NOTES

Lyosha, Masha, Seryozha, and Zhanna—their real names—told me their lives over the course of about a year. I spent hours asking them to recall events and places, conversations, feelings, movies, newscasts, and ideas. I used various sources to corroborate dates, times, and descriptions of, say, television footage, and if contradictions arose, I resolved them (or, in one case, noted the discrepancy between recollection and factual chronology). At the same time, my main interest was in personal perceptions. For this reason, all conversations—unless they were recorded—are relayed as they were recounted to me by just one of the participants (and, in one case, as had been recounted by someone else). Our recollections of conversations are rarely precise, but they are precisely what we live with.

Arutyunyan and Gudkov spent dozens of hours each talking with me for this book. Dugin declined to be interviewed but delegated his right-hand person to talk to me; I also interviewed his other associates and studied his copious writing and lectures.

Beyond these sources, I relied on a wealth of scholarship, both Russian and Western. Sources are noted for all information that does not come from interviews with the principal characters and is not the product of firsthand reporting.

one  BORN IN 1984

1  Detailed information on Molniya is found on its website: http://www.buran.ru/htm/molnianp.htm, as is information on the space shuttle: http://www.buran.ru/htm/mtkkmain.htm, accessed October 28, 2015.

2  Steven Merritt Miner, Stalin’s Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941–1945 (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), p. 33.

3  Ibid., pp. 32–33.

4  Ibid., passim.

5  Yves Hamant, Alexander Men’: Svidetel svoyego vremeni (Moscow: Rudomino, 1994), pp. 104–106.

6  Jennifer Utrata, Women Without Men: Single Mothers and Family Change in the New Russia (Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2015), pp. 126–127.

7  Olga Kryshtanovskaya, Anatomiya rossiyskoy elity (Moscow: Zakharov, 2005), p. 180, http://www.telenir.net/politika/sovetskii_soyuz_poslednie_gody_zhizni_konec_sovetskoi_imperii/, accessed October 28, 2015.

8  Anya von Bremzen, Mastering the Art of Soviet Cooking: A Memoir of Food and Longing (New York: Crown, 2013), pp. 166–167.

9  Articles 87 and 88 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, Ugolovniy kodeks RSFSR ot 27 oktyabrya 1960 goda, http://avkrasn.ru/article-2004.html, accessed October 28, 2015.

10  Yelena Bonner, Postskriptum: Kniga o gorkovskoy ssylke (Moscow: Interbook, 1990).

11  Boris Nemtsov, Ispoved’ buntarya (Moscow: Partizan, 2007).

12  A. D. Sakharov, “Intervyu B. Nemtsovu,” October 13, 1988, http://www.sakharov-archive.ru/Raboty/Rabot_20.htm, accessed November 2, 2015.

13  1984, translated by Viktor Golyshev, was published in Novy mir, 1989, nos. 2, 3, 4.

14  Andrei Amalrik, Prosushchestvuyet li Sovetskiy Soyuz do 1984 goda? http://www.vehi.net/politika/amalrik.html#_ftnref17, accessed October 31, 2015.

15  Andrei Amalrik, “Posledneye slovo,” http://profilib.com/chtenie/31354/andrey-amalrik-stati-i-pisma-1967-1970-lib-7.php, accessed October 31, 2015.

16  http://antology.igrunov.ru/authors/amalrik/, accessed November 3, 2015.

17  Alexander Galich, “Posle vecherinki,” http://www.bards.ru/archives/part.php?id=4156, accessed November 3, 2015.

18  Mikhail Aronov, Alexander Galich: Polnaya biografiya (Moscow: Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye, 2015).

19  Alexander V. Razin and Tatiana J. Sidorina, “The Philosophers’ Ship,” Philosophy Now, no. 31 (March/April 2001), https://philosophynow.org/issues/31/The_Philosophers_Ship, accessed October 31, 2015; Paul R. Gregory, “The Ship of Philosophers: How the Early USSR Dealt with Dissident Intellectuals,” The Independent Review 13, no. 4 (Spring 2009), pp. 485–492.

20  Konstantin Sonin, blog posts “‘Udovol’stviye byt’ sirotoy,’” July 8, 2015, http://ksonin.livejournal.com/574202.html, and “Drugaya zhizn’,” April 2, 2013, http://ksonin.livejournal.com/490977.html; both accessed October 31, 2015.

two  LIFE, EXAMINED

1  Author interview with Evgenia Debryanskaya, New York City, December 1990 (for publication in Out/Look Magazine).

2  Author interview with Evgenia Debryanskaya, Moscow, December 2014.

3  M. Heidegger, “Ucheniye Platona ob istine,” Istoriko-filosofsky ezhegodnik (Moscow: Nauka, 1986), pp. 255–275.

4  Milovan Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System (London: Thames & Hudson, 1957), pp. 4–5.

5  http://www.psy.msu.ru/about/history/history2.html, accessed November 10, 2015.

6  http://www.psy.msu.ru/about/history/history.html, accessed December 10, 2015.

7  Aleksandr Etkind, Eros nevozmozhnogo: Istoriya psikhoanaliza v Rossii (Moscow: Gnozis-Progress-Komplex, 1994), pp. 15–40.

8  Ibid., pp. 112–113.

9  Ibid., pp. 115–116, 127.

10  Ibid., p. 177.

11  Ibid., p. 179.

12  Ibid., p. 183.

13  Ibid., p. 208.

14  Ibid., p. 205.

15  Ibid., pp. 129–168.

16  Ibid., p. 206.

17  A. A. Leontiev, “The Life and Creative Path of A. N. Leontiev,” Journal of Russian & East European Psychology 43, no. 3 (May–June 2005), pp. 8–69.

18  Lisa Yamagata-Lynch, Activity Systems Analysis Methods: Understanding Complex Learning Environments (New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2010), p. 20.

19  Etkind, Eros nevozmozhnogo, p. 206.

20  Oliver Sacks, foreword to A. R. Luria, The Man with a Shattered World: The History of a Brain Wound (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987), pp. vii–xix.

21  N. Bukharin, Teoriya istoricheskogo materializma (Moscow, Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoye izdatel’stvo, 1925), viewed at http://www.scribd.com, November 15, 2015, p. 11.

22  G. Batygin, “Preyemstvennost rossiyskoy sotsiologicheskoy traditsii,” in V. A. Yadov, ed., Sotsiologiya v Rossii (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Instituta sotsiologii RAN, 1998).

23  Stephen F. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888–1938 (New York: Vintage Books, 1975), p. 310.

24  Batygin, “Preyemstvennost rossiyskoy sotsiologicheskoy traditsii.”

25  “Postanovleniye Politburo TsK KPSS ‘Ob Organizatsii Instituta Konkretnykh Sotsial’nykh Issledovaniy Akademii Nauk SSSR,’” May 22, 1968, and “Postanovleniye Sekretariata TsK KPSS ‘Ob Osnovnykh Napravleniyakh Raboty Instituta Konkretnykh Sotsial’nykh Issledovaniy AN SSSR,’” December 10, 1968, http://cdclv.unlv.edu//archives/Documents/iksi_establish.html, accessed November 17, 2015.

26  D. N. Shalin, “Garvardskoye intervyu s Yuriyem Levadoy,” Sotsiologicheskiy zhurnal, no. 1 (2008), pp. 126–153.

27  Aleksei Levinson, “Uroki Levady,” Neprikosnovenny Zapas 6, no. 50 (2006), http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2006/50/lev30.html, accessed November 18, 2015.

28  Shalin, “Garvardskoye intervyu s Yuriyem Levadoy.”

29  D. N. Shalin, “Yuri Levada: Ya schital, shto bylo by neyestestvenno vesti sebya kak-to inache,” Sotsiologicheskiy zhurnal, no. 1 (2008), pp. 155–174.

30  The Federal Statistics Service website used to provide population divorce figures, but these appear to have been deleted. A remnant is found at http://www.bad-good.ru/2013/december/marriage-divorce.html, accessed November 20, 2015.

three  PRIVILEGE

1  http://samlib.ru/w/wagapow_a/yesen.shtml#Im_tired_of_living, trans. Alec Vagapov, accessed November 25, 2015.

2  “O kulte lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh,” Nikita S. Khrushchev’s presentation at the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR, http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/195_dok/19560225hru.php, accessed November 29, 2015.

3  Alexander Yakovlev, “Protiv antiistoritsizma,” originally published in Literaturnaya gazeta in 1972, reproduced at http://left.ru/2005/15/yakovlev132.phtml, accessed November 29, 2015.

4  A. N. Yakovlev, Gorkaya chasha: Bolshevizm i reformatsiya v Rossii (Yaroslavl: Verkhne-Volzhskoye knizhnoye isdatel’stvo, 1994), pp. 9–12.

5  Ibid., p. 21.

6  Ibid., pp. 211–212.

7  Denis Romodin, “‘Tsarskoye selo’ v Kuntsevo—premium-klass epokhi SSSR,” Proekt Sovetskaya Arkhitektura, http://sovarch.ru/273/, accessed November 29, 2015.

8  Map of industrial plants in Moscow at http://www.subcontract.ru/Docum/DocumShow_DocumID_728.html; map of air quality at http://www.moscowmap.ru/imap_eco.shtml; both accessed November 25, 2015.

9  Mervyn Matthews, Privilege in the Soviet Union: A Study of Elite Life-Styles Under Communism (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978), p. 20.

10  Ibid., pp. 59–90.

11  Ibid., pp. 91–92.

12  Ibid., p. 20.

13  Alexander Galich, “Za semyu zaborami,” http://www.bards.ru/archives/part.php?id=4162, accessed November 26, 2015.

14  http://solikam-sk.narod.ru/index/0-3; http://www.memo.ru/history/NKVD/GULAG/r3/r3-175.htm; both accessed November 27, 2015.

15  “15 novykh nezavismykh gosudarstv: Chislo abortov na 100 zhivorozhdeniy, 1960–2014,” Demoskop weekly, no. 663–664 (November 16–29, 2015), http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_abo.php, accessed November 28, 2015.

16  Sergei Zakharov, “Brachnost v Rossii. Istoriya i sovremennost’,” Demoskop weekly, no. 261–262 (October 16–29, 2006), http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2006/0261/tema02.php, accessed November 28, 2015.

17  D. Zhdanov, Ye. Andreev, and A. Yasilioniene, “Polveka izmeneniy rozhdaemosti v Rossii,” Demoskop weekly, no. 447–448 (December 13–31, 2010), http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2010/0447/tema03.php, accessed November 28, 2015.

18  Mie Nakachi, “Replacing the Dead: The Politics of Reproduction in the Soviet Union, 1944–1955,” doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 2008, p. 191.

19  Venok slavy, 12 vols. (Moscow: Sovremennik, 1987).

four  HOMO SOVIETICUS

1  “Postanovleniye Politburo TsK KPSS i zapiska A. N. Yakovleva ob izdanii serii ‘Iz istorii otechestvennoy filosofskoy mysli,’” in A. A. Yakovlev, ed., Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika: 1985–1991: Dokumenty (Moscow: Mezhdunarodny fond “Demokratiya,” 2008), pp. 203–205.

2  Valeria Novodvorskaya, Nad propastyu vo lzhi (Moscow: AST, 1998); Dmitry Volchek, “May 1988-go: Vospominaniya o pervom s’yezde DS,” program aired by Russian Service of Radio Liberty, May 21, 2008; transcript: http://www.svoboda.org/content/transcript/448783.html, accessed December 10, 2015.

3  Volchek, “May 1988-go.”

4  Novodvorskaya, Nad propastyu vo lzhi, p. 22.

5  Ibid.

6  Ibid., p. 19.

7  Aleksei Alikin, “Vy slovno khodite po lezvuyu nozha,” Russkaya planeta, May 28, 2014, http://rusplt.ru/society/debranskaya-10104.html, accessed December 11, 2015.

8  Walter Laqueur, Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), pp. 204–209.

9  “Otvety A. N. Yakovleva na voprosy slushateley Vysshey partiynoy shkoly v Moskve,” in Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, p. 424.

10  Laqueur, Black Hundred, p. 208.

11  Alexander Dugin, Puti absolyuta, http://modernlib.ru/books/dugin_aleksandr/puti_absolyuta/read/, accessed December 12, 2015.

12  Anton Shekhovtsov, “Alexander Dugin and the West European New Right, 1989–1994,” in Marlene Laruelle, ed., Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe-Russia Relationship (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015), pp. 35–54.

13  I. L. Solomin, “Lichnostnyi oprosnik MMP: Metodicheskoye rukovodstvo,” http://reftrend.ru/396397.html, accessed December 17, 2015.

14  L. N. Sobchik, SMIL-566-MMPI-test. Metodika Minnesotskij Mnogoaspektnyj Lichnostniy Oprosnik-Standartizirovanniy mnogofaktorniy metod issledovaniya lichnosti, http://psycabi.net/testy/472-smil-566-mmpi-test-metodika-minnesotskij-mnogoaspektnyj-lichnostnyj-oprosnik-standartizirovannyj-mnogofaktornyj-metod-issledovaniya-lichnosti-sobchik-l-n, accessed December 22, 2015.

15  John M. Reisman, A History of Clinical Psychology, 2nd ed. (New York and London: Brunner-Routledge, 1991), p. 367.

16  Ruth Sanford (with additions by Irina Kuzmicheva), “The Other Part of the Soviet Story,” http://ruthsanford.tripod.com/the_other_side_of_the_soviet_story.htm, accessed December 17, 2015.

17  Carl Rogers, The Carl Rogers Reader, ed. Howard Kirschenbaum and Valerie Land Henderson (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989), p. 484.

18  Ibid., p. 486.

19  Ibid., p. 492.

20  Virginia Satir in the USSR 1988, film produced by Dr. Bob Spitzer and L. B. Johnson, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I36XM6_vsf4, accessed December 17, 2015.

21  Boris Grushin, “Na dal’nikh i blizhnikh podstupakh k sozdaniyu VTsIOMa,” polit.ru, December 10, 2007, http://polit.ru/article/2007/12/10/vstiom/, accessed December 18, 2015.

