NOTES

FOREWORD

1. Josephine Herbst, “Moralist Progress,” Kenyon Review, 28 (Autumn 1965), 776.

CHAPTER 1

HISTORICAL CURRENTS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION

1. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Paths to the Present (New York: Macmillan, 1949), 77–92; Herbert Hoover, The New Day: Campaign Speeches of Herbert Hoover, 1928 (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1928), 213; Robert S. McElvaine, “Liberalism Is Not Dead,” The New York Times, Sept. 20, 1980; Robert S. McElvaine, “Where Have All the Liberals Gone?” Texas Quarterly, 19 (Autumn 1976), 202–13; Charles Forcey, The Crossroads of Liberalism: Croly, Weyl, Lippmann, and the Progressive Era, 1900–1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), xi–xiv; Otis L. Graham, Jr., An Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 181–82.

2. Charles Hoffman, “The Depression of the Nineties,” Journal of Economic History, 16 (June 1956), 151; Herbert Gutman, Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (New York: Knopf, 1976), 61; Gerald N. Grob, Workers and Utopia: A Study of Ideological Conflict in the American Labor Movement, 1865–1900 (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1961), 176–79, 184; David Montgomery, Workers’ Control in America: Studies in the History of Work, Technology, and Labor Struggles (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979); Alan Dawley, Class and Community: The Industrial Revolution in Lynn (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976), 89; Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 239; Lawrence Good-wyn, Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976); Richard Hofstadter, “Manifest Destiny and the Philippines,” in Daniel Aaron, ed., America in Crisis (New York: Knopf, 1952), 173–74; Allan Nevins, Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1932), 332; Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 309; David Brody, Steelworkers in America: The Nonunion Era (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960; reprint ed., New York: Harper & Row, 1969), 4; Carl N. Degler, “American Political Parties and the Rise of the City: An Interpretation,” Journal of American History, 51 (June 1964), 42, 49; Samuel P. Hays, The Response to Industrialism, 1885–1914 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 46; Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (New York: Mitchell Kennerly, 1914; reprint ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1961), 135.

3. Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1967), xiii; Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. (New York: Knopf, 1955), ch. IV, 64; Gutman, Work, Culture and Society; Dawley, Class and Community; David Montgomery, Beyond Equality: Labor and the Radical Republicans, 1862–1872 (New York: Knopf, 1967); Ferdinand Tönnies, Community and Society, ed. and trans, by Charles P. Loomis (New York: Harper & Row, 1957; orig. German ed.: 1887); Graham, Encore for Reform, 74, 22, 82–83, 70, 65, 84, 107, 144–45; Forcey, Crossroads of Liberalism, xvii; Irwin Yellowitz, Labor and the Progressive Movement in New York State, 1897–1916 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965); William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 339.

   That other groups besides the middle-class elements emphasized by Hofstadter and George Mowry (The California Progressives [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951]) were prominent in the highly complex Progressive era has been demonstrated by J. Joseph Huthmacher, “Urban Liberalism and the Age of Reform,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 49 (Sept. 1962), 231–41; Melvyn Dubofsky, When Workers Organize: New York City in the Progressive Era (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1968); Michael Paul Rogin and John L. Shover, Political Change in California: Critical Elections and Social Movements, 1890–1966 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1970); Samuel P. Hays, “The Politics of Reform in Municipal Government in the Progressive Era,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 55 (Oct. 1964), 159–69; Gabriel Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900–1916 (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1963); James Weinstein, The Corporate Ideal and the Liberal State, 1900–1918 (Boston: Beacon, 1968); and Robert H. Wiebe, Businessmen and Reform: A Study of the Progressive Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962).

4. Hofstadter, Age of Reform, 275–82; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Brains Trust, 93; Edwin G. Nourse, American Agriculture and the European Market (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1924), 236; Henry F. May, The End of American Innocence (New York: Knopf, 1959); Graham, Encore for Reform, 46–47; Allen F. Davis, “Welfare, Reform, and World War I,” American Quarterly, 19 (Fall 1967), 516, 533; William E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–1932 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958), 41–42; David M. Kennedy, Over Here: The First World War and American Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 93–143; David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New York: Knopf, 1979), 96–113; Albert U. Romasco, The Poverty of Abundance: Hoover, the Nation, the Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 43.

5. Geoffrey Perrett, America in the Twenties: A History (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982), 72–78; Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920’s (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1931), 16; David Burner, “1919: Prelude to Normalcy,” in John Braeman, Robert H. Bremner, and David Brody, eds., Change and Continuity in Twentieth Century America: The 1920’s (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1968), 3–31; Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 124; William Preston, Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903–1933 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963); Robert K. Murray, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1955); David Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1965); Gene Smith, When the Cheering Stopped: The Last Years of Woodrow Wilson (New York: Morrow, 1964).

6. George Soule, Prosperity Decade: From War to Depression, 1917–1929 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1947); Samuel Hopkins Adams, Incredible Era: The Life and Times of Warren Gamaliel Harding (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1939); Andrew Sinclair, Prohibition: The Era of Excess (Boston: Atlantic-Little, Brown, 1962); Laurence Greene, The Era of Wonderful Nonsense (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1939); James W. Prothro, Dollar Decade: Business Ideas in the 1920’s (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1954); Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, Editors’ Introduction to John D. Hicks, Republican Ascendancy, 1921–1933 (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), viii–x; Paula S. Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920’s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), 3, 5; Henry F. May, “Shifting Perspectives on the 1920’s,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 43 (Dec. 1956), 412; J. Joseph Huthmacher and Warren I. Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman, 1973), xii; Donald R. McCoy, Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 414, 413, 417; Malcolm Cowley, Exile’s Return: A Narrative of Ideas (New York: Viking, 1951), 309; Robert S. McElvaine, “The Coolidge Model: What Better Choice?” The Boston Globe, June 27, 1981.

7. Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 97, 96; McCoy, Coolidge, 299, 160–61, 99, 290, 272, 421, 418, 413–14, 421–22; William Allen White, A Puritan in Babylon: The Story of Calvin Coolidge (New York: Macmillan, 1938), 150–67, x; George E. Mowry, The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900–1912 (New York: Harper & Row, 1958), 110, 232; Burner, Hoover, 219n; McElvaine, “Where Have All the Liberals Gone?” 206; H. L. Mencken, “Calvin Coolidge,” American Mercury (April 1933); Peter R. Levin, Seven By Chance: The Accidental Presidents (New York: Farrar, Straus, 1948), 262, as quoted in McCoy, Coolidge, 419.

8. Burner, “1919: Prelude to Normalcy,” 12; Graham, Encore for Reform, 39, 156; Huthmacher and Susman, Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism, vii-ix; Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920–1933 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 167–73; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 48, 164; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 44, 141; Milton Derber, The American Ideal of Industrial Democracy, 1865–1965 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 285, 205–06, 281, 208, 203, 260, 273; Morrell Heald, “Business Thought in the Twenties: Social Responsibility,” American Quarterly, 13 (Summer 1961), 126–39; David Brody, “The Rise and Decline of Welfare Capitalism,” in Braeman, Bremner, and Brody, Change and Continuity in Twentieth Century America: 1920’s, 150, 155, 176; David Montgomery, Workers’ Control in America, 32–33, 113–14, 44, 160; W. Jett Lauck, Political and Industrial Democracy, 1776–1926 (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1926), 279 ff., as quoted in Derber, American Ideal of Industrial Democracy, 225, 267–68; Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974), 87n; Daniel Nelson, Managers and Workers: Origins of the New Factory System in the United States, 1880–1920 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), 65–66; Brody, Steelworkers in America, 268, 275; Perrett, America in the Twenties, 49–50; Irving Bernstein, The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 147–52, 157–65; David Montgomery, “To Study the People: The American Working Class,” Labor History, 21 (Fall 1980), 510; Lincoln Steffens, as quoted in Huthmacher and Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism, ix-x; Elmer Davis, “Confidence in Whom?” Forum, 89 (Jan. 1933), 31; Burner, Hoover, 247.

9. Genesis 41:25–36; Allen, Only Yesterday, 3, 53; Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows: A Discovery of the Real Jesus (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1925), x-xi, 143; Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 188–89, 200, 187; Otis Pease, The Responsibilities of American Advertising: Private Control and Public Influence, 1920–1940 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958; reprint ed., New York: Arno, 1976); David M. Potter, “Advertising: The Institution of Abundance,” Yale Review, 43 (Autumn 1953), 49–70; Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976), 170, 173–74; The Saturday Evening Post, Dec. 14, 1929, as quoted in ibid., 161; John Stuart Mill, as quoted in Daniel T. Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 120; Zelda Fitzgerald, as quoted in Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 242; Simon N. Patten, The New Basis of Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1907), ch. VII, as quoted in Rodgers, Work Ethic, 121; Derber, American Ideal of Industrial Democracy, 200; Allan Nevins, Ford: The Times, The Man, The Company (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1954), 512–41; Carol Gelderman, Henry Ford: The Wayward Capitalist (New York: Dial, 1981), 395, 290.

10. Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 202, 99; Forcey, Crossroads of Liberalism, ix; Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful, 231–34, 25, 21, 77, 262–68, 375, 22, 50, 23, 370; Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 187, 180, 229; Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964); Ewen, Captains of Consciousness, ch. VI; “Mr. Grundy,” “Polite Society,” Atlantic Monthly, 125 (May 1920), 608, as quoted in Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful, 35; Barbara Welter, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820–1860,” American Quarterly, 18 (Summer 1966), 151–74; John R. McMahon, “Unspeakable Jazz Must Go,” Ladies’ Home Journal, 38 (Dec. 1921), 116, as quoted in Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful, 22; Allen, Only Yesterday, 76, 96, 95, 98–99, 88, 77, 94; Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929), 114; Graham, Encore for Reform, 72, 122; John R. McMahon, “Back to Pre-War Morals,” Ladies’ Home Journal, 38 (Nov. 1921); Hofstadter, Age of Reform, ch. I; Lawrence W. Levine, Defender of the Faith: William Jennings Bryan—The Last Decade, 1915–1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965) 324–57; Ray Ginger, Six Days or Forever? Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes (Boston: Beacon, 1958); Gelderman, Henry Ford, 290–91, 397.

11. Soule, Prosperity Decade, 124; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 338; Gilbert C. Fite, “The Farmers’ Dilemma, 1919–1929,” in Braeman, Bremner, and Brody, eds., Change and Continuity in Twentieth Century America: 1920’s, 67; Arthur S. Link, “What Happened to the Progressive Movement in the 1920’s?” American Historical Review, 64 (July 1959), 845–46; Bernstein, Lean Years, 47, 59, 476, 239, 10, 65, 190–243; Lynd and Lynd, Middletown, 56–57, 59; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975), Series D-85–86, p. 135; Derber, American Ideal of Industrial Democracy, 200–01, 285, 282, 272; Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 193–94; E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Pantheon, 1963), 708; Brody, Steelworkers in America, 198, 264, 250–51; Leo Wolman, Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1936), 16; Montgomery, Workers’ Control in America, 100, 160–61; Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital, 10; Mark Perlman, “Labor in Eclipse,” in Braeman, Bremner, and Brody, eds., Change and Continuity in Twentieth Century America: 1920’s, 103–45; Robert H. Zieger, Republicans and Labor, 1919–1929 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1969); Nelson, Managers and Workers, 120; Selig Perlman, A Theory of the Labor Movement (New York: Macmillan, 1928), 275; Stanley B. Mathewson, Restriction of Output Among Unorganized Workers (New York: Viking, 1931), 30–52.

12. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 177, 62–63; McCoy, Coolidge, 314–21, 417, 415; Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 96–97, 132–33, 234; Jordan A. Schwartz, The Interregnum of Despair: Hoover, Congress, and the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 236–37, 228, 106–07; Hicks, Republican Ascendancy, 97, 53–54, 106; Lynd and Lynd, Middletown, 88; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 26–28, 2.

CHAPTER 2

WHO WAS ROARING IN THE TWENTIES?

1. John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954; 3d ed., 1972), 2, 176, 8, 178; Peter Temin, Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression? (New York: Norton, 1976), xii, 14–16, 169–70, 31–33; W. W. Kiplinger, as quoted in David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New York: Knopf, 1979), 248; Jude Wanniski, The Way the World Works: How Economies Fail—and Succeed (New York: Basic Books, 1978); The Wall Street Journal, Aug. 28, 1979, April 7, 1982; Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963); Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, The Great Contraction, 1929–1933 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965); Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, “Money and Business Cycles,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 45 (Feb. 1963), 52; Charles P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression, 1929–1939 (1973; reprint ed., Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975), 20, 291, 22; Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 2, 4, 61–96; Joseph A. Schumpeter, Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939), v. II, 794, 908–11; The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 12, 1979; John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1936), 323; Alvin H. Hansen, Fiscal Policy and Business Cycles (New York: Norton, 1941); Thomas Wilson, Fluctuations in Income and Employment (London: Pitman, 1942), 156.

2. Albert U. Romasco, The Poverty of Abundance: Hoover, the Nation, the Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 40, 81–82, 85, 4; Galbraith, Great Crash, 153–54; Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 308–09; Andrew Mellon, as quoted in Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 30; Gilbert Seldes, as quoted in William E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–1932 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958), 250; Stuart Chase, “The Case for Inflation,” Harper’s, 165 (July 1932), 206; E. J. Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire: An Economic History of Britain Since 1750 (New York: Pantheon, 1968), 179; Jude Wanniski, “The Crash and Classical Economics,” The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 26, 1979; Wanniski, The Way the World Works, 123, 302, 18–39, 124–25, 84–86, 132–37, 146; Daniel T. Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 120; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, as quoted in Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1945), 696; The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 28, 1977; Burner, Hoover, 248n.

3. Kindleberger, World in Depression, 293–95, 35, 39–42, 38, 54–56, 77–78, 74–75, 292–93, 306–07, 47–53, 296–97, 26–27; Edward Hallett Carr, The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (New York: Macmillan, 1939, 2d ed., 1946), 234; William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (Cleveland: World, 1959; rev. ed., New York: Dell, 1962), 104–59; John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1920); Étienne Mantoux, The Carthaginian Peace; or the Economic Consequences of Mr. Keynes (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1952), 45, 168–69; Donald R. McCoy, Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 190, 416; Herbert Feis, The Diplomacy of the Dollar, 1919-1939 (New York: Norton, 1950), 42; J. W. Beyen, Money in Maelstrom (New York: Macmillan, 1949), 45; Galbraith, Great Crash, 192, 14, 187; Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 379, 396–97; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 348.

4. Burner, Hoover, 107; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 86n; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 98, 114, 99–100, 103; Kindleberger, World in Depression, 106, 83–85, 97, 107, 93–94; John D. Hicks, Republican Ascendancy, 1921–1933 (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), 195–201; Theodore Saloutos and John D. Hicks, Agricultural Discontent in the Middle West, 1900–1939 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1951), 399–402; Willard W. Cochrane, The City Man’s Guide to the Farm Problem (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1966).

5. Adolf A. Berle, Jr., and Gardiner C. Means, The Modern Corporation and Private Property (New York: Macmillan, 1932, 1948), v, vii, 32, 345, 350–51; Gardiner C. Means, “The Growth in the Relative Importance of the Large Corporation in American Life,” American Economic Review, 21 (March 1931), 10; Berle memorandum, “The Nature of the Difficulty,” in Beatrice B. Berle and Travis B. Jacobs, eds., Navigating the Rapids, 1918–1971 (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1973), 32–50; President’s Research Committee on Social Trends, Recent Social Trends in the United States (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1933), v. I, 241.

