Modern history

Notes

INTRODUCTION

1 In the light of this intention, I have not given full bibliographical details of the works to which I allude. The works referred to will be found in the bibliography; see below, pp. 613–14.

2 e.g. G. V. Taylor, C. B. A. Behrens and William Doyle.

3 The doyen of the approach is Michel Antoine, though see too British scholars Peter Campbell, Munro Price, John Hardman, John Rogister and Julian Swann.

4 See e.g. Lucien Bély, Jeremy Black, T. C. W. Blanning.

5 See e.g. Ralph Giesey, Sarah Hanley, Richard Jackson, and, on the French side, Alain Boureau, Jean-Marie Apostolides and Louis Marin.

6 See e.g. Dale Van Kley on Damiens’s assassination attempt, Robert Darnton on the ‘Great Cat Massacre’ and Arlette Farge and Jacques Revel on the ‘vanishing children of Paris’.

7 See esp. the work of Dale Van Kley and Catherine Maire.

8 See e.g. for the book trade, Roger Chartier, Robert Darnton, Raymond Birn, Carla Hesse; for the press, Jeremy Popkin and the group around Jean Sgard, Pierre Rétat and Gilles Feyel; for academies, Daniel Roche; and for freemasonry Ran Halévi and Margaret Jacob.

9 Michael Sonenscher is the main proponent of the ‘Cambridge School’ who works on France. For cultural psychology, see esp. Lynn Hunt.

10. Of the enormous amount of work written under this banner see esp. and e.g. David Bell, Dena Goodman, Sarah Maza, Tom Kaiser.

11 See pp. 239–40.

12 See e.g. Patrick O’Brien, Philip Hoffman, Giles Postel-Vinay, E. N. White, Hilton Root.

1: FRANCE IN 1715: THE KING’S LEG AND THE CHOREOGRAPHY OF POWER

1 Cited in R. Astier, ‘Louis XIV, Premier Danseur’, in D. L. Rubin (ed.), Sun King: The Ascendancy of French Culture during the Reign of Louis XIV (London, 1992), pp. 86–7.

2 Saint-Simon cited in J. M. Apostolides, Le Roi-machine. Spectacle et politique au temps de Louis XIV (Paris, 1981), p. 156.

3 A. Guéry and R. Descimon, ‘Un État des temps modernes’, in A. Burguière and J. Revel (eds.), Histoire de la France. L’État et les pouvoirs (Paris, 1989), p. 238.

4 Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, Politique tirée des propres paroles de l’Écriture sainte, ed. J. Le Brun (Geneva, 1967), pp. 68, 185.

5 I have plundered this term from Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (London, 1984). See too below, chapter 11, section B.

6 Manière de montrer les jardins de Versailles (Paris, 1951 edn).

7 Mémoires de Louis XIV (2 vols.; Paris, 1860), vol. ii, p. 7.

8 P. Burke, The Fabrication of Louis XIV (London, 1992), p. 49.

9 N. Ferrier-Caverivière, L’Image de Louis XIV dans la littérature française de 1660 à 1715 (Paris, 1981), p. 65.

10 Baron de Breteuil, Mémoires, ed. E. Lever (Paris, 1992), p. 330.

11 ibid., p. 328.

12 Henri IV, cited in J. Barbey, Être roi. Le Roi et son gouvernement en France de Clovis à Louis XVI (Paris, 1992), p. 146.

13 M. Bloch, The Royal Touch. Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in England and France (London, 1973).

14 Bodin, Les Six Livres de la République, Book 1, ch. viii (‘De la souveraineté’).

15 There were ten parlements in existence on Louis XIV’s birth: creations at Metz (1657), Besançon (1676) and Tournai (1686: changed to Douai in 1714) brought the number up to thirteen in 1715. In the eighteenth century, Bastia (1768) and Nancy (1775) were added. In addition, there were twelve cours des comptes and four cours des aides, sovereign courts dealing with financial issues.

16 Contrat de mariage du Parlement avec la ville de Paris (Paris, 1649).

17 H. Leclercq, Histoire de la Régence (3 vols.; Paris, 1921), vol. i, p. 62.

18 Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, Mémoires de Saint-Simon, eds. A. de Boislisle and L. Lecestre (43 vols.; Paris, 1879–1930), vol. xxvii, pp. 6–7.

19 W. J. Beik, Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France: State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc (Cambridge, 1985), p. 265.

20 J. Klaits, Printed Propaganda under Louis XIV. Absolute Monarchy and Public Opinion (Princeton, NJ, 1976), p. 18.

21 See below, pp. 55–6.

22 A Short Review of the Book of Jansenius (n.p., 1710), ‘Preface’ (no pagination).

23 See below, chapter 3, section C.

24 Citations from R. Taveneaux, Le Catholicisme dans la France classique (1610–1715) (2 vols.; Paris, 1980), vol. i, pp. 326, 516.

25 C. Maire, De la Cause de Dieu à la cause de la Nation. Le jansénisme au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1998), p. 10.

26 M. Kwass, Privilege and the Politics of Taxation in Eighteenth-Century France: Liberté, Égalité, Fiscalité (Cambridge, 2000), p. 41.

27 Faydit’s La Télémaquomanie was published in 1700. It is cited in V. Kapp, ‘Télémaque’ de Fénelon: la signification d’une oeuvre littéraire à la fin du siècle classique (Paris and Tübingen, 1982), on which I have drawn heavily in this passage. Another equally mythical history being constructed as a weapon against absolutism was the ‘Figurist’ scriptural chronicle being devised by certain Jansenists: see below, pp. 102–3.

28 François de Fénelon, Telemachus, Son of Ulysses, ed. P. Riley (Cambridge, 1994), p. 60. (I have slightly altered the translation.)

29 ibid., p. 297.

30 See below, pp. 55–7.

31 Kapp, ‘Télémaque’ de Fénelon, p. 205, n. 12.

32 G. Treca, Les Doctrines et les réformes de droit public en réaction contre l’absolutisme de Louis XIV dans l’entourage du duc de Bourgogne (Paris, 1909), p. 27.

33 Lettres de Madame duchesse d’Orléans, née Princesse Palatine, ed. O. Amiel (Paris, 1895), p. 352.

34 Full quote in Breteuil, Mémoires, p. 327.

35 Mémoires de Saint-Simon, vol. xxvii, p. 281. See also, on this episode, Breteuil, Mémoires, p. 328.

36 Pierre Narbonne, Journal des règnes de Louis XIV et Louis XV (de l’année 1701 à l’année 1744) (Paris, 1866), p. 44.

37 R. N. Nicolich, ‘Sunset: the spectacle of the royal funeral and memorial services at the end of the reign of Louis XIV, in Rubin, Sun King, for the quotations and a full discussion. The physicians’ autopsy is cited in full in A. Franklin, La Vie privée d’autrefois. Les Chirurgiens (Paris, 1893), pp. 290–91.

2: NEGOTIATING STORMY WEATHER: THE REGENCY AND THE ADVENT OF FLEURY (1715–26)

1 E. Faure, La Banqueroute de Law (17 juillet 1720) (Paris, 1977), p. 68.

2 Mathieu Marais, Journal et mémoires sur la Régence et le règne de Louis XV (1715–37) (4 vols.; Paris, 1863–8), vol. i, p. 180.

3 Louis-Antoine de Goudron, duc d’Antin, ‘Mémoires’, Bibliothèque Nationale. Nouvelles Acquisitions Françaises 23729–37: 23729, fol. 21. Compare this quotation with that from Télémaque above, p. 27.

4 Madame de Staal-Delaunay, Mémoires, ed. G. Doscot (Paris, 1970), p. 100.

5 See above, p. 27.

6 See below, p. 60ff.

7 d’Antin, ‘Mémoires’, BN NAF 23731, fols. 9ff.

8 See below, p. 113.

9 Marais, Journal et mémoires, vol. ii, p. 121.

10 See above, p. 21.

11 D’Antin is cited in J. C. Petitfils, Le Régent (Paris, 1986), p. 450. The incumbent of the post of Chancellor was immoveable. When not in favour or unable to work, his functions were carried out by the Keeper of the Seals (Garde des Sceaux).

12 For a fuller discussion of disputes over financial policy, see below, section E.

13 F. A. Isambert, Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises (29 vols.; Paris, 1821–33), vol. xxi, p. 147.

14 Retz called the ineffectual Conti ‘un zéro’, but added sardonically that one could nevertheless multiply by him because he was a Prince of the Blood. Oeuvres, ed. A. Feillet et al. (1870–96), vol. ii, p. 180.

15 Staal-Delaunay, Mémoires, pp. 101, 131 (an important source for the Maines’ conspiracy).

16 Lettres de M. *** à un homme de qualité (no place or date of publication), pp. 43–4. This publication may be consulted, along with other pamphlets from the affair, in the British Library FR1.

17 Lettres de Madame la duchesse d’Orléans née Princesse Palatine, ed. O. Amiel (Paris, 1985): e.g. pp. 352, 409, 412, 422, etc.

18 Staal-Delaunay, Mémoires, p. 111.

19 See e.g. Justification de M. le Président de *** sur la dispute des Princes (n.p. 1717), p. 13. (British Library, FR1).

20 Mémoires de Saint-Simon, vol. xxvi, p. 280.

21 Correspondance complète de Madame, duchesse d’Orléans, ed. G. Binet (2 vols., Paris, 1866), vol. i, p. 453.

22 Marquis d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires du règne de Louis XV (9 vols.; Paris, 1859–67), vol. i, p. 23. Cf. on the same lines, d’Antin, ‘Memoires’, BN NAF 29,933, fol. 61.

23 Richer d’Aubé, ‘Réflexions sur le Gouvernement de France’, Bibliothèque Nationale, Nouvelles Acquisitions Françaises 9511, fols. 1–2.

24 France measured some 528 million square kilometres in the Revolution, and since then only a further 27,000 square kilometres have been added.