22  Tatiana Zaslavskaya, “Kak rozhdalsya VTsIOM,” in Boris Dubin, Lev Gudkov, and Yuri Levada, eds., Obshchestvennyi razlom in rozhdeniye novoy sotsiologii (Moscow: Novoye izdatel’stvo, 2008), pp. 8–14.

23  Yuri Levada, ed., Sovetsky prostoy chelovek: Opyt sotsial’nogo portreta na rubezhe 90-kh (Moscow: publisher unknown, 1993), p. 11.

24  Ibid., p. 23.

25  Ibid., p. 14.

26  Ibid., p. 16.

27  Ibid.

28  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), pp. 465–466.

29  Ibid., p. 475.

30  Levada, Sovetsky prostoy chelovek, pp. 18–19.

31  Ibid., p. 22.

32  Ibid., p. 286.

33  Ibid., p. 288.

34  George Orwell, 1984 (New York: Signet Classics, 1961).

35  Levada, Sovetsky prostoy chelovek, pp. 30–31.

36  Ibid., pp. 292–293.

37  Ibid., pp. 274–276.

five  SWAN LAKE

1  V. V. Lebedinsky and N. P. Chesnokova, “Oktyabryata,” Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya, 3rd ed. (Moscow, 1974), vol. 18, pp. 1080–1081; “Chto v SSSR delali pionery, kak prinimali v komsomol i kto takiye oktyabryata?” Argumenty i fakty, May 19, 2014, http://www.aif.ru/dontknows/eternal/1170643, accessed December 28, 2015.

2  Image of back cover of Soviet primary-school notebook at http://bigpicture.ru/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/sovietschool02.jpg, accessed December 28, 2015.

3  Mikhail Zoshchenko, “Grafin,” in Rasskazy o Lenine, http://lib.ru/RUSSLIT/ZOSHENKO/r_lenin.txt, accessed December 28, 2015; A. I. Ulyanova, Detskiye i shkolniye gody Ilyicha, chap. 3, http://libelli.ru/works/chapter1.htm, accessed December 28, 2015. (In fact, the chronology of writing, and the appearance of the image of a broken vase in an entirely different, earlier, recollection by Ulyanova, make the entire story appear fictional, but for the purposes of mythology this is irrelevant.)

4  Serhii Plokhy, The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union (New York: Basic Books, 2014), p. 31.

5  “Sostav rukovodyashchikh organov Tsentral’nogo komiteta Kommunisticheskoy partii—Politburo (Prezidiuma), Orgburo, Sekretariata TsK,” Izvestia TsK KPSS, no. 7 (1990), http://vivovoco.astronet.ru/VV/PAPERS/HISTORY/KPSS/HISTORY.HTM, accessed January 2, 2016.

6  The Politburo member in question was Andrei Gromyko. Mikhail Gorbachev, Zhizn’ i reformy (Moscow: Novosti, 1995), vol. 1, p. 408.

7  Ibid., p. 409.

8  Stephen Kotkin, Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970–2000 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 21.

9  I describe this in detail in The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin (New York: Riverhead Books, 2012).

10  Ronald Reagan, remarks delivered at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals, in Orlando, Florida, March 8, 1983, http://www.reaganfoundation.org/bw_detail.aspx?p=LMB4YGHF2&lm=berlinwall&args_a=cms&args_b=74&argsb=N&tx=1770, accessed January 3, 2016.

11  Peredovaia, “RSFSR,” Pravda 31 (February 1, 1936), cited in Terry Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939 (Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2001), p. 452.

12  Peredovaia, “Privet izbrannikam velikogo naroda!” Literaturnaya gazeta, no. 3 (January 15, 1937), cited in Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire, p. 455.

13  1936 Constitution of the USSR, http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/cnst1936.htm, accessed January 3, 2016.

14  1977 Constitution of the USSR, http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/cnst1977.htm#iii, accessed January 3, 2016.

15  1978 Constitution of the RSFSR, http://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1978/red_1978/5478721/, accessed January 3, 2016.

16  A. A. Yakovlev, ed., Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika: 1985–1991: Dokumenty (Moscow: Mezhdunarodny fond “Demokratiya,” 2008), p. 165.

17  Ibid., p. 166.

18  Thomas de Waal, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War (New York and London: New York University Press, 2003).

19  Kotkin, Armageddon Averted.

20  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, pp. 321–351.

21  “Vystupleniye na pervom syezde narodnykh deputatov SSSR,” in Andrei Sakharov, Mir, progress, prava cheloveka (Leningrad: Sovetskiy pisatel, 1990), pp. 111–116.

22  M. R. Zezina et al., Chelovek peremen: Issledovaniye politicheskoy biografii B. N. Yeltsina (Moscow: Novy khronograf, 2011).

23  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, pp. 361–362.

24  Ibid., p. 381.

25  Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century (New York: Collier Books, 1990).

26  Plokhy, The Last Empire, p. 38.

27  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, pp. 602–605.

28  Soobsheniye Tsentral’noy komissii referenduma SSSR Ob itogakh referenduma SSSR, sostoyavshegosya 17 marta 1991 goda, http://www.gorby.ru/userfiles/file/referendum_rezultat.pdf, accessed January 6, 2016.

29  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, pp. 620–634.

30  A. A. Yakovlev, ed., Aleksandr YakovlevIzbranniye intervyu: 1992–2005 (Moscow: Mezhdunarodny fond “Demokratiya,” 2009), p. 382.

31  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, pp. 659–681.

32  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Izbranniye intervyu, p. 37.

33  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, p. 823.

34  Ibid., p. 689.

35  Ibid., pp. 690–695, 824.

36  Zakon SSSR ot 20.05.91 no. 2177-1, http://www.lawrussia.ru/texts/legal_178/doc17a990x543.htm.In fact, the exit-visa requirement would not be phased out fully until 1993: “Vyyekhat’ za rubezh poka ne legche, chem ran’she,” Kommersant, January 11, 1993, http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/7029, accessed January 8, 2016.

37  GKChP, “Obrashcheniye k sovetskomu narodu,” http://dok.histrf.ru/20/zayavlenie-gkchp/, accessed January 8, 2016.

38  GKChP press conference, August 19, 1991, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVxH4e3Rfes, accessed January 10, 2016.

39  Boris Yeltsin’s address to the public, August 19, 1991, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JpoOkFZsPT8, accessed January 10, 2016.

40  Footage of Mikhail Gorbachev returning to Moscow, August 22, 1991, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cnkbL6KV6o, accessed January 10, 2016.

41  Mikhail Gorbachev’s press conference, August 22, 1991, http://rutube.ru/video/985c0f40c9416286f1a91d20b6bd8961/?bmstart=4133; Mikhail Gorbachev’s televised address to the nation, August 22, 1991, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qB16clLmN4; both accessed January 11, 2016.

42  Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestroika, p. 695.

43  Vadim Bakatin, Izbavleniye ot KGB (Moscow: Novotni, 1992).

44  Petr Akopov, “Sud’ba komissarov,” Izvestia, August 23, 2001, http://izvestia.ru/news/250769, accessed January 11, 2016.

45  Gorbachev to reporters, December 12, 1991, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCWzf1Ze2tk, accessed January 11, 2016.

46  Gorbachev’s resignation speech, December 25, 1991, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHjrmckJiMk, accessed January 11, 2016.

six  THE EXECUTION OF THE WHITE HOUSE

1  Serhii Plokhy, The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union (New York: Basic Books, 2014).

2  Zbigniew Brzezinski, Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century (New York: Collier Books, 1990), pp. 41–102.

3  Stephen Kotkin, Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970–2000 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).

4  Alexei Yurchak, Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More: The Last Soviet Generation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005).

5  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), p. 465.

6  Ibid., p. 391.

7  Wendy Z. Goldman, Women, State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917–1936 (Cambridge, England, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

8  Dan Healey, Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia: The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).

9  Viktoriya Sakevich, “Chto bylo posle zapreta aborta v 1936 godu,” Demoskop Weekly, no. 221–222 (November 7–20, 2005), http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2005/0221/reprod01.php, accessed February 7, 2016.

10  Mie Nakachi, “Replacing the Dead: The Politics of Reproduction in the Soviet Union, 1944–1955,” doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 2008.

11  Sakevich, “Chto bylo posle zapreta aborta v 1936 godu.”

12  I was one of the two lesbians mentioned by the Moskovsky Komsomolets article; the other was Julie Dorf, an activist from San Francisco. At the time, I witnessed some of the negotiations because Colette Shulman called me from the Central Committee. She recounted the events to me on January 25, 2016, in New York City.

13  Yegor Gaidar, Dni porazheniy i pobed (Moscow: Alpina, 2014), pp. 58–59.

14  Ibid., p. 93.

15  Zaklyucheniye Komissii S’yezla narodnykh deputatou SSSR po rassledovaniyu sobytiy, imeushykh mesto v g. Tblisi a aprelya 1989 gola, sobchak.org/rus/docs/zakluchenie.htm, accessed May 3, 2017.

16  Vadim Bakatin, Izbavleniye ot KGB (Moscow: Novotni, 1992), pp. 75–82.

17  “S’yezd narodnykh deputatov i Verkhovny soviet RSFSR/Rossiyskoy Federatsii (16 maya 1990–4 oktyabrya 1993),” http://www.politika.su/gos/ndrs.html, accessed February 10, 2016.

18  Gaidar, Dni porazheniy i pobed, pp. 97–98.

19  Ibid., p. 123.

20  Ibid., p. 156.

21  Ibid., p. 209.

22  “Federativniy dogovor” (Moscow, March 31, 1992), http://constitution.garant.ru/act/federative/170280/#100, accessed February 13, 2016.

23  Nikolay Andreev, “Voyna na territorii Rossii—real’nost’: Yeltsin vvodit chrezvychaynoye polozheniye srokom odin mesyats po Severnoy Osetii i Ingushetii,” Izvestia, November 2, 1992 (Moscow evening edition), p. 1, http://yeltsin.ru/uploads/upload/newspaper/1992/izv12_15_92/index.html, accessed February 13, 2016.

24  Gaidar, Dni porazheniy i pobed, p. 212.

25  “Chernomyrdin, Viktor, premier-ministr Rossii v 1992–1996 godakh” (biographical article), lenta .ru, https://lenta.ru/lib/14161208/, accessed February 13, 2016.

26  Mikhail Berger, “Glava rossiyskogo pravitel’stva obeshchayet strane rynok bez bazara,” Izvestia, December 15, 1992 (Moscow evening edition), p. 1, http://yeltsin.ru/uploads/upload/newspaper/1992/izv12_15_92/index.html, accessed February 13, 2016.

27  Gaidar, Dni porazheniy i pobed, p. 281.

28  “Iz obrashcheniya k grazhdanam Rossii prezidenta Borisa Yeltsina,” Moskovskiye novosti, March 28, 1993, p. A2, http://yeltsin.ru/uploads/upload/newspaper/1993/mn03_28_93/FLASH/index.html, accessed February 13, 2016.

29  “Vserossiyskiy referendum 1993 goda. Spravka,” RIA, April 25, 2011, http://ria.ru/history_spravki/20110425/367914805.html, accessed February 13, 2016.

30  “Zakon no. 4901-1, O vnesenii izmeneniy i dopolneniy v Ugolovnyi kodeks RSFSFR, Ugolovno-protsessual’nyi kodeks RSFSR i Ispravitel’no-trodovoy kodeks RSFSR,” http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=3934;fld=134;dst=100070;rnd=0.1744973356835544, accessed February 13, 2016.

31  Vasily Kononenko, “Prezident Rossii nachal obeshchanniye peremeny oglasheniyem proekta novoy Konstitutsii,” Izvestia, April 30, 1993, p. 1, http://yeltsin.ru/uploads/upload/newspaper/1993/izv04_30_93/FLASH/index.html, accessed February 13, 2016.

32  Veronika Kutsyllo, Zapiski iz Belogo doma: 21 sentyabrya4 oktyabrya 1993 g. (Moscow: Kommersant, 1993), p. 19.

33  Gaidar, Dni porazheniy i pobed, p. 304.

34  Ibid., pp. 300–313; Kutsyllo, Zapiski iz Belogo doma, pp. 111–155.

35  Author interview with Evgenia Debryanskaya, Moscow, November 2013.

36  Vladimir Zhirinovsky, The Destinies of Russia (Moscow: RAIT, 1997), p. 144.

37  Alexander Dugin and Yuriy Vorobyevsky, author-producers, Tayny veka: Mistika Reikha: 1. Ahnenerbe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFHKwKNmYoY, accessed February 14, 2016.

38  Andrei Sidorchik, “Odurevshaya Rossiya: Kak Vladimir Zhirinovsky pobedil na vyborakh,” Argumenty i fakty, December 12, 2013, http://www.aif.ru/politics/russia/odurevshaya_rossiya_kak_vladimir_zhirinovskiy_pobedil_na_vyborah, accessed February 14, 2016.

seven  EVERYONE WANTS TO BE A MILLIONAIRE

1  Alessandra Stanley, “Nizhny Novgorod Journal: Camelot on the Volga, with 2 Bold Antagonists,” The New York Times, April 29, 1994, http://www.nytimes.com/1994/04/29/world/nizhny-novgorod-journal-camelot-on-the-volga-with-2-bold-antagonists.html, accessed February 20, 2016.

2  Howard Witt, “Capitalism Is a Pain in Russian Market,” Chicago Tribune, September 10, 1992, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1992-09-10/news/9203220563_1_reforms-heart-attacks-infarction, accessed February 20, 2016.

3  Margaret Thatcher, Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), pp. 65–68.

4  Stanley, “Nizhny Novgorod Journal.”

5  Boris Nemtsov, Ispoved’ buntarya (Moscow: Partizan, 2007), pp. 38–39.

6  John-Thor Dahlburg, “Yeltsin Withdraws Honor Guard from Lenin’s Mausoleum: Moscow: The Soldiers’ Ritual Was a Red Square Fixture,” Los Angeles Times, October 7, 1993, http://articles.latimes.com/1993-10-07/news/mn-43289_1_honor-guard, accessed February 26, 2016.

