPTER THREE: THE FIRST AND TRUE INVENTOR

1 Though already in possession of an income  The estimate was made by Thomas Wilson, the Keeper of Records for the Office of His Majesty’s Papers and Records; Catherine Drinker Bowen, The Lion and the Throne: The Life and Times of Sir Edward Coke(1552–1634) (Boston: Little, Brown, 1957).

2 one estimate puts Coke’s take at £100,000  “Edward Coke” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

3 “country gentlemen, acquisitive parsons”  Ibid.

4 The idea of exclusive commercial franchises  Kenneth W. Dobyns, History of the United States Patent Office: The Patent Office Pony (Fredericksburg, VA: Kirkland Museum, 1994).

5 the emperor had the unfortunate soul executed  Ibid.

6 Coke was convinced that monopolies were costly  In Davenant v. Hurdis, Coke, again as Attorney General, argued against another potential monopoly, this one a restriction by the powerful guild known as the Merchant Tailors of London. The tailors required that their members use other members on at least half the cloth they cut, effectively (or so argued Coke) creating a monopoly. See Samuel E. Thorne, Sir Edward Coke, 1552–1952 (London: Quaritch, 1957).

7 decades before Darcy v. Allein  Barbara Malament, “The ‘Economic Liberalism’ of Sir Edward Coke,” Yale Law Journal 76, no. 7, June 1967.

8 In order to find a precedent  Thorne, Sir Edward Coke.

9 “the franchises and privileges”  D.O. Wagner, “Coke and the Rise of Economic Liberalism,” Economic History Review 6, no. 1, October 1935.

10 the Netherlands’ States-General  Mario Biagioli, “Early Modern Instruments Database: An Appendix to From Prints to Patents: Living on Instruments in Early Modern Europe,” History of Science 44, 2006.

11 “generally inconvenient”  Vishwas Devaiah, “A History of Patent Law,” 2006, online article at www.altlawforum.org/PUBLICATIONS/document.2004-12

-18.0853561257.

12 And he liked it  “Francis Bacon” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

13 to cite it in Darcy v. Allein  D. O. Wagner, “The Common Law and Free Enterprise: An Early Case of Monopoly, Economic History Review 7, no. 2, May 1937.

14 “men of far greater titles”  Bowen, The Lion and the Throne: The Life and Times of Sir Edward Coke (1552–1634).

15 “we shall never see his like again”  Thorne, Sir Edward Coke.

16 “Mr. Attorney: I respect you”  “Francis Bacon” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

17 “college for Inventors”  Wallace, Social Context of Innovation.

18 Tellingly, though Bacon had respect  Ibid.

19 “the inventor of ordnance and of gunpowder”  Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning and New Atlantis (London: Oxford University Press, 1956).

20 Bacon’s faith in progress  Wallace, Social Context of Innovation.

21 “had so small satisfaction from his studies”  “John Locke” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

22 in his four decades as a member of the RS  Ibid.

23 “disposing of the affairs of the kingdom”  Henry Ireton, quoted in E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968).

24 they excluded servants and beggars  Crawford B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962).

25 “You and your ancestors got your propriety”  Micheline Ishay, ed., The Human Rights Reader: Major Political Writings, Essays, Speeches, and Documents from the Bible to the Present (New York: Routledge, 1997).

26 “Let no young wit be crushed”  G. N. Clark, “Early Capitalism and Invention,” Economic History Review 6, no. 2, April 1936.

27 “Nature furnishes us only with the material”  Peter King, The Life and Letters of John Locke, with Extracts from His Journals and Common-place Books: With a General Index (New York: B. Franklin, 1972).

28 It is scarcely surprising  Nigel Stirk, “Intellectual Property and the Role of Manufacturers: Definitions from the Late Eighteenth Century,” Journal of Historical Geography 27, no. 4, 2001, citing Jenny Uglow, Hogarth: A Life and a World (London: Faber and Faber, 1997) (who also cites Lord Chesterfield’s famous “Wit, my lords, is a sort of property”).

29 “nonsense on stilts”  Paul E. Sigmund, The Selected Political Writings of John Locke (New York: W.W. Norton, 2005).

30 “God… made the right of work”  Arnold Toynbee and Benjamin Jowett, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the 18th Century in England: Popular Addresses, Notes and Other Fragments (London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1902).

CHAPTER FOUR: A VERY GREAT QUANTITY OF HEAT

1 “the steam engine has done much more for science”  Though this is traditionally attributed to Kelvin, a better (though still unreliably) documented author is the early twentieth-century Harvard physiologist and chemist Lawrence Joseph Henderson. David Philip Miller, “Seeing the Chemical Steam Through the Historical Fog,” Annals of Science 65, no. 1, January 2008.

2 “Aristotle asserts that cabbages produce caterpillars”  Martin Goldstein and Inge F. Goldstein, The Experience of Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach (New York: Plenum Press, 1984).

3 some acceptable sinecure  Mokyr, “The Great Synergy.”

4 “the buzzword of the eighteenth century”  Ibid.

5 J. T. Desaguliers, the same critic  Ibid.

6 “the Riches, Honour, Strength”  Ibid.

7 Two years before his death in 1704  Robert Horwitz and Judith Finn, “Locke’s Aesop’s Fables,” The Locke Newsletter no. 6, Summer 1975.

8 The first was the notion that heat  D.S.L. Cardwell, From Watt to Clausius: The Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age (London: Heinemann Educational, 1971).

9 “fixed air”  Henry Marshall Leicester and Herbert Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry, 1400–1900 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963).