6. Maurice Leven, Harold G. Moulton, and Clark Warburton, America’s Capacity to Consume (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1934), 54–56, 93–94, 103–04, 123; Galbraith, Great Crash, 180, 182, 191; Robert J. Lampman, The Share of Top Wealth-Holders in National Wealth, 1922–1956 (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1962); James D. Smith and Steven D. Franklin, “The Concentration of Personal Wealth, 1922–1969,” American Economic Review, 64 (May 1974), 162–67; Jonathan H. Turner and Charles E. Starne, Inequality: Privilege and Poverty in America (Santa Monica, Calif.: Goodyear, 1976), 36–38; Gilbert C. Fite and Jim E. Reese, An Economic History of the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959; 3d ed., 1973), 506; Simon Kuznets, National Income: A Summary of Findings (New York: Bureau of Economic Research, 1946), 97–106; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919-1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 67–68; Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 193, 200, 174; Temin, Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression?, 4, Table 1; Kindleberger, World in Depression, 61.

7. Galbraith, Great Crash, 81, 112, 11, 57–58, xiv, 8–9, 12, 18, 83, 14–17, 22, 71, 61, 73, 5; John J. Raskob, “Everybody Ought to Be Rich,” Ladies’ Home Journal, 46 (Aug. 1929), 9; Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920’s (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1931; New York: Perennial Library, 1964), 225–35; Friedman and Schwartz, Monetary History of the United States, 298–99; Kindleberger, World in Depression, 59–60, 69–70, 108, 75–76, 113; Berle and Means, Modern Corporation and Private Property, 60; Robert Sobel, Panic on Wall Street: A History of America’s Financial Disasters (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 355, 360–61, 356–59; Robert Sobel, The Great Bull Market: Wall Street in the 1920s (New York: Norton, 1968), 123; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 32; Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 14, 16; McCoy, Coolidge, 290; The Wall Street Journal, Sept. 19, 1929; Charles Merz, as quoted in Leuchtenburg, Perils of Prosperity, 244.

8. Kindleberger, World in Depression, 108, 124–25; Galbraith, Great Crash, 75, 99, 111, 89, 97, 101, 103–08, 114–17, 123, 127–31, 140, 3; Burner, Hoover, 247; Garet Garrett, “Wall Street and Washington,” The Saturday Evening Post, 202 (Dec. 28, 1929), 6–7; Wanniski, The Way the World Works, 133, 137.

9. Milton Friedman, as quoted in “How the Slump Looks to Three Experts,” Newsweek, 75 (May 25, 1970), 78–79; Galbraith, Great Crash, 191, 94–95; Kindleberger, World in Depression, 125–27; Michael Harrington, Socialism (New York: Saturday Review Press, 1972), 257; Temin, Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression?, 172, 178; J. M. Kenworthy, “The Way Back to Prosperity,” Current History, 36 (April 1932), 129.

CHAPTER 3

IN THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE WRONG TIME?

1. Russell Baker, Growing Up (New York: Congdon & Weed, 1982), 91; Albert U. Romasco, The Poverty of Abundance: Hoover, the Nation, the Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 212; New York Review of Books, 14 (June 18, 1970), 1; David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New York: Knopf, 1979), 332, 339n, 250, 58, 58n, 256; The New York Times, Oct. 21, 1964; The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 22, 1982; The New York Times, Oct. 1, 1982; Jude Wanniski, The Way the World Works: How Economies Fail—And Succeed (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 141, 145; The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 26, 1979.

2. Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 384; Kent Schofield, “The Public Image of Herbert Hoover in the 1928 Campaign,” Mid-America, 51 (Oct. 1969); Herbert Hoover, The New Day: Campaign Speeches of Herbert Hoover, 1928 (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1928); Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 202; Joan Hoff Wilson, Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), 270; Anne O’Hare McCormick, as quoted in Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 203; Burner, Hoover, 211; Carl N. Degler, “The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” Yale Review, 52 (Summer 1963), 581.

3. Burner, Hoover, x, 8, 9, 60, 6, 12, 13, 16, 19–20, 54, 44, 73–80, 93–95, 115, 102, 82, 93, 151, 138, 152, 157; Wilson, Hoover: Forgotten Progressive, 14–15, 7–9, 281, 10–11; Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 579–80, 564; William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (Cleveland: World, 1959; rev. ed., New York: Dell, 1962), 136–37; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 374, 371, 377; John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1920), 247; Michael Kammen, People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization (New York: Knopf, 1972; reprint ed., Oxford University Press, 1980), 174–75, 195; The New York Times, April 2, 1920.

4. Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 35–36; Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1967), 170; The New Republic, 44 (Sept. 19, 1925); Burner, Hoover, 192, 63, 143–45, 173–78, 164–65, 234, 192–93, 146, 111–13; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 406, 388; Wilson, Hoover: Forgotten Progressive, 5; Herbert Hoover, Principles of Mining (New York: Hill, 1909); Robert H. Zieger, Republicans and Labor, 1919–1929, (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1969); Zieger, “Labor, Progressivism, and Herbert Hoover in the 1920’s,” Wisconsin Magazine of History, 47 (Spring 1975), 196–208; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 33–34; J. Joseph Huthmacher and Warren I. Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman, 1973), ix; Herbert Hoover, American Individualism (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1922); Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hover,” 565; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 83–85.

   That Hoover was a genuine progressive is far from universally accepted. Elliot Rosen flatly states that “Herbert Hoover was no progressive.” Rosen insists, in fact, that Hoover was “anxious to proceed along the lines of Social Darwinism, modified by what appeared to be a civilized set of ground rules for a competitive era” (Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 40, 43). I disagree. “Progressive” is a term of such breadth that it is impossible to exclude Hoover; and if “Social Darwinism” is to be stretched sufficiently to include him, it will become as meaningless as “progressive.”

5. Murray N. Rothbard essay in Huthmacher and Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism, 35–58; Ellis W. Hawley essay in ibid., 3–35; Hawley, “Herbert Hoover, the Commerce Secretariat, and the Vision of an ‘Associative State,’ 1921–1928,” Journal of American History, 61 (June 1974), 116–40; Wilson, Hoover: Forgotten Progressive, 6, 278, 15, 280, 159; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 1, 16–20, 201–03, 188, 209; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 384, 399, 372, 385, 400; Burner, Hoover, 20, 159, 139–41, 66, 329–30, 273–74, 185, 276–77; Hoover, The New Day, 164–65; William Appleman Williams, “What This Country Needs …,” New York Review of Books, 15 (Nov. 5, 1970), 7–11; William Appleman Williams, The Contours of American History (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1966), 425–50; Robert F. Himmelberg essay in Huthmacher and Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism, 59–85; Karl Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia (1936, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1951), as cited in Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 407–08n; Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 569–72; William Starr Myers, ed., The State Papers and Other Writings of Herbert Hoover (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1934), v. I, 499.

6. Jordan A. Schwarz, The Interregnum of Despair: Hoover, Congress, and the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 156, 142–45, 40; Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 571, 578; Myers, ed., State Papers of Hoover, v. II, 57–72; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 172, 199–200; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 169; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 394; Hoover letter to Walter Trohan, April 13, 1962, as quoted in Wilson, Hoover: Forgotten Progressive, 268; ibid., 269–72; Burner, Hoover, 99, 98, 59–60, 97, 92, 150, 255; Bernard Baruch, as quoted in ibid., 151; Silas Bent, “Mr. Hoover’s Sins of Commissions,” Scribner’s, 90 (July 1931), 9.

7. William Allen White, as quoted in Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 580; Burner, Hoover, 78, 257, 253; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 146, 36, 229, 221–22, 37–38; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 105, 47–49, 12–13; Harris G. Warren, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959; reprint ed., Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980), 53–55; Arthur Krock, “President Hoover’s Two Years,” Current History, 34 (July 1931), 488–94; Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 578; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 373; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 242; Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 195; Gerald D. Nash essay in Huthmacher and Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism, 110.

8. Donald R. McCoy, Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 382–92; Burner, Hoover, 190, 193–94, 204–05, 201, 199, 207; Richard Hofstadter, “Could a Protestant Have Beaten Hoover in 1928?” Reporter, 22 (March 17, 1960), 31; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 126–29; William E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–1932 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958), 234, 238, 240, 233; Paul A. Carter, “The Campaign of 1928 Re-Examined: A Study in Political Folklore,” Wisconsin Magazine of History, 46 (Summer 1963), 264; John William Ward, Andrew Jackson: Symbol for an Age (New York: Oxford University Press, 1955), 46–78; Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (2d rev. ed., Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956), 29–43; Carl N. Degler, “American Political Parties and the Rise of the City: An Interpretation,” Journal of American History, 51 (June 1964), 41–59; John D. Hicks, Republican Ascendancy, 1921–1933 (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), 213; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 35–36; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 379–80; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 5; Silas Bent, “Will the Democrats Follow the Whigs?” Scribner’s, 86 (Nov. 1929), 473–79; John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954; 3d ed., 1972), 20; “Acceptance Speech by Secretary of Commerce Herbert C. Hoover, San Francisco, August 11, 1928,” in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and Fred L. Israel, eds., History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–1968 (New York: Chelsea House, 1971), v. III, 2683, 2689.

   On Al Smith and the 1928 campaign, see also Oscar Handlin, Al Smith and His America (Boston: Little, Brown, 1958); Roy V. Peel and Thomas C. Donnelly, The 1928 Campaign: An Analysis (New York: R. R. Smith, 1931); and Lawrence H. Fuchs, “Election of 1928,” in Schlesinger and Israel, eds., History of American Presidential Elections, v. III, 2585–609.

9. Burner, Hoover, 212–13, 252–53; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 24–25, 27–29, 48–49, 26, 36, 227–28; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 391–92; Walter Lippmann, as quoted in Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 35; George Soule, Prosperity Decade: From War to Depression 1917–1929 (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1947), 312; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 52, 13, 50, 164–65; The New York Times, Oct. 26, 1929, May 23, 1932, May 28, 1932; Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 568; Myers, ed., State Papers of Hoover, v. I, 578, 585.

10. Burner, Hoover, 199, 208, 314–15, 309–12; Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920–1933 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 56; McCoy, Coolidge, 391; Hoover to Mrs. Sinclair Lewis, Oct. 22, 1937, as quoted in Burner, Hoover, 330; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 339; Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 581; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 40; Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Herbert Hoover, 1932–33 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1976), 751; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 437.

11. Steve Neal, article in Chicago Tribune Magazine, Jan. 10, 1982, summarized in Thomas E. Cronin, “News Notes,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 12 (Spring 1982), 293; Hoover autobiographical fragment, as quoted in Wilson, Hoover: Forgotten Progressive, 282; William Allen White, “Herbert Hoover: Last of the Old Presidents or First of the New?” The Saturday Evening Post, 205 (March 4, 1933), 6–7; Walter Lippmann, “The Permanent New Deal,” Yale Review, 24 (June 1935); Degler, “Ordeal of Herbert Hoover,” 563, 573–74; Wilson, Hoover: Forgotten Progressive, 274; “Hoover Plays His Part,” The New Republic, 61 (Dec. 11, 1929), 56; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 231–34, 199–200, 211; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 407, 377; Burner, Hoover, 264, 276, 177–88, 208, 236–44, 256–57, 417: n.7; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 40, 168, vii; Thomas E. Dewey, oral history, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library, West Branch, Iowa, as quoted in Burner, Hoover, 329; Paul Y. Anderson, “Congress Takes a Holiday,” The Nation, 129 (July 3, 1929), 13–14; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 47–49, 74; Huthmacher and Susman, eds., Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism, xi.

CHAPTER 4

NATURE TAKES ITS COURSE

1. David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New York: Knopf, 1979), 248, 250; Russell Baker, Growing Up (New York: Congdon & Weed, 1982), 67; Maurice Niveau, Histoire des faits économiques contemporains (2d ed., Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969), 231, as quoted in Charles P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression, 1929–1939 (1973; reprint ed.: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975), 135; Harris G. Warren, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959; reprint ed., Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980), 115–17; Carol Gelderman, Henry Ford: The Wayward Capitalist (New York: Dial, 1981), 292; Peter Temin, Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression? (New York: Norton, 1976), 4, Table 1; Albert U. Romasco, The Poverty of Abundance: Hoover, the Nation, the Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 133, 57, 34, 57–60, 64, 74, 8; Jordan A. Schwarz, The Interregnum of Despair: Hoover, Congress, and the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 3–4; Daniel Willard, as quoted in Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 140; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975), Series E-135, pp. 210–11, Series D-85–86, p. 135; Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Herbert Hoover, 1930 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1976), 171–79.

2. Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 30–31, 97; Andrew Mellon, Sept. 9, 1928, as quoted in John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954; 3d ed., 1972), 20; Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 393; Berton Hersh, The Mellon Family: A Fortune in History (New York: Morrow, 1978); Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920–1933 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 58–60; Galbraith, Great Crash, 31; Burner, Hoover, 208, 263, 257; Schwartz, Interregnum of Despair, 89, 16–17, 35, 30–31, 150; Kindleberger, World in Depression, 37; Richard Whitney, as quoted in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 178, 242; Julius H. Barnes, “Business Looks at Unemployment,” Atlantic, 148 (Aug. 1931), 242; Walter H. Hart, Annapolis, Md., to Hoover, Sept. 19, 1931, President’s Organization for Unemployment Relief (POUR) General Correspondence, Tray XVI-1, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (reproduced in Robert S. McElvaine, ed., Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from the “Forgotten Man” [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983], 38–39); Caroline Bird, The Invisible Scar (New York: McKay, 1966), 30: H. H. Franklin, Syracuse, N.Y., to Col. Arthur Woods, Chairman, President’s Emergency Committee for Employment (PECE), Jan. 9, 1931, PECE Central Files, Tray 1–1, National Archives; John W. Black, Minneapolis, Minn., to Walter Newton (Secretary to President Hoover), Nov. 9, 1931, POUR General Correspondence, Tray XVI-1 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 39–41); Mrs. H. D. Crowell, East Orange, N. J., to Woods, Nov. 1930, PECE Central Files, Tray I-1; Dewey W. Grantham, Jr., “Recent American History and the Great Depression,” Texas Quarterly, 6 (Winter 1963), 12–28; Henry Ford, as quoted in Gelderman, Ford, 293; The New York Times, Nov. 24, 1931; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 178–81, 117–18, 50–51, 240: n.23, 89–90, 77–79, 194–95, 145–48, 57, 162–66; Irving Bernstein, The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 332; copy of POUR advertisement enclosed with letter from H. L. Crutchfield, Rome, Ga., to Walter Gifford, March 16, 1932, POUR General Correspondence, Tray XVI-1.

3. Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 149, 166–71; Arthur T. Burns, as quoted in ibid., 159; Patrick J. Hurley, as quoted in ibid., 131; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 242; Bernstein, The Lean Years, 331; Kentucky miner to Arthur Garfield Hays, The Nation, 134 (June 8, 1932), 651; William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 3; Nathan Miller, FDR: An Intimate History (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983), 2; Advance, 18 (March 1932), 13; Bird, Invisible Scar, 24; K. F. Liljergren, “American Guarantee of Equity,” American Federationist, 39 (June 1932), 638; the Rev. George L. Willets, Columbus, Ohio, as quoted in United Mine Workers’ Journal, 43 (June 1, 1932), 9; Fred Kramer, Centralia, Ill., to Woods, Jan. 28, 1931, PECE Central Files, Tray I-1; Edward T. Johnson, New Haven, Conn., to Hoover, Aug. 1, 1931, POUR General Correspondence, Tray XVI-1; Elmer C. Warriner, Avalon, Pa., to Hoover, Oct. 1930, PECE Central Files, Tray XIII-15; Calvin C. Wood, Denver, Col., to Woods, Jan. 15, 1931, PECE Central Files, Tray XIII-15; David J. Fleming, Bronx, N.Y., to Sen. Robert F. Wagner, Feb. 14, 1931, Robert F. Wagner Papers, Drawer Q-4, Georgetown University Library; B. E. Minter, New York, N.Y., “An American Jeffersonian Democrat,” to Wagner, Dec. 3, 1930, Wagner Papers, Drawer Q-4.