7  Charles J. Abbott, “Bush, Gorbachev Agree on U.S.-Soviet Grain Pact,” UPI, June 2, 1990, http://www.upi.com/Archives/1990/06/02/Bush-Gorbachev-agree-on-US-Soviet-grain-pact/9662644299200/; Andrew Rosenthal, “The Trade Decision: Bush, Lifting 15-Year-Old Ban, Approves Loans for Kremlin to Help Ease Food Shortages,” The New York Times, December 13, 1990, http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/13/world/trade-decision-bush-lifting-15-year-old-ban-approves-loans-for-kremlin-help-ease.html; Nadia Arumugam, “The Dark Side of the Bird,” Slate, January 26, 2011, http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2011/01/the_dark_side_of_the_bird.html; all accessed February 23, 2016.

8  Solikamskbumprom website, http://www.solbum.ru/eng/company/, accessed February 23, 2016.

9  “Lyonya Golubkov: vse reklamniye roliki,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VzFi-bNXHMo&ebc=ANyPxKrdpUczITDhf4SwmrGHlzXMlbGCbnLsG1fiu5jLmt4to4D2F2Xuzxj07BEt3srIoSipg3f-jcL5whgQzm2JBQJJsyuksQ, accessed February 23, 2016.

10  “Hoper Invest 1994 god, reklama,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKcIjMncME0, accessed February 24, 2016.

11  Vasily Fedorov and Aleksei Ivanov, “Anatoly Chubais: Nu vot ya i v Khopre!” Kommersant-Dengi, December 14, 1994, http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/18410, accessed February 24, 2016.

12  Dmitry Butrin, “Itogi kapitalisticheskoy desyatiletki,” Kommersant-Vlast’, March 3, 2002, http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/312965, accessed February 24, 2016.

13  Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman, “A Normal Country: Russia After Communism,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19, no. 1 (Winter 2005), pp. 151–174.

14  L. D. Gudkov and M. V. Pchelina, “Bednost i zavist: Negativny fon perekhodnogo obshchestva,” Informatsionny bulleten’ monitoringa, November–December 1995, pp. 31–42.

15  Yegor Gaidar, “Ot chernogo vtornika k kommunisticheskomu subbotniku,” Otkrytaya politika, January 1995, pp. 25–31, http://gaidar-arc.com/file/bulletin-1/DEFAULT/org.stretto.plugins.bulletin.core.Article/file/4346, accessed February 24, 2016.

eight  GRIEF, ARRESTED

1  Fred S. Koch, The Volga Germans: In Russia and the Americas, 1763 to the Present (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977).

2  Alexander Etkind, Warped Mourning: Stories of the Undead in the Land of the Unburied (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013), pp. 8–9.

3  Gorbachev described this in a conversation with me and a small group of others gathered to discuss a plan for creating a museum of the Gulag in February 2008.

4  A. Lipsky, “Vlast’ opyat’ sporit s istoriyey,” Novaya gazeta, May 5–11, 2005, in A. A. Yakovlev, ed., Aleksandr Yakovlev, Izbranniye intervyu: 1992–2005 (Moscow: Mezhdunarodny fond “Demokratiya,” 2009), pp. 372–374.

5  N. Rostova, “Vozhdi ochen’ toropilis’, kogda rech shla o rasstrelakh,” Nezavisimaya gazeta, October 26, 2001, in Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Izbranniye intervyu, pp. 311–314.

6  Lidiya Chukovskaya, Procherk (Moscow: Vremya, 2013), p. 259.

7  Anya von Bremzen, Mastering the Art of Soviet Cooking: A Memoir of Food and Longing (New York: Crown, 2013), p. 126.

8  Rostova, “Vozhdi ochen’ toropilis’, kogda rech shla o rasstrelakh.”

9  Lipsky, “Vlast’ opyat’ sporit s istoriyey.”

10  “O khode raboty po rassmotreniyu voprosov, svyazannykh s reabilitatsiyey grazhdan, neobosnovanno repressirovannykh v period 30-40-kh i nachala 50-kh godov,” memo from A. N. Yakovlev to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR, December 12, 1989, http://www.alexanderyakovlev.org/almanah/inside/almanah-doc/76205, accessed March 19, 2016.

11  N. Zheleznova, “Osvobozhdeniye pravdy,” Literaturniye vesti, July–August 1998, in Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Izbranniye intervyu, pp. 256–262.

12  Ibid.

13  “O snyatii ogranichitel’nykh grifov s zakonodatel’nykh i inykh aktov, sluzhivshikh osnovaniyem dlya massovykh repressiy i posyagatel’stv na prava cheloveka,” presidential decree no. 658, June 23, 1992, http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/rf-instrukcii/c2v.htm, accessed March 19, 2016.

14  Camila Domonoske, “Polish Institute: Files Show Lech Walesa Worked with Communist-Era Secret Police,” npr.org, February 18, 2016, http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/02/18/467209160/polish-institute-files-show-lech-walesa-worked-with-communist-era-secret-police, accessed March 20, 2016.

15  Nadezhda Nekrasova, “Mekhanizm rassekrechivaniya, slozhivshiysya v seredine 1990-kh godov . . . dolzhen byt’ otmenen,” polit.ru, June 3, 2008, http://polit.ru/article/2008/06/03/memorial/, accessed March 7, 2016.

16  Joshua Rubenstein, The Last Days of Stalin (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), pp. 61–140.

17  Letter from L. F. Timashuk to the presidium of the Twenty-third Party Congress, March 31, 1966, http://www.alexanderyakovlev.org/fond/issues-doc/69205, accessed March 20, 2016.

18  Rostova, “Vozhdi ochen’ toropilis’, kogda rech shla o rasstrelakh.”

19  Jacob D. Lindy and Robert Jay Lifton, eds., Beyond Invisible Walls: The Psychological Legacy of Soviet Trauma (New York and London: Routledge, 2013), p. 131.

20  Ibid., pp. 132–136.

21  Ibid., p. 139.

22  Ibid., p. 11.

23  Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya, 2nd ed. (Moscow, 1950), vol. 5, pp. 21–24, and letter to subscribers, undated.

24  Yevgeniya Ginzburg, Krutoy marshrut: Khronika vremyon kul’ta lichnosti (Moscow: Sovetskiy pisatel, 1990).

25  Naum Korzhavin, “Tan’ka,” in Naum Korzhavin, Vremya dano (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literatura, 1992), pp. 189–197.

26  Victor Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, ed. Richard Greenman, trans. Peter Sedgwick with George Paizis (New York: The New York Review of Books, 2012), p. 243.

27  Roberto Bolaño, 2666, trans. Natasha Wimmer (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008), p. 716.

28  B. I. Belenkin, “Repressirovanniye trotskisty—organizovannaya politicheskaya gruppa levogo soprotivleniya stalinskomu rezhimu (1927–1938): Bor’ba kak norma zhizni. Na materialakh sledstvennykh del G. Ya. Yakovina,” in Problemy istorii massovykh politicheskih repressiy v SSSR(Krasnodar: Ekoinvest, 2010), pp. 352–367; Boris Belenkin, “‘Tan’ka! Tanechka! Tanya! . . .’ Zametki na polyakh poemy Nauma Korzhavina i biografii Anny Mikhailovny Pankratovoy,” in Pravo na imya: Biografika XX veka: Sed’miye chteniya pamyati Veniamina Iofe (St. Petersburg: Memorial, 2010), pp. 14–32.

29  Etkind, Warped Mourning, p. 137.

30  Ibid., p. 158.

31  A. Gubanov, “Plokhoy chinovnik vsegda sovetskoy shineli,” Rossiyskiye vesti, January 20, 1998, in Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Izbranniye intervyu, p. 240.

32  Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 07.11.1996 g. no. 1537, “O Dne soglasiya i primireniya,” http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/10231, accessed March 18, 2016.

33  “Obyavleniye amnistiy v Rossii: Dosye,” TASS, http://tass.ru/info/841359, accessed March 18, 2016.

34  A. Gubanov, “Yesli by gosudarstvo moglo priznat’ svoye ugolovnoye proshloye,” Rossiyskiye vesti, October 30, 1997, in Yakovlev, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Izbranniye intervyu, p. 233.

35  Gubanov, “Plokhoy chinovnik vsegda sovetskoy shineli,” pp. 239, 435.

nine  OLD SONGS

1  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), pp. 466–468.

2  Yuri Levada, “‘Chelovek sovetskiy’ pyat’ let spustya: 1989–1994 (predvaritel’niye itogi sravnitel’nogo issledovaniya),” Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya, no. 1 (1995), pp. 9–14.

3  Richard Stites, Russian Popular Culture: Entertainment and Society Since 1900 (Cambridge, England, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 189; Yulia Larina, “Krasno-belo-goluboy ogonyok,” Kommersant, December 26, 2005, http://kommersant.ru/doc/2296344, accessed March 25, 2016.

4  Stariye pesni o glavnom 1 aired on ORT on December 31, 1995, http://www.1tv.ru/cinema/fi=8630, accessed March 25, 2016.

5  Oleg Orlov and Alexander Cherkasov, eds., Rossiya-Chechnya: Tsep’ oshibok i prestupleniy (Moscow: Memorial, 1998).

6  Kirill Rodionov, “Byli li chistymi prezidentskiye vybory—1996?” Gaidar Center, July 30, 2015, http://gaidar.center/articles/transparent-election-1996.htm, accessed March 27, 2016.

7  Footage of Yeltsin’s August 1994 visit to Nizhny Novgorod in Alexander Gorski, “On mog byt’ prezidentom!” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IjtIQJZ9Kbk, accessed March 27, 2016.

8  Boris Nemtsov, Isproed’ buntarya (Moscow; Partizan, 2007); Ludmila Telen’, “Soprotivleniye materiala: Boris Nemtsov pytayetsya sovmestit’ zhizn’ s politikoy: Obe soprotivlyayutsya,” Moskovskiye novosti, June 18, 2002, http://nemtsov-most.org/2016/03/29/the-resistance-of-the-material-interview-part-i/, accessed April 2, 2016.

9  Viktor Yaroshenko, “Yegor i Boris: Kommentariy k zabytomu telereportazhu,” Fond Yegora Gaidara, February 26, 2016, http://gaidarfund.ru/articles/2541, accessed March 27, 2016.

10  Yegor Gaidar, Dni porazheniy i pobed (Moscow: Alpina, 2014), pp. 383–384.

11  Boris Nemtsov, Provintsial, manuscript completed 1996; publication information unavailable; PDF obtained online, p. 78.

12  Yeltsin’s 1996 campaign videos can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAnpikvpZSI&index=24&list=PLsyd8Y6Pb3j3IuKcRm_dYfOVYUHBUNbgS and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYddyATMuTM&index=33&list=PLsyd8Y6Pb3j3IuKcRm_dYfOVYUHBUNbgS, accessed March 27, 2016.

13  Timothy J. Colton, Yeltsin: A Life (New York: Basic Books, 2008), pp. 389–390.

14  “Boris Yeltsin ishchet natsional’nuyu ideyu,” Nash sovremennik, no. 5 (1997), p. 248.

15  Yelena Tregubova, Bayki kremlyovskogo diggera (Moscow: Ad Marginem, 2003), p. 69.

16  “Tsarskiye pokhorony: Rech Yeltsina,” RTR report, July 17, 1998, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQJDMp_ORlA, accessed March 28, 2016.

17  “Prezident Rossii Boris Yeltsin na tseremonii zakhoroneniya ostankov chlenov semyi imperatora Nikolaya II v Sankt-Peterburge,” http://yeltsin.ru/archive/video/51553/, accessed April 3, 2016.

18  Boris Yeltsin, Prezidentskiy marafon (Moscow: AST, 2000).

19  Igor Sulimov, “Istoriya voyennykh paradov na Krasnoy ploshchadi,” Voyennoye obozreniye, May 9, 2013, http://topwar.ru/27770-istoriya-voennyh-paradov-na-krasnoy-ploschadi.html; Bernard Gwertzman, “Yeltsin to Alter Parade on V-E Day to Draw Clinton,” The New York Times, March 17, 1995, http://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/17/world/yeltsin-to-alter-parade-on-v-e-day-to-draw-clinton.html?pagewanted=all; Mark Matthews, “Clinton Agrees to Meet with Yeltsin in Moscow,” The Baltimore Sun, March 21, 1995, http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1995-03-21/news/1995080017_1_clinton-moscow-50th-anniversary; “Victory Day: The World to Celebrate in Moscow,” The Moscow Times, April 15, 1995, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/victory-day-the-world-to-celebrate-in-moscow/340359.html; all accessed March 30, 2016.

20  Sergei Lavrov, Lev Gumilev: Sud’ba i idei (Moscow: Airis-Press, 2007).

21  Mark Bassin, “Nurture Is Nature: Lev Gumilev and the Ecology of Ethnicity,” Slavic Review 68, no. 4 (Winter 2009), pp. 872–897; Mark Bassin, “Lev Gumilev and Russian National Identity During and After the Soviet Era,” in Athena Leoussi and Steven Grosby, eds., Nationalism and Ethnosymbolism: History, Culture and Ethnicity in the Formation of Nations (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006), pp. 143–160; Alexander S. Titov, “Lev Gumilev, Ethnogenesis and Eurasianism,” doctoral dissertation, University College of London, School of Slavonic and Eastern European Studies, 2005.

22  Poem no. 1, Requiem, from Anna Akhmatova, Selected Poems Including “Requiem,” trans. A. S. Kline, http://www.24grammata.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Akhmatova-selected-poem-24grammata.compdf.pdf, p. 141.

23  Author interview with Garry Kasparov, Moscow, July 2005.

24  Sergei Novikov, “Matematiki—gerostraty istorii? (Ne pogibnet li rossiyskaya matematika?),” http://hbar.phys.msu.ru/gorm/fomenko/novikov1.htm, accessed April 20, 2016.

25  Alexander Dugin, Konservativnaya revolutsiya (Moscow: Arktogeya, 1994).

26  Alexander Dugin, “Metafizika natsional-bol’shevizma,” in Tampliery proletariata (Moscow: Arktogeya, 1997).

ten  IT’S ALL OVER ALL OVER AGAIN

1  Lev Gudkov, Boris Dubin, and Yuri Levada, Problema “elity” v segodnyashney Rossii: Razmyshleniya nad rezul’tatami sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniya (Moscow: Fond Liberal’naya Missya, 2007), p. 27.

