NOTES

Since many of the stories in this book are not well known, these endnotes identify the sources of quotations and the main evidence for the narrative. Page numbers and key words indicate passages in the text to which the notes refer. Throughout, I have tried to record my many obligations to the work of other scholars. The citations do not differentiate between manuscripts in archives I visited and manuscripts I read in the form of photocopies—chiefly, though not solely, in the microfilm collection of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library.

Rather than cite repeatedly a number of widely read scholars of Virginia’s history, I list their books here, with the understanding that their works bear on many aspects of my narrative:

Warren M. Billings, John E. Selby, and Thad W. Tate, Colonial Virginia: A History (White Plains, 1986); T. H. Breen, Tobacco Culture: The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of the Revolution (Princeton, 1985); Richard Beale Davis, Intellectual Life in the Colonial South, 1585–1763 (Knoxville, 1978); Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill, 1988); Jack P. Greene, The Quest for Power: The Lower Houses of Assembly in the Southern Royal Colonies, 1689–1776 (Chapel Hill, 1963); Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740–1790 (Chapel Hill, 1982); Allan Kulikoff, Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680–1800 (Chapel Hill, 1986); Kenneth A. Lockridge, The Diary, and Life, of William Byrd II of Virginia, 1674–1744 (Chapel Hill, 1987); Pierre Maram-baud, William Byrd of Westover, 1674–1744 (Charlottesville, 1971); Drew R. McCoy, The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America (Chapel Hill, 1980); Drew R. McCoy, The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (Cambridge, 1989); Arthur Pierce Middleton, Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era (Newport News, 1953); Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (New York, 1975); and Charles S. Sydnor, Gentlemen Freeholders: Political Practices in Washington’s Virginia (Chapel Hill, 1952).

ABBREVIATIONS

Add MSS

Additional Manuscripts

Adm

Admiralty

AfEcH

African Economic History

AHR

American Historical Review

AN

American Neptune

AO

Audit Office

C

Chancery

CaOTP

Toronto Public Library, Metropolitan Reference Center

CHR

Canadian Historical Review

CO

Colonial Office

CSmH

Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California

DeWint-M

Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum—Joseph

 

Downs Manuscript Collection, Winterthur, Delaware

DLC

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

DNA

National Archives, Washington, D.C.

E

Exchequer

EcHR

Economic History Review

EnHR

English Historical Review

ExEcH

Explorations in Economic History

FCHQ

Filson Club History Quarterly

HCA

High Court of Admiralty

HIJES

Hampton Institute Journal of Ethnic Studies

HJ

Historical Journal

HLQ

Huntington Library Quarterly

HO

Home Office

HR

Historical Research

JAfH

Journal of African History

JAmS

Journal of American Studies

JBS

Journal of British Studies

JCarH

Journal of Caribbean History

JEcBH

Journal of Economic and Business History

JEcH

Journal of Economic History

JMH

Journal of Modern History

JNH

Journal of Negro History

JSH

Journal of Southern History

KHSR

Kentucky Historical Society Register

KyLoF

Filson Club Historical Society, Louisville, Kentucky

KyU

University of Kentucky, Lexington

LU

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

MACH

Magazine of Albemarle County History

MdAA

Maryland Hall of Records Division, Annapolis

MdBHi

Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore

MH

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

MHM

Maryland Historical Magazine

MiU-C

William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan

MM

Mariner’s Mirror

Nc-Ar

North Carolina Division of Archives and History, Raleigh

NcD

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

NCHR

North Carolina Historical Review

NcU

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

NN

New York Public Library, New York

NNHi

New-York Historical Society, New York

NNPM

Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

NYH

New York History

PaH

Pennsylvania History

PHarH-Ar

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission,

Division of Archives and Manuscripts, Harrisburg

PHi

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

PMHB

Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography

PP

Past and Present

PPAmP

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania

PRO

Public Record Office, London

RIH

Rhode Island History

RPJCB

John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode Island

SA

Slavery and Abolition

SCHM

South Carolina Historical Magazine

SHR

Scottish Historical Review

SP

State Papers

SRO

Scottish Record Office, National Archives of Scotland,

 