4. Sherwood Anderson, Puzzled America (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935), ix; Marquis Childs, “Main Street Ten Years After,” The New Republic, 73 (Jan. 18, 1933), 263–65; Remley J. Glass, “Gentlemen, the Corn Belt!” Harper’s, 167 (July 1933), 199–209; Louis Adamic, My America, 1928–1938 (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1938), 298; “Talk of the Town,” The New Yorker, 8 (June 25, 1932), 5; Mrs. M. E. Brink, Oil City, Pa., to Woods, Dec. 15, 1930, PECE Central Files, Tray I-1 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 47–48).

5. Kindleberger, World in Depression, 77–78, 133, 146–70; ?. E. Schattschneider, Politics, Pressures and Tariffs: A Study of Free Private Enterprise in Pressure Politics as Shown by the 1929–30 Revision of the Tariff (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1935), 293; Hoover, Memoirs: Cabinet and Presidency, 291–99; John D. Hicks, Republican Ascendancy, 1921–1933 (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), 220–23; Warren, Hoover and the Great Depression, 84–87, 92–94; Broadus Mitchell, Depression Decade: From New Era through New Deal (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1947), 61–62, 72–76; Galbraith, Great Crash, 110; Frank W. Taussig, The Tariff History of the United States (New York: Putnam, 1892, 1931), 500–21; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 164; The New York Times, June 16, 1930; Hoover, Memoirs: Great Depression, 61–80; Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 67–90.

6. Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 18–21, 232, 53–59, 151, 73, 99–101, 106–41, 145, 164–73; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 224; Burner, Hoover, 308, 280–82, 253; Joan Hoff   Wilson, Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), 273; Arthur W. MacMahon, “Second Session of the Seventy-first Congress,” American Political Science Review, 24 (Nov. 1930), 936–37; George H. Nash, “Herbert Hoover’s Balanced Budget,” The Wall Street Journal, June 12, 1980; Roy Chapin, Feb. 17, 1932, as quoted in Schwartz, Interregnum of Despair, 116–17; The New York Times, March 13, 1932; Jude Wanniski, The Way the World Works: How Economies Fail—and Succeed (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 141; E. Cary Brown, “Fiscal Policy in the Thirties’: A Reappraisal,” American Economic Review, 46 (Dec. 1956), 868–69; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., “The Revolution that Never Was,” The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 24, 1979; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 222–26.

7. James Stuart Olson, Herbert Hoover and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1931–1933 (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1977), 29, 33, 116–17, 58–61; Gerald Nash, “Herbert Hoover and the Origins of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 46 (Dec. 1959), 455–68; Burner, Hoover, 275; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 189–90, 93; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 276–79, 297; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 237–38.

8. Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown in Transition: A Study in Cultural Conflicts (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1937), 20; David A. Shannon, ed., The Great Depression (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1960), 111, 122; Justice, 12 (Nov. 1931), 9; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 172, 176, 460, 265, 255–65; American Federationist, 38 (Aug. 1931), 923–24; Justice, 14 (June 1932), 10; Schlesinger, “The Revolution that Never Was”; American Federationist, 39 (Sept. 1932), 981; Bernstein, The Lean Years, 416, 421–22, 432–34, 440–54; Mary Heaton Vorse, “Rebellion in the Corn Belt: American Farmers Beat their Plowshares into Swords,” Harper’s, 166 (Dec. 1932), 3; George R. Leighton, “And If the Revolution Comes … ?” Harper’s, 164 (March 1932), 467; Burner, Hoover, 263–64, 309–12; Oakley Johnson, “After the Dearborn Massacre,” The New Republic, 70 (March 30, 1932), 172–74; Gelderman, Henry Ford, 304–05; Advance, 18 (March 1932), 13; Roger Daniels, The Bonus March: An Episode of the Great Depression (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1971); Donald Lisio, The President and Protest: Hoover, Conspiracy, and the Bonus Riot (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1974), 56; “A Real American,” to Woods, Nov. 8, 1930, PECE Central Files, Tray XIII-15.

CHAPTER 5

THE LORD OF THE MANOR

1. Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard, The Rise of American Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1927), v. II, 99–121; Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 421; Paul K. Conkin, The New Deal (New York: Crowell, 1967, 1975), 1–19; Nathan Miller, FDR: An Intimate History (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983), 153n.

2. Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship (Boston: Little, Brown, 1952), 4–14, 19, 37–43, 29, 48, 52–57, 25n, 61n, 62–63, 72–73, 75–77, 85; Joseph Alsop, FDR, 1882–1945: A Centenary Remembrance (New York: Viking, 1982), 29–30; Edward Pessen, “Social Structure and Politics in American History,” American Historical Review, 87 (Dec. 1982), 1296; James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1956), 3–21; Rita Halle Kleeman, Gracious Lady: The Life of Sara Delano Roosevelt (New York: Appleton-Century, 1935), 222; Barbara Welter, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820–1860,” American Quarterly, 18 (Summer 1966), 151–74; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 317–29; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 415.

3. Freidel, Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship, 86–116, 155–56, 163–65, 179–91, 24; Miller, FDR, 61–69; Josephus Daniels, The Wilson Era: Years of Peace, 1910–1917 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944), 124, 130; Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 71–80; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Ordeal (Boston: Little, Brown, 1954), 51–91; Kenneth S. Davis, FDR: The Beckoning of Destiny, 1882–1928 (New York: Putnam, 1972), 607–30.

4. Freidel, Roosevelt: The Ordeal, 92, 99–103; Freidel, Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship, 81; Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin (New York: Norton, 1971), 273; Alfred B. Rollins, Jr., Roosevelt and Howe (New York: Knopf, 1962), 181–86; Robert Jackson Diary, March 3, 1932, as quoted in Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 217–18; Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (New York: Viking, 1946), 29; Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949), 69, 25; James Roosevelt, with Sidney Shalett, Affectionately, F.D.R.: A Son’s Story of a Lonely Man (New York: Hacourt, Brace & World, 1959), 158; Eleanor Roosevelt, This Is My Story (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1937), 162; Davis, FDR: Beckoning of Destiny, 676–81.

5. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin, 24, 29–33, 44, 59, 63, 74, 121–41, 152–53, 197, 175, 179, 212, 219, 146, 154–69, 194, 220–27; Freidel, Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship, 66–71, 77, 79; Archibald MacLeish, The Eleanor Roosevelt Story (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965), Introduction; Miller, FDR, 152–54; Elliott Roosevelt and James Brough, An Untold Story: The Roosevelts of Hyde Park (New York: Putnam, 1973), 77–94, 316–17; Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 67–68; James Roosevelt, My Parents: A Different View (Chicago: Playboy Press, 1976), 99–104; Elliott Roosevelt and James Brough, Mother R: Eleanor Roosevelt’s Untold Story (New York: Putnam, 1977), 19–38; Robert S. McElvaine, ed., Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from The “Forgotten Man” (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983); Joseph P. Lash, Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends (New York: Doubleday, 1982); Doris Faber, The Life of Lorena Hickok, E. R.’s Friend (New York: Morrow, 1980).

6. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin, 276; Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 91–104, 123; Freidel, Roosevelt: The Ordeal, 176–78, 199, 200, 250–56, 268; Freidel, Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship, 89–90; Rollins, Roosevelt and Howe, 233–44; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Triumph (Boston: Little, Brown, 1956), 43–46, 53–54, 101–12, 162–63, 218–27, 167–70; Jordan A. Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair: Hoover, Congress, and the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 71; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 12.

7. Florence King, Southern Ladies and Gentlemen (New York: Stein & Day, 1975), 12; Anonymous, Cambridge (no state given), to FDR, June 22, 1936, FERA Central Files, Box 86, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 224); Anonymous, Glendale, Calif., to FDR, Jan. 4, 1936, FERA Central Files, Box 87; A. Graham, Jr., Seattle, Wash., to FERA, Dec. 12, 1934; FERA Central Files, Box 4 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 59–60); Ilene Hinchaw. Lawndale, Calif., to FDR, Feb. 1, 1934, CWA Administrative Correspondence, Box 54, National Archives (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 57–58); “A Friend,” Chicago, Ill., to Ben Whitehurst, Sept. 20, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 88.

8. Martha Gellhorn, “Report to Mr. Hopkins,” Harry Hopkins Papers, Box 60, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y.; David McCullough, “The Legacy: The President They Couldn’t Forget,” Parade, Jan. 31, 1982; William E. Leuchtenburg, “Ronald Reagan’s Liberal Past,” The New Republic, 188 (May 23, 1983), 21; Henry Steele Commager, “Roosevelt: Will His Legacy Survive Reagan?” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 24, 1982; NBC Nightly News, Jan. 23, 1982; Associated Press dispatch, Jan. 24, 1982; Fillmore H. Sanford, “Public Orientation to Roosevelt,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 15 (Summer 1951), 189–216; Will Rogers, as quoted in George Wolfskill, Happy Days Are Here Again! A Short Interpretive History of the New Deal (Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden, 1974), 17.

9. Gellhorn, “Report to Mr. Hopkins,” Hopkins Papers, Box 60; Marat Moore, “Coalmining Woman,” Southern Exposure, 9 (Winter 1981), 46; Lucy K. Schuette, Cedarburg, Wisc., to ER, March 5, 1934, Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, Box 2691, FDR Library (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 218–19); Tex Moore, Wichita Falls, Texas, to FDR, Jan. 4, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 4; Anonymous, Eureka Springs, Ark., to ER, April 1936, FERA Central Files, Box 86; Laura O’Donnell, Denver, Co., to ER, June 14, 1936, ER Papers, Box 2725; Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 133; The New York Times, March 9, 1936; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Politics of Upheaval (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 273–74; “A Friend of you both,” Kokomo, Ind., to ER, Oct. 28, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 88.

10. Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. I, 646; John Dewey, “The Future of Liberalism,” School and Society, 41 (Jan. 19, 1935), 75; Otis L. Graham, An Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 112n; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 189; George Creel, Rebel at Large: Recollections of Fifty Crowded Years (New York: Putnam, 1947), 270; Walter Johnson, ed., Selected Letters of William Allen White, 1899–1943 (New York: Holt, 1947), 345; Freidel, Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship, 31; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 105.

11. Rosenman, ed., Public Papers and Addresses, v. II, 15–16; Charles P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression, 1929-1939 (1973; Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975), 303; Steve Neal, in Chicago Tribune Magazine, Jan. 10, 1982, reported in Thomas E. Cronin, “News Notes,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 12 (Spring 1982), 291–93; John Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect: A Profile in History (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950), 5, 50; Walter Lippmann, in New York Herald Tribune, Jan. 8, 1932; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 452; Hofstadter, American Political Tradition, 412; R.J.C. Butow, “The FDR Tapes,” American Heritage, 33 (Feb.-March 1982), 8–24.

CHAPTER 6 “AND WHAT WAS DEAD WAS HOPE”

The chapter title is taken from Oscar Wilde’s The Ballad of Reading Gaol (New York: Dutton, 1928), 72.

1. Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 288; Jordan A. Schwarz, The Interregnum of Despair: Hoover, Congress, and the Depression (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 159, 236, 193–94; Albert U. Romasco, The Poverty of Abundance: Hoover, the Nation, the Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 128; Irving Bernstein, The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 467; The New York Times, Nov. 20, 1931; William Allen White, A Puritan in Babylon: The Story of Calvin Coolidge (New York: Macmillan, 1938), 439; David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New York: Knopf, 1979), 307–08.

2. Fred L. Israel, Nevada’s Key Pittman (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1963), 96; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Triumph (Boston: Little, Brown, 1956), 311; Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 154n; Robert S. Allen, “Texas Jack,” The New Republic, 70 (March 16, 1932), 119–21; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 185–87; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 18–24, 114, 4n, 123–30, 130–40, 144, 153–75, 197–201, 205, 210–11; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. I, 625, 632, 646, 642; The New York Times, April 14, 1932; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 292–93; Raymond Moley, The First New Deal (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966); Raymond Moley, After Seven Years (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939; reprint ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), 15; Rexford Tugwell, The Brains Trust (New York: Viking, 1968); Moley memorandum, May 19, 1932, Raymond Moley Papers, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif., as quoted in Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 141.

3. Freidel, The Triumph, 291–311; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 31–39, 228–34, 250–65, 270–72, 306; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 60–62; William Gibbs McAdoo, Crowded Years (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931), 44, 291; Martha H. Swain, Pat Harrison: The New Deal Years (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1978), 27–28; T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (New York: Knopf, 1969), 572–73, 581; Edward J. Flynn, You’re the Boss (New York: Viking, 1947), 100–01; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 306–07; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. I, 647–59.

4. Burner, Hoover, 316–17, 312; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 196–98, 201, 204; Huey Long, as quoted in Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 430; Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Herbert Hoover, 1932–33 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977), 656–80, 750–51; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. I, 669–84, 693–711, 742–56, 795–812, 734–35, 742; Moley, After Seven Years, 48; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 267, 345, 138.

5. Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 176–216; New York Evening Post, Feb. 6, 1933, clipping in Huey Long Scrapbooks, v. 19, Louisiana State University Library, Baton Rouge; William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 23–24; Time, Feb. 1, 1982, 30; Schwarz, Interregnum of Despair, 205, 229, 206, 97–98, 222; Burner, Hoover, 319, 269–73, 321–24; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 3; John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954, 1972), 118, 156–59, 184–85; Harris G. Warren, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959; reprint ed., Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980), 113; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 457, 478–79; Susan Estabrook Kennedy, The Banking Crisis of 1933 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1973), 20–21, 30–39; Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, The Great Contraction, 1929–1933 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965), 3–21; Romasco, Poverty of Abundance, 68–70, 85–86, 80–81.

CHAPTER 7

“ACTION, AND ACTION NOW”

1. The New York Times, March 3, 1933, March 4, 1933; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v., II, 11–16, 61–66; Edmund Wilson, The Shores of Light (New York: Farrar, Straus & Young, 1952), 498–99; Dixon Wechter, The Age of the Great Depression, 1929–1941 (New York: Macmillan, 1948), 229; J. Fred MacDonald, Don’t Touch That Dial! Radio Programming in American Life, 1920–1960 (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1979), 41; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 214–15, 234, 194–95, 219, 184, 226, 225, 234, 443, 236; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959), 13; Raymond Moley, After Seven Years: A Political Analysis of the New Deal (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939; reprint ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), 155; Susan Estabrook Kennedy, The Banking Crisis of 1933 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1973), 152–202; William Starr Myers and Walter H. Newton, The Hoover Administration: A Documented Narrative (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936), 356; Herbert Hoover, Memoirs: The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (New York: Macmillan, 1952), 215; Bernard Sternsher, Rexford Tugwell and the New Deal (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1964), 75; Theodore G. Joslin, Hoover Off the Record (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1934), 364–65; The Wall Street Journal, March 4, 1933.

2. Freidel, Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal, 237–54, 140–42, 147–50, 159, 249, 303, 312–13; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. II, 49, 16; William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 47, 64; Moley, After Seven Years, 153; The New York Times, May 19, 1933; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 8–13, 15, 17–20; The New York Times, Sept. 11, 1932; Ray Tucker, “The National Air,” Collier’s, 93 (Jan. 27, 1934), 22; The New Republic, 90 (April 7, 1937), 251–52; Otis L. Graham, Jr., An Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 171–72, 24, 27, 178; Time, 119 (Feb. 1, 1982); Charles Forcey, The Crossroads of Liberalism: Croly, Weyl, Lippmann, and the Progressive Era, 1900–1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961); George N. Peek and Samuel Crowther, Why Quit Our Own? (New York: Van Nostrand, 1936), 20; Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 156, 304; James T. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1967), 4–6; E. Pendleton Herring, “First Session of the 73rd Congress,” American Political Science Review, 27 (Feb. 1934), 65–83.