2  Boris Nemtsov, Provintsial, manuscript completed 1996; publication information unavailable; PDF obtained online, p. 33.

3  Ibid., p. 60.

4  Ludmila Telen’, “Soprotivleniye materiala: Boris Nemtsov pytayetsya sovmestit’ zhizn’ s politikoy: Obe soprotivlyayutsya,” Moskovskiye novosti, June 18, 2002, archived at https://nemtsov-most.org/2016/03/29/the-resistance-of-the-material-interview-part-i/, accessed April 24, 2016.

5  Boris Nemtsov, Ispoved’ buntarya (Moscow: Partizan, 1997), p. 28.

6  Ibid., p. 24.

7  Ibid., p. 23.

8  “Nemtsov s prostitukami,” clip from 1998 Dorenko program, undated, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1e-i3e80EA, accessed April 24, 2016.

9  Nemtsov, Ispoved’ buntarya, p. 23.

10  Telen’, “Soprotivleniye materiala.”

11  B. Generalov, “Ya s temi, kto chesten do kontsa,” Otkrytaya politika 7, no. 9 (November 1995), http://www.alexanderyakovlev.org/fond/issues-doc/1009799, accessed April 26, 2016.

12  Clifford G. Gaddy and Brian W. Ickes, Russia’s Virtual Economy (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2002).

13  Tiffany C. Bloomfield, “Former Russian Official Advocates Tax Reform: Nemtsov Gives First of Three Presentations,” The Harvard Crimson, February 9, 1999, http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1999/2/9/former-russian-official-advocates-tax-reform/, accessed April 27, 2016.

14  “Krizis v Kosovo i rossiyskoye obshchestvennoye mneniye—Issledovaniye VTSIOM,” polit.ru, March 31, 1999, http://polit.ru/article/1999/03/31/477071/, accessed April 27, 2016.

15  “Voyenniy parad v Moskve (9 maya 1999 g.),” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6t8EbHIXuU, accessed April 28, 2016.

16  Robert Burns, “Russia, U.S. Announce Agreement on Troops, Ending Impasse,” AP, June 19, 1999, http://amarillo.com/stories/1999/06/19/usn_russia.shtml#.VyLlTTArI2w, accessed April 28, 2016; “Confrontation over Pristina Airport,” BBC News, March 9, 2000, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/671495.stm, accessed May 4, 2016.

17  TASS upolnomochen zayavit’ (Mosfilm, 1984).

18  Mertvyi sezon (Lenfilm, 1968).

19  “Indeksy: Odobreniye deyatel’nosti Vladimira Putina,” Levada Center, http://www.levada.ru/old/indeksy, accessed April 29, 2016.

20  Yuri Levada, “‘Chelovek sovetskiy’ 10 let spustya: 1989–1999 (predvaritel’niye itogi sravnitel’nogo issledovaniya),” Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya 3, no. 41 (May–June 1999), pp. 7–15.

21  Max Weber, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, ed. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), chap. 14.

22  Arkady Strugatsky and Boris Strugatsky, Trudno byt’ bogom (Moscow: AST, 2015).

23  Lev Gudkov and Boris Dubin, “Rossiyskiye vybory: Vremya ‘serykh,’” Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya 2, no. 46 (March–April 2000), pp. 17–29.

eleven  LIFE AFTER DEATH

1  “Yeltsin: Ya ukhozhu i proshu u vas proshcheniya,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tp9FS3OdoAQ, accessed May 6, 2016.

2  “Yeltsin vedyot Putina v Kreml’,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=plDG_85gCo0, accessed May 6, 2016.

3  O. Solomonova, “Lovushka dlya prezidenta,” Trud, July 13–19, 2000, http://www.alexanderyakovlev.org/fond/issues-doc/1010066, accessed May 6, 2016.

4  Steven Erlanger, “71 Die When Two Jets Collide High Above Southern Germany,” The New York Times, July 2, 2002, http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/02/international/02CND-CRAS.html, accessed May 11, 2016.

5  Olga Kryshtanovskaya, “Rezhim Putina: Liberal’naya militokratiya?” Pro et contra 7, no. 4 (Fall 2002), pp. 158–180.

6  Yuri Levada, “2000 god: Razocharovaniya i nadezhdy,” Moskovskiye novosti, December 25, 2000, archived at http://www.levada.ru/2000/12/25/2000-god-razocharovaniya-i-nadezhdy/, accessed May 9, 2016.

7  “Vzglyad na sobytiya Nord-Ost mesyats spustya . . . ,” Levada Center, December 4, 2002, http://www.levada.ru/2002/12/04/vzglyad-na-sobytiya-nord-ost-mesyats-spustya/, accessed May 9, 2016.

8  L. A. Sedov, “Yanvarskiy opros: vyborochnyi analiz,” Levada Center, February 10, 2003, http://www.levada.ru/2003/02/10/yanvarskij-opros-vtsiom-vyborochnyj-analiz/, accessed May 9, 2016.

9  “Rezul’taty vyborov deputatov Gosdumy,” Rossiyskaya gazeta, December 9, 2003, http://rg.ru/2003/12/09/rezultaty.html, accessed May 11, 2016.

10  Boris Nemtsov, Ispoved’ buntarya (Moscow: Partizan, 2007), pp. 66–69.

twelve  THE ORANGE MENACE

1  “Zhanna Nemtsova prolila krov’ za Ameriku,” Komsomol’skaya Pravda, October 19, 2001, http://www.kompravda.eu/daily/22658/12897/, accessed May 26, 2016.

2  Ibid.

3  Lev Gudkov, “Otnosheniye k SShA v Rossii i problema antiamerikanizma,” Monitoring obshchestvenogo mneniya 2, no. 58 (March–April 2002), pp. 32–48.

4  Chto delat’? Vyzhivet li mir posle sobytii 11 sentyabrya v Soyedinennykh Shtatakh? This TV program originally aired December 1, 2001, archived at http://trueinform.ru/modules.php?name=Video&sid=46746, accessed May 28, 2016.

5  Grigory Nekhoroshev, “Yevraziytsy reshili operet’sya na Vladimira Putin,” Nezavisimaya gazeta, April 24, 2001, http://www.ng.ru/events/2001-04-24/2_support.html; Igor Maltsev, “Yevraziya über alles: Sozdano novoye obshchestvenno-politicheskoye dvizheniye,” Kommersant, April 20, 2001, p. 9, http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/254580; Eurasia Movement’s discussion forum on its own congress, http://arctogaia.org.ru/FORUMS/messages/47/622.html?993838577; all accessed May 28, 2016.

6  N. S. Trubetskoy, Yevropa i chelovechestvo (Sofia: Rossiiskobolgarskoe knigoizdatel’stvo, 1920), text reproduced at http://www.philosophy.ru/phil/library/vehi/nstev.htm, accessed May 28, 2016.

7  “Chto delat’? Yavliayetsya li Yevraziystvo spaseniyem dlya Rossii?”

8  “Putin: perevorot v Gruzii proizoshel iz-za oshibok prezhney vlasti,” lenta.ru, November 24, 2003, https://lenta.ru/vojna/2003/11/24/putin/, accessed May 28, 2016.

9  Mikhail Zygar, Vsya kremlyovskaya rat’: Kratkaya istoriya sovremennoy Rossii (Moscow: Intellektual’naya literatura, 2016), p. 107.

10  Ibid., p. 113.

11  http://ponny1.livejournal.com/6806.html.

12  Robert Horvath, Putin’s Preventive Counter-Revolution: Post-Soviet Totalitarianism and the Spectre of Velvet Revolution (London and New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 33–34.

13  Ibid. While I personally reported on most of the events described in the following section, I am indebted to Horvath for the conceptual framework.

14  Nataliya Kholmogorova, “Probuzhdeniye: Russkiy March 4 noyabrya,” specnaz.ru, http://www.specnaz.ru/article/?808, accessed March 16, 2017.

15  Horvath, Putin’s Preventive Counter-Revolution, p. 121.

16  “Doch Nemtsova zaregistrirovana kandidatom v deputaty Mosgordumy,” newsru.com, October 31, 2005, http://www.newsru.com/russia/31oct2005/nemcova.html; Mikhail Tul’skiy, “Iz zhizni Zhanny i Mashy,” Vzglyad, August 31, 2005, http://vz.ru/politics/2005/8/31/5272.html; both accessed May 30, 2016.

17  A. Samarina, “Rodonachal’nik glasnosti—o kontrreformak,” Nezavisimaya gazeta, April 19, 2005, archived at http://www.alexanderyakovlev.org/fond/issues-doc/1010283, accessed May 30, 2016.

18  Glifford G. Gaddy and Fiona Hill, “Doubling GDP and the Illusion of Growth,” The Moscow Times, November 12, 2003, archived at http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2003/11/12russia-gaddy, accessed June 3, 2016; Clifford G. Gaddy and Barry W. Ickes, “The Virtual Economy Revisited: Resource Rents and the Russian Economy,” outline for speech delivered at Renaissance Capital 4th Annual Equity Conference, New York, October 20, 2005, text at http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/speeches/2005/10/20russia-gaddy/gaddy20051020.pdf, accessed June 3, 2016.

19  Mikhail Mel’nikov, “Ne chokayas’: vspominayem prioretetniye natsproekty,” Russkaya planeta, October 21, 2015, http://rusplt.ru/society/ne-chokayas-vspominaem-prioritetnyie-natsproektyi-19327.html, accessed May 30, 2016.

thirteen  ALL IN THE FAMILY

1  This Levada Center survey belies his conclusions: Masha Plotko, “Strakh drugogo: Problema gomofobii v Rossii,” Levada Center, December 3, 2013, http://www.levada.ru/old/12-03-2013/strakh-drugogo-problema-gomofobii-v-rossii, accessed June 10, 2016.

2  Vita Lukashina and Yelena Rudneva, “Duma snimet s golubykh rozoviye ochki,” gazeta.ru, September 10, 2003, http://www.gazeta.ru/parliament/articles/52010.shtml, accessed June 14, 2016.

3  Alexei Gorshkov, “Transformatsiya otnosheniya k seksual’nym men’shinstvam kak politicheskaya problema sovremennogo rossiyskogo obshchestva,” senior thesis, Perm State University, 2007.

4  Alexei Gorshkov, “Instituonalizatsiya men’shinstv v pole publichnoy politiki,” doctoral dissertation, Perm State University, 2009.

5  Maxim Trudolyubov, “Who Runs Russia, Anyway?” The New York Times, November 19, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/20/opinion/20iht-edtrudolyubov.html?_r=0, accessed June 14, 2016.

6  Douglas Rogers, The Depths of Russia: Oil, Power, and Culture After Socialism (Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2015), pp. 289–290.

7  Ibid., p. 291.

8  I happened to be with Gordeev on that walk. He had invited me to the theater and then to a party afterward, but we could not make it from one to the other because he didn’t know where he was, didn’t have any Russian money, and could not let me, a woman, pay for the cab.

9  Rogers, The Depths of Russia, pp. 309–310.

10  Ibid., p. 299.

11  On September 16, 2010, Ksenia Kirichenko wrote the following post on her VK page: “Dissertation on Family Law: Looking for Advice and an Adviser. Here is the story: I have written a dissertation on family law while in graduate school but denied an adviser. Now I am looking for a defense opportunity. . . . I have tried to do this on my own, but I don’t want to pay a bribe and that’s the only option I have found so far.” https://vk.com/topic-215303_23501181, accessed June 14, 2016.

12  See, for example, Allan Carlson, The “American Way”: Family and Community in the Shaping of American Identity (Wilmington, DE: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 2003); Allan C. Carlson, Family Questions: Reflections on the American Social Crisis (Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction, 1989); Allan C. Carlson and Paul T. Mero, The Natural Family: A Manifesto (Dallas: Spence, 2007).

13  World Bank data, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN/countries/RU—XR?page=1&display=default, accessed June 14, 2016.

14  Nicholas Eberstadt, Russia’s Peacetime Demographic Crisis: Dimensions, Causes, Implications (Seattle: National Bureau of Asian Research, 2010).

15  Michelle A. Parsons, Dying Unneeded: The Cultural Context of the Russian Mortality Crisis (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2014), pp. 135–138.

16  Author interview with Allan Carlson, Tbilisi, May 16, 2016.

17  “Poslaniye Federal’nomu Sobraniyu Rossiyskoy Federatsii,” Rossiyskaya gazeta, November 5, 2006, https://rg.ru/2006/05/11/poslanie-dok.html, accessed June 14, 2016.

18  World Bank fertility rate data, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN?page=1, accessed June 14, 2016.

19  For some of these activities the WCF uses a legal stand-in that it admits is virtually identical in composition and agenda. This other organization is the Howard Center.

20  The representatives were Alexei Komov at the UN and Pavel Parfentiev at the European institutions.See “FamilyPolicy.ru CEO Pavel Parfentiev Appointed World Congress of Families Ambassador to the European Institutions,” familypolicy.ru, March 2, 2013, http://en.familypolicy.ru/read/231, accessed June 16, 2016.

21  Cole Parke, “Natural Deception: Conned by the World Congress of Families,” Political Research Associates, January 21, 2015, http://www.politicalresearch.org/2015/01/21/natural-deception-conned-by-the-world-congress-of-families/#sthash.DJXMcOU7.a9bkcdgH.dpbs (also published in The Public Eye, Winter 2015), accessed June 16, 2016.

22  Anait Antonyan, “Sotsfak MGU: Kommercheskoye predpriyatiye s ekstremistskim kompleksom,” polit.ru, March 16, 2007, http://www.polit.ru/article/2007/03/16/bikbov/, accessed June 18, 2016.

23  Author interview with Alexandre Bikbov, Paris, November 11, 2015.

24  “O situatsii na sotsiologicheskom fakul’tete MGU im. M. V. Lomonosova,” flyer distributed February 28, 2007, archived at http://www.klubok.net/article2147.html, accessed June 18, 2016.