25 See below, chapter 4, section D.

26 Fénelon, Lettre à Louis XIV, ed. F. X. Cuche (Rezé, 1994), p. 44.

27 See above, pp. 19ff.

28 See above, chapter 1, section C.

29 Samuel Bernard, cited in M. and R. Bonney, Jean-Roland Malet, premier historien des finances de la monarchie française (Paris, 1993), p. 85.

30 Richer d’Aubé, ‘Réflexions’, fol. 57.

31 T. Kaiser, ‘Money, despotism and public opinion in early eighteenth-century France: John Law and the debate on royal credit’, Journal of Modern History, 63 (1991), p. 5.

32 John Law, Oeuvres completes, ed. P. Harsin (3 vols.; Paris, 1934), vol. iii, p. 77.

33 Kaiser, ‘Money, despotism and public opinion’, p. 3.

34 Correspondance complète de Madame, duchesse d’Orléans, vol. ii, p. 72; Montesquieu, Lettres persanes, letter cxxxviii.

35 Law, Oeuvres complètes, vol. ii, p. 266.

36 J. de Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement de Paris au XVIIIe siècle (3 vols.; Paris, 1888–98), vol. i, p. 127.

37 Kaiser, ‘Money, despotism and public opinion’, p. 15.

38 ibid, p. 6.

39 Retz, Oeuvres, vol. iii, p. 358.

40 Marais, Journal et mémoires, vol. i, p. 319.

41 Correspondance complète de Madame, duchesse d’Orléans, vol. ii, p. 242 (‘en bon langage palatin’, she recorded).

42 E. F. J. Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique du règne de Louis XV (4 vols.; Paris, 1847–56), vol. i, p. 69.

43 A. Murphy, John Law, Economic Theorist and Policy Maker (Oxford, 1997), p. 5.

44 See below, p. 158.

45 De l’Esprit des Lois, Book 2, ch. 2.

46 See below, chapter 4, section E.

47 The deaths in question: his father, mother, brother, then his great-grandfather before becoming king; then of Dubois and Orléans. The wedding was his own.

48 Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique, vol. i, p. 70 (from December 1720).

49 A useful witness of Villeroy’s eccentricities in this respect is Mehmed efendi, the Turkish envoy sent to France on an ambassadorial visit in 1721: see Mehmed efendi, Le Paradis des infidèles. Un ambassadeur ottoman en France sous la Régence (Paris, 1981), esp. pp. 95 ff.

50 M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989), p. 25.

51 Mémoires de Saint-Simon, vol. vii, pp. 267–8.

52 Cf. Narbonne, Journal, p. 77.

53 Cited in Petitfils, Le Régent, p. 576.

54 Richer d’Aubé, ‘Réflexions’, fol. 1.

55 J. McManners, Death and the Enlightenment. Changing Attitudes towards Death among Christians and Unbelievers in Eighteenth-Century France (Oxford, 1981), p. 46.

56 Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique, vol. i, p. 192.

57 Marais, Journal et mémoires, vol. iii, p. 187.

58 According to the duc de Bourbon: Antoine, Louis XV, p. 158.

59 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 162.

3: FLEURY’S FRANCE (1726–43)

1 Charles-Philippe Albert, duc de Luynes, Mémoires sur la cour de Louis XV (1735–58) (17 vols.; Paris, 1860–65), vol. iii, p. 209.

2 P. R. Campbell, Power and Politics in Old Régime France (1720–45) (London, 1996), p. 74.

3 René-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, ed. E. J. B. Rathery (9 vols.; Paris, 1859–67), vol. i, p. 265.

4 See e.g. Luynes, Mémoires, vol. ix, p. 288; vol. x, p. 311; etc.

5 Pierre Narbonne, Journal des règnes de Louis XIV et Louis XV de l’année 1701 à l’année 1744 (Paris, 1866), p. 509.

6 ‘Journal de police sous Louis XV (1742–3)’, in Barbier, Chronique de la Régence et du règne de Louis XV (1718–66) (8 vols.; Paris, 1857–66), vol. viii. This journal is not included in the edition of Barbier which we have used elsewhere.

7 Richer d’Aubé, ‘Réflexions sur le gouvernement de France’, Bibliothèque Nationale, Nouvelles Acquisitions Françaises 9511, fo. 14.

8 Luynes, Memoires, vol. v, p. 92.

9 ibid., vol. iv, p. 167.

10 d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. i, p. 234. For economic recovery in this period, see chapter 4, section E.

11 ibid., vol. iii, p. 427.

12 Cited in F. Lebrun, Être chrétien en France sous l’Ancien Régime, 1516–1790 (Paris, 1996), p. 128.

13 This is a contentious figure because it includes the dioceses located in the papal Comtat Venaissin as well as dioceses which extended outside the political frontiers. Territorial acquisitions plus some new creations caused the number of dioceses to rise to 136 by 1789.

14 Cited in B. Plongeron, La Vie quotidienne du clergé français au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1974), p. 75.

15 See above, pp. 33–4.

16 For the use of the term, see esp. M. Vovelle, Piété baroque et déchristianisation. Attitudes provençales devant la mort au siècle des Lumières, d’après les clauses des testaments (Paris, 1973).

17 Sauvageon’s testimony is superbly examined in G. Bouchard, Le Village immobile: Sennely-en-Sologne au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1972): see esp. pp. 339, 341, etc.

18 G. Hardy, Le Cardinal Fleury et le mouvement janséniste (Paris, 1925), pp. 9–10.

19 Citations in E. Appolis, Le Jansénisme dans le diocèse de Lodève au XVIIIe siècle (Albi, 1952), p. 105. For similar remarks from Fleury to the pope in 1730, see Campbell, Power and Politics, p. 240.

20 See above, p. 75.

21 B. R. Kreiser, Miracles, Convulsions and Ecclesiastical Politics in Early Eighteenth-Century Paris (Princeton, NJ, 1978), p. 59.

22 Cited in C. Maire, De la Cause de Dieu à la cause de la nation. Les jansénistes au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1998), p. 138.

23 See above, pp. 26–7.

24 See above, p. 45.

25 Nouvelles ecclésiastiques, 1728, cited in Maire, De la Cause de Dieu, p. 225.

26 See above, p. 93.

27 Campbell, Politics and Power, p. 212.

28 Maire, De la Cause de Dieu, p. 385.

29 M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989), p. 284.

30 E. J. F. Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique du règne de Louis XV, ed. A. de La Villegille (4 vols.; Paris, 1847–56), vol. ii, p. 430.

31 Fénelon, ‘Examen de conscience sur les devoirs de la royauté’, in id., Oeuvres, ed. J. Le Brun (Paris, 1983), vol. ii, p. 977.

32 According to the analyses of historical demographers, France’s population passed from 24.5 to 25.7 million between 1750 and 1760: see J. Dupâcquier, Histoire de la population française. ii. De la Renaissance à 1789 (Paris, 1988), p. 61. See also below, pp. 157–8.

33 F. de Dainville, La Cartographie reflet de l’histoire (Geneva, 1986), p. 279.

34 The Parisian police official Le Maire, writing in 1770, as cited in M. Raeff, ‘The well-ordered police state and the development of modernity in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe: an attempt at a comparative approach’, American Historical Review, 80 (1975), p. 1,235n.

35 M. Fogel, L’État dans la France moderne (de la fin du XVe au milieu du XVIIIe siècle) (Paris, 1992), p. 372.

36 d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. iii, p. 103.

37 Along with clocks. See the list in R. Briggs, ‘The Académie royale des Sciences and the pursuit of utility’, Past and Present, 131 (1991).

38 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 325.

39 D. Roche, ‘Censorship and the publishing industry’, in id. and R. Darnton (eds.), Revolution in Print: The Press in France, 1775–1800 (Berkeley, Ca., 1989), p. 22; R. Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. (Durham, NC, 1991), p. 50.

40 M. N. Bourguet, Déchiffrer la France. La statistique départementale à l’époque napoléonienne (Paris, 1989), p. 32.

41 D. Bell, Lawyers and Citizens. The Making of a Political Elite in Old Régime France (Oxford and New York, 1994), p. 4.

42 Barbier, Journal historique, vol. ii. p. 148.

43 As told to d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. i, p. 133.

44 Cited in Bell, Lawyers and Citizens, p. 7.

45 Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, Paris: ms. 10159: police report, 17 September 1729.

46 d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. ii, p. 178.

47 See below, chapter 5, section E.

48 Campbell, Politics and Power, p. 147.

49 Cf. d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. i, p. 284; Luynes, Mémoires, vol. ii, p. 232.

50 Luynes, Mémoires, vol. ii, p. 431; d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. iii, p. 171.

51 Marc-Pierre de Voyer, comte d’Argenson (1696–1764) should be distinguished from his elder brother René-Louis de Voyer (1694–1757), marquis d’Argenson, the author of the Journal et mémoires on which we have drawn in this account. They were sons of Marc-René de Voyer, comte, then marquis d’Argenson (1652–1721), who as Lieutenant Général of Police served the Regent well on the changeover of power in 1715, then in 1718 became Keeper of the Seals.

52 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 301.

53 Barbier, Journal, vol. ii, p. 189.

54 ibid., vol. iii, p. 333.

55 Barbier, Chronique de la Régence et du règne de Louis XV [sic], p. 216.

56 id., Journal, vol. ii, p. 157.

4: UNSUSPECTED GOLDEN YEARS (1743–56)

1 M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989), p. 353.

2 Louis to Noailles: ibid, p. 355.

3 Richer d’Aubé, ‘Réflexions sur le Gouvernement de France’, Bibliothèque Nationale. Nouvelles Acquisitions Françaises, 9515, fo. 556. Cf. E. J. F. Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique du règne de Louis XV, ed. A. de La Villegille (4 vols.; Paris, 1857–64), vol. ii, pp. 402ff.; Charles-Philippe Albert, duc de Luynes, Mémoires sur la cour de Louis XV (1735–58), (17 vols; Paris, 1860–5), vol. Vi, p. 48.