10 “a violence equal to that of gunpowder”  W. F. Magie, A Source Book in Physics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963).

11 He then placed the water over heat  Cardwell, From Watt to Clausius.

12 “I, therefore, set seriously about making experiments”  Magie, Source Book in Physics.

13 He heated a pound of gold  Cardwell, From Watt to Clausius.

14 “the first great achievement”  White, Medieval Technology and Social Change.

15 They were, for example, common in northern Europe  Ibid.

16 Europe’s first true “wood crisis”  Ibid.

17 It also meant a lot more wood  John H. Lienhard, How Invention Begins: Echoes of Old Voices in the Rise of New Machines (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

18 by the early fifteenth century  Barbara Freese, Coal: A Human History (New York: Perseus Books, 2003).

19 It was not until the 1600s  Lienhard, How Invention Begins.

20 “in a state within a state”  Margaret T. Hodgen, Change and History (New York: Wenner-Green Foundation for Anthropological Research, 1952).

21 15 percent of the total were for drainage alone  Wallace, Social Context of Innovation.

22 In 1752, a study was made  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

23 as late as the 1840s  Joel Mokyr, The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).

CHAPTER FIVE: SCIENCE IN HIS HANDS

1 In 1747, one of them  Joseph Irving, The Book of Dumbartonshire (Edinburgh and London: W. and A. K. Johnston, 1879).

2 “to clean them and to put them in the best order”  Glasgow University press office, 1998.

3 during the eighteenth century  Alexander Broadie, The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

4 “the first six, with the eleventh and twelfth Books”  Ibid.

5 “it is the principal sustenance”  Henry Fielding, “An Inquiry into the Late Increase in Robbers,” in Ronald Paulson, Henry Fielding: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge, 1995).

6 it had been founded “only” in 1631  Thomas H. Marshall, James Watt (1736–1819) (London and Boston: L. Parsons and Small, 1925).

7 “foreigners, alien or English”  Ibid.

8 On the other hand, his willingness to leave London  Ibid.

9 “to work as well as most journeymen”  “James Watt,” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

10 “large, stately, and well-built city”  George MacGregor, The History of Glasgow: From the Earliest History to the Present Time (London: Hamilton & Adams, 1881).

11 “every thing became Science”  Eric Robinson and A. E. Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution: A Documentary History (London: Adams & Dart, 1969).

12 “Allow me to give an instance”  Ibid.

13 “set about repairing it”  Birmingham Central Library (Birmingham, England) and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library(Marlborough, Wiltshire, England: Adam Matthew Publications, 1993).

14 “the toy cylinder exposed a greater surface”  Marshall, James Watt.

15 Most textbooks plot a “boiling curve”  Hasok Chang, Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

16 two different “boyling” temperatures  Ibid.

17 The measurement problem was acute enough  Ibid.

18 One small example of it  Mokyr, “The Great Synergy.”

19 In one of his notebooks  Richard L. Hills, “The Origins of James Watt’s Perfect Engine,” Transactions of the Newcomen Society 68, 1997.

20 “I mentioned it to my friend Dr. Black”  Donald Fleming, “Latent Heat and the Invention of the Watt Engine,” in Mayr, ed., Philosophers and Machines.

21 Watt didn’t discover the existence of latent heat  Ibid.

22 Heating the cylinder walls  Hills, “The Origins of James Watt’s Perfect Engine.”

23 “ran on making engines cheap  James Patrick Muirhead, The Life of James Watt, with Selections from His Correspondence (London: J. Murray, 1858).

24 “steam was an elastic body”  Birmingham Central Library (Birmingham, England) and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House (Marlborough, England: A. Matthew, 1998).

25 “nearly as perfect”  F. M. Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture,” in Kranzberg, ed., Technology and Culture: An Anthology (New York: Schocken Books, 1972).

26 “I can think of nothing else”  Watt to Lind, April 29, 1765, in Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

27 “the invention was complete”  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture.”

28 “A Company for carrying on an undertaking”  Charles Mackay, Josef Penso de la Vega, and Martin S. Fridson, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (New York: Wiley, 1996).

29 “I am going on with the Modell”  Watt to Roebuck, September 9, 1765, in Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

30 As a result, he tried dozens of combinations  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture.”

31 “Cotton was proposed”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

32 “Dear Jim… Let me suggest a method”  Ibid.

33 “what I knew about the steam engine”  Ibid.

34 “my principal hindrance”  Muirhead, Life of James Watt.

35 “relief amidst [his] vexations”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

36 “have given me health and spirits”  Marshall, James Watt.

37 “the Most compleat Manufacturer”  Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose Curiosity Changed the World (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002).

38 “I would rather face a loaded cannon”  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture.”

39 “I was excited by two motivs”  Boulton to Watt, February 7, 1769, in Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

CHAPTER SIX: THE WHOLE THING WAS ARRANGED IN MY MIND

1 “It was in the Green of Glasgow  Robert Hart, “Reminiscences of James Watt,” Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society 1, no. 1, with commentary by John W. Stephens, at http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/.

2 By the 1990s, Ericsson’s research was demonstrating  K. Anders Ericsson, “Creative Expertise as Superior Reproducible Performance: Innovative and Flexible Aspects of Expert Performance,” Psychological Inquiry 10, no. 4, 1999.

3 When a single neuron chemically fires  David Robson, “Disorderly Genius: How Chaos Drives the Brain,” New Scientist, June 29, 2009.

4 This was expected  M. Jung-Beeman, “Neural Activity When People Solve Verbal Problems with Insight,” PLoS Biology 2, no. 4, April 2004.