25  V. V. Radaev, “Zaklyucheniye o prepodavatel’skom sostave i uchebnykh materialakh otdel’nykh kafedr fakul’teta sotsiologii MGU im. M. V. Lomonosova,” polit.ru, July 18, 2007, http://www.polit.ru/article/2007/07/18/radaev2/, accessed July 1, 2016.

26  V. P. [Vladimir Pribylovsky], “Soyuz pravoslavnykh grazhdan (SPG),” Antikompromat, undated, http://www.anticompromat.org/s_pg/spr_spg.html, accessed June 19, 2016.

27  “Advokaty gey-parada boryatsya s pravoslavnymi ideyamii v stenakh MGU,” statement by Union of Orthodox Citizens, March 24, 2007, pravoslaviye.ru, http://www.pravoslavie.ru/21471.html, accessed June 19, 2016.

28  Bikbov interview; author interview with Ekaterina Tarnovskaya, Moscow, June 10, 2016.

29  “Vladimir Dobren’kov: ‘Glavnoy zadachey vlasti dolzhno stat’ vozrozhdeniye chelovecheskikh dush,’” Russkaya liniya, June 18, 2008, http://rusk.ru/newsdata.php?idar=177296, accessed June 19, 2016.

30  “Arrests at Russian Gay Protests,” BBC News, May 27, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6695913.stm, accessed March 16, 2017.

31  “Pol Kameron: ‘Neuzheli vy khotite stat’ takimi zhe gluptsami kak i my?’” Russyaka liniya, June 18, 2008, http://rusk.ru/newsdata.php?idar=177294, accessed June 19, 2016.

32  “Paul Cameron Bio and Fact Sheet,” Dr. Gregory Herek’s blog, University of California, Davis, website, http://psc.dss.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/facts_cameron_sheet.html, accessed June 19, 2016.

33  “Rech Dugina na nulevom zasedanii TsKI,” Tsentr konservativnykh issledovaniy, September 16, 2008, http://konservatizm.org/speech/dugin/310109151801.xhtml, accessed June 19, 2016.

34  Andreas Umland, “Post-Soviet ‘Uncivil Society’ and the Rise of Aleksandr Dugin: A Case Study of the Extraparliamentary Radical Right in Contemporary Russia,” doctoral dissertation, Trinity College, Cambridge University, 2007.

35  “Poslaniye Federal’nomu sobraniyu Rossiyskoy Federatsii,” Kremlin website, April 25, 2005, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/22931, accessed June 21, 2016.

36  “Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” Kremlin website, April 25, 2005, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/22931, accessed June 21, 2016.

37  “Vystupleniye i discussiya na Myunkhenskoy konferentsii po voprosam politiki bezopasnosti,” Kremlin website, February 10, 2007, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/24034, accessed June 21, 2016.

38  Stephen J. Cimbala, “Nuclear Arms Control After a Time of Troubles,” in Mark Galeotti, ed., The Politics of Security in Modern Russia (London and New York: Routledge, 2016), p. 108.

39  Manfred Wörner’s words are quoted from “The Atlantic Alliance and European Security in the 1990s,” address to Bremer Tanaks Collegium, Brussels, May 17, 1990, NATO website, http://nato.int/docu/speech/1990/s900517a_e.htm, accessed June 21, 2016.

40  Mark Kramer, “The Myth of a No-NATO-Enlargement Pledge to Russia,” The Washington Quarterly 32, no. 2 (April 2009), pp. 39–61.

41  “Dvizheniya ‘Nashi’ i ‘Mestniye’ prekrashchayut blokadu posol’stva Estonii,” RIA, May 3, 2007, http://ria.ru/society/20070503/64852572.html, accessed June 22, 2016.

42  Kadri Liik, “The ‘Bronze Year’ of Estonia–Russia Relations,” Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Yearbook, 2007, http://www.vm.ee/en/yearbook-2007, p. 71.

43  Stephen Herzog, “Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses,” Journal of Strategic Security 4, no. 2 (Summer 2011), pp. 49–60.

44  “‘Nashi’ priznalis’ v organitsii hakerskikh atak na estonskiye saity,” lenta.ru, March 12, 2009, https://lenta.ru/news/2009/03/12/confess/, accessed June 22, 2016.

45  Svante E. Cornell, Johanna Popjanevski, and Niklas Nilsson, “Russia’s War in Georgia: Causes and Implications for Georgia and the World,” policy paper, Central Asia–Caucasus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program, Johns Hopkins University, August 2008.

46  Andrei Fedyashin, “Skol’ko v mire ‘gosudarstv na sokhranenii’?” RIA, August 26, 2010, http://ria.ru/analytics/20100826/269199864.html, accessed July 2, 2016.

47  C. J. Chivers, “Russia Warns It May Back Breakaway Republics in Georgia,” The New York Times, February 16, 2008, mobile.nytimes.com/2008/02/16/world/europe/16breakaway.html, accessed July 2, 2016.

48  “Doktrina Med vedeva: Pyat’ printsipov rossiyskoy vneshney politiki,” Tsentr konservativnykh issledovaniy, September 16, 2008, http://konservatizm.org/speech/dugin/011009193240.xhtml, accessed June 23, 2016.

49  Anton Shekhovtsov, “Aleksandr Dugin’s Neo-Eurasianism: The New Right à la Russe,” Religion Compass 3, no. 4 (2009), pp. 697–716.

50  “Odobreniye organov vlasti,” Levada Center, running indices, http://www.levada.ru/indikatory/odobrenie-organov-vlasti/, accessed June 24, 2016.

fourteen  THE FUTURE IS HISTORY

1  Image of 2008 presidential election ballot at http://pachkov.ru/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/bulleten_2_marta.jpg, accessed July 2, 2016.

2  “Vybory prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii,” RIA, March 1, 2008, http://ria.ru/spravka/20080301/100371195.html, accessed July 2, 2016.

3  “Boris Nemtsov otkazalsya uchastvovat’ v prezidentskikh vyborakh,” Rossisykaya gazeta, December 26, 2007, https://rg.ru/2007/12/26/nemcov-anons.html; Polina Matveeva, “Poslali Kasyanova i ushli v otpusk,” gazeta.ru, January 21, 2008, http://www.gazeta.ru/politics/elections2008/2008/01/28_a_2606841.shtml; both accessed July 2, 2016.

4  “Danniye o chisle golosov izbirateley, poluchennykh kazhdym iz zaregistrirovannykh kandidatov na dolzhnost’ prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii,” https://cdnimg.rg.ru/pril/21/38/55/4608_1a.gif, document downloaded from the Central Election Commission website July 3, 2016.

5  Luigi Sturzo, “The Totalitarian State,” Social Research 3, no. 2 (May 1936), pp. 222–235.

6  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976).

7  Hannah Arendt, “Ideology and Terror: A Novel Form of Government,” The Review of Politics 15, no. 3 (July 1953), pp. 303–327.

8  Carl J. Friedrich, “The Unique Character of Totalitarian Society,” in Friedrich, ed., Totalitarianism (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1953), pp. 47–59.

9  Carl J. Friedrich and Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965).

10  Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man, 2nd ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1991).

11  Mark Geyer and Sheila Fitzpatrick, eds., Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

12  Juan J. Linz, Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000).

13  Lev Gudkov, “‘Totalitarism’ kak teoreticheskaya ramka: Popytka revizii spornogo ponyatiya,” Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya 5, no. 55 (September–October 2001), pp. 20–29, and 6, no. 56 (November–December 2001), pp. 13–30.

14  “Postanovleniye Pravitel’stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii no. 1441 ot 31.12.199, Ob utverzhdenii Polozheniya o podgotovke grazhdan Rossiyskoy Federatsii k voyennoy sluzhbe,” http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102063823&rdk=&backlink=1, accessed May 3, 2017.

15  Erich Fromm, Escape from Freedom (New York: Henry Holt, 1994), p. 206.

16  Ibid., p. 41.

17  Ibid., p. 62.

18  Ibid., p. 81.

19  Ibid., p. 166.

20  Ibid., p. 169.

21  T. W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969).

22  Fromm, Escape from Freedom, p. 214.

23  Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, p. vii.

24  Ibid., p. 471.

25  Fromm, Escape from Freedom, p. 218.

26  Ibid., p. 231.

27  Ibid., p. 219.

28  Susanna Al’perina, “Zaigralis’,” Rossiyskaya gazeta, July 17, 2008, https://rg.ru/2008/07/17/imena.html, accessed July 7, 2016.

29  Boris Dubin, “Vydayushchiyesya ludi vsekh vremyon i narodov v rossiyskom obshchestvennom mnenii,” Levada Center, August 31, 2008, http://www.levada.ru/2008/08/31/vydayushhiesya-lyudi-vseh-vremen-i-narodov-v-rossijskom-obshhestvennom-mnenii/, accessed July 7, 2016.

fifteen  BUDUSHCHEGO NET

1  “Putin prigrozil ‘Mechelu’ zachistkoy,” Interfax, July 24, 2008, http://www.interfax.ru/business/23352, accessed July 8, 2016.

2  “Zayavleniye Putin obrushilo aktsii ‘Mechela’: Takikh zayavleniy ne bylo so vremyon YuKOSa,” newsru.com, http://www.newsru.com/finance/25jul2008/mechel.html#7, accessed July 8, 2016.

3  “Voyna v Yuzhnoy Osetii vyzvala obval rossiyskogo fondovogo rynka,” newsru.com, August 11, 2008, http://www.newsru.com/finance/11aug2008/rtsobval.html, accessed July 8, 2016.

4  Putin: Itogi, February 2008, http://www.putin-itogi.ru/putin-itogi-pervoe-izdanie-doklada/, accessed July 9, 2016.

5  Nemtsov: Itogi, film by Pavel Sheremet, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0QEUBLkxcE, accessed July 9, 2016.

6  Mikhail Fishman, “Mikhail Fridman: ‘Ne tak mnogo ya vstrechal lyudey, kotoriye mne blizki v zhizni,” Slon, undated, https://slon.ru/special/nemtsov/fridman, accessed July 9, 2016.

7  Boris Nemtsov, “Novyi God v odinochnoy kamere,” Echo Moskvy, January 2, 2011, http://echo.msk.ru/blog/echomsk/738807-echo/, accessed July 9, 2016.

8  Boris Nemtsov, “S Rozhdestvom!” blog post, January 7, 2011, http://b-nemtsov.livejournal.com/2011/01/07/, accessed July 10, 2016.

9  “Okhota nachinalas’ s sachka: Boris Nemtsov v Krasnoyarske, 2007 g.,” https://kinostok.tv/video/490936/ohota-nachinalas-s-sachka-boris-nemtsov-v-krasnoyarske-2007, accessed July 9, 2016.

10  Andrei Polunin, “Boris Nemtsov: Mne plesnuli nashatyr’ v glaza, no ya uspel dobezhat’ do umyval’nika,” Svobodnaya pressa, March 23, 2009, http://svpressa.ru/politic/article/6227/; “Na avtomobil’ Nemtsova brosili unitaz,” lenta.ru, June 10, 2011, https://lenta.ru/news/2011/06/10/unitaz/; both accessed July 9, 2016.

sixteen  WHITE RIBBONS

1  Svetlana Reyter, “Prezumptsiya vinovnosti,” Bolshoi Gorod, August 17, 2011, http://bg.ru/society/prezumpciya_vinovnosti-8944/, accessed July 11, 2016.

2  “Obvinyayemiy v pedofilii Makarov priznan sovratitelem, a ne nasil’nikom,” RIA, November 29, 2011, http://ria.ru/justice/20111129/501520452.html, accessed July 11, 2016.

3  Ella Paneyakh, “A vot teper’ nachalos’ samoye strashnoye,” inliberty.ru, October 28, 2011, http://www.inliberty.ru/blog/255-a-vot-teper-nachalos-strashnoe, accessed July 11, 2016.

4  Alexei Gorshkov, “Transformatsiya otnosheniya k seksual’nym men’shinstvam kak politicheskaya problema sovremennogo rossiyskogo obshchestva,” senior thesis, Perm State University, 2007.

5  “V Moskve eks-senator, iznasilovavshiy ‘na radostyakh ot rozhdeniya rebyonka’ vypusknitsu, otelalsya uslovnym srokom,” newsru.com, January 25, 2011, http://www.newsru.com/crime/24jan2011/senatorrapestudsnt.html, accessed July 12, 2016.

6  Yuri Snegirev, “‘Delo piterskogo pedofila’: Aleksandr Kuznetsov dvazhdy popadalsya na narkotikakh . . . ,” Izvestia, February 4, 2008, http://izvestia.ru/news/332974, accessed July 12, 2016.

7  Igor K., “Chto delat’s s pedofilom: kaznit’ ili kastrirovat’?” pravda.ru, April 10, 2008, http://www.pravda.ru/society/family/pbringing/10-04-2008/262947-0/, accessed July 12, 2016.

8  “Bokser Kuznetsov, zabivshiy nasmert’ nasil’nika svoyego pasynka, vyshel na svobodu dosrochno,” newsru.com, August 24, 2010, https://www.newsru.com/crime/24aug2010/boxermpedofreeomsk.html, accessed July 12, 2016.

9  Pravitel’stvo Rossiyskoy Federatsii, “Ofitsial’niy otzyv na proekt federal’nogo zakona ‘O vnesenii izmeneniy v Ugolovniy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii v tselyakh usileniya otvetstvennosti za prestupleniya seksual’nogo kharaktera, sovershayemiye v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnikh,’ vnosimiy deputatami Gosudarstvennoy Dumy N. V. Gerasimovoy, A. M. Babarovym, Ye. B. Mizulinoy,” February 2, 2010, document 357∏-∏4.

10  “Glava komiteta Gosdumy po delam semyi obvinila Yedinorossov v ukryvatel’stve pedofilov,” newsru.com, November 3, 2010, http://www.newsru.com/russia/03nov2010/mizulina.html, accessed July 12, 2016.