3. Van L. Perkins, Crisis in Agriculture: The Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the New Deal, 1933 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969), 73; Freidel, Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal, 85–86, 89–90, 308–39; Christiana McFadyen Campbell, The Farm Bureau and the New Deal (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1962), 51; The Complete Presidential Press Conferences of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Da Capo, 1972), v. I, 44 (March 15, 1933); The New York Times, March 19, 1933; Jordan Schwartz, 1933: Roosevelt’s Decision: The United States Leaves the Gold Standard (New York: Chelsea House, 1969); Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 40, 199–203, 74–84; Moley, After Seven Years, 160; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 72–78, 136–40, 170–71; Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Field (Boston: Little, Brown, 1939); Donald Worster, Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979); John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: Viking, 1939; Penguin, 1976), 40, 50; Paul E. Mertz, New Deal Policy and Southern Rural Poverty (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978), 5–13; Lois Bray, Leachville, Ark., to Norman Thomas, April 6, 1934, Norman Thomas Papers, Box 10, New York Public Library (reproduced in Robert S. McElvaine, ed., Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from the “Forgotten Man” [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983], 74–75): Donald H. Grubbs, Cry From the Cotton: The Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union and the New Deal (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1971); Gilbert Fite, George N. Peek and the Fight for Farm Parity (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 251–52.

4. James T. Pattterson, America’s Struggle Against Poverty, 1900–1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 56–60; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 264–78, 282–88, Robert Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948); Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 120–25; Raymond Moley, The First New Deal (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966), 271; Eric F. Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (New York: Knopf, 1952; rev. ed., Vintage, 1955), 257; Harold Ickes, Autobiography of a Curmudgeon (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1943); Freidel, Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal, 154–55; Harry Hopkins, Spending to Save (New York: Norton, 1936); “W.P.A. Workers of Battle Creek,” Michigan, to FDR, April 5, 1936, FERA Central Files, Box 86; Lorena Hickok to Harry Hopkins, from Des Moines, Iowa, Nov. 25, 1933, Hickok to Hopkins, from Birmingham, Ala., April 2, 1934, and Hickok to Hopkins, from Raleigh, N.C., Feb. 14, 1934, all in Lorena Hickok Papers, Box 11, FDR Library; Gov. Floyd Olson (Farmer-Labor, Minnesota) to Hopkins, June 22, 1934, Harry Hopkins Papers, Box 61, FDR Library; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. V, 19–21.

5. Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 174; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. IV, 65; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 336–40, 319–34; Paul K. Conkin, The New Deal (2d ed., New York: Crowell, 1967, 1975), 45; Moley, The First New Deal, 5, 323–34; John A. Salmond, The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1967); Freidel, Launching the New Deal, 256–66, 162–66, 350–54; Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (New York: Viking, 1946), 177–81; C. H. Prichett, The Tennessee Valley Authority (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1943); David E. Lilienthal, TVA: Democracy on the March (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1944); Gordon R. Clapp, The TVA: An Approach to the Development of a Region (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955); John H. Kyle, The Building of TVA (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1958); Marguerite Owen, The Tennessee Valley Authority (New York: Praeger, 1973); North Callahan, TVA: Bridge Over Troubled Waters (New York: Barnes, 1980).

6. Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. II, 246, 164; Freidel, Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal, 408–35; Time, 21 (April 17, 1933); Ellis W. Hawley, The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), 21–25, 472–75, 33, 53–55, 57–58, 104, 67, 132, 61, 123–24, 127–31; Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 192–96, 252–53; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 95, 108–10, 125–26, 152–53; Moley, First New Deal, 284, 290; Hugh S. Johnson, The Blue Eagle from Egg to Earth (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1935), 196–204; Dorothy Thompson, in the New York Herald Tribune, Jan. 24, 1938, as quoted in Hawley, New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly, 472; Gabriel Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900–1916 (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1963); Robert H. Wiebe, Businessmen and Reform: A Study of the Progressive Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962), 80–85, 186–90; James Weinstein, The Corporate Ideal in the Liberal State, 1900–1918 (Boston: Beacon, 1968); Richard H. Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams: Culture and Social Thought in the Depression Years (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), 81; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 65–66; “The NRA Prosperity March,” as quoted in Hawley, New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly, 54; Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 109; Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny, 160–61; James F. Ragland, “Franklin D. Roosevelt and Public Opinion, 1933–1940” (PH.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1954), 249; Alan Brinkley, Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression (New York: Knopf, 1982), 155; William E. Leuchtenburg, “Ronald Reagan’s Liberal Past,” The New Republic, 188 (May 23, 1983), 21; Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 435.

7. Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 297–98, 440–45, 232–52, 456–70; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 53, 60; C. Lowell Harriss, History and Policies of the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1951), 35–39; Moley, After Seven Years, 175–84; Business Week, (Dec. 9, 1933), 16; John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954; 3d ed., 1972), 164–72; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship (Boston: Little, Brown, 1952), 37; Freidel, Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal, 442–43, 340–50, 483.

8. Oswald Garrison Villard, “Mr. Roosevelt’s Two Months,” New Statesman and Nation, May 13, 1933, as quoted in Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 21; The New York Times, March 26, 1933; William Allen White to Harold Ickes, May 23, 1933, as quoted in Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 62; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 21; Herbert Feis to Henry Stimson, March 15, 1933, as quoted in Freidel, Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal, 312; Gabriel Over the White House (1933, Gregory La Cava, MGM); Andrew Bergman, We’re in the Money: Depression America and Its Films (New York: New York University Press, 1971; reprint ed., Harper & Row, 1972), 15, 116–20.

9. Otis L. Graham, “Historians and the New Deals, 1944–1960,” The Social Studies, 54 (April 1963), 133–40; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Politics of Upheaval (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 385–408; Basil Rauch, The History of the New Deal, 1933–1938 (New York; Creative Age Press, 1944); Jerrold S. Auerbach, “New Deal, Old Deal, or Raw Deal: Some Thoughts on New Left Historiography,” Journal of Southern History, 35 (Feb. 1969), 18–30; Hawley, New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly, 107; Barton J. Bernstein, “The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform,” in Barton J. Bernstein, ed., Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History(New York: Vintage, 1968), 263–88; Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare (New York: Vintage, 1971); Howard Zinn, ed., New Deal Thought (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966), xxv.

CHAPTER 8 “FEAR ITSELF”

1. Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 18; Cabell Phillips, From the Crash to the Blitz, 1929–1939 (New York: Macmillan, 1969), xii.

2. Among the books that have begun to provide us with the raw material for the basis of an understanding of working-class culture in the Great Depression are Studs Terkel, Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression (New York: Pantheon, 1970); Alice and Staughton Lynd, Rank and File: Personal Histories by Working-Class Organizers (Boston: Beacon, 1973); Tom E. Terrill and Jerrold Hirsch, eds., Such As Us: Southern Voices of the Thirties (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978); Ann Banks, ed., First-Person America (New York: Knopf, 1980); and Richard Lowitt and Maurine Beasley, One Third of a Nation: Lorena Hickok’s Reports on the Great Depression(Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1981).

3. Philip Eisenberg and Paul F. Lazarfeld, “The Psychological Effects of Unemployment,” Psychological Bulletin, 35 (June 1938); Alfred Winslow Jones, Life, Liberty and Property (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1941); Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown in Transition: A Study in Cultural Conflicts (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1937); Arthur W. Kornhauser, “Attitudes of Economic Groups,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 2 (April 1938), 260–68; Ruth Shonle Cavan and Katherine Howland Ranck, The Family and the Depression: A Study of One Hundred Chicago Families (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938); Mirra Komarovsky, The Unemployed Man and His Family (New York: Dryden, 1940); E. Wight Bakke, Citizens without Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940); Bakke, The Unemployed Worker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940); Jessie A. Bloodworth and Elizabeth J. Greenwood, The Personal Side (1939; reprint ed., New York: Arno, 1971); Howard B. Woolston, “Psychology of Unemployment,” Sociology and Social Research, 19 (March-April 1935), 335–40; Flora Slocum and Charlotte Ring, “Industry’s Discarded Workers (A Study of 100 St. Louis Relief Families),” Sociology and Social Research, 19 (July-Aug. 1935); Edward A. Rundquist and Raymond F. Sletto, Personality in the Depression: A Study in the Management of Attitudes (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1936); Gabriel Almond and Harold D. Lasswell, “Aggressive Behavior by Clients toward Public Relief Administrators: A Configurative Analysis,” American Political Science Review, 28 (Aug. 1934), 643–55.

4. Oral history interviews conducted thirty-five to forty-five years after the events being described, such as Terkel’s Hard Times and the Lynds’ Rank and File—useful as they unquestionably are—are less reliable than testimony given at the time, either through letters or interviews. It seems inevitable that the years between the Depression and the Terkel and Lynd interviews, particularly the long period of relative affluence from World War II through the 1960s, will have colored people’s recollections of the thirties. See Fred Davis, Passage through Crisis (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961).

5. A sampling of these letters is available in Robert S. McElvaine, ed., Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from the “Forgotten Man” (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983).

   Herman Kahn, former director of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, estimated that there were some 15 million letters from the public in Hyde Park. Many more are housed in the National Archives and elsewhere. During the early years of the Depression, Roosevelt annually received letters equaling a rate of 160 per 10,000 literate adults in the American population. This was nearly four times greater than the next-highest level in American history, that of 47 per 10,000 literate adults writing to Woodrow Wilson during World War I.

   In most periods of American history, well-educated, upper-class people have been disproportionately represented among those who have written letters to political figures. This was not the case during the New Deal years. An analysis of the mail addressed to FDR and received in a week in March 1934, found 46 percent coming from laborers, 14 percent from clerks, and 15 percent from farmers. A combined total of only 20 percent were from businessmen and professionals. Poorly educated, working-class people need a stronger motive to write than do their more learned and affluent countrymen. The Depression provided them with such a motive and the Roosevelts gave them reason to hope that their thoughts and pleas might be heard and answered.

   Leila A. Sussmann, Dear FDR: A Study in Political Letter-Writing (Totowa, N.J.: Bedminster, 1963), 72, 60, 11, 87, 135–41; Ira Smith, Dear Mr. President (New York: Messner, 1949), 150; FERA, “Analysis of General Run of All Mail Addressed to President Roosevelt, March 23–27, 1934,” cited in Sussmann, Dear FDR, 140–41.

6. Lorena Hickok, Report to Harry Hopkins on Maine, Sept. 21–29, 1933, Lorena Hickok Papers, Box 11, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; John A. Garraty, “Unemployment During the Great Depression,” Labor History, 12 (Spring 1976), 147; Hickok report dated “June 1(?), 1934(?),” but actually written in late 1934, Hickok Papers, Box 11; Thomas Steep, Report to Hopkins from Chicago, Nov. 10, 1934, Harry Hopkins Papers, Box 66, FDR Library; Mrs. Sanderson, Oklahoma City, Okla., to ER, June 10, 1934, Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, Box 2691, FDR Library (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 189–92); “One of the Unwashed,” Oregon, to ER, Feb. 28, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 91, National Archives (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 211).

7. “Henry E.,” age 43, former salesman and clerical worker, Minnesota, interviewed by Miss McEachern, Minnesota WPA, Feb. 1940, “Interviews of Project Workers in Twelve States,” WPA Division of Information Files, Box 482, National Archives; Steep to Hopkins, from Chicago, Nov. 10, 1934; Hickok, Report to Hopkins on Ohio, Oct. 10, 1935, Hickok Papers, Box 11; Louisa Wilson, Report to Hopkins on Detroit, Nov. 17, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 67; Solomon Diamond, “A Study of the Influence of Political Radicalism on Personality Development,” Archives of Psychology, no. 203 (June 1936), 10–12; Caroline Bird, The Invisible Scar (New York: McKay, 1966), 197; Daniel T. Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978); interview with Albert Beaujon, age 75, former knifemaker, Thomaston, Conn., ca. 1938, WPA Federal Writers’ Project, Living Lore Collection, Archive of Folk Song, Library of Congress; Ralph R. Connor, St. Louis, Mo., to Hopkins, Dec. 2, 1933, Civil Works Administration Central Files, Box 54, National Archives; Glen H. Elder, Jr., Children of the Great Depression (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 51; “A Taxpayer,” New York, N.Y., to FERA, Jan. 3, 1936, FERA Files, Box 87; Anonymous, Evansville, Ind., to FDR, Sept. 7, 1935, FERA Files, Box 88; Minnie A. Hardin, Columbus, Ind., to ER, Dec. 14, 1937, ER Papers, Box 2735 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 145–47); Terkel, Hard Times, 5; Hickok, Report to Hopkins on Houston, Tex., April 13, 1934, Hickok Papers, Box 11; 38-year-old laborer, interviewed by Carl W. Held, Information Service Department, Oklahoma WPA, Feb. 1940, WPA Division of Information Files, Box 482.

8. Which was often far more rapidly than could have been anticipated, because life savings were wiped out in bank failures. This sometimes made Depression victims more bitter than did other hardships. David M. Maynard, Report to Hopkins on Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 6, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66. “I had enough money in the bank to take care of myself,” complained the Oklahoma City woman quoted earlier, “but the bankers got it—hundreds were the same—we have lost our homes—but it wasent our fault,” Mrs. Sanderson, Oklahoma City, to ER, June 10, 1934.

9. Hickok, Report to Hopkins on Maine, Sept. 21–29, 1933; James T. Bagley, Charlotte, N.C., to Hopkins, Nov. 28, 1933, CWA Files, Box 54; J. C. Swindler, Riverside, Calif., to General Hugh Johnson, Nov. 23, 1933, CWA Files, Box 55; Mrs. Grenobia Vincent, Weldon, N.C., to ER, Jan. 21, 1935, ER Papers, Box 2220 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 109–10); Ben L. Beaver, Egan, Texas, to Hopkins, Dec. 5, 1933, CWA Files Box 54; Hickok, Report to Hopkins, Phoenix, Ariz., May 4, 1934, Hickok Papers, Box 11. The man quoted had been a small businessman before the Depression, but by this time had long been one of the unemployed. Bruce McClure, Report to Hopkins on Lawrence County, Pa., Fall 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; A. Graham, Jr., Seattle, Wash., to FERA, Dec. 12, 1934, FERA Files, Box 4 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 59–60); Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Rock Springs, Wyo., Sept. 3, 1934, Hickok Papers, Box 11; Wayne Parrish, Report to Hopkins on New Jersey, Dec. 1, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Lincoln, Neb., Nov. 18, 1933, and Hickok, Report to Hopkins on West Virginia, Aug. 16–26, 1933, both in Hickok Papers, Box 11; Martha Gellhorn, Report on Rhode Island, Dec. 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66.

10. Elder, Children of the Great Depression, 54, 60; Bird, Invisible Scar, 39; George W. Kearns, Martinsburg, W. Va., to Sen. M. M. Neely (D—W. Va.), Jan. 23, 1935, FERA Files, Box 5 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 130–31); Mrs. Post, Cambridge (no state given), to FDR, May 16, 1934, FERA Files, Box 4 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 158); Ralph R. Connor, St. Louis, Mo., to Hopkins, Dec. 2, 1933, CWA Files, Box 54; Ed Paulsen, in Terkel, Hard Times, 34; “W.P.A. Workers wife,” Kalamazoo, Mich., to Hopkins, Nov. 21, 1935, FERA Files, Box 88; Gellhorn, Report on Rhode Island, Dec. 1934. On “taking” by slaves, see Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), 131.