5 “The relaxation phase is crucial”  Jonah Lehrer, “The Eureka Hunt,” The New Yorker, July 28, 2008.

6 Some of the results were predictable  Joseph Rossman, The Psychology of the Inventor: A Study of the Patentee (Washington, D.C.: Inventors Publishing, 1931).

7 “lack of capital”  Ibid.

8 more than half will continue to invest their time  Thomas Astebro, “Inventor Perseverance After Being Told to Quit: The Role of Cognitive Biases,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 20, January 2007.

9 may be inventors”  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture,” citing Joseph Schumpeter’s Theory of Economic Development.

10 Another study, this one conducted in 1962  Donald W. MacKinnon, “Intellect and Motive in Scientific Inventors: Implications for Supply,” in Simon Kuznets, ed., The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).

11 the eighteenth-century Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli  Peter L. Bernstein, Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

12 “The more inventive an independent inventor is”  MacKinnon, “Intellect and Motive in Scientific Inventors: Implications for Supply,” in Kuznets, ed., Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity.

13 “first scientific man to study the Newcomen engine”  “Henry Beighton” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

14 Leonhard Euler applied  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

15 His published table of results  Jennifer Karns Alexander, The Mantra of Efficiency: From Waterwheel to Social Control (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).

16 The resulting experiment  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

17 His example showed a generation of other engineers  Mokyr, “The Great Synergy,” quoting Cardwell, 1994.

18 “In comparing different experiments”  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

19 As far back as the 1960s  Dean Keith Simonton, “Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention: Is the Creative Process Darwinian?” Psychological Inquiry 10, no. 4, 1999.

20 “ideational mutations”  Ibid.

21 “self-perpetuating feedback loops”  James Flynn, What Is Intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

22 at some point, the recruits are going to reduce  Fritz Machlup, “The Supply of Inventors and Inventions,” in Kuznets, ed., Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity.

23 In Machlup’s exercise  Ibid.

24 “a statement that five hours of Mr. Doakes’ time”  Ibid.

25 “as the greatest and most useful man”  Hart, “Reminiscences of James Watt.”

CHAPTER SEVEN: MASTER OF THEM ALL

1 “woolen cowl for winter”  From The Holy Rule of St. Benedict, translated by Rev. Boniface Verheyen, OSB (Atchison, KS: Abbey Student Press, 1949).

2 The monks of St. Victor’s Abbey  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

3 The distinction was the work  Pauline Matarasso, The Cistercian World: Monastic Writings of the Twelfth Century (London and New York: Penguin, 1993).

4 In 1997, a team of archaeologists  R. W. Vernon, “The Geophysical Evaluation of an Iron-Working Complex: Rievaulx and Environs, North Yorkshire,” Archaeological Prospection 5, no. 4, April 1998.

5 from the random magnetism  Gerry McDonnell, “Geophysical Techniques Applied to Early Metalworking Sites,” The Historical Metallurgy Society, Data Sheet #4, April 1995.

6 Men were smelting iron in Coalbrookdale  The oldest surviving furnace at the site has a lintel carrying several dates, of which the earliest is 1638, but a dozen different operators produced iron at Coalbrookdale for decades both before and after its installation. Arthur Raistrick, Dynasty of Iron Founders: The Darbys and Coalbrookdale (London and New York: Longmans, 1953).

7 “A certain quantity of iron ore”  Agricola, Herbert Hoover, and Lou Hoover, Georgius Agricola De re metallica (London: Mining Magazine, 1912). The Hoovers—the future president and his wife—make a good case that Agricola’s description of iron manufacture was lifted, more or less unchanged, from a prior work by Vanoccio Biringuccio.

8 The Dutch secret turned out to be  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

9 “a new way of casting iron bellied pots”  Samuel Smiles, Industrial Biography: Iron-Workers and Tool-Makers (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1864).

10 “to make iron, steel, or lead”  List and Index Society, Calendar of Patent Rolls 30, Eliz. I, p. 57 (Kew, UK: National Archives, 2008).

11 “sole priviledge to make iron”  “Simon Sturtevant” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

12 “the mystery, art, way, and means”  Thomas Webster, Reports and Notes of Cases on Letters Patent for Inventions (1607–1855) (London: Blenkarn, 1844).

13 In the event, the younger Dudley  Gerald Newman and Leslie Ellen Brown, Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714–1837: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1997).

14 His partners, Sir George Horsey  William Hyde Price, The English Patents of Monopoly (Clark, NJ: Lawbook Exchange, 2006).

15 “work for remelting and casting”  Peter W. King, “Sir Clement Clerke and the Adoption of Coal in Metallurgy,” Transactions of the Newcomen Society 73, no. 1, 2001–2002.

16 Luckily for Darby  Eugene S. Ferguson, “Metallurgical and Machine-Tool Developments,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

17 His greatest contribution to metallurgical history  Cyril Stanley Smith, “Metallurgy in the 17th and 18th Centuries,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

18 After nearly ten years of secret experiments  “Benjamin Huntsman” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

19 His furnaces could be made  Smith, “Metallurgy in the 17th and 18th Centuries,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

20 He departed from the norm  Joel Mokyr, The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).

21 in 1750, when Britain consumed  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

22 “the father of the iron trade”  The Times, editorial, July 29, 1856.

23 a relatively pure form of wrought iron  From Dr. Joseph Gross’s description of Wood’s process in Puddling in the Iron Works of Merthyr Tydfil, quoted at http://www.henrycort.net.

24 “The puddlers were the artistocracy”  Postan and Habakkuk, The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966).