Edinburgh

T

Treasury

TQHGM

Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine

Uk

British Library, London

UkENL

National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh

UkEU

Edinburgh University Library

UkSh

Sheffield City Library

USCCVD(EC)

United States Circuit Court, Virginia District, Ended

 

Cases

VG

Virginia Genealogist

Vi

Library of Virginia (formerly Virginia State Library),

 

Richmond

ViFreJM

James Monroe Museum, Fredericksburg, Virginia

ViRHi

Virginia Historical Society, Richmond

ViRVal

Valentine Museum, Richmond, Virginia

ViU

University of Virginia, Charlottesville

ViW

College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia

ViWC

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library,

 

Williamsburg, Virginia

VMHB

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography

WHi

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison

WHR

Welsh History Review

WMQ

William and Mary Quarterly

WO

War Office

PROLOGUE

    1 Thomas Moore, Epistles, Odes, and Other Poems (London, 1806), 38–40, 21n; Thomas Moore to Anastasia Moore, Nov. 7, 28, Dec. 2, 1803, The Letters of Thomas Moore, ed. Wilfred S. Dowden (Oxford, 1964), I, 50–55; Frederick Horner, The History of the Blair, Banister, and Braxton Families (Philadelphia, 1898), 108–109; Benson J. Lossing, “Tom Moore in America,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, LV (Sept. 1877), 537–541; entries of March 16–17, 1853, Diary of Benson J. Lossing, LS 1116, CSmH; Norfolk Herald, Oct. 6, 1803; Hoover H. Jordan, Bolt Upright: The Life of Thomas Moore (Salzburg, 1975), I, 92–95; Howard Mumford Jones, The Harp That Once—A Chronicle of the Life of Thomas Moore (New York, 1937), 68–70; Thérèse Tessier, La poésie lyrique de Thomas Moore (Paris, 1976), 90.

I: THE LAND OF PROMISE

    1 Great Dismal Swamp: [William Wirt], The Letters of the British Spy (Richmond, 1803), 3–4.

    2 “a sly” … “partsx”: [James Kirke Paulding], Letters from the South (New York, 1817), I, 21–29. See also Kevin J. Hayes, The Library of William Byrd of Westover (Madison, 1997), 3–103; Margaret Beck Pritchard and Virginia Lascara Sites, William Byrd II and His Lost History: Engravings of the Americas (Williamsburg, 1993), chap. 2; Peter Martin, The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson (Princeton, 1991), 64–77; C. Allan Brown, “Eighteenth-Century Virginia Plantation Gardens: Translating an Ancient Idyll,” in Therese O’Malley and Marc Treib, eds., Regional Garden Design in the United States (Washington, 1995), 125–162; Mark R. Wenger, “Westover: William Byrd’s Mansion Reconsidered” (M. Arch. Hist. thesis, University of Virginia, 1980); Daniel D. Reiff, Small Georgian Houses in England and Virginia: Origins and Development through the 1750s (London, 1986), 241–246.

    3 effects of the plague: [William Byrd], A Discourse Concerning the Plague (London, 1721).

    4 “a great” … Profitable”: William Byrd, The Writings of “Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia Esqr.,” ed. John Spencer Bassett (New York, 1901), 72.

    5 a petition: [William Byrd], “To the Kings most Excellent Majty,” [1729], BR Box 256(29), CSmH.

    6 “the old … Company”: B. Henry Latrobe to James Wood, Feb. 14, 1798, The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ed. Edward C. Carter II et al. (New Haven, 1977), II, 364.

    7 “old Colo. Byrd”: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, Nov. 8, 1803, William Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

    8 city of Richmond: Sarah S. Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen: Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia ([Richmond], 1979), 135.