4 René-Louis Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, ed. E. J. B. Rathery (9 vols., Paris, 1959–67), vol. iv, p. 106.

5 Barbier, Journal historique, vol. iii, p. 296.

6 P. Narbonne, Journal des règnes de Louis XIV et Louis XV (de l’année 1701 à l’année 1744) (Paris, 1866), p. 502.

7 This was according to d’Argenson (who detested her): Journal et mémoires, vol. vii, p. 282. See C. Jones, Madame de Pompadour. Images of a Mistress (London, 2002).

8 See above, p. 120.

9 Barbier, Journal historique, vol. iii, p. 242.

10 See below, pp. 137–9.

11 Jacques-Louis Ménétra, Journal of My Life, ed. D. Roche (New York, 1986), p. 22. The event is recorded and commented on in all the memorialists of the reign, and is well covered in A. Farge and J. Revel, The Vanishing Children of Paris: Rumor and Politics before the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

12 Barbier, Journal historique, vol. iii, p. 296.

13 d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. vi, p. 219.

14 See above, p. 22.

15 See above, chapter 3, Section E.

16 Cited in J. Black, ‘Mid Eighteenth Century Conflict with Particular Reference to the Wars of the Polish and Austrian Succession’, in id. (ed.), The Origin of War in Early Modern Europe (Edinburgh, 1987), p. 228. This was a familiar British fantasy.

17 d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. iv, p. 135; Antoine, Louis XV, p. 400.

18 ibid.

19 M. S. Anderson, The War of the Austrian Succession, 1740–8 (London, 1995), P. 35; Maurice, comte de Saxe, Mes Rêveries (2 vols.; Amsterdam and Leipzig, 1757), vol. ii, p. 148.

20 See below, p. 228.

21 Cited in Daniel Roche, Histoire des choses banales: Naissance de la consommation (XVIIe–XIXe siècle) (Paris, 1997), p. 248.

22 See below, next section.

23 See above, p. 55

24 Example from 1637 cited in F. Lebrun, ‘Les Crises démographiques en France aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles’, Annates ESC, 35 (1980), p. 216.

25 See above, p. 55–6.

26 The concept is developed in O. Hufton’s outstanding The Poor of Eighteenth-Century France (1750–89) (Oxford, 1974).

27 See below, pp. 275, 281, 297, etc.

28 See M. Sonenscher, ‘Fashion’s empire: trade and power in early eighteenth-century France’, in R. Fox and A. Turner (eds.), Luxury Trades and Consumerism in Ancien Régime Paris: Studies in the History of the Skilled Workforce (Aldershot, 1998).

29 M. Berg, ‘French Fancy and Cool Britannia: The Fashion Markets of Early Modern Europe’, Proceedings of the Istituto internazionale di storia economica ‘F. Datini’ (Prato, 2001), p. 532; John Law, Oeuvres complètes, ed. P. Harsin (3 vols.; Paris, 1934), vol. ii, pp. 115–16.

30 Cited in L. Hilaire-Pérez, L’Expérience de la mer: Les Européens et les espaces maritimes au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1997), p. 16.

31 Abbé Galiani, Correspondance, eds. L. Perey and G. Maugras (2 vols.; Paris, 1890), vol. i, p. 247.

32 Mehmed efendi, Le Paradis des infidèles. Un ambassadeur ottoman en France sous la Régence (Paris, 1981), p. 79; Arthur Young, Travels in France in the Years 1787, 1788 and 1789, ed. C. Maxwell (Cambridge, 1929), p. 58.

33 Cited in M. Filion, Maurepas, ministre de Louis XV, 1715–49 (Montreal, 1967), p. 43.

34 François-Vincent Toussaint, Anecdotes curieuses de la cour de France sous le règne de Louis XV, ed. P. Fould (Paris, 1908), p. 66. The work first appeared in 1745 with coded names.

35 Letter to her husband, 18 August 1739, cited in A. M. Wilson, French Foreign Policy during the Administration of Cardinal Fleury (Cambridge, Mass., 1936), p. 55.

36 ‘Situation du Commerce Exterieur du Roiaume exposée à Sa Majesté par M. le Comte de Maurepas’ (1730): cited in full in Filion, Maurepas, p. 159.

5: AN ENLIGHTENING AGE

1 Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres (Paris, 1751–72).

2 See below, p. 192.

3 Encyclopédie, vol. i, p. 716 (article, ‘art’).

4 ibid., vol. v, p. 641 (article, ‘Encyclopédie’).

5 Diderot, cited in R. Darnton, ‘Philosophers trim the tree of knowledge: the epistemological strategy of the Encyclopédie’, in id., The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York, 1985), p. 199.

6 ‘Prospectus de l’Encyclopédie’, in D. Diderot, Oeuvres complètes, eds. H. Dieckman and J. Varloot (5 vols., Paris, 1975), vol. v, p. 88.

7 Encyclopédie, vol. v, p. 635 (article, ‘Encyclopédie’).

8 ‘Avertissement’ to Encyclopédie, vol. iii, p. iv.

9 Encyclopédie, vol. v, p. 636 (article, ‘Encyclopédie’).

10 As noted in R. Darnton, The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie, 1775–1800 (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), p. 8.

11 Encyclopédie, vol. v, p. 642 (article, ‘Encyclopédie).

12 ibid., vol. v, p. 637 (article, ‘Encyclopédie’).

13 Montesquieu, Lettres persanes (1721), letter lxxiii.

14 Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Tableau de Paris (12 vols; Amsterdam, 1782–8), vol. i, pp. 227–8.

15 Bouhier, cited by D. Goodman, The Republic of Letters. A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (Ithaca, NY, 1994), p. 17.

16 See above, p. 166.

17 Réponse d’un artiste à un homme de Lettres qui lui avait écrit sur les wauxhalls (Amsterdam, 1769), cited in G. A. Langlois, “‘Les Charmes de l’égalité:” éléments pour une urbanistique des loisirs publics à Paris de Louis XV à Louis-Philippe’, Histoire urbaine, 1 (2000), p. 12.

18 For women, see below, pp. 195ff. The commoner representation would undoubtedly be even higher in all cases if we counted non-noble clerics involved in the various activities.

19 Cited in S. Schaffer, ‘Enlightened Automata’, in W. Clark, J. Golinski and S. Schaffer (eds.), The Sciences in Enlightened Europe (Chicago, 1999), p. 129.

20 As cited in M. Hulliung, The Autocritique of Enlightenment. Rousseau and the Philosophes (Cambridge, Mass., 1994), p. 38.

21 Voltaire as cited in K. Baker, Inventing the French Revolution. Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1990) p. 214; René-Louis Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, ed. E. J. B. Rathery (9 vols.; Paris, 1959–67), vol. vi, p. 464.

22 See above, p. 26. For the political uses of historical research, see section E below.

23 Encyclopédie, vol. viii, p. 220 (article, ‘histoire’).

24 De l’Esprit des lois, ‘Préface’.

25 Voltaire, Le Siècle de Louis XIV, ch. 1.

26 Encyclopédie, vol. v, p. 641 (article, ‘Encyclopédie’).

27 Lettres persanes, lettre xxiv; N. Ferrier-Caverivière, Le Grand Roi à l’aube des lumières, 1715–51 (Paris, 1985), p. 48.

28 Lettres philosophiques, in Voltaire, Oeuvres, ed. P. Naves (Paris, 1988), p. 45.

29 Voltaire, Zaïre (1736): ‘seconde epître dédicatoire’.

30 See above, p. 169.

31 Voltaire, cited in D. Roche, France in the Enlightenment (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), p. 566.

32 ibid.

33 Voltaire to the chevalier du Coudray, 8 March 1773: Correspondance complète, ed. T. Besterman (101 vols.; Geneva, 1953–77), vol. xxxix, letter 18236, p. 327.

34 De l’Esprit des lois, book 20, ch. 1.

35 Encyclopédie, vol. ix, pp. 769–70 (article, ‘luxe’).

36 In fact, Mirabeau, who used the term in 1756, saw religion rather than trade and exchange as crucial to the process of civilization. The term soon took on a more materialist and progressivist flavour: see discussion in J. Starobinski, Blessings in Disguise, or the Morality of Evil (Cambridge, 1993), esp. p. 3.

37 J.-J. Rousseau, Oeuvres complètes (5 vols.; Paris, 1959–95), eds. M. Raymond and B. Gagnebin, vol. i, p. 388.

38 Voltaire, Correspondance, vol. xxvii, p. 230 (letter 5,792).

39 ibid., vol. xlii, p. 134 (letter 8,238).

40 For further discussion of Rousseau’s politics, see below, pp. 221ff.

41 Readers’ fan mail cited in Darnton, Great Cat Massacre, esp. pp. 236–8.

42 Émile in Oeuvres (5 vols.; 1964–95), vol. iv, p. 267.

43 ibid., vol. v, p. 703.

44 ibid., vol. iv, p. 736.

45 Encyclopédie, vol. vi, p. 471.

46 Rousseau, ‘First Discourse’, in Oeuvres, vol. iii, p. 21n.

47 As explored in L. Steinbrügge, The Moral Sex: Women’s Nature in the French Enlightenment (Oxford, 1995).

48 ‘Lettre à d’Alembert’, in Oeuvres, vol. iii, pp. 45 and 1,135 n. 5.

49 Pierre Roussel, Système physique et moral de la femme, ou Tableau philosophique de la constitution, de l’état organique, du tempérament, des moeurs et des fonctions propres au sexe (Paris, 1775), p. 103.

50 N. Hampson, The Enlightenment (Harmondsworth, 1968), p. 131.

51 Diderot, Correspondance, ed. G. Roth (16 vols.; Paris, 1955–70), vol. iv, pp. 176–7 (29 Sept 1762).

52 Voltaire, Oeuvres, vol. cxxxiv, pp. 399, 403.

53 Cited in J. de Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières, 1715–99 (Paris, 1995), p. 284.

54 See above, pp. 97–8.

55 See above, pp. 33–4.

56 See above, p. 98.

57 Diderot, Correspondance, vol. iv, p. 98 (letter of 12 August 1762). For the expulsion of the Jesuits, see below, p. 247ff.