25 “a peculiar method of preparing”  R. A. Mott and Peter Singer, Henry Cort, The Great Finer: Creator of Puddled Iron (London: Metals Society, 1983).

26 The source of the funds  Newman and Brown, Britain in the Hanoverian Age.

27 Not only had grooved rollers  Jennifer Tann, “Richard Arkwright and Technology,” History: The Journal of the Historical Association 58, no. 192, February 1973.

28 “cleansed of sulphurous matter”  R. A. Mott and P. Singer, Henry Cort, the Great Finer: Creator of Puddled Iron (London: Metals Society, 1983), quoted at http://www.henrycort.net.

CHAPTER EIGHT: A FIELD THAT IS ENDLESS

1 Steam engine components were a promising enough source  Raistrick, Dynasty of Iron Founders.

2 by way of comparison, Watt’s 1770 salary  Muirhead, Life of James Watt.

3 In 1772, Glasgow’s recently established Bank of Ayr  John Lord, Capital and Steam-Power (London: Frank Cass, 1966).

4 Roebuck testified  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture.”

5 “value the engine at a farthing”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series one: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

6 He persuaded the other claimants  Marshall, James Watt.

7 “The business I am here about”  Ibid.

8 “we might give up the present patent”  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture.”

9 “the most important single event”  Eric Robinson, “Matthew Boulton and the Art of Parliamentary Lobbying,” The Historical Journal 7, no. 2, 1964.

10 “and whereas, in order to manufacture”  Scherer, “Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam Engine Venture.”

11 The British Society of Arts  Joel Mokyr, “Mercantilism, The Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution,” Conference in Honor of Eli Heckscher, Stockholm, May 2003.

12 “a Number of Scientific Gentlemen”  Marshall, James Watt.

13 “I rejoice at the well doing of Willey Engine”  Boulton to Watt, March 1776, in Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

14 “engines of mortality of all descriptions”  Wallace, Social Context of Innovation.

15 “a cylinder attached to a spindle”  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

16 In 1800, boring a 64-inch cylinder  Eugene S. Ferguson, “Metallurgical and Machine-Tool Developments,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

17 “unsound, and totally useless”  Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

18 “I wish to do all in the best manner”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

19 If the new design caught on  David L. Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor (New York: W.W. Norton, 1998).

20 “With hardly room to move their bodies”  E. D. Clarke, Tour Through the South of England, quoted in Howard Jones, Steam Engines.

21 Adventurers, in turn, appointed “captains”  Anthony Burton, Richard Trevithick, Giant of Steam (London: Aurum Press, 2000).

22 “shareholders might grumble”  Ibid.

23 One of them, the Great County Adit  Ibid.

24 88 lb. in London  Hills, Power from Steam.

25 “raise as much water as two Horses”  Ibid.

26 As a result of the hostility  Ibid.

27 “all the cast iron”  Ibid.

28 at least one Boulton & Watt engine was too large  Ibid.

29 It was in response to these demands  Ibid.

30 “All the world are agape”  Marshall, James Watt.

31 “I think that these mills represent”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

32 “The technical advance which characterizes”  Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt, 1934).

33 “continuous rotary motion”  Lynn White, “The Act of Invention: Causes, Contexts, Continuities, and Consequences,” Technology and Culture 3, no. 4, March 1962.

34 Arabs were using them  White, Medieval Technology and Social Change.

35 The earliest visual evidence of a crankshaft  Ibid.

36 “to render the motion more regular and uniform”  Hills, Power from Steam.

37 Watt had not believed  George Selgin and John Turner, “James Watt as Intellectual Monopolist: Comment on Boldrin and Levine,” International Economic Review 47, no. 4, November 2006.

38 “I know the contrivance is my own”  Watt to Boulton, April 28, 1781, in Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

39 “timmer [timber]… turned on my little lathey [lathe]”  “William Murdock” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

40 “I wish William could be brought to do”  Ibid.

41 “the most active man and best engine erector I ever saw”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

42 “gave the additional advantage”  Hills, Power from Steam.

43 “for certain new methods”  Ibid.

44 “I wish you could supply me with a draughtsman”  Samuel Smiles, Lives of Boulton and Watt. Principally from the original Soho mss. Comprising also a history of the invention and introduction of the steam engine (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1865).

45 “the neatest drawing I had ever made”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

46 One consequence was that  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

47 “upon making Engines cheap, as well as good  Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

48 “scarce heard in the building where they are erected”  Hills, Power from Steam.

49 “one of the most ingenious”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

50 “I am more proud”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

51 “the millers are determined to be masters of us”  Lord, Capital and Steam-Power.

CHAPTER NINE: QUITE SPLENDID WITH A FILE

1 “The Artist who can make an Instrument”  Jeffrey Kastner, “National Insecurity,” Cabinet Magazine 22, Summer 2006.

2 “a LOCK, constructed on a new and infallible Principle”  J. A. Bramah, Dissertation on the Construction of Locks (Goldsmiths-Kress Library of Economic Literature, no. 13077.3, Research Publications: New Haven, CT, 1976).

3 Even when Bramah promoted Maudslay  Roe, English and American Tool Builders.

4 Unable to persuade Bramah  A. W. Skempton, Civil Engineers and Engineering in Britain, 1600–1830 (Aldershot, Hampshire, UK, and Brookfield, VT, USA: Variorum, 1996).

5 “the indefatigable care which he took”  “Henry Maudslay” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. British Academy: from the earliest times to the year 2000.

6 “it was a pleasure to see him handle a tool”  “Henry Maudslay” in Ibid.