11. “An Obscure Couple,” Kingston, N.Y., to Hopkins, May 1935, FERA Files, Box 90; Mary L., Detroit, Mich., to FDR, Oct. 2, 1935, FERA Files, Box 88; “Florence B.,” age 28, former packager of candies and cookies, displaced by automation, interviewed by Miss McEachern, Minnesota WPA, Feb. 1940, WPA Division of Information Files, Box 482; Mrs. F. E. Gray, Beverly, Mass., to ER, Dec. 4, 1934, ER Papers, Box 612 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 103–04); “123986,” New York, N.Y., to FDR, March 1936, FERA New Subject File, 002; Joseph S. Hall, Latrobe, Pa., to Bruce McClure, Secretary, CWA, April 4, 1934, CWA Files, Box 54 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 159); Parrish, Report to Hopkins on New York City, Nov. 17, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66. The suicide rate increased in the Depression years. It was noticeably higher in all the years of the thirties than it had been in the twenties or has been at any time since 1941. By 1932, the rate had increased to 17.4 per 100,000, up from 14 per 100,000 in 1929. U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975), Series B-166, v. I, 58. Gellhorn, Report to Hopkins on Camden, N.J., April 25, 1935, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Mrs. J. Graziano, Montvale, N.J., to ER, Aug. 28, 1934, ER Papers, Box 612 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 58).

12. Vito Cacciola, cobbler, Beverly, Mass., interviewed by Merton R. Lovett, Jan. 12, 1939, WPA FWP Living Lore Collection. For the help-seeking letters to Mrs. Roosevelt, see File 150.1, Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. Mrs. Alfred Westphal, Aurelia, Iowa, to ER, n.d. (ca. June 1936), ER Papers, Box 2220; “E.T.,” Philadelphia, Pa., to ER, Feb. 19, 1935, FERA Files, Box 91 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 164). Other good examples of such letters include Mrs. Albina Martell, Waterbury, Vt., to ER, Jan. 19, 1934, ER Papers, Box 2197 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 75); Mrs. Jno. Trimble, Goff, Kans., to ER, May 10, 1935 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 75); and Mrs. J. N. Tony, Athens, Ga., to ER, Nov. 25, 1935, both in ER Papers, Box 2220. On the connection between asking for help and seeing oneself as a failure, see for example, Mrs. C. D. Cockerham, Winnsboro, La., to ER, Oct. 29, 1935, ER Papers, Box 645 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 69–70).

13. Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted (Boston: Atlantic-Little, Brown, 1951, 1973), 181; “Colored,” Marietta, Ga., to FDR, Oct. 27, 1935, FERA New Subject File, 002 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 90–91); P. F. Alston, Arkansas City, Kans., to ER, Nov. 25, 1934, ER Papers, Box 600; Mrs. Charles Clontz, Summerville, Pa., to ER, April 1935, ER Papers, Box 645 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 70–71).

14. “Contrary to an erroneous popular impression, workers on urban relief rolls in 1934 were not industrial misfits who had never worked nor persons with an irregular work history.… Over half of the men had worked 10 years or more at their usual occupation.” WPA, Urban Workers on Relief, Research Monograph IV, Part I (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1936), 32.

15. Anonymous, Chicago, Ill., to Mr. and Mrs. Roosevelt, Feb. 1936, FERA Files, Box 87 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 117).

16. The foregoing scene of applying for relief is based on a general background of information in letters and other sources and specifically on Hickok, Report to Hopkins on New York City, Oct. 2–12, 1933, and Hickok, Report to Hopkins on Houston, Tex., April 4–12, 1934, both in Hickok Papers, Box 11, and Gellhorn, Report to Hopkins on Massachusetts, Nov. 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66.

17. Gellhorn, Report on Rhode Island, Dec. 1934; Hickok Report, “June 1(?), 1934(?)”; Hickok, Report to Hopkins on New York City, Oct. 2–12, 1933; Gellhorn, Report to Hopkins on Massachusetts, Nov. 1934; William Haber, State Emergency Relief Commissioner of Michigan, to Hopkins, Dec. 4, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 61; Hickok, Report to Hopkins on Philadelphia (from Allentown, Pa.), July 14, 1935, Hopkins Papers, Box 68; Gellhorn, Report to Hopkins on North Carolina, Nov. 19, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66. On apathy among Depression victims, see also Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 252; Marquis Childs, “Main Street Ten Years After,” The New Republic, 73 (Jan. 18, 1933), 263–65; and Jones, Life, Liberty and Property, 71.

18. Hazel Reavis, Report to Hopkins on Bethlehem, Pa., Dec. 7, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Salt Lake City, Utah, Sept. 1, 1934, Hickok Papers, Box 11; Anonymous, Atlanta, Ga., to FDR, Aug. 14, 1935, FERA Files, Box 89; Hickok Reports to Hopkins: Pennsylvania, Aug. 6, 1933, Cheyenne, Wyo., Sept. 9, 1934, and Salt Lake City, Sept. 1, 1934, Hickok Papers, Box 11; “An S.E.R.A. Worker,” Los Angeles, Calif., May 13, 1935, FERA Files, Box 90; Hickok Reports to Hopkins: Upstate New York, Sept. 12–19, 1933, Des Moines, Iowa, Nov. 25, 1933, and Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 22, 1935, Hickok Papers, Box 11; Hickok, Memo to Hopkins, “On ‘the State of the Nation’ in the Great City of New York,” Dec. 29, 1933, Hickok Papers, Box 11; “Paul D.,” age 51, former streetcar conductor, and “Florence B.,” interviewed by Miss McEachern, Minnesota WPA; 58-year-old former building contractor, Detroit, interviewed by Frederic S. Schouman, Michigan WPA, all Feb. 1940, WPA Division of Information Files, Box 482. Many other interviews in this collection support the same point.

19. George Orwell noted a similar change in the attitude of the unemployed in Great Britain by 1937. The Road to Wigan Pier (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958), 80. Lynd and Lynd, Middletown in Transition, 111–12.

20. Hickok, as quoted in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), 275; E. H. Mulock, Administrator, Iowa E.R.A., “Statement of Relief Conditions and Employment Prospects in Iowa as of November 15, 1934,” (letter to Hopkins, Nov. 27, 1934), Hopkins Papers, Box 61; Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Salt Lake City, Sept. 1, 1934; Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare (New York: Pantheon, 1971), 61–62. Many studies of the attitudes of Depression victims indicate the existence of this demanding, relief-as-a-right group, as one of several categories of recipients. See Melvin J. Vincent, “Relief and Resultant Attitudes,” Sociology and Social Research, 20 (Sept.-Oct. 1935), 27–33; Eisenberg and Lazarfeld, “The Psychological Effects of Unemployment,” 372; Cavan and Ranck, The Family and the Depression, 195; Woolston, “Psychology of Unemployment,” 335–40; and Slocum and Ring, “Industry’s Discarded Workers (A Study of 100 St. Louis Relief Families),” 524–25.

21. Bird, Invisible Scar, 32; Gellhorn, Report to Hopkins on South Carolina, Nov. 5, 1934, and Gellhorn, Report to Hopkins on New Hampshire, Dec. 2, 1934, both in Hopkins Papers, Box 66. Gellhorn, it may be relevant to note, seems to have had a remarkable ability to find syphilis and morons among the poor. In her limited surveys she discovered more of each than seems remotely credible. Her solution to both “problems”: a massive sterilization program for “cretins.” Gellhorn reports to Hopkins, passim., Hopkins Papers, Box 66.

22. Henry W. Francis, Report to Hopkins from Williamson, W. Va., Dec. 7, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Mrs. Howe, age 39, wife of WPA worker, Lynn, Mass., interviewed by Jane E. Leary, July 27, 1939, WPA FWP Living Lore Collection; Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Salt Lake City, Sept. 1, 1934.

23. Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Sioux City, Iowa, Dec. 4, 1933, Hickok Papers, Box 11; Mrs. A. J. Ferguson, Fair Haven, Vt., to FDR, June 1934, FERA Files, Box 4 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 165–66); “A Democrat Voter,” Louisville, Ky., to FDR, May 8, 1936, FERA New Subject File, 002 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 175–76); “Just a Friend,” Nashville, Tenn., to FDR, Nov. 27, 1935, FERA New Subject File, 002 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 127); Steep, Report to Hopkins from Chicago, Nov. 4, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Elder, Children of the Great Depression, 91–92; Parrish, Report to Hopkins on New York City, Nov. 24, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Dickinson, N. Dak. and Minot, N. Dak., Nov. 1, 1933, both in Hickok Papers, Box 11; John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: Viking, 1939; Penguin, 1976), 467; Elder, Children of the Great Depression, 83, 88, 101, 106; Steep, Report to Hopkins from Chicago, Nov. 17, 1934; “One of the Unwashed,” Oregon, to ER, Feb. 28, 1935, FERA Files, Box 91; Mrs. Charles Clontz, Summerville, Pa., to ER, April 1935, ER Papers, Box 645 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 70–71); Joseph Captiva, fisherman, Provincetown, Mass., interviewed by Alice Kelly, Feb. 1939, and Patrick J. Ryan, shoe machinery worker, Lynn, Mass., interviewed by Jane K. Leary, July 20, 1939, both in WPA FWP Living Lore Collection: Komarovsky, The Unemployed Man and His Family; Louis Adamic, My America, 1928–1938 (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1938), 283–93; Cavan and Ranck, The Family and the Depression, 7–8.

24. Norman Cousins, “Will Women Lose Their Jobs?” Current History and Forum, 41 (Sept. 1939), 14; Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 257–59, 254, 260–61, 251, 270–71, 262–63; Susan Ware, Holding Their Own: American Women in the 1930s (Boston: Twayne, 1982), 21–50; Ware, Beyond Suffrage: Women in the New Deal (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981); Ruth Milkman, “Women’s Work and Economic Crisis: Some Lessons of the Great Depression,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 8 (Spring 1978); Jeane Westin, Making Do: How Women Survived the ’30s (Chicago: Follett, 1976); Winifred D. Wandersee, Women’s Work and Family Values, 1920–1940 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 84, 101–02, 1–3, 88, 97; John B. Parrish, “Changes in the Nation’s Labor Supply,” American Economic Review, 29 (June 1939), 332; Parrish, “Women in the Nation’s Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 54 (May 1940), 528; Local No. 2 Edition, UAW-CIO, Nov. 15, 1939, as quoted in Kessler-Harris, Out to Work, 269; Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York: Norton, 1963).

25. Elder, Children of the Great Depression, 52, 71, 29; Beran Wolfe, “Psycho-analyzing the Depression,” The Forum, 87 (April 1932), 212; Hickok, Report to Hopkins on New York City, Oct. 2–12, 1933; Hickok, Report to Hopkins on Pennsylvania, Aug. 7–12, 1933; Hickok Papers, Box 11; Clarabell Van Busick, age 11, Rushyhania, Ohio, to ER, March 29, 1935, ER Papers, Box 2220 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 118–19); Lucille Ledbetter, age 12, Blacksburg, S.C., to ER, Jan. 19, 1934, ER Papers, Box 2197 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 116); Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Salt Lake City, Sept. 1, 1934; Larry Van Dusen, in Terkel, Hard Times, 106–07; Anonymous, age 12, Chicago, Ill., to Mr. and Mrs. Roosevelt, Feb. 1936, FERA Files, Box 87 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 117); Ned Strib-ling, Sulphur Springs, Tex., to FDR, Dec. 11, 1934, FERA Files, Box 5 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 72); Anonymous, Beaverdam, Va., to FDR, Oct. 23, 1935, FERA Files, Box 88 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 170–71); John Garlacy and John Lemch, Woonsocket, R.I., to FDR, Dec. 23, 1935, FDR Papers, Alphabetical File, 1933–36, Box 2, FDR Library; Anonymous, Warren, Ohio, to FDR, Dec. 22, 1935, FERA Files, Box 88 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 116).

26. Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Fergus Falls, Minn., Dec. 5, 1933; Hickok, Report to Hopkins, “Enroute, Memphis to Denver,” June 17, 1934, all in Hickok Papers, Box 11; Mrs. Luella Comstock, Merrill, Wisc., to ER, Sept. 10, 1935, ER Papers, Box 645; 30-year-old laborer on Oklahoma WPA project, interviewed by Carl W. Held, Information Service Department, Oklahoma WPA, WPA Division of Information Files, Box 482; Steep, Report to Hopkins from Chicago, Nov. 10, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Carl Giles, Administrator, ERA, Oklahoma, to Hopkins, Nov. 15, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 61; “Working Girls League,” Winona, Minn., to Hopkins, June 23, 1936, FERA Files, Box 86; Gellhorn, Report on Rhode Island, Dec. 1934; Parrish, Report to Hopkins on New York City and New Jersey, n.d. (ca. Dec. 1934), Hopkins Papers, Box 66; Hickok, Report to Hopkins from Syracuse, N.Y., Aug. 5, 1935, Hopkins Papers, Box 68; Lynd and Lynd, Middletown in Transition, 476, 455; George R. Cody, State Emergency Relief Administrator, Rhode Island, to Hopkins, Dec. 4, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 61; Gellhorn, Report on Rhode Island, Dec. 1934; Hickok, Report to Hopkins, “June 1(?), 1934(?)”; Lea D. Taylor, as reported in Steep, Report to Hopkins on Chicago, Nov. 17, 1934. Belief in the Alger myth was relatively weak among the poor in the 1930s. See Hadley Cantril and Mildred Strunk, eds., Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1951), 829.

27. Clifford Burke, in Terkel, Hard Times, 82; Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks; The Emergence of Civil Rights As a National Issue: The Depression Decade (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 41, 35–38, 93, 40–41, 44–46, 54–55, 53–54, 50–51, 48–49; Anonymous, Canton, Ga., to FDR, July 22, 1935, FERA New Subject File, 002, National Archives (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 94); Raymond Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression: The Problem of Economic Recovery (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1970), 116–17, 126–27, 130–31, 39; Arthur F. Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1933), 30–31; Hilton Butler, “Lynch Law in Action,” The New Republic, 67 (July 22, 1931), 257; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Triumph (Boston: Little, Brown, 1956), 276; Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1944), 74; Frank Freidel, FDR and the South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1955), 36; Walter White, A Man Called White (New York; Viking, 1948), 169–70; Arthur F. Raper, Preface to Peasantry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1936), 56; Anonymous, Reidsville, Ga., to FDR, Oct. 19, 1935, and Anonymous, Hattiesburg, Miss., to FDR, FERA New Subject File, 002 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 83, 88).

28. John B. Kirby, Black Americans in the Roosevelt Era: Liberalism and Race (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980), 230, 76–96, 8–11, 49–53, 234; Sitkoff, New Deal for Blacks, 29, 59–61, 80–81, 72–73, 106, 77–78, 179–83, 88–96, 109, 116, 112–14, 332–33, 69–72, 104–05, 66–69, 331, 65–66, 216–43, 331–32, 76, 89, 326–27, 33, 334, 82–83; Erik Barnouw, A Tower of Babel: A History of Broadcasting in the United States to 1933 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), 225–30; J. Fred MacDonald, Don’t Touch That Dial! Radio Programming in American Life, 1920–1960 (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1979), 27; The New York Times, editorial, March 7, 1930; Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin (New York: Norton, 1971), 512–35; Tamara K. Hareven, Eleanor Roosevelt: An American Conscience (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1968), 112–29; Eleanor Roosevelt, “Address,” The National Conference on Fundamental Problems in the Education of Negroes, Washington, D.C., May 9–12, 1934, as quoted in Kirby, Black Americans in the Roosevelt Era, 78; Theodore G. Bilbo, as quoted in Sitkoff, New Deal for Blacks, 117; Morton Sosna, In Search of the Silent South: Southern Liberals and the Race Issue (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 60–87; Ralph J. Bunche, The Political Status of the Negro in the Age of FDR, Dewey W. Grantham, ed., (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), xxii; Richard M. Dalfiume, “The ‘Forgotten Years’ of the Negro Revolution,” Journal of American History, 55 (June 1968), 99; Ralph Bunche, “Programs, Ideologies, Tactics,” 559–560, as quoted in Kirby, Black Americans in the Roosevelt Era, 234n; Richard M. Dalfiume, Fighting on Two Fronts: Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1939–1953 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1969), 121.