58 D’Holbach, Système de la nature (3 vols; London, 1770) vol. ii, pp. 397–8.

59 Cited by J. Roger, Buffon (Paris, 1989), p. 566.

60 Encyclopédie, vol. xi, p. 8.

61 B. M. Stafford, Artful Science. Enlightenment Entertainment and the Eclipse of Visual Education (Cambridge, Mass., 1994), p. 234.

62 D. C. Charlton, New Images of the Natural in France. A Study in European Cultural History, 1750–1800 (Cambridge, 1984), p. 79.

63 Roland de la Platière, husband of the future Girondin salonnière. The citation which comes from 1785 is in Roche, France in the Enlightenment, p. 246.

64 M. Foucault, The Order of Things. An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York, 1971).

65 L. Daston, in Clark, Golinski and Schaffer (eds.), The Sciences in Enlightened Europe (Chicago, 1999), p. 347.

66 ibid., pp. 355, 357.

67 Émile, in Oeuvres, vol. i, p. 277.

68 In his Confessions: Oeuvres, vol. i, p. 116.

69 Mercier, Tableau de Paris, vol. i, pp. 25–8.

70 Abbé Galiani and Madame d’Épinay, Correspondance, ed. G. Dulac (5 vols.; Paris, 1992), vol. ii, p. 259.

71 In his Fragments sur les institutions républicaines (3rd fragment).

72 See below, p. 268.

73 1778 edn, cited in J. Sgard, Dictionnaire des journaux, 1600–1789 (Paris, 1991), vol. ii, p. 137.

74 De Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire, p. 314.

75 See above, p. 147.

76 I am drawing heavily here on the tripartite division elaborated in K. M. Baker, Inventing the French Revolution (Cambridge, 1990).

77 See above, p. 191.

78 Cited in J. Proust, Diderot et l’Encyclopédie (Paris, 1962), p. 451, n.7.

79 See esp. below, over the Calas Affair, pp. 270–71.

80 Montesquieu, De l’Esprit des lois, ch. xix.

81 Rousseau to Mirabeau, 26 July 1767:, in id., Correspondance, ed. R. A. Leigh et al. (51 vols.; Oxford, 1972–99), vol. xxxiii, p. 243.

82 See above, p. 193.

83 Esquisse d’un tableau historique des progrès de l’esprit humain (Paris, 1988), p. 188.

84 Encyclopédie, vol. xi, pp. 506ff (article, ‘opinion’).

85 See above, pp. 48–9, 52, 102.

86 See esp. below, p. 308.

6: FORESTALLING DELUGE (1756–70)

1 D. Van Kley, The Damiens Affair and the Unravelling of the Ancien Régime, 1750–1770 (Princeton, NJ, 1984), p. 23.

2 ibid., p. 36.

3 ibid., p. 43.

4 J. de Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement de Paris au XVIIIe Siècle (3 vols.; Paris, 1888–98), vol. i, p. 523. This phrase was all the more annoying for the crown in that it had first been used by the Parlement in 1527 and therefore could not be presented as dangerously innovatory.

5 E. F. J. Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique du règne de Louis XV, ed. A. de La Villegille (4 vols.; Paris, 1857–64), vol. iv, p. 198.

6 For an account of the scene based on contemporary accounts, see the opening pages of Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison (London, 1977).

7 Cited in J. Rogister, Louis XV and the Parlement of Paris, 1737–55 (Cambridge, 1995), p. 231.

8 M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989), p. 579.

9 L. A. Le Paige, Lettres historiques sur les fonctions essentielles du Parlement (Amsterdam, 1753), p. 320.

10 Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement, vol. ii, p. 26.

11 See above, p. 106

12 De l’Esprit des lois, book 2, ch. 4.

13 René-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, ed. E. J. B. Rathery (9 vols.; Paris, 1859–67), vol. iii, p. 153. In conciliar theory, a council of the church universal had spiritual precedence over the authority of the pope.

14 ibid., p. 315.

15 J. Egret, Louis XV et l’opposition parlementaire, 1715–74 (Paris, 1970), p. 84. Some of Le Paige’s fellow polemicists in the 1750s followed Conciliarist logic to the conclusion of seeing the highest expression of sovereignty as not king, nor even the parlements, but the Estates General, which the emergence of absolutism had consigned to mothballs. This was as yet, however, only a minority view.

16 Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement, vol. ii, p. 138 (22 August 1756).

17 J. Merrick, The Desacralization of the French Monarchy in the Eighteenth Century (Baton Rouge, La., 1990), pp. 94–5.

18 D. Van Kley, The Damiens Affair, p. 115.

19 See next section.

20 L. Kennett, The French Army in the Seven Years War (Durham, NC, 1967), p. x.

21 J. D. Woodbridge, Revolt in Prerevolutionary France: The Prince de Conti’s Conspiracy against Louis XV 1755–7 (Baltimore, Md, 1995), p. 135.

22 M. S. Anderson, The War of Austrian Succession, 1740–8 (London, 1995), p. 63.

23 See above, p. 137.

24 See above, p. 139.

25 T. C. W. Blanning, The Origins of the French Revolutionary Wars (London, 1986), p. 41.

26 P. Mansel, Louis XVIII (Stroud, 1981), p. 40.

27 d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires, vol. ix, p. 340. For the debate on Conti, see Woodbridge, Revolt in Prerevolutionary France.

28 The comparison was the Président Hénault’s, according to Kennett, The French Army in the Seven Years War, p. 6.

29 M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989), p. 748.

30 M. Sonenscher, ‘The Nation’s Debt and the birth of the modern republic: The French fiscal deficit and the politics of the Revolution of 1789’, History of Political Thought, 18 (1997), p. 94, n. 85.

31 See esp. below, chapter 8, section B.

32 See below, p. 246.

33 J. Barbey, être roi. Le roi et son gouvernement en France de Clovis à Louis XVI (Paris, 1992), p. 183.

34 Barbier, Journal historique, vol. iv, p. 453.

35 id., Chronique de la Régence et du règne de Louis XV (1718–63), ed. Charpentier (8 vols.; Paris, 1857), vol. vii, p. 77, n. 1.

36 id., Journal historique, vol. iv, pp. 447, 460.

37 D. Van Kley, The Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France, 1757–65 (New Haven, 1975), p. 28.

38 id., The Religious Origins of the French Revolution from Calvin to the Civil Constitution, 1560–1791 (New Haven, 1996), p. 158.

39 J. Swann, Politics and the Parlement of Paris under Louis XV (Cambridge, 1995), p. 216.

40 ibid., p. 241.

41 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 799.

42 Mémoires et lettres de François-Joachim de Pierre, cardinal de Bernis (1715–58), ed. F. Masson (2 vols.; Paris, 1878), vol. ii, p. 61.

43 Swann, Politics and the Parlement of Paris, pp. 49–50.

44 J. Bérenger and J. Meyer, La France dans le monde au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1993), p. 240.

45 See above, pp. 251–2.

46 I owe this formulation to C. C. Gillispie, Science and Polity at the End of the Old Régime (Princeton, NJ, 1980), p. 309.

47 See above, p. 115.

48 A. M. Le Boursier du Coudray, Abrégé de l’art des accouchements (Paris, 1759), cited in N. R. Gelbart, The King’s Midwife: The History and Mystery of Madame du Coudray (Berkeley, Ca., 1998), p. 76.

49 Cited in S. L. Kaplan, Bread, Politics and Political Economy in the Reign of Louis XV (2 vols.; The Hague, 1976), p. 117. Cf. above, pp. 219–20.

50 See below, pp. 327ff.

51 M. Bordes, La Réforme municipale du contrôleur-général Laverdy et son application (Toulouse, 1967), p. 18.

52 Journal et mémoires de Christophe Collé, ed. H. Bonhomme (3 vols; Paris, 1868), vol. iii, p. 16. My account of the impact of the plays draws heavily on this source, and on A. Boes, ‘La lanterne magique de l’histoire: essai sur le théâtre historique en France de 1750 à 1789’, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, p. 231 (1982).

53 D. Bell, ‘Jumonville’s death: war propaganda and national identity in eighteenth-century France’, in C. Jones and D. Wahrman (eds.), An Age of Cultural Revolution: England and France, 1750–1820 (Berkeley, Ca., 2002), esp. pp. 45ff.

54 Cited in W. Kraus, ‘ “Patriote”, “patriotique”, “patriotisme” à la fin de l’Ancien Régime’, in W. H. Barber et al., The Age of Enlightenment. Studies Presented to Theodore Bestermann (Edinburgh, 1969), p. 393.

55 Louis-Sébastien Mercier, 2440 (2 vols.; Paris, Year V), vol ii, p. 610. (This is a later edition.)

56 K. Baker, Inventing the French Revolution: see esp. ‘Controlling French history: the ideological arsenal of Jacob-Nicolas Moreau’, pp. 59–85.

57 See above, p. 25.

58 Barbier, Journal historique, vol. iv, p. 236.

59 See above, pp. 116–17, 213.

60 Cited in Egret, Louis XV et l’opposition parlementaire, p. 181.

61 Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement, vol. ii, pp. 557–8.

62 D. Roche, France in the Enlightenment (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), p. 421.

63 See above, chapter 4, section A.

64 D. Bien, The Calas Affair: Persecution, Toleration and Heresy in Eighteenth-Century Toulouse (Princeton, NJ, 1960), p. 68; D. Van Kley, Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits, p. 156.

65 Barbier, Chronique de la Régence et du règne de Louis XV (1718–63), ed. A. de La Villegille (8 vols.; Paris, 1866), vol. vii, p. 237.

66 See above, pp. 172, 213.

67 See above, p. 245.

68 J. Riley, The Seven Years War and the Old Régime in France: The Economic and Financial Toll (Princeton, NJ, 1986), p. 192.