7 “a ‘critical mass’ of inventive activity”  Carolyn C. Cooper, “The Portsmouth System of Manufacture,” Technology and Culture 25, no. 2, April 1984, quoting William Parker.

8 A single ship of the line  Ibid.

9 “Set of engines, tools, instruments”  Ibid.

10 More significant was Samuel Bentham  John Richards, A Treatise on the Construction and Operation of Wood-working Machines: Including a History of the Origin and Progress of the Manufacture of Wood-working Machinery (London, New York: E. & F.N. Spon, 1872).

11 “a perfect treatise on the subject”  Roe, English and American Tool Builders.

12 In 1786, while in Russia  Ibid.

13 a Propos of my brother’s inventions”  Cooper, “The Portsmouth System of Manufacture.”

14 “roaming on the esplanade of Fort Montgomery”  Richard Beamish and Gerald C. Levy, Memoir of the Life of Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, Civil Engineer, Vice-President of the Royal Society, Corresponding Member of the Institute of France, &c. (London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1862).

15 “two or three at a time”  Cooper, “The Portsmouth System of Manufacture.”

16 The design, however, specified  Ibid.

17 His machines… included power saws  Roe, English and American Tool Builders.

18 Maudslay’s fee for constructing the machines  Cooper, “The Portsmouth System of Manufacture.”

19 That agreement guaranteed  “Marc Isambard Brunel” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

20 He didn’t come close to recouping  Beamish and Levy, Memoir of the Life of Sir Marc Isambard Brunel.

21 “an output greater”  Roe, English and American Tool Builders.

22 “set fire to the dockyards”  Cooper, “The Portsmouth System of Manufacture.”

23 “new combined steam engines”  Hills, Power from Steam.

24 the planned expansion  “Matthew Murray” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

25 It wasn’t until 1788  Selgin and Turner, “James Watt as Intellectual Monopolist: Comment on Boldrin and Levine.”

26 “the ungrateful, idle, insolent Hornblowers”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

27 “if patentees are to be regarded”  Stirk, “Intellectual Property and the Role of Manufacturers.”

28 “Our cause is good”  Smiles, Lives of Boulton and Watt.

29 “monstrous stupidity”  Roe, English and American Tool Builders.

30 “I think we should confine our contentions”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

31 “a sufficient action against the piston”  Hills, Power from Steam.

32 Maudslay, on the other hand  Skempton, Civil Engineers and Engineering in Britain, 1600–1830.

33 “A zealous promoter of the arts and sciences”  Ibid.

CHAPTER TEN: TO GIVE ENGLAND THE POWER OF COTTON

1 Lombe was the son of a woolen weaver  Anthony Calladine, “Lombe’s Mill: An Exercise in Reconstruction,” Industrial Archaeology 16, no. 1, Autumn 1993.

2 A single cocoon of B. mori  Yong-woo Lee, Silk Reeling and Testing Manual, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin no. 136, United Nations, Rome, 1999.

3 Silk from Chinese looms  John Ferguson, “China and Rome” in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, vol. 9.2 (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1978).

4 The Turkish city of Bursa  Robert Sabatino Lopez, “Silk Industry in the Byzantine Empire,” Speculum XX, January 1945.

5 In 1665, five Dutch ships  Rudolf P. Matthee, The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600–1730 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

6 It was Zonca’s machine  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

7 “three sorts of engines never before made”  “Thomas Lombe” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

8 The mill, which employed more than two hundred men  Ibid.

9 “he has not hitherto received the intended benefit”  Smiles, Men of Invention and Industry.

10 The case of the manufacturers of woolen  “Thomas Lombe” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

11 Only one silk spinning factory  Abbott Payson Usher, “The Textile Industry, 1750–1830,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

12 Even before the Company chose the village of Calcutta  Landes, Wealth and Poverty of Nations.

13 Even then, it made for a very rough weave  Woodruff D. Smith, Consumption and the Making of Respectability, 1600–1800 (New York: Routledge, 2002).

14 Between 1700 and 1750  T. Ivan Berend, An Economic History of Twentieth Century Europe: Economic Regimes from Laissez-Faire to Globalization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

15 The market for cotton  This is a highly abbreviated version of the argument made by the historian Eric Hobsbawm. E. J. Hobsbawm and Chris Wrigley, Industry and Empire from 1750 to the Present Day (New York: New Press, 1999).

16 Those overseas consumers were needed  Angus Maddison, ed., The World Economy: Historical Statistics (Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2003). Between 1700 and 1820, British per capita GDP grew by 37%, while the rest of Western Europe grew by less than 19% and the Netherlands declined by 14%.

17 They were the ones who were able to attract the attention  Jan De Vries, “The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution,” The Journal of Economic History 54, no. 2, June 1994.

18 By 2000 BCE  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

19 He never patented  “John Kay” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

20 Inventors in good odor at the Bourbon court  B. Zorina Khan, “An Economic History of Patent Institutions,” EH.Net Encyclopedia, March 16, 2008, at http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/khan.patents.

21 The significance of this fact for industrialization  Abbott Payson Usher, “The Textile Industry 1750–1830,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization. The presumed asymmetry between the productivity of weaving and spinning in eighteenth-century England has recently been questioned and is no longer regarded as unassailable. However, it seems that the weight of the evidence still supports it.

22 “This is second only to the printing press”  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions, citing Theodore Beck.

23 The first wheels used to mechanize  Ibid. Lynn White, citing ambiguous illustrations in the windows of the cathedral at Chartres and an earlier regulation in the town of Speyer, gives the date of 1280.