11  Andreas Umland, “Kak Dugin izobrazil menya ‘pedofilom,’” Ukrainskaya pravda, November 9, 2010, http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/columns/2010/11/9/5554710/, accessed July 12, 2016.

12  Dmitry Yefremov, “Sosiski über alles!” Evrazia, February 7, 2008, http://evrazia.org/article/303, accessed July 12, 2016.

13  Ilya Dmitriev, “Zakasnykh del master,” Evrazia, March 19, 2008, http://evrazia.org/article/368, accessed July 12, 2016.

14  For the history of the passage of Zakonoproekt no. 577813-5, “O vnesenii izmenenij v Ugolovnyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii i otdel’nye zakonodatel’nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii v celjah usilenija otvetstvennosti za prestuplenija seksual’nogo haraktera, sovershennye v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnih,” see http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=577813-5, accessed July 12, 2016.

15  Pedophilia is considered a mental disorder outside Russia too, though in recent years Western psychiatrists have stressed that it is not a sexual orientation but is, rather, a paraphilia; see, for example, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/813669.

16  Serbsky Center, “Informatsionnoye pis’mo,” Document UDK 616.89 BBK 56.14 T48, http://serbsky.ru/index.php?id=120&Itemid=91&option=com_content&view=article, accessed July 12, 2016.

17  Author interview with Serbsky training seminar participant, Moscow, 2012.

18  “Operatsiya ‘Spaseniye’: Ostanovim nasiliye nad det’mi vmeste,” originally posted at agatacrysty.livejournal.com, but all history of the anti-pedophilia campaign seems to have been subsequently removed from that blog. I have found numerous contemporaneous reposts, including http://maxpark.com/community/129/content/769725 (July 13, 2011) and http://russobalt.org/forum/topic/992-operatciia-spasenie-ostanovim-nasilie-nad-det/ (July 2, 2011), accessed July 12, 2016.

19  “Medvedev predlozhil sozdat’ v SK tsentr po bor’be s detskoy pornografiyey,” RIA, July 7, 2011, http://ria.ru/society/20110707/398540485.html; “Devushka, vychislivshaya v Internete 80 pedofilov, budet pomogat’ Astakhovu,” RIA, July 7, 2011, http://ria.ru/society/20110707/398576027.html; both accessed July 12, 2016.

20  “Rezul’taty vyborov v Gosdumu po regionam Rossii,” RIA, December 6, 2011, http://ria.ru/infografika/20111206/508314920.html, accessed July 17, 2016.

21  “Zaderzhanniye na marshe,” eyewitness account by blogger Zhertva1211, December 6, 2011, http://zhertva1121.livejournal.com/104729.html; Boris Nemtsov, “Miting: Chistiye prudy: Bespredel,” blog post, December 6, 2011, http://b-nemtsov.livejournal.com/2011/12/06/; “Navalny i Yashin poluchili 15 sutok za nepovinoveniye politsii,” RIA, December 6, 2011, http://ria.ru/riatv/20111206/508165390.html; all accessed July 13, 2016.

22  Yevgenia Albats, Zoya Svetova, Yegor Skovoroda, Yulia Chernukhina, and Nikita Sologub, “Dekabr’ 2011-go,” New Times, December 3, 2012, http://newtimes.ru/articles/detail/60591/, accessed July 17, 2016.

23  Boris Nemtsov, “O zavtrashnem mitinge,” blog post, December 9, 2011, http://b-nemtsov.livejournal.com/2011/12/09/, accessed July 14, 2016.

24  “Video: sovmestnoye zayavleniye organizatorov o mitinge 10 dekabrya na Bolotnoy,” December 9, 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVumeUpaoYM, accessed July 14, 2016.

25  “Opros in prospekte Sakharova 24 dekabrya,” Levada Center, December 26, 2011, http://www.levada.ru/old/26-12-2011/opros-na-prospekte-sakharova-24-dekabrya, accessed July 17, 2016.

26  Alexandre Bikbov, “Metodologiya issledovaniya ‘vnezapnogo’ ulichnogo aktivizma (rossiyskiye mitingi i ulichniye lagerya, dekabr’ 2011—iyun’ 2012),” Laboratorium, no. 2 (2012), pp. 130–163.

27  Boris Nemtsov, “Mirnaya belaya revolutsiya,” blog post, December 10, 2011, http://b-nemtsov.livejournal.com/2011/12/10/, accessed July 15, 2016.

28  Mischa Gabowitsch, Protest in Putin’s Russia (Cambridge, England, and Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2017).

29  “Razgovor s Vladimirom Putinym 2011 (polnaya versiya),” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTDGhhcBKdI, accessed July 15, 2016.

seventeen  MASHA: MAY 6, 2012

1  V.P. [Vladimir Pribylovsky], “Ponomarev Ilya Vladimirovich,” dossier, Antikompromat, http://www.anticompromat.org/ponomarev_i/ponom01.html; Ilya Ponomarev’s income declarations, archived by Transparency International Russia, http://declarator.org/person/84/; Oleg Kashin, “Mnogolikiy Ponomarev,” New Times, October 29, 2012, http://newtimes.ru/articles/detail/58866; all accessed July 18, 2016.

2  V. A. Istarkhov, Udar russkikh bogov (Kaluga, Russia: Oblizdat, 1999), copy found at http://www.libros.am/book/read/id/352959/slug, accessed July 17, 2016.

3  “6 maya: Chto dumayut po ‘tu’ storonu barrikad,” video shot by unidentified journalist, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CumgZqEMwZs, accessed July 18, 2016.

4  “The World’s 100 Most Influential People: 2012,” Time, April 18, 2012, http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,2111975,00.html, accessed July 19, 2016.

5  Maria Baronova’s photo of Navalny holding Time magazine: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/multimedia/archive/00292/106154947_navalny_292144b.jpg, accessed July 19, 2016.

6  Doklad Komissii “Kruglogo stola 12 dekabrya” po Obshchestvennomy rassledovaniyu sobytiy 6 maya 2012 goda na Bolotnoy ploshchadi (Moscow, 2013), p. 9.

7  “Moskva: 7 maya OMON ustroil pogrom v Zhan-Zhake,” Radio Liberty footage, http://truba.com/novosti-politika/video/moskva_7_maya_omon_ustroil_pogrom_v_kafe_zhan-zhak-335414, accessed July 19, 2016.

8  “Donbass Arena Ready to Open,” Donbass Arena website, July 2, 2009, http://donbass-arena.com/en/news/?id=9922, accessed July 19, 2016.

9  “Cyborgs vs. Kremlin,” undated report, Ukraine Today, http://cyborgs.uatoday.tv/, accessed July 19, 2016.

10  “Politsiya s utra vedyot obyski v kvartirakh oppozitsionerov,” Novaya gazeta, June 11, 2012, http://www.novayagazeta.ru/politics/53021.html, accessed July 19, 2016.

eighteen  SERYOZHA: JULY 18, 2013

1  Video of sit-in, published April 21, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vWRHahkgoo&feature=youtu.be, accessed July 20, 2016.

2  Doklad Komissii “Kruglogo stola 12 dekabrya” po Obshchestvennomy rassledovaniyu sobytiy 6 maya 2012 goda na Bolotnoy ploshchadi (Moscow, 2013), pp. 52–67.

3  “Ukaz o merakh realizatsii vneshnepoliticheskogo kursa,” May 7, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15256; “Ukaz ob obespechenii mezhnatsional’nogo soglasiya,” May 7, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15240; “Ukaz o merakh po realizatsii demograficheskoy politiki,” May 7, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15257; all accessed July 21, 2016.

The fertility rate had been rising since 2006, from 1.3 births per woman to 1.6 in five years. The odd figure—1.753—was likely calculated by assuming that the fertility rate would continue growing at the same rate at which it had been in the year before the decree. But after the decree, the Federal Statistics Service reported a sudden jump to the required rate. Fertility rate, total, Russian Federation, The World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN?locations=RU, accessed July 21, 2016.

4  “Vstecha s prezidentom MOK Zhakom Rogge,” Kremlin transcript, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15235, accessed July 21, 2016.

5  Putin’s speech in Guatemala City, RT footage, July 5, 2007, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_aNo3DxWaW4, accessed July 21, 2016.

6  “Vladimir Putin prinyal uchastiye v gala-matche lyubitel’skoy hokkeynoy ligi,” Kremlin report, May 7, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15260, accessed July 21, 2016.

7  “Plenarnoye zasedaniye Gosudarstvennoy Dumy,” Kremlin footage, May 8, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15266/videos, accessed July 21, 2016.

8  “Voyenniy parad v chest’ 67-y godovshchiny Velikoy Pobedy,” Kremlin footage, May 9, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15271, accessed July 21, 2016.

9  Footage of Victory Day parades by year: 2000, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6xWUqW5e0o; 2001, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PZzUNq6kkFE; 2002, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oiuT-3jeDoc; 2003, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-I_VwGnCXBk; 2004, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUVMmOwDCZI; 2005, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZW1vtc-euY; 2006, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-WZCmqvkRY; 2007, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YA3Z0VsHemI; 2008, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1_5Fr6xc38; 2009, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8_Q2aB3WhM; 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7Nv9a7ODxQ; 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2zK-ihbCF0; all accessed July 24, 2016.

10  “Razgovor s Vladimirom Putinym 2011 (polnaya versiya),” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTDGhhcBKdI, accessed July 15, 2016.

11  “Rabochiy klass Urala! Trodovoy narod Rossii!” appeal from Putin defense committee at UralVagonZavod, December 29, 2011, http://www.uvz.ru/news/3/128, accessed July 21, 2016.

12  “Vybory: Aktsiya ‘za chestniye vybory’ v g. Nizniy Tagil,” December 10, 2011, http://kushvablog.ru/vibory/2828-akciya-za-chestnye-vybory-v-gnizhnij-tagil.html, accessed July 21, 2016.

13  “Rabochikh Uralvagozavoda ne pustyat na tanke v Yekatirenburg,” grani.ru, January 16, 2012, http://graniru.org/War/Arms/m.194881.html, accessed July 21, 2016.

14  “Poseshcheniye nauchno-proizvodstvennoy korporatsii ‘Uralvagonzavod,’” Kremlin report, May 10, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15282, accessed July 21, 2016.

15  For the history of the passage of Zakonoproekt no. 70631-6, “O vnesenii izmemneniy of Kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh i Federal’niy zakon ‘O sobraniyakh, mitingakh, demonstratsiyakh, shestviyakh i piketirovaniyakh’ (v chasti utochneniya poryadka organizatsii i provedeniya publicnykh meropriyatiy, prav, obyazannostey i otvetstvennosi organizatorov i uchastnikov publicnhykh meropriyatiy),” see http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28SpravkaNew%29?OpenAgent&RN=70631-6&02, accessed July 21, 2016.

16  Petr Orlov, “K Bondu ne khodi,” Rossiyskaya gazeta, November 14, 2012, https://rg.ru/2012/11/13/taina-site.html; “Russia Expels USAID Development Agency,” BBC News, September 19, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-19644897; both accessed July 21, 2016.

17  “Russia: Worst Crackdown Since Soviet Era,” Human Rights Watch, January 31, 2012, https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/01/31/russia-worst-crackdown-soviet-era, accessed July 21, 2016.

18  Masha Gessen, “Russian Purge: The Horror Story of Publishing Children’s Books in Russia,” The Intercept, February 17, 2016, https://theintercept.com/2016/02/17/the-horror-story-of-publishing-childrens-books-in-moscow/, accessed July 24, 2016.

19  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), pp. 390–391.

20  Fareed Zakaria, “The Rise of Illiberal Democracy,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1997, pp. 22–42, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1997-11-01/rise-illiberal-democracy.

21  Yekaterina Shulman, “Tsarstvo politicheskoy imitatsii,” Vedomosti, August 15, 2014, http://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2014/08/15/carstvo-imitacii, accessed July 22, 2016.

22  Author interview with Bálint Magyar, Budapest, June 13, 2015.

23  Bálint Magyar, Post-Communist Mafia State: The Case of Hungary, trans. Bálint Bethlenfalvy et al. (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2016), p. 68.

24  Ibid., p. 69.

25  Magyar interview.

26  Alexander Dugin, “Gorizonty bolotnoy revolutsii,” Evrazia, December 23, 2011, http://evrazia.org/article/1873, accessed July 23, 2016.

27  “Serdtsu ne prikazhesh,” lenta.ru, February 5, 2012, https://lenta.ru/articles/2012/02/04/poklonnaja/, accessed July 25, 2016.

28  “Alexander Dugin na Poklonnoy . . . ,” video footage of rally, February 4, 2012, http://hlamer.ru/video/234949-Aleksandr_Dugin_na_Poklonnoiy-Rossiya-vse_ostalnoe-nichto04_02_2012, accessed July 23, 2016.

29  “Zapis’ zasedaniya Antiorangevogo komiteta of 10.02.2012,” video footage, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sL0e1BVlRwk, accessed July 23, 2016. The text of the pact is no longer accessible on the Web, but it is read in its entirety in this video.

30  “Sergei Stanislavovich Udaltsov,” biography, gazeta.ru, http://www.gazeta.ru/tags/udaltsov_sergei_stanislavovich.shtml?p=bio, accessed July 23, 2016.

31  Masha Gessen, “Alexey Navalny’s Very Strange Form of Freedom,” newyorker.com, January 15, 2016, http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/alexey-navalnys-very-strange-form-of-freedom; Masha Gessen, “That Blunt Russian Force,” The New York Times, July 22, 2013, http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/22/that-blunt-russian-force/?_r=0; both accessed July 23, 2016.

nineteen  LYOSHA: JUNE 11, 2013

1  Article 331 of the Labor Code: Trudovoi kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii, http://kzotrf.ru/; “Federal’niy zakon ot 1 aprelya 2012 g. N 27-FZ ‘O vnesenii izmeneniy v statyu 22 Federal’nogo zakona “O gosudarstvennoy registratsii yuridicheskikh lits i individual’nykh predprinimateley” i stat’i 331 i 351 Trudovogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii,’” Rossiyskaya gazeta, April 4, 2012, https://rg.ru/2012/04/04/a602462-dok.html; both accessed July 25, 2016.