CHAPTER 9

MORAL ECONOMICS

1. E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage, 1963), 444; Michael Kammen, People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization (New York: Knopf, 1972; Oxford University Press, 1980); E. P. Thompson, “The Moral Economy of the Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past and Present, no. 50 (Feb. 1971), 89–90, 136; John L. Hess, “The Compleat Adam Smith,” The Nation, 232 (May 16, 1981), 596–97; Robert L. Heilbroner, The Worldly Philosophers (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1953, 1961), 45, 52–54, 62; Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950, 1970); Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964); David W. Noble, The Progressive Mind, 1890–1917 (revised ed., Minneapolis: Burgess, 1981), 2, 12; Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944; revised ed., Boston: Beacon, 1955); Selig Perlman, A Theory of the Labor Movement (New York: Macmillan, 1928), 169; Gerald Grob, Workers and Utopia: A Study of Ideological Conflict in the American Labor Movement, 1865–1900 (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1961), 161–62; Milton Derber, The American Ideal of Industrial Democracy, 1865–1965 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 34; David Montgomery, Workers’ Control in America: Studies in the History of Work, Technology, and Labor Struggles (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 153; David Montgomery, Beyond Equality: Labor and the Radical Republicans, 1862–1872 (New York: Knopf, 1967), 445, 447; Leon Fink, “Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor in Local Politics, 1886–1896” (PH.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1977); Alan Dawley, Class and Community: The Industrial Revolution in Lynn (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976); Herbert G. Gutman, Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (New York: Knopf, 1976); Lawrence Goodwyn, Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), xiii; Goodwyn, The Populist Moment in America: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), xxiii; Thomas Dublin, Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1820–1860 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979), 48, 56–57; Sidney Hook, From Hegel to Marx (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1936), 303; Richard H. Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams: Culture and Social Thought in the Depression Years (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), 139; Oxford English Dictionary (London: Oxford University Press, 1933), v. III, E-59–60; Charles Sherrington, Man on His Nature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953), 278; James Madison, Federalist No. 10 (1788); Charles Kendall Adams, as quoted in Irwin Wyllie, The Self-Made Man in America (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1954), 158; Irving Bernstein, The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 316–17; Daniel Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 125.

2. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Politics of Upheaval (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 84–87, 94–95, 207, 162, 165; Walter Goodman, The Committee: The Extraordinary Career of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1968); Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 77, 46, 73, 28, 76, 111, 98, 117, 101, 55, 138–40, 125, 116, 66, 25, 126–27, 108, 120–25, 132–33, 139, 80; Edmund Wilson, “Foster and Fish,” The New Republic, 65 (Dec. 14, 1930), 162; Stuart Chase, “Skilled Work and No Work,” The New Republic, 58 (March 20, 1929), 123; Samuel Schmalhausen, “Psychoanalysis and Communism,” Modern Quarterly, 6 (Summer 1932), 63–69, and “Psychological Portrait of Modern Civilization,” Modern Quarterly, 6 (Autumn 1932), 85–95, as quoted in Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 100; Hook, From Hegel to Marx, 161; Sidney Hook, Towards the Understanding of Karl Marx (New York: Day, 1933), 99–101; Charles Beard, “The Educator in the Quest for National Security,” Social Frontier, 1 (April 1935), 14, as quoted in Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 115; Edmund Wilson, “An Appeal to Progressives,” The New Republic, 65 (Jan. 14, 1931), 238; Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934), 392, as quoted in Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 108; Reinhold Niebuhr, Moral Man and Immoral Society (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1932), 231–38.

3. George Henry Melcher, Topanga, Calif., to FDR, Feb. 19, 1934, CWA Central Files, Box 55, National Archives; “A lover of the poor,” Hudson, N.Y., to ER, March 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 91; Pat Geer, Lakin, Kans., to Sen. George McGill (D—Kans.), March 30, 1934, CWA Files, Box 54; H. S. Avery, Minneapolis, Minn., to ER, Jan. 4, 1934, ER Papers, Box 2676, FDR Library; “One of the unemployed,” Arkansas, to Harry Hopkins, July 4, 1935, FERA Files, Box 89; “UNEMPLOYED WELL-WISHERS,” Tacoma, Wash., to FDR, Sept. 29, 1935, FERA Files, Box 88; “A W.P.A. Worker,” Lincoln, Neb., to Hopkins, July 21, 1936, FERA Files, Box 86; “A House Wife,” Columbus, Ohio, to FDR, Feb. 8, 1935, FERA Files, Box 91; “We the Workers of thes Projects,” Birmingham, Ala., to FDR, March 2, 1936, FERA Files, Box 87; Mary Owsley, Peggy Terry, Louis Banks, Kitty McCulloch, in Studs Terkel, Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression (New York: Pantheon, 1970), 46, 47, 41, 39; Fortune surveys, July 1935 and Oct. 1937, in Hadley Cantril and Mildred Strunk, eds., Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), 1040, 1041.

4. Pete Seeger, interview with the author, July 1, 1981, Holmdel, N.J.; Andrew Bergman, We’re in the Money: Depression America and its Films (New York: New York University Press, 1971; reprint ed., Harper & Row, 1972), xi, xvi, 167–69, 6–10, 15, 93–96; Gerald Mast, A Short History of the Movies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; 3d ed., 1981), 218–19; Siegfried Kracauer, From Caligari to Hitler (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), 5; John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954; 3d ed., 1972), 120; Charles R. Hearn, The American Dream in the Great Depression (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1977), 78; Frederick Lewis Allen, Since Yesterday (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940), 223–24; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., “When the Movies Really Counted,” Show, 3 (April 1963), 77; Our Daily Bread (1934, King Vidor, United Artists); Robert Warshow, “The Gangster as Tragic Hero,” in Warshow, The Immediate Experience (New York: Doubleday, 1962), 127–33; Little Caesar (1930, Mervyn Le Roy, Warner Brothers); Robert Sklar, Movie-Made America: A Social History of American Movies (New York: Random House, 1975), 179–81; Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 270–71, 273–74; Dwight MacDonald, “Notes on Hollywood Directors, Part II,” Symposium (July 1933), 293–94; Corsair(1931, Roland West, United Artists); Public Enemy (1931, William Wellman, Warner Brothers); L. Glen Seretan, “Social Banditry in Depression America” (paper delivered at 1980 annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians, San Francisco); Eric Hobsbawm, Bandits (New York: Delacorte, 1969), 13–14, 19–23, 34–36, 109–15; Joe Klein, Woody Guthrie: A Life (New York: Knopf, 1980), 123–24; Alan Lomax, Woody Guthrie, and Pete Seeger, eds., Hard-Hitting Songs for Hard-Hit People (New York: Oak Pubns., 1967), 114–15; E. J. Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels (New York: Norton, 1959), 28; I Am a Fugitive From a Chain Gang (1932, Mervyn Le Roy, Warner Brothers); Scarface (1932, Howard Hawks, United Artists); John Baxter, Hollywood in the Thirties (New York: Barnes, 1968), 59; Lewis Jacobs, The Rise of American Film (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1939; Teachers College Press, 1968), 486.

5. Freaks (1932, Tod Browning, MGM); Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933, Mervyn Le Roy, Warner Brothers); Footlight Parade (1933, Lloyd Bacon, Warner Brothers); Bergman, We’re in the Money, 62–65, 32–38; 42nd Street (1933, Lloyd Bacon, Warner Brothers); Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 282; Three Little Pigs (1933, Walt Disney); Sklar, Movie-Made America, 204, 182–84.

6. Sklar, Movie-Made America, 175, 192; Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 278–79; Bergman, We’re in the Money, 83–88, 119, 149–60; Bullets or Ballots (1936, William Keighly, Warner Brothers); G-Men (1935, William Keighly, Warner Brothers); Crime School (1938, Louis Seiler, Warner Brothers); The President Vanishes (1934, William Wellman, Paramount); A Tale of Two Cities (1935, Jack Conway, MGM); Barbary Coast (1935, Howard Hawks, United Artists); Baxter, Hollywood in the Thirties, 95; Dead End (1937, William Wyler, United Artists); The Great O’Malley (1937, William Dieterle, Warner Brothers); Angels with Dirty Faces (1938, Michael Curtiz, Warner Brothers).

7. It Happened One Night (1934, Frank Capra, Columbia); Bergman, We’re in the Money, 133–34, 138–39, 145; Sklar, Movie-Made America, 207, 211, 191–92; Lady for a Day (1933, Frank Capra, Columbia); Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936, Frank Capra, Columbia); Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939, Frank Capra, Columbia); You Can’t Take It With You (1938, Frank Capra, Columbia); Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams, 278–81, 215; Stagecoach (1939, John Ford, 20th Century-Fox); Mast, Short History of the Movies, 243–44; The Grapes of Wrath (1940, John Ford, 20th Century-Fox); John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: Viking, 1939; Penguin, 1976), 463; How Green Was My Valley (1941, John Ford, 20th Century-Fox); Michael C. Steiner, “Regionalism and the Larger Society: The Need for a Sense of Place During the Great Depression” (paper delivered at the 1981 meeting of the American Studies Association, Memphis), 7, 18, 9; James D. Hart, The Popular Book (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 255–56; Warren I. Susman, “The Thirties,” in Stanley Coben and Lorman Ratner, eds., The Development of an American Culture (2d ed., New York: St. Martin’s, 1983), 236, 245; John Dos Passos, The Ground We Stand On (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1941), 3; Racket Busters (1938, Lloyd Bacon, Warner Brothers).

8. Fortune surveys, July 1935 and Oct. 1936, in Cantril and Strunk, Public Opinion, 1935–1946, 893, 439; Arthur W. Kornhauser, “Attitudes of Economic Groups,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 2 (April 1938), 261–65; W. Smith, Sharon, Conn., to FDR, July 5, 1935, PPF 200–B, Box 45; Ellen Goodman, “The Contrast Is Too Great,” The Boston Globe, Jan. 11, 1983.

CHAPTER 10

THUNDER ON THE LEFT

1. Irving Bernstein, Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), 218–52, 261–98, 252–59; Russell Baker, Growing Up (New York: Congdon & Weed, 1982), 86; Anne Ross, “Labor Unity in Minneapolis,” The New Republic, 79 (July 25, 1934), 284–86; “Revolt in the Northwest,” Fortune, 13 (April 1936); Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), 387–89; Herbert Solow, “War in Minneapolis,” The Nation, 139 (Aug. 8, 1934), 160–61; Anne Ross, “Minnesota Sets Some Precedents,” The New Republic, 80 (Sept. 12, 1934), 121–23; Samuel Yellen, American Labor Struggles (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1936), 330–35; Robert Cantwell, “San Francisco: Act One,” The New Republic, 79 (July 25, 1934), 280; Charles A. Madison, American Labor Leaders (2d ed., New York: Ungar, 1962), 404–33; Donald MacKenzie Brown, “Dividends and Stevedores,” Scribner’s, 97 (Jan. 1935), 52–56; Memoranda on conversations between James A. Moffett and Marvin McIntyre, July 14, July 16, July 17, 1934, Frances Perkins to FDR, July 17, 1934, and Radio Washington to Naval Aide to the President, all in FDR Official File 407-B, Box 25, FDR Library; Robert Cantwell, “War on the West Coast: The Gentlemen of San Francisco,” The New Republic, 79 (Aug. 1, 1934), 308–10.

2. The New York Times, Nov. 6, 1934; Alan Brinkley, Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression (New York: Knopf, 1982), 204; Louis Adamic, “La Follette Progressives Face the Future,” The Nation, 140 (Feb. 20, 1935), 213–14; The Unofficial Observer (J. Franklin Carter), American Messiahs (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1935), 111–14; Donald R. McCoy, “The Formation of the Wisconsin Progressive Party in 1934,” Historian, 14 (Autumn 1951), 72–87; McCoy, Angry Voices: Left-of-Center Politics in the New Deal Era (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1958), 46–49; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Politics of Upheaval (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 106–08; Edward N. Doan, The La Follettes and the Wisconsin Idea (New York: Rinehart, 1947), 181, 171, 186, 188–89; Wisconsin Secretary of State, Blue Book of the State of Wisconsin, 1935 (Madison: Wisconsin Department of State, 1935), 618; Louis Adamic, “A Talk with Phil La Follette,” The Nation, 140 (Feb. 27, 1935), 244; Michael Paul Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy: The Radical Specter (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1967), 75–76, 78, 82.

3. George H. Mayer, The Political Career of Floyd B. Olson (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1951), 17–25, 239, 4–16, 20–36, 43–56, 76–77, 92–96, 108–09, 132–33, 142, 149, 280–301; Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 99, 101; Herbert Lefkowitz, “Olson: Radical and Proud of It,” Review of Reviews, 91 (May 1935), 40; John Janney, “Minnesota’s Enigma,” American Magazine, 120 (Sept. 1935), 107–09, Charles Rumford Walker, American City: A Rank-and-File History (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1937; reprint ed., Arno, 1971), 66–67; McCoy, Angry Voices, 55, 79; The New York Times, Dec. 10, 1934; Carter, American Messiahs, 97–99; Charles R. Walker, “Governor Olson’s Last Interview,” The Nation, 144 (March 20, 1937), 319; State of Minnesota, “Abstract of Votes Polled for State Officers by Counties,” 1934, 1936, provided by the office of the Secretary of State, St. Paul.

4. Upton Sinclair, I, Governor of California, And How I Ended Poverty: A True Story of the Future (Los Angeles: Sinclair, 1933), 6, 59, 13–17; Sinclair, I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked (Pasadena: Sinclair, 1934), 6–7, 22, 29–30, 34, 66, 44, 52–57, 45–47, 64, 156, 97–98; Clarence McIntosh, “Upton Sinclair and the EPIC Movement, 1933–1936” (PH.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1955), 53–54, 144–45, 131–34, 152–58, 94–95, 89–90, 233, 263, 322–23, 159, 225; E. P. Thompson, “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past and Present, no. 50 (Feb. 1971), 76–136; Norman Thomas to Upton Sinclair, May 1, 1934, and Jerry Voorhis, San Dimas, California, to Thomas, April 2, 1934, both in Norman Thomas Papers, Box 10, New York Public Library; Bernard K. Johnpoll, Pacifist’s Progress: Norman Thomas and the Decline of American Socialism (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970), 135–37; Daniel Bell, Marxian Socialism in the United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), 161–62; Upton Sinclair, “End Poverty in Civilization,” The Nation, 139 (Sept. 26, 1934), 351; Arnold Peter Biella, “Upton Sinclair: Crusader” (PH.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1954), 246–48; California Secretary of State, Statement of Vote at Primary Election Held on August 28, 1934 (Sacramento: State of California, 1934), 4–7; Louis Ashlock, San Francisco, to Lorena Hickok, Nov. 24, 1934, Harry Hopkins Papers, Box 67, FDR Library; Charles E. Larsen, “The EPIC Campaign of 1934,” Pacific Historical Review, 27 (May 1958), 127–47; The New York Times, Nov. 8, 1934; Upton Sinclair, “The Future of EPIC,” The Nation, 139 (Nov. 28, 1934), 616–17; Upton Sinclair, The Lie Factory Starts (Pasadena: Sinclair, 1934); Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 120.