24 “put [it] between a pair of rollers”  Usher, “The Textile Industry, 1750–1830,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

25 In a flash, Hargreaves imagined  “James Hargreaves” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

26 “almost wholly with a pocket knife”  Ibid.

27 “came to our house and burnt”  Ibid.

28 “much application and many trials”  Ibid.

29 “Weavers typically rested and played long”  Landes, Wealth and Poverty of Nations.

30 “When in due course, SAINT MONDAY  Douglas A. Reid, “The Decline of Saint Monday 1766–1876,” Past and Present no. 71, 1976.

31 “I was a barber”  “Richard Arkwright” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

32 As both men later recalled  Ibid.

33 (Highs’s daughter, Jane)  Edward Baines, History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain (London: H. Fisher, R. Fisher, 1835).

34 “… wee [sic ] shall not want”  “Richard Arkwright” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

35 He was, partly because of his success with waterpower  Tann, “Richard Arkwright and Technology.”

36 he could scarcely add to or subtract  Ibid.

37 “no motion can ever act perfectly steady”  Hills, Power from Steam.

38 “earliest steam-powered cotton spinning mill”  Ibid.

39 somewhere north of £200,000  Tann, “Richard Arkwright and Technology.”

40 “if any man has found out a thing”  “Richard Arkwright” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

41 “There sits the thief!”  R. A. Burchell, The End of Anglo-America: Historical Essays in the Study of Cultural Divergence (Manchester, UK, and New York: Manchester University Press and St. Martin’s Press, 1991).

42 “the old Fox is at last caught”  R. S. Fitton, The Arkwrights: Spinners of Fortune (Manchester, UK, and New York: Manchester University Press and St. Martin’s Press, 1989).

43 “If yourself or Mr. Watt think as I do”  Ibid.

44 “Though I do not love Arkwright”  Smiles, Lives of Boulton and Watt.

45 “I have visited Mr. Arkwright”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

46 “An engineer’s life without patent”  Robinson and Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution.

47 “not as the price of a secret”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series Three: The Papers of James Watt and His Family Formerly Held at Doldowlod House.

48 No scientific discovery is ever named  Malcolm Gladwell, “In the Air,” The New Yorker, May 12, 2008.

49 “possessed unwearied zeal”  Tann, “Richard Arkwright and Technology.”

50 “A plain, almost gross”  Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965).

51 “a son, brother, or orphan nephew”  Tine Bruland, “Industrial Conflict as a Source of Innovation,” in MacKenzie and Wajcman, The Social Shaping of Technology: how the refrigerator got its hum.

52 In the industry’s Lancashire heartland  William Lazonick, “The Self-Acting Mule and Social Relations in the Workplace,” Ibid.

53 didn’t catch on in Britain  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

54 “the last of the great inventors”  Usher, “The Textile Industry, 1750–1830,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

55 “as soon as Arkwright’s patent expired”  Ibid.

56 In 1551 Parliament passed legislation  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

57 Not only was Richard Hargreaves’s original spinning jenny destroyed  Jeff Horn, “Machine-breaking in England and France During the Age of Revolution,” Labour/Travail 55, Spring 2005.

58 Normandy in particular  Ibid.

59 “the machines used in cotton-spinning”  Ibid.

60 “he had favored machines”  Ibid.

61 “prejudice against machinery”  Ibid.

62 “collective bargaining by riot”  Kevin Binfield, Writings of the Luddites (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).

63 Handloom weavers had been earning  Sale, Rebels Against the Future.

64 “mee-mawing”  Ibid.

65 more than half of all the land then in cultivation in England  Ibid.

66 The lack of a patent  Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions.

67 In the late 1770s, they petitioned Parliament  Binfield, Writings of the Luddites.

68 The stockingers began in the town of Arnold  Ibid.

69 The attacks continued throughout the spring  Horn, “Machine-breaking in England and France During the Age of Revolution.”

70 That November, a commander  Ibid.

71 “2000 men, many of them armed”  Binfield, Writings of the Luddites.

72 Manchester was further down the path  Ibid.

73 Manchester alone had more than three thousand men  Sale, Rebels Against the Future.

74 In January, the West Riding of Yorkshire  Binfield, Writings of the Luddites.

75 “Whereas by the charter”  A. Aspinall and E. Anthony Smith, eds., English Historical Documents XI, 1783–1832 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959).

76 This made them not only self-interested  Horn, “Machine-breaking in England and France During the Age of Revolution.”

77 “I do not mean to say, that parties of Luddites”  Aspinall and Smith, eds., English Historical Documents XI, 1783–1832.

78 “You must raise your right hand”  Ibid.

79 In 1813, there were 2,400 power looms  Usher, “The Textile Industry 1750–1830,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

80 “a steam-loom weaver”  Hills, Power from Steam, quoting Baines’s 1835 History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain.

81 During the century and a half  Clark, Farewell to Alms.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: WEALTH OF NATIONS

1 nothing about the forging of iron  David Warsh, Knowledge and the Wealth of Nations: A Story of Economic Discovery (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006).

2 David Ricardo predicted  Clark, Farewell to Alms.

3 The second component, growth in capital  Warsh, Knowledge and the Wealth of Nations.

4 Solow first assumed  Ibid.

5 “the mass of persons with intermediate skills”  Hobsbawm and Wrigley, Industry and Empire: from 1750 to the Present Day.

6 preindustrial Britain exhibited a fair bit  F. F. Mendels, “Social mobility and phases of industrialization,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 7, 1976.

7 “craftsman’s sons became laborers”  Clark, Farewell to Alms.