69 Egret, Louis XV et l’opposition parlementaire, p. 132: the quotation is from Necker, future Royal Finance Minister. See also above, p. 113.

70 Cited in R. Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham, NC, 1991), pp. 31–2. See also above, ch. 5.

71 Le Comte de Creutz. Lettres inédites de Paris, 1766–70, ed. M. Molander (Paris, 1987), p. 361.

72 A. Young, Travels in France in the Years 1787, 1788 and 1789, ed. C. Maxwell (Cambridge, 1929), p. 114 (19 September 1788).

73 See above, p. 250.

74 See above, p. 263.

75 Egret, Louis XV et l’opposition parlementaire, p. 159.

76 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 857.

77 Egret, Louis XV et l’opposition parlementaire, p. 101.

78 See above, p. 229.

79 Bordes, La Réforme municipale, p. 142.

80 Swann, Politics and the Parlement of Paris, p. 328.

81 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 911.

82 Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement, vol. iii, pp. 153–7.

83 Antoine, Louis XV, p. 923.

84 ibid., p. 92.

7: THE TRIUMVIRATE AND ITS AFTERMATH (1771–84)

1 See esp. A. Cobban, A History of Modern France. Vol. 1: 1715–99 (Harmondsworth, 1957).

2 J. F. Bosher, ‘The French crisis of 1770’, History, 57 (1972), p. 19.

3 Voltaire, Correspondance complète, ed. T. Bestermann (101 vols.; Geneva, 1953–77), vol. lxxiv, p. 202 (letter 15,258).

4 W. Doyle, Venality. The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France (Oxford, 1996), p. 119.

5 M. Kwass, Privilege and the Politics of Taxation in Eighteenth-Century France (Cambridge, 2000), p. 42, n. 57.

6 J. de Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement de Paris au XVIIIe siècle (3 vols.; Paris, 1888–98), vol. iii, p. 204.

7 D. Echeverria, The Maupeou Revolution: A Study in the History of Libertarianism. France 1770–4 (Baton Rouge, La, 1985), p. 27.

8 Voltaire, Correspondance, vol. lxxix, p. 79 (letter 16,094).

9 Citations from N. R. Gelbart, Feminine and Opposition Journalism in Old Régime France: ‘Le Journal des Dames’ (Berkeley, Ca, 1987), p. 152; and D. Van Kley, ‘The religious origins of the patriote and ministerial parties in pre-Revolutionary France: controversy over the Chancellor’s constitutional coup. 1771–5’, Historical Reflections/Réflexions historiques, 18 (1992), p. 52.

10 [Mathieu-François Pidansat de Mairobert], Journal historique de la révolution opérée dans la constitution de la monarchic françoise par M. de Maupeou, Chancelier de France (7 vols; London, 1774–6), vol. ii, p. 351 (20 January 1771).

11 See above, p. 47.

12 See above, p. 12.

13 Abbé Galiani, Correspondance, eds. L. Perey and G. Maugras (2 vols.; Paris, 1881), vol. ii, p. 88.

14 See above, pp. 221ff.

15 M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989), p. 986. For Metz, see above, pp. 126–7.

16 Duc de Croÿ, Journal inédit du duc de Croÿ, 1718–84, eds. vicomte de Grouchy and P. Cottin (4 vols.; Paris, 1906–7), vol. iii, pp. 134–5.

17 Cited in J. de Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières, 1715–89 (Paris, 1995), p. 344.

18 Galiani, Correspondance, vol. ii. pp. 334–5.

19 de Croÿ, Journal inédit, vol. iii, p. 153.

20 Cited in Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire, p. 359.

21 J. M. Augeard, Mémoires secrets de J. M. Augeard, secrétaire des commandements de la reine Marie-Antoinette, 1760–1800, ed. E. Bavoux (Paris, 1866), p. 77.

22 J. Hardiman, French Politics, 1774–89: From the Accession of Louis XVI to the Fall of the Bastille (London, 1995), p. 232.

23 Echeverria, The Maupeou Revolution, p. 32 (quoting Pidansat de Mairobert). The king doubtless did not spot the potentially Rousseauian implications of his phrase, ‘general will’.

24 C. C. Gillispie, Science and Polity in Old Regime France (Princeton, NJ, 1980), p. 3.

25 Galiani, Correspondance, pp. 345–6.

26 Oeuvres de Turgot, ed. G. Schell (5 vols.; Paris, 1913–23), vol. iv, p. 204.

27 Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement, vol. iii, p. 279.

28 See above, p. 255.

29 J. Hardman, Louis XVI (London, 2000), p. 18.

30 D. Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Régime (London, 1939), p. 131.

31 Jean-Louis Soulavie, Mémoires historiques et politiques du règne de Louis XVI, depuis son mariage jusqu’à sa mort (6 vols.; Paris, 1801), vol. iii, p. 147.

32 M. Price, Preserving the Monarchy. The Comte de Vergennes, 1774–87 (Cambridge, 1995), p. 49.

33 For the episode, and all citations, see J. Le Goff, ‘Reims, ville du sacre’ in P. Nora (ed.), Les Lieux de mémoire (3 vols.; Paris, 1997), vol. i; and H. Weber, ‘Le sacre de Louis XVI’, in Le Règne de Louis XVI (Dourgne, 1977).

34 De Croÿ, Journal inédit, vol. iii, p. 125.

35 F. Y. Besnard, Souvenirs d’un nonagénaire (2 vols.; Paris, 1880), vol. ii, p. 129.

36 Souvenirs-portraits du duc de Lévis, ed. J. Dupâcquier (Paris, 1993), p. 160.

37 J. Hardman and M. Price (eds.), Louis XVI and the Comte de Vergennes: Correspondence, 1774–87 (Oxford, 1998), p. 250.

38 ibid., p. 237.

39 Comte de Mercy-Argenteau, Correspondance secrète entre Marie-Thérèse et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau, ed. A. d’Arneth and M. Geoffroy (3 vols.; Paris, 1874), vol. i, pp. 225–6.

40 J Grieder, Anglomania in France, 1740–89. Fact, Fiction and Political Discourse (Geneva, 1985), pp. 19–20.

41 See above, pp. 259–61.

42 S. Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (New York, 1989), p. 37; S. M. Hardy, Mes Loisirs, ed. M. Tourneux and M. Vitrac (Paris, 1912), p. 410.

43 J. Merrick, ‘The Body Politics of French absolutism’ in S. E. Melzer and K. Norberg (eds.), From the Royal to the Republican Body. Incorporating the Political in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century France (Berkeley, Ca., 1998), pp. 17–18.

44 de Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire, p. 355.

45 For the puzzle of the king’s sexuality, see esp. D. Beales, Joseph II. Vol. 1. In the Shadow of Maria Theresa, 1741–80 (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 371–5.

46 K. M. Baker, Inventing the French Revolution (Cambridge, 1989), p. 344, n. 99.

47 Price, Preserving the Monarchy, p. 52.

48 Hardman, Louis XVI, p. 87.

49 Cited in D. Jarrett, The Begetters of Revolution. England’s Involvement with France, 1759–89 (London, 1973), pp. 160–1.

50 Price, Preserving the Monarchy, p. 54.

51 Croÿ, Journal inédit, vol. iv, pp. 230, 234.

52 Hardman, French Politics, p. 55.

53 Price, Preserving the Monarchy, p. 56.

54 Marquis de Bombelles, Journal, eds. J. Grassion and F. Durif (2 vols.; Geneva, 1978–82), vol. i, p. 204.

55 La Folle Journée, ou le Mariage de Figaro, ‘Préface’.

56 Acte v, scène iii.

57 Madame Campan, Mémoires sur la vie privée de Marie-Antoinette (3 vols., Paris, 1822), vol. i, p. 278.

58 C. Petitfrère, 1784: Le Scandale du ‘Mariage de Figaro’. Prélude à la Révolution française (Brussels, 1989), p. 9.

59 Price, Preserving the Monarchy, p. 57.

60 J. Lough, An Introduction to Eighteenth-Century France (London, 1960), p. 94.

61 Talleyrand, Mémoires, ed. duc de Broglie (5 vols.; Paris, 1891–2), vol. i, pp. 117–18.

62 See above, p. 184.

63 Barbier, Chronique, vol. v, p. 15.

64 R. Forster, The House of Saulx-Tavannes: Versailles and Burgundy, 1700–1830 (Baltimore, Md, 1971), pp. 34–5; François de Chateaubriand, Mémoires d’Outre-Tombe, ed. J. C. Berchet (Paris, 1989), p. 129.

65 See above, pp. 255ff.

66 G. Chaussinand-Nogaret, The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century. From Feudalism to Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1985), p. 51.

67 Tim Le Goff, ‘Essai sur les pensions royales’, in M. Açerra et al., État, marine et société. Hommage à Jean Meyer (Paris, 1995), esp. p. 261.

68 Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Tableau de Paris (12 vols., Amsterdam, 1780–88), vol. vii, ch. dc.

69 Cited in P. Goubert, The Ancien Régime, French Society, 1600–1750 (London, 1969), p. 179.

70 Talleyrand, Mémoires, vol. i, p. 119.

8: BOURBON MONARCHY ON THE RACK (1784–8)

1 J. Hardman and M. Price, Louis XVI and the Comte de Vergennes: Correspondence, 1774–87 (Oxford, 1998), p. 376.

2 Marie-Antoinette, Joseph II und Leopold II: Ihr Briefwechsel, ed. A. von Arneth (Leipzig, 1866), p. 94.

3 J. D. Popkin, News and Politics in the Age of Revolution: Jean Luzac’s ‘Gazette de Leyde’ (Ithaca, NY, 1989), p. 195.

4 See above, p. 324.

5 Cited in D. A. Bell, Lawyers and Citizens. The Making of a Political Elite in Old Regime France (New York, 1994), p. 157.

6 ibid., p. 153.