5.Raymond Gram Swing, Forerunners of American Fascism (New York: Messner, 1935), 40, 45, and passim.; Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 69, 20; Brinkley, Voices of Protest, 196–203, 208, 135, 137, 178–79, 191, 113, 143–44, 187, 124–26, 259; David H. Bennett, Demagogues in the Depression: American Radicals and the Union Party, 1932–1936 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1969), 32–34, 54–55, 43, 41, 38, 78–79; Charles J. Tull, Father Coughlin and the New Deal (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1965), 4, 6–8, 20, 41, 43, 96, 19, 52, 39, 96, 102–03, 243–44; Charles E. Coughlin, Eight Lectures on Labor, Capital and Justice (Royal Oak, Mich.: Radio League of the Little Flower, 1934), 10–11, 56–57, 34; Sinclair, I, Candidate for Governor, 91; Sheldon Marcus, Father Coughlin: The Tumultuous Life of the Priest of the Little Flower (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973); Charles E. Coughlin, A Series of Lectures on Social Justice (Royal Oak, Mich.: Radio League of the Little Flower, 1935), 144; Jonathan Mitchell, “Father Coughlin’s Children,” The New Republic, 88, (Aug. 26, 1936), 72–74; Gary Marx, “The Social Basis of the Support of a Depression Era Extremist: Father Coughlin” (Berkeley: University of California Survey Research Center, Monograph 7, 1962), 2, 10–32, 40, 80, 101–02, 109, 126; Robert S. McElvaine, “Thunder Without Lightning: Working-Class Discontent in the United States, 1929–1937” (PH.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1974), 227–31, 305–06, n. 51.

6. Bennett, Demagogues in the Depression, 153, 159, 173–74, 168, 8–9, 175, 167; Abraham Holtzman, The Townsend Movement: A Political Study (New York: Bookman, 1963), 35–36, 44–45, 28, 39, 84, 48; Old Age Revolving Pensions, Ltd., The Townsend Plan: National Recovery Program (Washington: OARP, Ltd., 2d ed., 1936), 4–5, 7, 70, 77, 35; Carter, American Messiahs, 86–87, 81, 88, 85; Swing, Forerunners of American Fascism, 127–29; Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 38; American Institute of Public Opinion surveys, Dec. 14, 1935, March 7, March 14, 1936, in Hadley Cantril and Mildred Strunk, eds., Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), 541–42; “A Dem. A Voter. A Citizen by Birth. A White man & not Blessed with any Criminal record either,” Pueblo, Colo., to Harry Hopkins, Feb. 6, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 91, National Archives; Nancy Gresham, Eugene, Ore., to ER, Nov. 8, 1934, Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, Box 612, FDR Library.

7. Examples of anti-Long books are T. O. Harris, The Kingfish: Huey P. Long, Dictator (New York: Pelican, 1938) and Harnett T. Kane, Louisiana Hayride: The American Rehearsal for Dictatorship, 1928–1940 (New York: Morrow, 1941). All previous works on Long were superseded by T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (New York: Knopf, 1969), which is far more balanced than the older studies. Williams’s monumental biography must, however, be classified as judiciously pro-Long. Alan Brinkley’s Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression (New York: Knopf, 1982) achieves greater objectivity and neutrality than any other study of Long.

8. Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 43, 58–60, 66; Perry H. Howard, Political Tendencies in Louisiana, 1812–1952 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1957), 112–14, 126–29; Williams, Huey Long, 44, 602–69, 742, 692, 700–01, 697–98, 6, 693–94, 864–76; Carter, American Messiahs, 20, 21, 22–23; Brinkley, Voices of Protest, 33–34, 44, 149, 180, 73–74, 208, 284–86, 79, 69, 174–75; Hugh Davis Graham, ed., Huey Long (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970), 56; Huey P. Long, Every Man a King (New Orleans: National Book Co., 1933), 290–91; Huey Long form letters, dated June 22, 1933, July 1, 1933, and undated, Huey Long Papers, Duke University Library, Durham, N.C.; American Progress, March 29, 1934; Huey P. Long, Share Our Wealth (Washington, D.C., no publisher, n.d.), 3–5, 1, 14, 8, 31; Raymond Gram Swing, “The Menace of Huey Long: III. His Bid for National Power,” The Nation, 140 (Jan. 23, 1935), 98–100; Buel W. Patch, “National Wealth and National Income,” Editorial Research Reports, 1 (April 20, 1935), 287–304; Robert R. Doane, The Measurement of American Wealth (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1933), 25; Hodding Carter, “How Come Huey Long? I. Bogeyman,” The New Republic, 82 (Feb. 13, 1935), 14; James A. Farley, Jim Farley’s Story: The Roosevelt Years (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948), 51; Rodney Dutcher, “Washington Daily Revue,” Nov. 8, 1935, clipping in Long Papers, Duke; Fortune surveys, July 1935 and October 1937, in Cantril and Strunk, eds., Public Opinion, 1040–41; E. D. Sibley, letter to the editor, Arizona Daily Star (Tucson), Jan. 25, 1933, clipping in Huey Long Scrapbooks, v. 19, Louisiana State University Library, Baton Rouge; Huey Long, My First Days in the White House (Harrisburg, Pa.: Telegraph Press, 1935).

9. The Reminiscences of Norman Thomas, part 1, p. 65, Columbia Oral History Project, as quoted in David A. Shannon, The Socialist Party of America: A History (New York: Macmillan, 1955), 248; E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage, 1963), 624, 626–27; Brinkley, Voices of Protest, 206, 209, 106, 211, 193, 179, 150, 213, 144–45, 67–68, 74; Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Dimensions of Man (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), 7–32, 297–307; W. E. Warren, Montana, to FDR, Feb. 14, 1935, Official File 1403, FDR Library, as quoted in Brinkley, Voices of Protest, 198.

CHAPTER 11

“I’M THAT KIND OF LIBERAL BECAUSE I’M THAT KIND OF CONSERVATIVE”

1. Time, 25 (Feb. 18, 1935), 14–15; The New York Times, Oct. 25, 1934; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), 446–55, 485–89; William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 91–92; Frederick Lewis Allen, Since Yesterday: The 1930s in America (New York: Harper & Row, 1939; Perennial Library, 1972), 192; George Wolfskill, Revolt of the Conservatives: The American Liberty League, 1933–40 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962); Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 266–67; Otis L. Graham, Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 147.

2. Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and New Deal, 117; Charles A. Beard, “The President Loses Prestige,” Current History, 42 (April 1935), 64–71; Martha Gellhorn, Report to Harry Hopkins from Camden, N.J., April 25, 1935, Hopkins Papers, Box 60, FDR Library; Anonymous, Chicago, Ill., to FDR, March 13, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 91, National Archives; Joseph W. Churbock, Loyalhanna, Pa., to ER, March 4, 1935, Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, Box 2697, FDR Library; Anonymous, Brooklyn, N.Y., to Hopkins, May 23, 1935, FERA, Box 91; “From a Democrat,” Columbus, Ohio, to FDR, May 1935, FERA, Box 90; Alan Brinkley, Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression (New York: Knopf, 1982), 214.

3. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Politics of Upheaval (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 305–24, 272; Paul K. Conkin, The New Deal (New York: Crowell, 1967; 2d ed., 1975), 64; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. IV, 23, 98–103; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 156–57.

4. Edwin E. Witte, The Development of the Social Security Act (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962); Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 301–15; Roy Lubove, The Struggle for Social Security, 1900–1935 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968); George Martin, Madam Secretary: Frances Perkins (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976), 341–356; Conkin, The New Deal, 58–60; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 131–33, 154, 165; Jackson (Miss.) Daily News, June 20, 1935; James T. Patterson, America’s Struggle Against Poverty, 1900–1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 60, 67–77.

5. Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (New York: Viking, 1946), 303–10; J. Joseph Huthmacher, Senator Robert F. Wagner and the Rise of Urban Liberalism (New York: Atheneum, 1968, 1971); Irving Bernstein, Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), 322–51; Bernstein, The New Deal Collective Bargaining Policy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950), 84–128; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 403–06; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 158–61.

6. Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 325–34; Raymond Moley, After Seven Years: A Political Analysis of the New Deal (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939; reprint ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), 305–14; New York Herald Tribune, June 23, 1935; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. IV, 270–77; Robert S. McElvaine, “The Effects of Economic Depression on Working-Class Attitudes: The 1930’s,” in Papers of the American Historical Association, 1977 (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1978); Joseph T. McKenna, Philadelphia, Pa., to FDR, n.d. (ca. June 1935), J. M. Salzer, Willows, Calif., to FDR, June 20, 1935, the Rev. Walter Moore, East Chicago, Ind., to FDR, n.d. (ca. June 1935), A. U. Shirk, Little Neck Hills, Long Island, N.Y., to FDR, June 21, 1935, H. M. Beeler, Philadelphia, Pa., to FDR, June 27, 1935, Enoch P. Philips, Eureka, Kans., to FDR, June 22, 1935, all in FDR Papers, President’s Personal File, #200-B; “Reactions to Radio Addresses,” Message to Congress, June 19, 1935, Box 45, FDR Library.

7. Moley, After Seven Years, 300–14; Basil Rauch, The History of the New Deal, 1933–1938 (New York: Creative Age Press, 1944); Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 392–408; Otis L. Graham, Jr., “Historians and the New Deals: 1944–1960,” The Social Studies, 54 (April 1963), 133–40; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 162–66; William H. Wilson, “The Two New Deals: A Valid Concept?” Historian, 28 (Feb. 1966), 268–88; Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust, 114–20; Sharecropper’s Voice, July 1936, as quoted in Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 379; Graham, Encore for Reform, 92.

CHAPTER 12

NEW HICKORY

1. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Politics of Upheaval (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 502–04, 488; Raymond Moley, After Seven Years: A Political Analysis of the New Deal (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939; reprint ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), 317–18, 330–31; William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 170–71.

2. Harry L. Hopkins, Spending to Save: The Complete Story of Relief (New York: Norton, 1936), 114, 109; “W.P.A. workers of Battle Creek,” to FDR, April 5, 1936, FERA Central Files, Box 86, National Archives (reproduced in Robert S. McElvaine, ed., Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from the “Forgotten Man” [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983], 127); Henry W. Francis, Report to Harry Hopkins, from Clarksburg, W. Va., Dec. 1, 1934, Hopkins Papers, Box 66, “One of the many workers + a leagionaire,” Ft. Worth, Tex., to Hopkins, Nov. 21, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 88; “American Workers,” Wisconsin, to Hopkins, FERA Central Files, Box 89; Anonymous, Suffolk, Va., to Hopkins, FERA Central Files, Box 88 (reproduced in McElvaine, Down and Out, 135); James T. Patterson, America’s Struggle Against Poverty, 1900–1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 63, 59, 62; Harry L. Hopkins, “They’d Rather Work,” Collier’s, 96 (Nov. 16, 1935), 7; William W. Bremer, “Along the ‘American Way’: The New Deal’s Work Relief Programs for the Unemployed,” Journal of American History, 62 (Dec. 1975), 636, 645, 638–39, 641; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. V, 19; Caroline Bird, The Invisible Scar (New York: McKay, 1966), 197–99; Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare (New York: Pantheon, 1971; Vintage, 1972), 109; Josephine C. Brown, Public Relief 1929–1939 (New York: Holt, 1940), 386–89.

3. Jane DeHart Mathews, “Arts and the People: The New Deal Quest for a Cultural Democracy,” Journal of American History, 62 (Sept. 1975), 319, 335, 320, 329, 327, 334n, 324, 332, 316, 320, 328, 325, 337, 333, 339, 331; Alfred Kazin, On Native Grounds: An Interpretation of Modern American Prose Literature (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1941), 363–518; Ann Banks, ed., First-Person America (New York: Knopf, 1980), xviii-xix, xx; Jerre Mangione, The Dream and the Deal: The Federal Writers’ Project, 1935–1943 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), 255–56, 244, 46–49; Malcolm Cowley, “Federal Writers’ Project,” The New Republic, 167 (Oct. 21, 1972), 23–26; Charles I. Glicksberg, “The Federal Writers’ Project,” South Atlantic Quarterly, 37 (April 1938), 158–69; Marguerite D. Bloxom, ed., Pickaxe and Pencil: References for the Study of the WPA (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1982), 37, 29, 45; Janelle Jedd Warren-Findley, “Of Tears and Need: The Federal Music Project, 1935–1943” (PH.D. dissertation, George Washington University, 1973), 319–20; Joe Klein, Woody Guthrie: A Life (New York: Knopf, 1980), 145–50; Alan Lomax, Woody Guthrie, and Pete Seeger, eds., Hard-Hitting Songs for Hard-Hit People (New York: Oak Pubns., 1967), 11; Cornelius Baird Canon, “The Federal Music Project of the Works Progress Administration: Music in a Democracy” (PH.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1963), 165–66; Francis V. O’Connor, comp., Art for the Millions: Essays from the 1930s by Artists and Administrators of the WPA Federal Art Project (Greenwich, Conn.: N.Y. Graphic Society, 1973); Richard D. McKinzie, The New Deal for Artists (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973); Helen A. Harrison, “American Art and the New Deal,” Journal of American Studies, 6 (Dec. 1972), 289–96; J. C. Furnas, Stormy Weather: Crosslights on the Nineteen Thirties; An Informal Social History of the United States, 1929–1941 (New York: Putnam, 1977), 73–80; “A Sampler of New Deal Murals,” American Heritage, 21 (Oct. 1970), 45–57; Karal Ann Manning, Wall-to-Wall America: A Cultural History of Post Office Murals in the Great Depression (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982); Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 128, 127; Jane DeHart Mathews, The Federal Theatre, 1935–1939: Plays, Relief, and Politics(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), 3–43; John O’Connor and Lorraine Brown, Free, Adult, Uncensored: The Living History of the Federal Theatre Project (Washington, D.C.: New Republic Books, 1978), 2, 8–9, 18–19, 26–29, 10–15, 31–35; Hallie Flanagan, Arena (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1940), 51–80, 342, 356–73; John Houseman, Run-Through (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972), 176, 183–85, 189–205, 175n, 245–81; John Houseman, lecture at Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss., Sept. 23, 1982; Garrett Garet, “Federal Theater for the Masses,” The Saturday Evening Post, 208 (June 20, 1936), 8–9, 84–86, 88; Harrison G. Fiske, “The Federal Theater Doomboggle,” The Saturday Evening Post, 209 (Aug. 1, 1936), 23, 68–72; Robert S. McElvaine, “America Suffers a Change in Values,” Los Angeles Times, Oct. 28, 1981.

4. Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. V, 8–18, 38–44; A. W. Gudal, Philadelphia, Pa., to FDR, Jan. 8, 1936, and Mrs. A. H. Fasel, Estacada, Ore., to FDR, Jan. 18, 1936, both in President’s Personal File, #200-B, FDR Library; The New York Times, Jan. 26, 1936; Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It(New York: Knopf, 1948; 2d ed., Vintage, 1973), 288; “A Friend of you both,” Kokomo, Ind., to ER, Oct. 28, 1935, FERA Central Files, Box 88, National Archives; Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 273–74; The New York Times, March 9, 1936.