8 A recent World Bank analysis  Kirk Hamilton, et al., Where Is the Wealth of Nations? Measuring Capital for the XXI Century (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2005).

9 India was home, in 1700  Maddison, ed., The World Economy: Historical Statistics.

10 Solow’s fundamental growth equation  Warsh, Knowledge and the Wealth of Nations.

11 Kremer’s model made two assumptions  Kremer, “Population Growth and Technological Change.”

12 It’s not as if Kremer was unaware  Kremer, “Population Growth and Technological Change.”

13 But China had, and has, huge coal deposits  Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: Europe, China, and the Making of the Modern World Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

14 And even though the barbarian invasions  Ibid.

15 Needham’s conclusion  Joseph Needham, “The Pre-Natal History of the Steam Engine,” Newcomen Society Transactions 35, no. 49, 1962–63.

16 By 400 CE they had developed a system of water “levers”  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

17 “let it [the box bellows] be furnished”  Ian Inkster, “Indisputable Features and Nebulous Contexts: The Steam Engine as a Global Inquisition,” History of Technology 25, 2004.

18 “The Chinese had already recognized”  Pomeranz, Great Divergence.

19 The Chinese could have a bellows  Kent G. Deng, “Why the Chinese Failed to Develop a Steam Engine,” History of Technology 25, 2004.

20 China’s master artisans were so severely handicapped by illiteracy  Clark, Farewell to Alms.

21 The draw bar was not a complicated device  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

22 “The absence of political competition”  Joseph Needham, Guohao Li, Meng-wen Chang, Tienchin Ts’ao, and Tao-ching Hu, Explorations in the History of Science and Technology in China: A Special Number of the “Collections of Essays on Chinese Literature and History”(Shanghai: Shanghai Chinese Classics, 1982).

23 Europe’s fragmented system of sovereign states  E. L. Jones, The European Miracle: Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

24 Bertrand Russell translated the Chinese term  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

25 From 1600 to 1650, the Dutch government  Geoffrey Parker, Europe in Crisis, 1598–1648 (Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001).

26 Petra Moser, now a professor  Petra Moser, “How Do Patent Laws Influence Innovation? Evidence from Nineteenth Century World’s Fairs,” The American Economic Review 95, no. 4, September 2005.

27 “would have been silly”  Teresa Riordan, “Patents: An Economist Strolls Through History and Turns Patent Theory Upside Down,” New York Times, September 29, 2003.

28 From there on, Britain took over the lead  Kenneth Romer, “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,” Journal of Political Economy 94, no. 5, October 1986.

29 The most intriguing candidate  N.F.R. Crafts, “Macroinventions, Economic Growth, and ‘Industrial Revolution’ in Britain and France,” Economic History Review 58, no. 3, 1995. One estimate has the Netherlands with GDP per capita of $2,130 in 1700 and $1,838 in 1820, expressed in 1990 U.S. dollars.

30 In 1789, the year of the Revolution  Melvin Kranzberg, “Prerequisites for Industrialization,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

31 By the same year, however  Crafts, “Macroinventions, Economic Growth, and ‘Industrial Revolution’ in Britain and France.”

32 Thus, in part because of lower interest rates  Kranzberg, “Prerequisites for Industrialization.”

33 Watt was simultaneously a brilliant engineer  Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity.

34 Among other things, the project provided Diderot  E. S. Ferguson, “The Mind’s Eye: Nonverbal Thought in Technology.”

35 “to offer craftsmen the chance to learn”  Bertrand Gille, The History of Techniques (New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1986).

36 Between 1740 and 1780  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

37 the French did not lionize their inventors  Ibid.

38 “to deprive England of her steam engines”  Carnot, quoted in Inkster, “Indisputable Features and Nebulous Contexts: The Steam Engine as a Global Inquisition.”

39 “every novel idea”  Fritz Machlup, “The Patent Controversy in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Economic History 10, no. 1, May 1950.

40 From 1793 to 1800, in fact  Khan, “An Economic History of Patent Institutions.”

41 “When the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars ended”  Jeff Horn, The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750–1830 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006).

42 “the Republic does not need savants”  Mokyr, “The Great Synergy.” The phrase supposedly originated at Lavoisier’s trial, and it should be noted that the Académie would be reconstituted, under a different name.

CHAPTER TWELVE: STRONG STEAM

1 “I am exceedingly shocked”  Birmingham Central Library and Adam Matthew Publications, The Industrial Revolution: A Documentary History. Series One: The Boulton and Watt Archive and the Matthew Boulton Papers from the Birmingham Central Library.

2 There he found himself, on behalf of the Prince-Elector  Lienhard, How Invention Begins.

3 Caloric theory held that heat was latent  Hills, “The Development of the Steam Engine from Watt to Stephenson,” History of Technology 25, 2004.

4 No matter how many times engineers observed  Ibid.

5 “the elastic force of steam”  Hills, Power from Steam.

6 Matthew Boulton himself intercepted Murdock  Eugene S. Ferguson, “Steam Transportation,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

7 “to grant patents for useful inventions”  Kenneth W. Dobyns, The Patent Office Pony: A History of the Early Patent Office (Fredericksburg, VA: Sergeant Kirkland’s Museum and Historical Society, 1994).

8 “Each revolution of the axle tree”  Thompson Westcott, Life of John Fitch, the Inventor of the Steam-boat (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1857).

9 “the exhibition yesterday”  Ibid.

10 “provide limited patents”  Ibid.

11 “If nature has made any one thing”  S. E. Forman, The Life and Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Including All of His Important Utterances on Public Questions, Compiled from State Papers and from His Private Correspondence (Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1900).