2  “V Peterburge deputaty zapretili propagandu gomoseksualizma,” lenta.ru, November 16, 2011, https://lenta.ru/news/2011/11/16/gayban/, accessed July 25, 2016.

3  “ZakS pochti yedinoglasno podderzhal zapret na propagandu netraditsionnoy seksual’nosti,” Fontanka, November 16, 2011, http://www.fontanka.ru/2011/11/16/050/, accessed July 25, 2016.

4  “Peterburgskiy sud podtverdil otkaz v iske k Madonne,” lenta.ru, February 6, 2013, https://lenta.ru/news/2013/02/06/madonna/, accessed July 25, 2016.

5  “‘Vesyologo molochnika’ obvinili v poddesrzhke geyev,” lenta.ru, September 28, 2012, https://lenta.ru/news/2012/09/28/milkman/, accessed July 25, 2016.

6  “Deputat Milonov vnov’ vyshel na okhotu na pedofilov,” Fontanka, June 19, 2012, http://www.fontanka.ru/2012/06/19/188/, accessed July 25, 2016.

7  “Milonov khochet proverit’ pedagogov na pedofiliyu,” BBC Russian Service, October 8, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/russian/society/2012/10/121008_milonov_paedophilia, accessed July 25, 2016.

8  For the history of the passage of Zakonoproekt no. 44554-6, “O vnesenii izmeneniy v statyu 5 Federal’nogo zakona ‘O zashchite detey ot informatsii, prichinyayushchey vred ikh zdorovyu i razvitiyu’ i otdel’niye zakonodatel’niye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii v tselyakh zashchity detey ot informatsii, propagandiruyushchey otritsaniye traditsionnykh semeynykh tsennostey,” see http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28SpravkaNew%29?OpenAgent&RN=44554-6&02, accessed July 25, 2016.

9  M. V. Demenkov, “Zaklyucheniye po proektu Federal’nogo zakona no. 44554-6,” November 21, 2012, retrieved at http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28SpravkaNew%29?OpenAgent&RN=44554-6&02, July 25, 2016.

10  Ye. B. Mizulina, “Zaklyucheniye po proektu Federal’nogo zakona no. 44554-6,” undated, retrieved at http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28SpravkaNew%29?OpenAgent&RN=44554-6&02, July 25, 2016.

11  Istoricheskiy protsess—gosudarstvo i chastnaya zhizn’, Rossiya 1 program, archived at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyvE16z6FrI, accessed July 25, 2016.

12  “Samootvod: Oleg Chirkunov dosrochno pokinul post permskogo gubernatora,” lenta.ru, April 30, 2012, https://lenta.ru/articles/2012/04/30/perm/, accessed July 26, 2016.

13  “M. Gelman otrkyl skandal’nuyu vystavku Welcome! Sochi-2014,” RBK, June 11, 2013, http://www.rbc.ru/society/11/06/2013/861464.shtml; Marat Guelman, untitled blog post, Facebook, October 24, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/marat.guelman.9/posts/883560208322048; both accessed July 26, 2016.

14  Nikita Girin, “Gey, slavyane i OMON,” Novaya gazeta, January 9–28, 2013, http://www.novayagazeta.ru/politics/56444.html; for Ponomarev’s voting record, http://vote.duma.gov.ru/?convocation=AAAAAAA6&from=25.01.2013&to=25.01.2013&number=44554-6&deputy=99111031&sort=date_desc; both accessed July 29, 2016.

15  “Voyenniy parad v chest’ 68-y godovshchiny Velikoy Pobedy,” Kremlin website, May 9, 2013, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/18089, accessed July 26, 2016.

16  “Volgograd v pamyatniye dni stanet Stalingradom,” lenta.ru, January 31, 2013, https://lenta.ru/news/2013/01/31/stalingrad/, accessed July 26, 2016.

17  “Volgogradskiye ubiytsy pokazali, kak zabivali i nasilovali priyaetlya—‘geya,’” Tsentral’noye Televideniye, NTV, May 19, 2013, http://www.ntv.ru/novosti/597456/; Daniil Turovskiy, “Stal geyem, chtoby ottuda sbezhat’,” lenta.ru, May 23, 2013, https://lenta.ru/articles/2013/05/23/volgograd/; both accessed July 26, 2013.

18  “GD namerena do serediny leta prinyat’ zakon o zaprete gey-propagandy,” RIA, May 14, 2012, http://ria.ru/society/20130514/937227420.html, accessed July 26, 2016.

19  “Vystupleniye Emrika Shoprada” (Russian version), http://www.komitet2-6.km.duma.gov.ru/site.xp/052057124053057048.html, accessed July 26, 2016.

20  Report on the joint session of Committee on the Family, Women, and Children and the Committee on International Affairs, June 13, 2013, http://www.komitet2-6.km.duma.gov.ru/site.xp/052057124053057048.html; “Deputat Mizulina predlozhila otbirat’ detey u rossiyskikh geyev i lesbiyanok,” Gay Russia, June 14, 2013, http://www.gayrussia.eu/russia/6814/; both accessed July 26, 2016.

21  “Duma okonchatel’no odobrila zapret na usynovleniye odnopolymi parami,” lenta.ru, June 21, 2013, https://lenta.ru/news/2013/06/21/siroty/; Olga Pavlikova, “Aleksey Zhuravlev: ‘Gomoseksualist ne dolzhen vospityvat’ rebyonka,” Slon, September 5, 2013, https://slon.ru/russia/aleksey_zhuravlev_gomoseksualist_ne_dolzhen_vospityvat_rebenka-987035.xhtml; both accessed July 26, 2016.

22  “Zasedaniye mezhdunarodnogo diskussionnogo kluba ‘Valdai,’” Kremlin website, September 19, 2013, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/19243, accessed July 27, 2016.

23  “Everything You Need to Know About the Anti-LGBTQ World Congress of Families (WCF),” Southern Poverty Law Center, October 21, 2015, https://www.splcenter.org/news/2015/10/21/everything-you-need-know-about-anti-lgbtq-world-congress-families-wcf; Cole Parke, “Natural Deception: Conned by the World Congress of Families,” Political Research Associates, January 21, 2015, http://www.politicalresearch.org/2015/01/21/natural-deception-conned-by-the-world-congress-of-families/#sthash.DJXMcOU7.a9bkcdgH.dpbs (also published in The Public Eye, Winter 2015); both accessed July 30, 2016.

24  The WCF’s Russian-language website lists seven top officials of the organization: three Americans and four Russians, http://worldcongress.ru/; the American site lists only American staff: http://worldcongress.org/team.php; both accessed July 30, 2016.

25  “On to Moscow World Congress of Families VIII, September 10–12, 2014,” World Congress of Families News 7, no. 4 (June/July 2013), p. 5.

26  “Okkupai-Pedofilyai Perm’: Vypusk #7,” https://new.vk.com/video124656711_165196696, accessed July 27, 2016.

27  “Okkupai-Pedofilyai g. Perm’: Vypusk #3: ‘Krepkiy oreshek,’” https://new.vk.com/video139331747_169305187, accessed July 27, 2016.

28  “Okkupai-Pedofilyai g. Perm’: Vypusk #7: ‘Razmorozhennaya pilotka,’” https://new.vk.com/video232045782_169269590, accessed July 27, 2016.

29  “Kuda smotri Perm’?” VK post by Genderniye Issledovaniya: Traditsionniy Podkhod, March 29, 2014, https://new.vk.com/wall-54973617_558, accessed July 27, 2016.

twenty  A NATION DIVIDED

1  Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, “Pussy Riot’s Nadezhda Tolokonnikova: Why I Have Gone on Hunger Strike,” The Guardian, September 23, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/sep/23/pussy-riot-hunger-strike-nadezhda-tolokonnikova, accessed May 10, 2017.

2  Masha Gessen, “Northern Exposure: Protest, Petroleum, and Putin’s Dream of a Russian Arctic,” Harper’s, June 2014, https://harpers.org/archive/2014/06/northern-exposure/2/.

3  Masha Gessen, “Putin, Snubbed: The Russian Leader May Release Mikhail Khodorkovsky to Distract Attention from Western Leaders’ Decision to Skip His Olympics,” Slate, December 19, 2013, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/foreigners/2013/12/mikhail_khodorkovsky_how_obama_s_snub_of_putin_s_sochi_olympics_may_lead.html, accessed May 10, 2017.

4  “Postanovleniye Gosudarstvennoy Dumy ot 18 dekabrya 2013 g. no. 3500-6 GD ‘Ob obyavlenii amnistii v svyazi s 20-letiyem prinyatiya Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii,’” Rossiyskaya gazeta, December 19, 2013, https://rg.ru/2013/12/18/amnistia-dok.html, accessed May 10, 2017.

5  Vladimir Putin’s press conference, December 19, 2013, Kremlin transcript, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/19859, accessed May 10, 2017.

6  Masha Gessen, “The Putin Nemesis Plotting a Post-Putin Russia,” Vanity Fair Hive, July 19, 2016, http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2016/07/mikhail-khodorkovsky-putin-russia, accessed May 10, 2017.

7  “Rossiyskiye pisateli–Evromaydanu,” colta.ru, December 1, 2013, http://www.colta.ru/news/1364, accessed May 10, 2017.

8  Olga Pvlikova, “‘Assotsiatsiya s YeS oznachayet rasshireniye sfery gey-kul’tury,’” Slon, December 10, 2013, https://republic.ru/russia/assotsiatsiya_s_es_oznachaet_rasshirenie_sfery_gey_kultury-1032020.xhtml, accessed May 10, 2017.

9  Maria Baronova, “‘Vot oni khotyat Klichko: Klichko—on debil, on boksyor, po golove poluchal,” Slon, January 27, 2014, https://slon.ru/world/baronova_na_maydane-1048640.xhtml, accessed August 19, 2016.

10  “V skandal vokrug ‘blokadnogo’ oprosa ‘Dozhdya’ mozhet vmeshat’sya Yu. Chayka,” RBK, January 29, 2014, http://www.rbc.ru/spb_sz/29/01/2014/5592aab69a794719538d19a2, accessed August 21, 2016; “Zdes’ i seychas: Natalya Sindeyeva: Ya khochu izvinit’sya pered lud’mi, kotorykh eto deystvitel’no zadelo, takiye lyudi byli i vnutri telekanala,” TV Rain, January 29, 2014, https://tvrain.ru/teleshow/here_and_now/natalja_sindeeva_ja_hochu_izvinitsja_pered_ljudmi_kotoryh_eto_dejstvitelno_zadelo_takie_ljudi_byli_i_vnutri_telekanala-361621/, accessed August 21, 2016.

11  “Zdes’ i seychas: Dmitry Peskov: Ya ne vizhu smysla zakryvat’ telekanal, no oni narushili bol’she, chem zakon, pereshli krasnuyu liniyu,” TV Rain, January 29, 2014, https://tvrain.ru/teleshow/here_and_now/dmitrij_peskov_o_situatsii_s_dozhdem_ja_ne_vizhu_smysla_zakryvat_telekanal_no_oni_narushili_bolshe_chem_zakon_pereshli_krasnuju_liniju-361620/, accessed August 21, 2016.

12  Caitlin Dewey, “Journalists at Sochi Are Live-Tweeting Their Hilarious and Gross Hotel Experiences,” The Washington Post, February 4, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/02/04/journalists-at-sochi-are-live-tweeting-their-hilarious-and-gross-hotel-experiences/, accessed August 31, 2016.

13  Maria Baronova, “No One Has Done More for Ukrainian Nationalism Than Vladimir Putin,” New Republic, March 3, 2014, https://newrepublic.com/article/116841/bolotnaya-prisoner-maria-baronova-putins-ukraine-occupation, accessed August 21, 2016.

14  “Referendum v Krymu o statuse avtonomii,” RIA compilation, March 16, 2015, http://ria.ru/spravka/20150316/1052210041.html, accessed August 21, 2016.

15  Mark Kramer, “Why Did Russia Give Away Crimea Sixty Years Ago?” Cold War International History Project E-Dossier no. 47, March 19, 2014, https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/why-did-russia-give-away-crimea-sixty-years-ago, accessed August 22, 2016.

16  Vladimir Putin’s address in the Kremlin, March 18, 2014, Kremlin transcript, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20603; official English translation, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20603; both accessed August 23, 2016.

17  http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20603, accessed August 23, 2016.

18  Adolf Hitler’s closing speech at NSDAP (Nazi Party) congress, Nuremberg, September 12, 1938, http://der-fuehrer.org/reden/english/38-09-12.htm, accessed August 23, 2016.

19  “‘Maidan,’ Krym, sanktsii,” Levada Center, December 30, 2014, http://www.levada.ru/2014/12/30/majdan-krym-sanktsii/, accessed August 23, 2016.

20  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), pp. 470–474.

21  “Expert: Raspad Ukrainy neizbezhen,” russia.ru, October 8, 2009, http://tv.russia.ru/video/diskurs_5615/, accessed August 26, 2016.

22  “Predstavlyayetsya pravil’nym initsiirovat’ prisoyedineniye vostochnykh oblastey Ukrainy k Rossii,” Novaya gazeta, February 23, 2015, http://www.novayagazeta.ru/politics/67389.html, accessed August 26, 2016. The newspaper attributed the white paper to Konstantin Malofeyev, known as the Orthodox Billionaire. But the logic and, especially, the vocabulary of much of the text point strongly to the possibility that Dugin had coauthored it. Specifically, the repeated use of the word “geopolitical” and, even more important, the term gorodskaya guerrilya—“urban guerrilla”—which, in Russian, seems to appear only in encyclopedias and, frequently, in Dugin’s writing. The existence of an ongoing working relationship between Malofeyev and Dugin is well documented. See, for example, “Chorniy Internatsional: Malofeyev i Dugin,” blog by Russian hacker Shaltay Boltay, November 27, 2014, https://b0ltai.org/2014/11/27/%D1%87D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9-%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B5%D0%B2-%D0%B8-%D0%B4%D1%83%D0%B3%D0%B8/, accessed August 26, 2016.