7 Marquis de Bombelles, Journal, eds. G. Grassion and F. Durif (2 vols.; Geneva, 1978–93), vol. i, p. 293.

8 See above, pp. 321–2.

9 F. C., comte de Mercy-Argenteau, Correspondance secrète entre Marie-Thérèse et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau, eds. A. d’Arneth and M. Geoffroy (3 vols.; Paris, 1889–91), vol. iii, p. 36.

10 See above pp. 273ff.

11 F. C, comte de Mercy-Argenteau, Correspondance secrète du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l’empereur Joseph II et le prince de Kaunitz, eds. A. d’Arneth and J. Flammermont (2 vols.; Paris, 1889–91), vol. ii, pp. 32–4.

12 W. Doyle, Officers, Nobles and Revolutionaries. Essays on Eighteenth-Century France (London, 1995), p. 30.

13 Mémoires du prince de Talleyrand, ed. duc de Broglie (5 vols.; Paris, 1891–2), vol. i, p. 104.

14 J. Hardman, French Politics, 1774–89: From the Accession of Louis XVI to the Fall of the Bastille (London, 1995), p. 153.

15 D. Jarrett, The Begetters of Revolution. England’s Involvement with France, 1759–89 (London, 1973), p. 220.

16 See above, pp. 327ff.

17 See below, pp. 350ff.

18 Cited by Pierre Leon in F. Braudel and E. Labrousse (eds.), Histoire économique et sociale de la France, ii. 1660–1789 (Paris, 1970), pp. 317–18.

19 M. Price, Preserving the Monarchy. The Comte de Vergennes, 1774–87 (Cambridge, 1995), p. 159.

20 J.-J. Rousseau, ‘Confessions’, in id., Oeuvres complètes, eds. B. Gagnebin and M. Raymond (5 vols.; Paris, 1959), vol. i, pp. 163–4.

21 Mary Wollstonecraft, An Historical and Moral View of the Origins of the French Revolution and the Effects It Has Produced in Europe (London, 1794), vol. i, pp. 511 and vii.

22 See esp. C. E. Labrousse, Esquisse du mouvement des prix et des revenus en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1933); id., La Crise de l’économie française à la fin de l’Ancien Régime et au début de la Révolution (Paris, 1944).

23 See above, p. 201.

24 Expilly, Tableau de la population de la France (1780).

25 See above, p. 162.

26 René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d’Argenson, Journal et mémoires du marquis d’Argenson, ed. E. J. B. Rathery (9 vols.; 1859–67), vol. vii, p. 9.

27 J. Cornette, ‘La Révolution des objets: le Paris des inventaires après decès (XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles)’, Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, 36 (1989). This is a useful summary of work by Daniel Roche, Annik Pardailhé-Galabrun and others, references to which are given in the bibliography.

28 See above, p. 349.

29 M. Hulliung, The Autocritique of Enlightenment. Rousseau and the Philosophes (Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 151, 178.

30 See Morag Martin’s unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, ‘Consuming Beauty: The Commerce of Cosmetics in France’, University of California, Irvine, 2000.

31 R. A. Schneider, The Ceremonial City. Toulouse Observed, 1738–80 (Princeton, NJ, 1995), p. 47. Despite the religious grumbling, the church connived in the new consumerism: see below, p. 356.

32 F. Y. Besnard, Souvenirs d’un nonagénaire (2 vols.; Paris, 1880), vol. i, pp. 137, 303.

33 C. C. Fairchilds, ‘Marketing the Counter-Reformation: religious objects and consumerism in early modern France’, in C. Adams, J. R. Censer and L. J. Graham (eds.), Visions and Revisions of Eighteenth-Century France (Philadelphia, 1997), p. 50.

34 C. Jones, ‘The Great Chain of Buying: medical advertisement, the bourgeois public sphere and the origins of the French Revolution’, American Historical Review 103 (1996): one of the Affiches’ catch phrases was their concern for ‘l’utile et l’agréable’.

35 See esp. J. de Vries, ‘Between purchasing power and the world of goods: understanding the household economy in early modern Europe’, in J. Brewer and R. Porter (eds.), Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993).

36 See above, pp. 327ff.

37 Denis Fonvizine, Lettres de France, 1777–8 (Paris, 1995), ed. H. Grose et al., pp. 144, 105.

38 ibid., p. 119.

39 Peter P. Hill, French Perceptions of the Early American Republic, 1783–93 (Philadelphia, 1988), p. 3.

40 Duc de Croÿ, Journal inédit du duc de Croÿ, eds. vicomte de Gourchy and P. Cottin (Paris, 1906–7), vol. iv, p. 279.

41 R. Taveneaux, Le Catholicisme dans la France classique, 1610–1715 (2 vols.; Paris, 1980), p. 323.

42 See above, ch. 5, esp. section C.

43 Moufle d’Angerville, Mémoires secrets, vol. xxiv (18 September 1787), pp. 351–2. Cited in C. Jones, ‘Pulling Teeth in Eighteenth-Century Paris’, Past and Present, 163 (2000).

44 Félix, comte d’Hézècques, Souvenirs d’un page à la cour de Louis XVI (Paris, 1904), pp. 6, 60.

45 He actually thought it was the cause of the Revolution: Souvenirs d’un page, pp. 190–91.

46 See above, p. 191.

47 L. S. Mercier, Tableau de Paris (12 vols.; Amsterdam, 1782–8), vol. iv, ch. cccxlvi, p. 258.

48 Louis de Carmontelle, writing in 1785, cited in T. E. Crow, Painters and Public Life in Eighteenth-Century Paris (New Haven, Ct, 1985), p. 18.

49 See above, chapter 5, section C.

50 Cited in D. Roche, France in the Enlightenment (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), p. 361 (my translation).

51 Jones, ‘Great Chain of Buying’, p. 24; and J. D. Popkin, in R. Darnton and D. Roche (eds.), Revolution in Print, 1770–1800 (Princeton, NJ, 1989), p. 145.

52 Louis XVI, Marie-Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth. Lettres et documents inédits, ed. F. Feuillet de Conches (6 vols.; Paris, 1864), vol. i, p. 137.

53 M. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment. Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe (New York, 1991), p. 151.

54 Jacques Peuchet, ‘Discours préliminaire’, Encyclopédie méthodique: Jurisprudence. ix. Police et municipalités (1789). Cited in K. M. Baker, Inventing the French Revolution. Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1990), p. 196.

55 Joseph Servan, Le Soldat Citoyen (1780).

56 T. Tackett, Priest and Parish in Eighteenth-Century France: A Social and Political Study of the Curé in a Diocese of Dauphiné, 1750–91 (Princeton, NJ, 1977). See also above, p. 200.

57 V. Azimi, ‘1789: L’echo des employés, ou le nouveau discours administratif’, XVIIIe siècle, 21 (1989), p. 134.

58 Hardman and Price, Louis XVI and the comte de Vergennes, p. 103.

59 As noted in M. Sonenscher, ‘The Nation’s Debt and the birth of the modern republic: the French fiscal deficit and the politics of the Revolution of 1789’, History of Political Thought, 18 (1997), p. 66.

60 Madame de Staël, Considérations sur la Révolution française, ed. J. Godechot (Paris, 1983), p. 79.

61 See above, pp. 7ff.

62 See above, p. 345.

63 J. Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, 1787–8 (Chicago, 1977), p. 6.

64 J. de Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières, 1715–89 (Paris, 1995), p. 403.

65 J. Hardman, Louis XVI (London, 1993), p. 114.

66 id., The French Revolution Sourcebook (London, 1999), p. 43.

67 Malouet, cited in Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, p. 30.

68 Cited in Price, Preserving the Monarchy, p. 225.

69 See above, pp. 217, 266–7.

70 Louis, cited in N. Aston, The End of an Elite. The French Bishops and the Coming of the Revolution, 1786–90 (Oxford, 1992), p. 64 (‘prêtraille’, ‘Neckeraille’).

71 d’Hézècques, Souvenirs d’un page, p. 211.

72 D. Roche, The People of Paris. An Essay in Popular Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Leamington Spa, 1987); H. Root, The Fountain of Privilege. Political Foundations of Markets in Old Régime France and England (Berkeley, Ca., 1994), p. 203n. The discrepancy between Parisian and provincial levels should be noted.

73 See above, p. 379.

74 Despatches from Paris, 1784–88, ed. O. Browning (London, 1909), p. 263.

75 Despatches from Paris, 1788–90, ed. O. Browning (London, 1910), p. 44.

76 Weber, cited in Aston, The End of an Elite, p. 104.

77 Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, p. 185.

78 ibid., p. 255n.

79 Citations from Baker, Inventing the French Revolution, p. 216; J. Nicolas, La Revolution française dans les Alpes, Dauphiné et Savoie, 1789–99 (Toulouse, 1989), p. 46.

80 P. M. Jones, Reform and Revolution in France. The Politics of Transition, 1774–91 (Cambridge, 1995), p. 142.

81 Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, p. 179.

82 Maurepas – dismissed in 1749, recalled in 1774 – was the arch-exception in this respect.

83 Subsequently postponed to May 1789: see below, chapter 9, section A.

84 Hardman, French Politics, p. 98.

85 Despatches from Paris, 1788–90, p. 105.

86 Cited by R. Birn in H. Chisick (ed.), The Press in the French Revolution (Oxford, 1991), p. 67.

87 D. Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism 1680–1800 (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), p. 72; Mallet du Pan, cited in G. Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution (Princeton, NJ, 1947), p. 45.

9: REVOLUTION IN POLITICAL CULTURE (1788–91)

1 Cited in J. Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, 1787–8 (Chicago, 1977), p. 202.

2 ibid., p. 98.

3 N. Ruault, Gazette d’un parisien sous la Révolution, eds. A. Vassal and C. Rimbaud (Paris, 1976), p. 121.

4 Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, p. 189.

5 Archives parlementaires, vol. i, pp. 487–8.

6 Elections were, however, within provincial boundaries in Béarn, Navarre and Dauphiné.

7 Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, p. 188.