12 In 1792, the official cost of a patent  Christine MacLeod, et al., “Evaluating Inventive Activity: The Cost of Nineteenth-Century UK Patents and the Fallibility of Renewal Data,” Economic History Review LVI, no. 3, Aug. 2003.

13 The cost of a U.S. patent application  Khan, “An Economic History of Patent Institutions.”

14 “I have in my bed viewed the whole operation”  Ferguson, “The Mind’s Eye: Nonverbal Thought in Technology.”

15 “If the bringing together under the same roof”  Carroll W. Pursell, Technology in America: A History of Individuals and Ideas (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981). It should be noted that Jefferson’s complaint was as personal as it was political; in 1806, he had built his own mill, using some of the same methods as Evans, who sent the then sitting president a bill for licensing his patented technology.

16 His goal had been to earn his living  “Oliver Evans” in John A. Garraty, Mark C. Carnes, and American Council of Learned Societies, American National Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

17 “Boiler with the furnace in the center”  Greville Bathe and Dorothy Bathe, Oliver Evans: A Chronicle of Early American Engineering (Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1935).

18 “the more the steam is confined”  Hills, Power from Steam, citing The Emporium of Arts and Sciences 4, 1813.

19 the first significant improvement over Watt’s linkage  Eugene S. Ferguson, “Kinematics of Mechanisms from the Time of Watt,” United States National Museum Bulletin 288, Paper 27, 1962.

20 “in poverty at the age of 50”  Bathe and Bathe, Oliver Evans.

21 “And it shall come to pass”  Ibid.

22 “the time will come”  Ibid.

23 “In 1794–95, I sent drawings”  Ibid.

24 “disobedient, slow, obstinate”  Anthony Burton, Richard Trevithick.

25 Gilbert explained that with each stroke  Kerker, “Science and the Steam Engine.”

26 “Captain Dick got up steam”  Anthony Burton, Richard Trevithick.

27 Two of Trevithick’s drivers  Hills, “The Development of the Steam Engine from Watt to Stephenson.”

28 One of the more avid users was the Coalbrookdale foundry  “Richard Trevithick” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

29 “Mr. B. & Watt”  Hills, Power from Steam.

30 Also, the grade was extremely gentle  Anthony Burton, Richard Trevithick.

31 “makes the draft much stronger”  L.T.C. Rolt, George and Robert Stephenson: The Railway Revolution (London: Longmans, 1960).

32 “yesterday we proceeded”  National Museum of Wales, “Richard Trevithick’s Steam Locomotive,” 2008, online article at http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/article/trevithic_loco/.

33 “My predecessors… put their boilers in the fire”  Selgin and Turner, “James Watt as Intellectual Monopolist: Comment on Boldrin and Levine.”

34 By 1812, Trevithick was boasting  Hills, Power from Steam.

35 Trevithick was forced to flee north  “Richard Trevithick” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

36 “half-drowned, half-dead and the rest devoured by alligators.”  Francis Trevithick, Life of Richard Trevithick, with an Account of His Inventions (London and New York: E. & F.N. Spon, 1872).

37 $100,000 in current dollars  This is calculated as the increase in the index of average earnings, rather than the retail price index. The actual figure is approximately £66,000 a year. www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk

38 Slightly less eyebrow-raising  Rolt, George and Robert Stephenson.

39 The first common carrier to realize this  Eugene S. Ferguson, “Steam Transportation,” in Kranzberg and Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilization.

40 “From professors of philosophy”  Quoted in Rolt, George and Robert Stephenson.

41 “Rely upon it, locomotives”  Archives of the Science Museum, London, at http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/01.st.04

42 “the water flying in all directions”  Samuel Smiles, The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer (London: J. Murray, 1857).

43 “he had the lives of many men in him”  Lawrence F. Abbott, Twelve Great Modernists: Herodotus, St. Francis, Erasmus, Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, François Millet, George Stephenson, Beethoven, Emerson, Darwin, Pasteur (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1927).

EPILOGUE: THE FUEL OF INTEREST

1 This tempted John Ericsson  Lynwood Bryant, “The Role of Thermodynamics in the Evolution of Heat Engines,” Technology and Culture 14, no. 2, April 1973.

2 “if not absolutely perfect in its action”  Hills, Power from Steam.

3 The ten-thousand-horsepower monster  Ibid.

4 “Small changes in the parameters of the economy”  Paul Krugman, “Increasing Returns and Economic Geography,” The Journal of Political Economy 99, no. 3, June 1991.

5 This is an argument starter  Deepak Lal, “In Defense of Empires,” in A. J. Bacevich, ed., The Imperial Tense (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2003).

6 “no nation has been very creative”  D.S.L. Cardwell, Turning Points in Western Technology: A Study of Technology, Science and History (New York: Science History Publications, 1972).

7 In 1700, when Great Britain’s per capita  All following statistics are drawn from Maddison, ed., The World Economy: Historical Statistics.

8 The age of scientific invention  Mokyr, Lever of Riches.

9 In 1850, France alone issued  Khan, “An Economic History of Patent Institutions,” EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples, March 16, 2008, at http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/khan.patents.

10 “regard discovery and invention”  Ibid.

11 “It is not the man of the greatest natural vigour”  Quoted in Katrina Honeyman, Origins of Enterprise: Business Leadership in the Industrial Revolution (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982).

12 “Man… is not the only animal who labors”  Lincoln, Basler and Abraham Lincoln Association (Springfield, IL), Collected Works (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1953), vol. 3.

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