5. Warren Moscow, Roosevelt and Willkie (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968), 22–23; T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (New York: Knopf, 1969), 734–35; Alan Brinkley, Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression (New York: Knopf, 1982), 172; David H. Bennett, Demagogues in the Depression: American Radicals and the Union Party, 1932–1936 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1969); Bennett, “The Year of the Old Folk’s Revolt,” American Heritage, 16 (Dec. 1964), 48–51, 99–107; Lorena Hickok, report to Harry Hopkins from St. Louis, Aug. 21, 1936, Hopkins Papers, Box 68, FDR Library.

6. Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 524–47, 559–61, 571–644; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 178–96; Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (2d ed., Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956), 51, 45, 46; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. V, 230–36, 553, 566–73; Moscow, Roosevelt and Willkie, 38; Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown in Transition: A Study in Cultural Conflicts (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1937), 360, 359, 44; American Institute of Public Opinion Surveys, Jan. 18, 1936, and Dec. 7, 1936, both in Hadley Cantril and Mildred Strunk, eds., Public Opinion, 1935–46 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), 344, 599; F. V. Eastman, Washington, D. C., to “Secretary to Mrs. F. D. Roosevelt,” Nov. 2, 1936, ER Papers, Box 2719.

7. Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. VI, 4; Joseph Alsop and Turner Catledge, The 168 Days (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1938); Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 232–39; James T. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), 77–127; Otis L. Graham, Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 43.

CHAPTER 13

THE CIO AND THE LATER NEW DEAL

1. Melvyn Dubofsky and Warren Van Tyne, John L. Lewis: A Biography (New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1977), xiv-xvi, 217–21, and passim.; Charles A. Madison, American Labor Leaders (2d ed., New York: Ungar, 1962), 177, 182, 185; Irving Bernstein, The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 123; Saul Alinsky, John L. Lewis: An Unauthorized Biography (New York: Putnam, 1949), 14; Len De Caux, Labor Radical: From the Wobblies to CIO (Boston: Beacon, 1970), 120, 226–27, 216, 214–15, 229–30; Cecil Carnes, John L. Lewis: Leader of Labor (New York: Speller, 1936), 126; David Brody, “The Emergence of Mass Production Unionism,” in John Braeman, Robert H. Bremner, and Everett Walters, eds., Change and Continuity in Twentieth Century America (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1964), 243–62; James O. Morris, Conflict Within the AFL. A Study of Craft Versus Industrial Unionism 1901–1935 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1958), 4, 150–52, 210–11; Irving Bernstein, Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), 386–404, 590–94, 595–602; Mary Heaton Vorse, Labor’s New Millions (New York: Modern Age, 1938), 5–8, 17–18, 28–29; Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (2d ed., Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday/Anchor, 1956), 48–50; Art Preis, Labor’s Giant Step: Twenty Years of the CIO (New York: Pioneer, 1964), 45–46; Walter Galenson, The CIO Challenge to the AFL: A History of the American Labor Movement, 1935–1941 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960); Edward Levinson, Labor on the March (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1938); J. C. Furnas, Stormy Weather: Crosslights on the Nineteen Thirties: An Informal Social History of the United States, 1929–1941 (New York: Putnam, 1977), 99.

2. Modern Times (1936, Charles Chaplin); Richard H. Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), 284; Sidney Fine, Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1969), 59, 56–57, 62–63, 90–91, 96, 99, 133–41, 146–48, 121–22, 157–58, 171, 174, 220–23, 1–13, 239, 318, 266–71, 274, 279, 280, 297–303, 310–12, 327–31; Edward Levinson, “Labor on the March,” Harper’s, 174 (May 1937), 642–50; Bernstein, Turbulent Years, 522–23, 529–30, 432–73, 485–90; De Caux, Labor Radical, 227–28, 254–55, 242–45; Alfred Winslow Jones, Life, Liberty and Property (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1941), 332, 342, 378–79; Solomon Diamond, “The Psychology of the Sit-Down,” New Masses, 23 (May 4, 1937), 16; C. Wright Mills, The New Men of Power: America’s Labor Leaders (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1948; reprint ed., Kelley, 1971), 8–9.

3. William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 263, 257–60; Henry Stimson Diary, Yale University Library, July 27, 1938, quoted in Otis L. Graham, An Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 19; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. VII, 305–32; Lawrence Edwards, Cumberland Gap, Tenn., to FDR, April 30, 1938, FDR Papers, President’s Personal File, #200-B, FDR Library; Raymond Moley, After Seven Years: A Political Analysis of the New Deal (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939; reprint ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), 376; Ellis W. Hawley, The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), 149; Thurman Arnold, The Bottlenecks of Business (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1940).

4. James T. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), 188–249; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 140–41, 257, 135–37; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959), 369–81; Sidney Baldwin, Poverty and Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Farm Security Administration (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 204–07; Paul Conkin, Tomorrow a New World: The New Deal Community Program (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1959), 305–25; F. Jack Hurley, Portrait of a Decade: Roy Stryker and the Development of Documentary Photography in the Thirties (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972), 32–34, viii-ix, 50–94, and passim.; Hank O’Neal, A Vision Shared: A Classic Portrait of America and Its People, 1935-1945 (New York: St. Martin’s, 1976); Walker Evans, Photographs for the Farm Security Administration, 1935–1938 (New York: Da Capo, 1973); James Agee and Walker Evans, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941; New York: Ballantine, 1969).

CHAPTER 14

“DR. NEW DEAL” RUNS OUT OF MEDICINE

1. James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1956), 343, 416; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States to 1970 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975), Ser. D-85, 86, K-284, pp. 135, 484; James T. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), 288–324; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. VIII, 1–12; James T. Patterson, America’s Struggle Against Poverty, 1900–1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), 60–61; Francis Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare (New York: Random House, 1971; Vintage, 1972), 80, 113, 116–17; William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 270; Floyd Riddick, “First Session of the Seventy-sixth Congress,” American Political Science Review, 33 (Dec. 1939), 1022–43; FDR, to Joseph P. Kennedy, Aug. 5, 1939, in Elliott Roosevelt, ed., F.D.R.: His Personal Letters, 1928–1945 (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1950), v. II, 911.

2. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism, 325–37; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 197–251; Robert S. McElvaine, ed., Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from the “Forgotten Man” (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983); Anne O’Hare McCormick, “As He Sees Himself,” The New York Times Magazine (Oct. 16, 1938), 2; John M. Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries: Years of Urgency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965), 41–42.

3. Hugh T. Lovin, “The Fall of Farmer-Labor Parties, 1936–1938,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 62 (Jan. 1971), 25; Warren Moscow, Roosevelt and Willkie (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968), 27, 33, 101, 70, 52–53, 63, 56–61, 55, 68, 95, 96, 106; Robert E. Burke, “Election of 1940,” in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and Fred L. Israel, eds., History of American Presidential Elections, 1798–1968 (New York: Chelsea House, 1971), v. IV, 2923–25, 2928; Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 432; Harold Ickes, The Secret Diary of Harold Ickes (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954), v. III, 92; David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New York: Knopf, 1979), 408n; Leuchtenburg, Roosevelt and the New Deal, 313; Wolcott Gibbs and John Bainbridge, “St. George and the Dragnet,” The New Yorker, 16 (May 25, 1940), 24; “Editorial: Business-and-Government,” Fortune, 21 (April 1940), 46–47; Wendell L. Willkie, “We, the People,” Fortune, 21 (April 1940), 64–65, 162–73.

4. Moscow, Roosevelt and Willkie, 71–79, 2, 43, 110–11, 117–18. 127; Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948); Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 414, 425–28; Burke, “Election of 1940,” 2934–35; Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor Roosevelt: A Friend’s Memoir (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964), 194.

5. Burke, “Election of 1940,” 2938, 2944; Turner Catledge, as quoted in Moscow, Roosevelt and Willkie, 151; Moscow, Roosevelt and Willkie, 138, 143, 145, 160, 147; Burns, The Lion and the Fox, 441, 447; The New York Times, Sept. 7, 1940, Sept. 17, 1940, Aug. 26, 1940, Sept. 20, 1940, Oct. 26, 1940; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. IX, 485–95, 499–510, 544–53; American Institute of Public Opinion (AIPO) survey, Dec. 25, 1940, in Hadley Cantril and Mildred Strunk, eds., Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), 896; Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (2d ed., Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday/Anchor, 191, 1956), 54–55, 60; Henry Steele Commager, The American Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1950), 354.

6. Historical Statistics to 1970, Ser. D-85, 86, p. 135, Ser. F-126, p. 232; AIPO surveys, July 1941 and May 1941, in George H. Gallup, ed., The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935–1971 (New York: Random House, 1972), v. I, 286–87, 277; Sergeant York (1941, Howard Hawks, Warner Brothers); Richard Polenberg, War and Society: The United States, 1941–1945 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1972), 73–75; Archibald MacLeish, “Defeatist Liberals,” The New Republic, 110 (March 6, 1944), 302.

CHAPTER 15

PERSPECTIVE

1. Time, 120 (July 26, 1982), 36; Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt and the Brains Trust: From Depression to New Deal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977), 377, 305, 198–99; FDR, to George H. Dern, Feb. 2, 1933, as quoted in Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 137; Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Russell & Russell, 1938–50), v. I., 657; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Apprenticeship (Boston: Little, Brown, 1952), 37n; Otis L. Graham, Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal (New York: Oxford University Presss, 1967), 185–86; Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (New York: Viking, 1946), 125–34; Robert S. McElvaine, “Where Have All the Liberals Gone?” Texas Quarterly, 19 (Autumn 1976), 202–13.

2. William Trufant Foster and Waddill Catchings, The Road to Plenty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928); Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957), 134–36, 186–89; Ellis W. Hawley, The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), 283–92, 420–55; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), 440–42; Schlesinger, The Politics of Upheaval (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), 220–24, 385–423; John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1936); Barbara R. Bergman, “Who’s to Blame for the Economy?” The New York Times, Oct. 17, 1982; Lester C. Thurow, The Zero-Sum Society: Distribution and the Possibilities for Economic Change (New York: Basic Books, 1980; Penguin, 1981), 17; “More Booms Ahead,” Fortune, 43 (April 1951), 81; “Rocketing Births: Business Bonanza,” Life, 44 (June 16, 1958), cover, 2, 83–89; Landon Y. Jones, Great Expectations: America and the Baby Boom Generation (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1980; Ballantine, 1981), 41.

3. Schlesinger, Politics of Upheaval, 424–43; Frank Freidel, F.D.R. and the South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965); Florence King, Southern Ladies and Gentlemen (New York: Stein & Day, 1975), 12; Jonathan Schell, The Time of Illusion (New York: Knopf, 1975), 185; Esquire, 10 (Nov. 1938); Stephen Early, “Below the Belt,” The Saturday Evening Post, 211 (June 10, 1939); Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, 569; “The Center, Rediscovered: ‘Liberal’ Is No Longer a Dirty Word” (editorial), The New York Times, Nov. 4, 1982.

4. Barton J. Bernstein, “The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform,” in Barton J. Bernstein, ed., Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History (New York: Pantheon, 1968), 263–88; Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare (New York: Pantheon, 1971); Piven and Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: How They Succeed and Why They Fail (New York: Pantheon, 1977), 41–175; Studs Terkel, Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression (New York: Pantheon, 1970), 34; John Kenneth Galbraith, American Capitalism: The Concept of Countervailing Power (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1952); Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. I, 625.

5. David W. Noble, The Progressive Mind, 1890–1917 (rev. ed., Minneapolis: Burgess, 1981), x; Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943), 547, 565; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. V, 480–89; John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: Viking, 1939; Penguin, 1976), 165–66; Lawrence Goodwyn, The Populist Moment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 61; Charles Forcey, The Crossroads of Liberalism: Croly, Weyl, Lippmann, and the Progressive Era, 1900–1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), xvii; Graham, Encore for Reform, 47n; Frances H. Coker, “Women and Men: An Unfinished Job” (paper presented at Millsaps College Friday Forum, March 19, 1982); Jessie Bernard, The Female World (New York: Free Press, 1981), 84–91; Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1982); Ellen Goodman, “A Political Gender Gap,” The Boston Globe, Oct. 19, 1982; Faithless (1932, Harry Beaumont, MGM); Andrew Bergman, We’re in the Money: Depression America and Its Films (New York: New York University Press, 1971; reprinted ed., Harper & Row, 1972), 50–54; Paul Rotha and Richard Griffith, The Film Till Now (London: J. Cape, 1930), 438–39; Susan Lenox, Her Fall and Rise (1931, Robert Z. Leonard, MGM); Blonde Venus (1932, Josef von Sternberg, Paramount); She Done Him Wrong (1933, Lowell Sherman, Paramount).

6. Doris Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), 33, 40; Robert J. Ringer, Looking Out for Number 1 (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1977); Goodwyn, Populist Moment, xiv; Robert S. McElvaine, “America Suffers a Change in Values,” Los Angeles Times, Oct. 28, 1981; “And a Happy New Year,” The New Republic, 188 (Year-end, 1982), 5–6; John D. Rockefeller, as quoted in George Will, “In Defense of the Welfare State,” The New Republic, 188 (May 9, 1983), 21; Charles Peters, “A Neoliberal’s Manifesto,” The Washington Monthly, 15 (May 1983), 13; “Gaga Over Guns,” The New Republic, 188 (May 30, 1983), 9; Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: Norton, 1978), 30, 14, 44–47; Jerry Rubin, Growing (Up) at Thirty-Seven (New York: M. Evans, 1976), 56; Eugene Emerson Jennings, Routes to the Executive Suite (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971), 3, as quoted in Lasch, Culture of Narcissism, 44; Robert B. Reich, The Next American Frontier (New York: Times Books, 1983), 140–72.

7. The New York Times, Nov. 6, 1982, Dec. 16, 1982, Dec. 31, 1982, Jan. 4, 1983, Nov. 30, 1982, Nov. 21, 1982, May 16, 1983, Apr. 2, 1983, June 29, 1983, July 10, 1983; The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 24, 1982; Clarion-Ledger (Jackson, Miss.), Nov. 25, 1982, Dec. 16, 1982, Oct. 10, 1982; Daniel Yergin, “Unemployment: The Outlook Is Grim,” The New York Times, July 13, 1982; James Reston, “A Talk With Schmidt,” The New York Times, Nov. 17, 1982; TRB, “Yuletide Gloom,” The New Republic, 188 (Year-end, 1982), 4; The Washington Post, Nov. 29, 1982; Lester C. Thurow, “The Great Stagnation,” The New York Times Magazine, Oct. 17, 1982; Time, 120 (July 26, 1982), 36; Damon Darlin, “America’s New Poor Swallow Their Pride, Go to Soup Kitchens,” The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 11, 1983; TRB, “Eroding Banks,” The New Republic, 188, (Feb. 21, 1983), 4; Lester Thurow, “Economics First,” The New York Times, Nov. 15, 1982; “Reagan’s Pressure Points,” The New Republic, 189 (Aug. 29, 1983), 5; CBS Radio News, May 20, 1983; Haynes Johnson, “Elegant Breakfast, Lines of Jobless Mark Disparity in Progress, The Washington Post, Aug. 7, 1983; Ellen Goodman, “The Contrast Is Too Great,” The Boston Globe, Jan. 11, 1983.

8. The New York Times, Dec. 18, 1982, Jan. 2, 1983; Sydney H. Schanberg, “Not Just the Fittest,” The New York Times, Jan. 4, 1983; James Reston, “A Different Voice,” The New York Times, Jan. 5, 1983; Goodman, “The Contrast Is Too Great”; Robert Lekachman, Greed Is Not Enough: Reaganomics (New York: Pantheon, 1982), 3; TRB, “Frustration,” The New Republic, 188 (May 30, 1983), 6; Anthony Lewis, “Reagan Sheds Reagan,” The New York Times, Aug. 7, 1983; Rosenman, Public Papers and Addresses, v. V, 235.

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