8 See above, p. 301.

9 Siéyès, Qu’est-ce que le Tiers État? (1788 – and much reprinted thereafter). As the nobility had a minus value, their subtraction from the nation made two negatives – and consequently a positive value.

10 Cited in D. L. Wick, A Conspiracy of Well-Intentioned Men. The Society of Thirty and the French Revolution (New York, 1987), p. 267.

11 Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, p. 195.

12 ‘Considérations sur le Tiers État’, cited in Wick, A Conspiracy of Well-Intentioned Men, p. 259.

13 Cited in S. Schama, Citizens. A Chronicle of the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1989), p. 300.

14 Antraigues, cited in Wick, A Conspiracy of Well-intentioned Men, p. 272; Catéchisme du Tiers état, cited in M. Cubells, Les Horizons de la liberté. Naissance de la Révolution en Provence, 1787–9 (Aix-en-Provence, 1987), p. 38.

15 Women might attend as representatives of nunneries in the First Order (though they usually sent male proxies), and as heads of household or workshops in parish and guild assemblies.

16 A. Brette, Recueil de documents relatifs à la convocation des États Généraux de 1789 (4 vols.; 1894–1915), vol. i, p. 66.

17 See above, p. 361.

18 Cubells, Les Horizons de la liberté, p. 107.

19 T. Tackett, ‘Nobles and Third Estate in the Revolutionary dynamic of the National Assembly, 1789–90’, American Historical Review (1989), p. 276.

20 J. C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven, Ct, 1985).

21 E. Mallet (ed.), Les Elections du bailliage secondaire de Pontoise en 1789 (no place or date of publication), p. 329.

22 According to the extensive sampling done by John Markoff, pigeons were the fourteenth most frequently found complaint in peasant cahiers. The issue ranked higher than an Estates General veto on taxes (seventeenth), regular meetings of the Estates General (nineteenth) and voting by head in the Estates General (fortieth)! J. Markoff, The Abolition of Feudalism: Peasants, Lords and Legislators in the French Revolution (Philadelphia, 1996), pp. 30–32.

23 C. L. Chassin, Les Elections et les cahiers de Paris en 1789 (2 vols.; Paris, 1888), vol. ii, pp. 589–90.

24 Gouverneur Morris: A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. B. C. Davenport (2 vols.; Boston, Mass., 1939 [1972 reprint]), vol. i, pp. xlii–xliii.

25 A. Young, Travels in France in the Years 1787, 1788 and 1789, ed. C. Maxwell (Cambridge, 1929), p. 151.

26 T. Tackett, Becoming a Revolutionary. The Deputies of the French National Assembly and the Emergence of a Revolutionary Culture, 1789–91 (Princeton, NJ, 1996), pp. 109–10.

27 The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, eds. J. P. Boyd et al. (27 vols.; Princeton, NJ, 1950–97), vol. xv, pp. 104–5.

28 Marquis de Ferrières, Correspondance inédite (1789, 1790, 1791), ed. H. Carré (Paris, 1932), p. 47.

29 The Anjou deputies, cited in E. H. Lemay and A. Patrick, Revolutionaries at Work. The Constituent Assembly. 1789–91 (Oxford, 1996), p. 5.

30 Young, Travels in France, p. 134 (9 June).

31 J. Hardman, Louis XVI (London, 1993), p. 150.

32 Réimpression de l’Ancien Moniteur, vol. i, pp. 82–3.

33 J. A. Creuzé-Latouche, Journal des Etats-Généraux du debut début de l’Assemblée nationale, ed. J. Marchant, p. 139.

34 Young, Travels in France, p. 159.

35 Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. xv, p. 223

36 ibid., pp. 267–8. Jefferson used the italianate form ‘de Broglio’.

37 Correspondance secrète du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l’empereur Joseph II et le prince de Kaunitz, eds. A. d’Arneth and J. Flammermont (2 vols.; Paris 1889–91), vol. ii, p. 248.

38 P. M. Jones, The Peasantry in the French Revolution (Cambridge, 1988), p. 66.

39 Young, Travels in France, pp. 207–9, 215–16 (the latter case allegedly involving local nobleman, the comte d’Antraigues, now viewed as a counter-revolutionary).

40 J. M. Roberts, French Revolution Documents. Vol. 1 (Oxford, 1966), pp. 144–5.

41 G. Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution (New York, 1947), p. 84.

42 Archives parlementaires, vol. viii, p. 397.

43 See below, pp. 423ff.

44 E. Lever, Louis XVI (Paris, 1985), p. 524.

45 Despatches from Paris, 1788–90, p. 263.

46 F. Ménard de la Groye, Correspondance (1789–91), ed. F. Mirouse (Le Mans, 1989), pp. 123–4.

47 Hardman, Louis XVI, p. 174.

48 Campmas cited in Tackett, Becoming a Revolutionary, p. 303; Ferrières, Correspondance, p. 137

49 Tackett, Becoming a Revolutionary, p. 48.

50 Voltaire, Correspondance complete, ed. T. Besterman, (101 vols.; Geneva, 1953–77), vol. xxxvii, p. 439.

51 Cited by D. Van Kley in id., (ed.), The French Idea of Freedom. The Old Régime and the Declaration of Rights of 1789 (Stanford, Ca., 1994), p. 93.

52 For Louis XIV’s mythic present, see above, chapter 1, esp. section A. Cf. L. Hunt, Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley, Ca., 1994).

53 Cited in J. P. Jessenne, Révolution et Empire, 1783–1815 (Paris, 1993), p. 80.

54 Ménard de la Groye, Correspondance, p. 256.

55 The regulations on the marc d’argent were lightened in the summer of 1791.

56 See below, pp. 438–9.

57 Guillotin, cited in D. Arasse, The Guillotine and the Terror (London, 1989), p. 17.

58 The Diaries and Letters of Gouverneur Morris, vol. i, pp. 373–4.

59 C. B. A. Behrens, The Ancien Régime (London, 1967), p. 179.

60 Ferrières, Correspondance, p. 327.

61 Journal d’Adrien Duquesnoy sur l’Assemblée Constituante, ed. R. de Crèvecoeur (2 vols.; Paris, 1894), pp. 286, 411.

62 See above, p. 402.

63 Schama, Citizens, p. 537.

64 See above, p. 427ff.

65 T. W. Margadant, Urban Rivalries in the French Revolution (Princeton, NJ, 1992), pp. 123, 125.

66 Hardman, The French Revolution Sourcebook, p. 113.

67 W. Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution (Oxford, 1989), p. 146.

68 Ménard de la Groye, Correspondance, p. 342.

69 Archives parlementaires, vol. xxvi, p. 149.

70 ibid., vol. xxvii, p. 553.

71 ibid., vol. xxviii, p. 330.

72 Le May, Revolutionaries at Work, p. 106.

10: WAR AND TERROR (1791–5)

1 R. M. Klincköwstrom (ed.), Le comte de Fersen et la cour de France (2 vols.; Paris, 1877), vol. I, p. 208.

2 Marie-Antoinette et Barnave. Correspondance secrète (juillet 1791–janvier 1792), ed. A. Söderhjelm (Paris, 1934), p. 71n.

3 C. J. Mitchell, The French Legislative Assembly of 1791 (Leiden, 1988), p. 43.

4 Chateaubriand, Mémoires d’outre-tombe, ed. J. C. Berchet (4 vols.; Paris, 1989), vol. i, p. 508.

5 ibid., vol. i, p. 509; P. Vaissière, Lettres d’ ‘aristocrates’: La Révolution racontée par des correspondances privées (1789–94) (Paris, 1907), p. 354.

6 Mitchell, The French Legislative Assembly, p. 63.

7 J. M. Roberts, French Revolution Documents, Vol. 1 (Oxford, 1966), p. 423.

8 N. Ruault, Gazette d’un parisien sous la Révolution, eds. A. Vassal and C. Rimbaud (Paris, 1976), pp. 279–80.

9 Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution (2 vols.; Westport, Ct, 1972), pp. 355–6.

10 F. S. Feuillet de Conches (ed.), Marie-Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth. Lettres et documents inédits (6 vols.; 1864–73), p. 344.

11 Robespierre, Oeuvres, eds. M. Bouloiseau, G. Lefebvre and A. Soboul (5 vols.; Paris, 1950–67), vol. ii, p. 81.

12 It was phrased in this way because the Habsburg Francis II had not yet been elected Holy Roman Emperor.

13 P. Mansell, Louis XVIII (London, 1981), p. 67.

14 H. G. Brown, War, Revolution and the Bureaucratic State. Politics and Army Administration in France, 1791–99 (Oxford, 1995), p. 30.

15 Cited in Buchez and Roux, Histoire parlementaire, vol. xiv, p. 423.

16 P. Caron, Les Massacres de septembre (Paris, 1935), p. 146, n. 1.

17 Manon Roland, Correspondance politique (1790–3) (Paris, 1995), p. 127.

18 ‘Campagne in Frankreich 1792.’, in Goethes Werke, eds. L. Blumenthal and W. Loos (Hamburg, 1981), pp. 234–5.

19 J. P. Bertaud, Valmy. La démocratie en armes (Paris, 1970), p. 114.

20 The Despatches of Earl Gower, ed. O. Browning (Cambridge, 1888), p. 258.

21 M. Walzer, Regicide and Revolution (Cambridge, 1974), p. 124.

22 J. Hardman, The French Revolution Sourcebook (London, 1999), p. 161; P. Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue. Jacobins during the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), p. 53.

23 Archives parlementaires, vol. lx, p. 63.

24 H. Gough, The Newspaper Press in the French Revolution (London, 1988), p. 95.

25 S. Schama, Citizens. A Chronicle of the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1989), p. 714.

26 N. Hampson, Danton (London, 1978), p. 137.

27 M. A. Baudot, Notes historiques sur la Convention nationale, le Directoire, l’Empire et l’exil des votants (Paris, 1893), p. 158.

28 Archives parlementaires, vol. lxv, p. 320.

29 Rapiers inédits trouvés chez Robespierre, Saint-Just, Payan, etc supprimés ou omis par Courtois (3 vols.; Paris, 1828), vol. i, pp. 15–16.