23  “Dokazi prichetnosti vladi RF do poasyaganiya na teritorial’nu tsilisnist’ Urkainy,” telephone recordings published by Prosecutor General’s Office of Ukraine, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6K1_vHrJPU, accessed August 26, 2016.

24  “A. Dugin i Ye. Gubareva obsudili budushcheye Donbassa i Ukrainy,” recording of Skype conversation, March 29, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jP0yebodlM, accessed August 26, 2016. The channel on which the video was published belongs to Pavel Gubarev, but he was in jail at the time, so I assume the call was recorded and published by Yekaterina Gubareva herself.

25  “Pro-Russian Crowds Storm Government Buildings in Eastern Ukraine,” from “The Ukraine Crisis Timeline,” Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), April 6, 2014, http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#45, accessed August 26, 2016.

26  “People’s Republic of Donetsk Calls for Russia to Send ‘Peacekeepers,’” from “The Ukraine Crisis Timeline,” CSIS, April 7, 2014, http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#46, accessed August 26, 2016.

27  “US, Others Support Ukraine but Europe Divided on Sanctions,” http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#58; “Pro-Russian Forces Seize APCs as Ukrainian Operation Falters,” http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#59; April 15–16, 2014, “The Ukraine Crisis Timeline,” CSIS, accessed August 27, 2016.

28  “Ukraine, Pro-Russian Protestors [sic] Square Off in East,” April 8, 2014, http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#48; “Pro-Russian Forces Seize Additional Facilities,” April 12, 2014, http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#53; “Ukrainian Military, Pro-Russian Forces Clash as ‘Anti-Terrorist Operation’ Begins,” April 15, 2014, http://ukraine.csis.org/east1.htm#57; all from “The Ukraine Crisis Timeline,” CSIS, accessed August 26, 2016.

29  Pryamaya liniya s Vladimirom Putinym, April 17, 2014, Kremlin transcript, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20796, accessed August 27, 2016.

30  Yuri Maloveryan, “Gosduma utverdila prisoyedineniye Kryma k Rossii,” BBC Russian Service, March 20, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/russian/russia/2014/03/140320_ukraine_crimea_duma_ratification; Ilya Ponomarev, “In Exile, but Ready to Save Russia,” The New York Times, April 15, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/16/opinion/in-exile-but-ready-to-save-russia.html?_r=0; both accessed May 12, 2017.

31  Marlene Laruelle, ed., Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe-Russia Relationship (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015).

32  “21 aprelya v programme ‘Pozner’—Aleksandr Dugin,” April 18, 2014, http://pozneronline.ru/2014/04/7669/, accessed August 27, 2016.

33  Alexander Dugin, “Nakanunye voyny—2,” Malorossiya, April 21, 2014, http://maloros.ru/new/4120-aleksandr-dugin-nakanune-vojny-2.xhtml, accessed August 28, 2016.

34  Alexander Dugin, “Putin, vvodi voyska!” Malorossiya, May 28, 2014, http://maloros.ru/new/4687-aleksandr-dugin-putin-vvodi-vojska.xhtml; Alexander Dugin, “Russkiye zemli to suzhayutsya, to rasshiryayutsya,” Malorossiya, May 27, 2014, http://maloros.ru/new/5019-aleksandr-dugin-russkie-zemli-to-suzhayutsya-to-rasshiryayutsya-video.xhtml; Alexander Dugin, “Shestaya kolonna,” Vzglyad, April 29, 2014, http://www.vz.ru/opinions/2014/4/29/684247.html; all accessed August 28, 2016.

35  Author interview with Natalya Makeeva, Moscow, May 22, 2015.

36  Mikhail Khodorkovsky, “My mozhem i khotim reshat’ samiye slozhniye zadachi, kotoriye stavit pered nashimi narodami zhizn’,” khodorkovsky.ru, April 24, 2014, http://old.khodorkovsky.ru/news/2014/04/24/18768.html, accessed August 28, 2016.

37  Alan Taylor, “A Year of War Completely Destroyed the Donetsk Airport,” The Atlantic, February 26, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2015/02/a-year-of-war-completely-destroyed-the-donetsk-airport/386204/, accessed August 28, 2016.

38  Cole Parke, “Natural Deception: Conned by the World Congress of Families,” Political Research Associates, January 21, 2015, http://www.politicalresearch.org/2015/01/21/natural-deception-conned-by-the-world-congress-of-families/#sthash.DJXMcOU7.a9bkcdgH.dpbs (also published inThe Public Eye, Winter 2015), accessed August 29, 2016.

39  John-Henry Westen, “Conference Promoting Large Families in Russia Amazes Westerners,” lifesitenews.com, September 10, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/conference-promoting-large-families-in-russia-amazes-westerners, accessed August 29, 2016.

40  Anton Shekhovtsov, Russia and the Western Far Right: Tango Noir (Abingdon, England: Routledge, 2017).

41  Author interview with Johann Beckman, Moscow, June 2014.

42  “Rossiya zapretila import prodovol’stviya na $9 mlrd v otvet na sanktsii,” TASS, August 7, 2014, http://tass.ru/ekonomika/1367515, accessed Sept. 4, 2016.

43  “Indeks potrebitel’skikh nastroyeniy,” explication, Levada Center, undated, http://www.levada.ru/indikatory/sotsialno-ekonomicheskie-indikatory/indeks-potrebitelskikh-nastroenii/, accessed September 4, 2016.

44  “Index potrebitel’skikh nastroyeniy,” graph, Levada Center, undated, http://www.levada.ru/indikatory/sotsialno-ekonomicheskie-indikatory/, accessed September 4, 2016.

45  Masha Gessen, “The News in Moscow,” newyorker.com, December 27, 2014, http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/news-in-moscow-russia-ruble, accessed September 4, 2016.

46  Masha Gessen, “A Country Haunted by Starvation Burns Its Food,” newyorker.com, August 11, 2015, http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/russia-haunted-by-starvation-burns-its-food, accessed September 4, 2016.

twenty-one  ZHANNA: FEBRUARY 27, 2015

1  “Prigovor po ‘delu vos’mi’ oglashen,” OVDInfo, February 24, 2014, https://ovdinfo.org/express-news/2014/02/24/prigovor-po-delu-vosmi-oglashen, accessed September 6, 2016.

2  “Na Manezhnoy zaderzhali 423 cheloveka,” OVDInfo, February 24, 2014, https://ovdinfo.org/express-news/2014/02/24/na-manezhnoy-zaderzhali-423-cheloveka, accessed September 6, 2016.

3  Yelena Masyuk, “Nepovinoveniye zakonnomy rasporyazheniyu kosmonavta. Statya 19.3,” Novaya gazeta, March 3, 2014, http://www.novayagazeta.ru/politics/62480.html, accessed Sept. 6, 2016.

4  “V Tverskom sude vynosyat prigovory oppozitsionnym politikam,” OVDInfo, February 25, 2014, https://ovdinfo.org/express-news/2014/02/25/v-tverskom-sude-vynosyat-prigovory-oppozicionnym-politikam, accessed September 6, 2016.

5  Boris Nemtsov, “Voyna—eto bezumiye, eto protiv Rossii,” blog post, March 2, 2014, http://b-nemtsov.livejournal.com/2014/03/02/, accessed Sept. 8, 2016.

6  “Shest’ chelovek zaderzhany na Manezhnoy ploshchadi za rastyazhku ‘Za nashu i vashu svobodu,’” OVDInfo, March 2, 2014, https://ovdinfo.org/express-news/2014/03/02/shest-chelovek-zaderzhany-na-manezhnoy-ploshchadi-za-rastyazhku-so-slovami, accessed September 8, 2016.

7  “Kak minimum 362 cheloveka zaderzhali segodnya v Moskve,” OVDInfo, March 2, 2014, https://ovdinfo.org/express-news/2014/03/02/kak-minimum-362-cheloveka-zaderzhali-segodnya-v-moskve, accessed September 8, 2016.

8  “V Moskve proydiot shestviye v podderzhku naroda Ukrainy,” Rossiyskaya gazeta, March 2, 2014, https://rg.ru/2014/03/02/podderjka-anons.html, accessed September 9, 2016.

9  Screenshot of ad, reproduced in journalist Andrei Malgin’s blog, March 3, 2014, http://avmalgin.livejournal.com/4376564.html, accessed September 9, 2016.

10  Yuri Maloveryan, “‘Marsh mira’ v Moskve sobral desyatki tysyach uchastnikov,” BBC Russian Service, March 15, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/russian/international/2014/03/140315_ukraine_moscow_rallies, accessed September 9, 2016.

11  Ksenia Sobchak, tweet, April 14, 2014, https://twitter.com/intent/like?tweet_id=455701786901639169&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&original_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fperebezhchik.ru%2Fslukhi%2F366.html&tw_i=455701786901639169&tw_p=tweetembed, accessed September 9, 2016.

12  Boris Nemtsov, Facebook post, April 26, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/boris.nemtsov/posts/619540304782240:0, accessed Sept. 9, 2016.

13  Sergei Mel’nikov, “10 vydvizhentsev KGB,” Ogonyok, November 7, 2011, http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/1802255, accessed September 9, 2016.

14  Boris Nemtsov and Leonid Martynyuk, Zimnyaya olimpiada v subtropikhakh: Nezavisimyi Ekspertnyi Doklad (Moscow: Self-published, 2013), p. 14.

15  Sergei Goryashko, “Vladimir Yakunin reshil nakazat’ Borisa Nemtsova rublyom,” Kommersant, May 28, 2014, http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2481601; “Sud perenyos slushaniye po delu RzhD k Nemtsovu na 10 fevralya,” life.ru, December 10, 2014, https://life.ru/t/%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8/146712; both accessed Sept. 9, 2016.

16  Boris Nemtsov, Facebook post, Sept. 6, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/boris.nemtsov/posts/683165751753028:0, accessed Sept. 9, 2016.

17  “Skol’ko cheloek prishli na shestviye v Moskve i chem otlichilsya Milonov na peterburgskom ‘Marshe mira’: Itogi 21 sentyabrya,” TV Rain, September 21, 2014, https://tvrain.ru/teleshow/here_and_now/skolko_chelovek_prishli_na_shestvie_v_moskve_i_chem_otlichilsja_milonov_na_peterburgskom_marshe_mira_itogi_21_sentjabrja-375624/, accessed March 14, 2017.

18  “Marsh predateley,” Glavplakat, Sept. 21, 2014, http://glavplakat.ru/article/319, accessed Sept. 9, 2016.

19  “Chuzhiye v gorode,” Glavplakat, April 11, 2014, http://glavplakat.ru/article/147, accessed September 9, 2016.

20  “Desyatimetrovyi banner Glavplakata na Novom Arbate,” Glavplakat, January 23, 2015, http://glavplakat.ru/article/424, accessed Sept. 9, 2016.

21  Masha Gessen, “The Bitter Education of Alexey Navalny,” newyorker.com, Dec. 31, 2014, http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/bitter-education-alexey-navalny, accessed Sept. 13, 2016.

22  “Manifest,” Antimaidan, https://antimaidan.ru/page/9, accessed September 13, 2016.

23  Yevgeni Feldman, “‘Antimaidan’ v Moskve: Tridtsatitysyachnoye shestviye to Petrovke,” Novaya gazeta, February 21, 2015, http://www.novayagazeta.ru/photos/67368.html, accessed September 13, 2016.

24  “Tysyachi lyudey prinyali uchastiye v marshakh pamyati Nemtsova,” BBC Russian Service, March 1, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/russian/russia/2015/03/150301_nemtsov_march_moscow, accessed September 13, 2016.

25  “Zhanna Nemtsova: ‘Putin politicheski vinovat v smerti ottsa,’” BBC Russian Service, March 12, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/russian/russia/2015/03/150311_janna_nemtsova_interview, accessed Sept. 13, 2016.

twenty-two  FOREVER WAR

1  The protester was Varvara Turova. Photo of her taken August 4, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200597542444759&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 29, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200568078068168&set=a.1019614374366.2003635.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 28, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200561390820991&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 27, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200555923604314&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 25, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200541214356592&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 24, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200534708553951&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 23, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200529133734584&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 22, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200521098493708&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 21, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200513454662617&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; July 20, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10200508703623844&set=a.2095488550548.2107528.1345351749&type=3&theater; all accessed Sept. 21, 2016.

2  Sergei Yakovlev, Facebook post, March 10, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=519913491459009&set=a.519916641458694.1073741825.100003210891158&type=3&theater, accessed September 21, 2016.

3  Marta Herstowska et al., “Severe Skin Complications in Patients Treated with Antidepressants: A Literature Review,” Postepy dermatologii i alergologii 31, no. 2 (2014), pp. 92–97, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4112250/, accessed September 21, 2016.

4  Masha Gessen, “Moscow Just Razed Its Small Businesses and Became Even Blander,” newyorker.com, February 10, 2016, http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/moscow-just-razed-its-small-businesses-and-became-even-blander, accessed September 22, 2016.

5  Vyacheslav Nikonov versus Nikolai Zlobin, on Poyedinok, hosted by Vladimir Solovyev, April 21, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiKWoy3RPI4, accessed September 22, 2016.

6  Cathy Caruth, Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), p. 66.

7  Ibid., p. 63.

8  Robert Jay Lifton, Witness to an Extreme Century (New York: Free Press, 2011), p. 28.

9  Ibid., p. 127.

10  Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 418.

11  Lifton, Witness to an Extreme Century, p. 151.

12  Author interview with trauma psychologist Jack Saul, New York City, December 23, 2015.

13  “70-yz sessiya General’noy Assamblei OON,” Kremlin transcript, September 28, 2015, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/50385, accessed September 26, 2016.

14  “Zasedaniye mezhdunarodnogo diskussionnogo kluba ‘Valdai,’” Kremlin transcript, October 22, 2015, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/50548, accessed September 26, 2016.

15  Erich Fromm, Escape from Freedom (New York: Henry Holt, 1994), p. 168.

16  Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), p. 329.

17  Lev Gudkov, “Zayavleniye direktora Levada-tsentra,” Levada Center, September 9, 2016, http://www.levada.ru/2016/09/09/14393/, accessed September 26, 2016.

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