30 Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, opening pages.

31 R. Secher, Le Génocide franco-français: La Vendée-Vengé (Paris, 1986), p. 129

32 ‘Manifeste des enragés’: Jacques Roux, Scripta et acta, ed. W. Markov (Berlin, 1969), p. 141.

33 See below, pp. 564ff.

34 See below, pp. 579ff.

35 For the mythic present, see below, pp. 521ff.

36 H. Wallon, Les Représentants en mission et la justice révolutionnaire dans les départements en l’an II (1793–4) (5 vols.; Paris, 1889–90), vol. i, p. 220.

37 See below, pp. 564–5.

38 See above, p. 425.

39 Hardman, French Revolution Sourcebook, p. 189.

40 Buchez and Roux, Histoire parlementaire, vol. xxxv, p. 290.

41 F. Brunel, Thermidor. La chute de Robespierre (Brussels, 1989), p. 20.

42 Archives parlementaires, vol. lxxxviii, p. 434.

43 Ruault, Gazette d’un parisien, p. 350.

44 K. Alder, Engineering the Revolution. Arms and Enlightenment in France, 1763–1815 (Princeton, NJ, 1997), p. 253. See also the picture on p. 254. (I differ from Alder in the attribution of epithets.)

45 ibid, p. 272.

46 See below, p. 535.

47 B. Barère, Mémoires, ed. H. Carnot and P. J. David (4 vols.; 1842–4), vol. ii, pp. 202–3.

48 Vilate, cited in Buchez and Roux, Histoire parlementaire, vol. xxxiii, p. 177.

49 P. Gueniffey, La Politique de la Terreur. Essai sur la violence révolutionnaire, 1789–94 (Paris, 2000), p. 273.

50 Brunel, Thermidor, p. 27.

51 Baudot, Notes, p. 125.

52 J. Duval-Jouve, Montpellier pendant la Révolution (Montpellier, 1879), p. 188n.

53 1 Vendémiaire III, the first day of Year III in the Revolutionary calendar, was 22 September 1794.

54 Cited in D. Woronoff, The Thermidorean Régime and the Directory, 1794–9 (Cambridge, 1972), p. 7.

11: THE UNSTEADY REPUBLIC (1795–9)

1 Louis to the duc d’Harcourt, cited in E. Sparrow, British Agents in France, 1792–1815 (Woodbridge, 1999), p. 60.

2 See above, p. 506.

3 F. Aftalion, The French Revolution. An Economic Interpretation (Cambridge, 1990), p. 158.

4 D. Outram, The Body in the French Revolution: Sex, Class and Political Culture (London, 1989), p. 83.

5 Article 18 of the Declaration of Rights and Duties (sic) of Man and the Citizen in the 1795 Constitution.

6 See above, pp. 401, 424–5.

7 H. T. Parker, The Cult of Antiquity in the French Revolution (Chicago, 1937), pp. 18–19.

8 L. Hunt, Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley, Ca., 1984), p. 2.

9 To cite from the 1795 balloting procedures: as noted by I. Woloch, The New Régime. Transformations of the French Civic Order, 1789–1820s (London, 1994), p. 99.

10 P. Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue. Jacobins during the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), p. 207.

11 N. Hampson, ‘The Heavenly City of the French Revolutionaries’, in C. Lucas (ed.), Rewriting the French Revolution (Oxford, 1991), p. 55.

12 Speech on 18 Floréal II, cited by M. H. Huet, Mourning Glory. The Will of the French Revolution (Philadelphia, 1997), p. 27.

13 See above, p. 212.

14 G. Kates, The Cercle Social, the Girondins and the French Revolution (Princeton, NJ, 1985), p. 180; and article xi of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen prefixed to the 1791 Constitution.

15 Lequinio, cited by R. Reichardt, ‘Prints: Images of the Bastille’, in R. Darnton and D. Roche (eds.), Revolution in Print. The Press in France, 1775–1800 (Berkeley, Ca., 1989), p. 225.

16 Cited in C. Hesse, ‘Economic upheavals in publishing’, in Darnton and Roche, Revolution in Print, p. 97.

17 Kates, The Cercle Social, p. 228.

18 Isoard, cited in J. Guilhaumou, ‘Rhétorique et antirhétorique à l’époque de la Révolution française’, in La Légende de la Révolution (Clermont-Ferrand, 1988), p. 151.

19 Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Le Nouveau Paris (Paris, n.d. [=1797–8]), vol. iii, pp. 39–40 and ii, 112; for ‘logomachie’, see p. ii, 111.

20 Mercier, Le Nouveau Paris, vol. iv, p. 52.

21 M. J. Sydenham, The French Revolution (London, 1965), p. 130.

22 Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue, p. 158.

23 Huet, Mourning Glory, p. 33.

24 Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue, p. 181.

25 ‘Sur les fêtes politiques’, as cited in J. de Viguerie, Les Deux patries: Essai historique sur l’idée de la patrie en France (Paris, 1998), p. 106.

26 See above, p. 183.

27 See above, p. 492.

28 A favourite saying of Richard Cobb: see his Paris and its Provinces (Oxford, 1975), pp. 97–8.

29 Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue, pp. 209, 126.

30 Staël’s Des Circonstances actuelles qui peuvent terminer la Révolution, cited in F. Furet, The French Revolution, 1770–1814 (Oxford, 1992), p. 204.

31 See above, p. 53.

32 See above, p. 516.

33 See above, p. 361–2.

34 K. Alder, Engineering the Revolution. Arms and Enlightenment in France, 1763–1815 (Princeton, NJ, 1997), p. 262.

35 Madame de La Tour du Pin, Memoirs (London, 1999), p. 299.

36 F. Crouzet, De la Supériorité de l’Angleterre sur la France. L’économiaue et l’imaginaire, XVIIe–XXe siècle (Paris, 1985), p. 254.

37 See below.

38 See above, pp. 356ff.

39 L. Bergeron, ‘L’économie française et la Révolution’, in H. Berding et al. (eds.), La Révolution, la France et l’Allemagne: deux modèles opposés de changement social? (Paris, 1989), p. 89.

40 According to a visit in 1801 recorded in H. Meister, Souvenirs de mon dernier voyage à Paris (1795) (Paris, 1910), p. 234.

41 Crouzet, De la Supériorité de l’Angleterre sur la France, p. 276.

42 See previous section.

43 See above, p. 372ff.

44 F. Pontheil, Histoire de l’enseignement, 1789–1965 (Paris, 1966), pp. 70–71.

45 H. G. Brown, War, Revolution and the Bureaucratic State: Politics and Army Administration in France, 1791–9 (Oxford, 1995), p. 31.

46 ibid., p. 45. (‘Call me citizen’ is my translation of ‘Ici on se tutoie.’)

47 Woloch, The New Regime, p. 495, n. 5.

48 L. Brockliss and C. Jones, The Medical World of Early Modern France (Oxford, 1997), p. 819.

49 Woloch, The New Regime, p. 328.

50 Brown, War, Revolution and the Bureaucratic State, p. 170.

51 Michelet, Histoire de la Révolution française, ed. G. Walter (2 vols.; Paris, 1952), vol. i, p. 752.

52 The phrase comes from Archives Nationales, W 342 (no. 648). Thanks to Tom Kaiser for letting me have this reference.

53 The term seems hardly apposite for Jews, of course.

54 P. Girard, La Révolution et les juifs (Paris, 1989), p. 224.

55 Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue, p. 221.

56 Archives parlementaires, vol. lxxxiii, p. 715.

57 See above, esp. pp. 502ff.

58 Bergeron, ‘L’économie française et la Révolution’, p. 81.

59 W. H. Sewell, ‘Le citoyen/la citoyenne: activity, passivity and the Revolutionary concept of citizenship’, in C. Lucas, The Political Culture of the French Revolution (vol.2 of The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture) (Oxford, 1988), p. 115.

60 ‘Essai sur l’admission des femmes au droit de cité’ (1790) in Oeuvres de Condorcet, eds. A. Condorcet O’Connor and M. F. Arago (12 vols.; Paris, 1847), vol. x.

61 Amar, cited in D. G. Levy, H. B. Applewhite and M. D. Johnson (eds.), Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789–95 (Urbana, Ill., 1979), p. 216.

CONCLUSION: THE BRUMAIRE LEVIATHAN AND LA GRANDE NATION

1 L. S. Mercier, Le Nouveau Paris (Paris, n.d. [=1797–8]), ‘Avant-Propos’, vol. i, p. xvii.

2 I. Woloch, Napoleon and his Collaborators: The Making of a Dictatorship (London, 2001), p. 8.

3 Cf. above, p. 511.

4 Mercier, Le Nouveau Paris, vol. i, p. xvii.

5 F. Furet, The French Revolution, 1770–1814 (Oxford, 1992), p. 199.

6 R. Laurent and G. Gavignaud, La Révolution française dans le Languedoc méditerranéen, 1789–99 (Toulouse, 1987), p. 313.

7 N. King and E. Hofman, ‘Les Lettres de Benjamin Constant à Siévès’, Annales Benjamin Constant, 3 (1983), pp. 96–7.

8 Laurent and Gavignaud, La Révolution française dans le Languedoc méditerranéen, p. 316.

9 B. J. Buchez and P. C. Roux, Histoire parlementaire de la Révolution française, ou Journal des Assemblées nationales depuis 1789 jusqu’en 1815 (40 vols.; Paris, 1834–8), vol. xxxviii, p. 301.

10 H. G. Brown, ‘From organic society to security state: the war on brigandage in France, 1797–1802’, Journal of Modern History, 69 (1997).

11 J. Tulard, Le 18 Brumaire: comment terminer une révolution (Mesnil-sur-l’Estrée, 1999).

12 F. Bluche, Le Bonapartisme: aux origines de la droite autoritaire (1800–50) (Paris, 1980), pp. 29, 28n.

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