    9 south of the James: H. R. McIlwaine, ed., Legislative Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, 2d ed. (Richmond, 1979), 80–81; H. R. McIlwaine, ed., Executive Journals of the Council of Virginia (Richmond, 1928), III, 49, 80, 107, 131–133, 136; William L. Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1886–), I, 357–358, 740; Michael L. Nicholls, “Origins of the Virginia Southside, 1703–1753: A Social and Economic Study” (Ph.D. diss., College of William and Mary, 1972), 72–79.

  10 “no … Dismall”: Entry of May 24, 1710, “A Journall of the Proceedings of Philip Ludwell and Nathll Harrison,” VMHB, V (July 1897), 9; Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, I, 735–746.

  11 “our land … innocence”: William Byrd to Earl of Orrery, Feb. 2, 1727, The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds, ed. Marion Tinling (Charlottesville, 1977), I, 358. Most of the sources for a description of the Dismal Swamp are listed in the bibliography of Paul W. Kirk, Jr., ed., The Great Dismal Swamp (Charlottesville, 1979). See also Gerald F. Levy, “Atlantic White Cedar in the Great Dismal Swamp,” in Aimlee D. Laderman, ed., Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands (Boulder, 1987), 57–68. Other sources, primarily manuscripts, are cited below.

  12 “no difference” … “men”: John Urmston to the Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, July 7, 1711, Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, I, 770, 767.

  13 “Borderers”: Byrd, Writings of Byrd, ed. Bassett, 47.

  14 “The Inhabitants … admiration”: George Burrington to Board of Trade, Feb. 20, 1732, Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, III, 337–338.

  15 “the disputed bounds”: Hugh Jones, The Present State of Virginia, ed. Richard L. Morton (Chapel Hill, 1956 [orig. publ. London, 1724]), 89. See also A. Roger Ekirch, “Poor Carolina”: Politics and Society in Colonial North Carolina, 1729–1776 (Chapel Hill, 1981), 4–36.

  16 “The fire … streets”: John Perceval to William Byrd, Oct. 15, 1720, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, I, 330.

  17 “the opinion of mankind”: Malachy Postlethwayt, The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, 4th ed. (New York, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1774]), II, “South Sea Company.” “Five hundred … paper!”: [Lewis Saul Benjamin], The South Sea Bubble (Boston, 1923), 148. See also entries of June 2, July 14, Sept. 23, 30, 1720, Diary, in The Family Memoirs of the Rev. William Stukeley, Surtees Society, LXXIII, LXXVI, LXXX (1880–85), I, 59–61.

  18 “the ruinous” … “times”: Robert Carter to John Carter, Feb. 14, 1721, Letters of Robert Carter, 1720–1727, ed. Louis B. Wright (San Marino, 1940), 79; John Custis to “Gentlemen,” [ca. 1721], John Custis Letter Book, DLC; entries of Dec. 11, 12, 1720, William Byrd, The London Diary (1717–1721) and Other Writings, ed. Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling (New York, 1958), 485.

  19 “the author … Alley”: Thomas Mortimer, Every Man His Own Broker; Or, A Guide to Exchange Alley, 6th ed. (London, 1765), v. See also John Carswell, The South Sea Bubble, rev. ed. (Stroud, 1993); P. G. M. Dickson, The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit, 1688–1756 (New York, 1967), 33–159; E. Victor Morgan and W. A. Thomas, The Stock Exchange: Its History and Functions, 2d ed. (London, 1969), chap. 2; R. S. Neale, Bath, 1680–1850: A Social History (London, 1981), 121–129.

  20 “cast … Sigh’d”: William Byrd, William Byrd’s Histories of the Dividing Line betwixt Virginia and North Carolina, ed. William K. Boyd (New York, 1967 [orig. publ. Raleigh, 1929]), 45.

  21 “Criminals … State”: Byrd, Writings of Byrd, ed. Bassett, 41.

  22 “so barren” … “publick”: Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, II, 779–780.

  23 “strange”: Ibid., 788–790. See also 2d ser., VII, 554–569.

  24 commissioners: Ekirch, Poor Carolina, 57–59; Hugh T. Lefler and William S. Powell, Colonial North Carolina: A History (New York, 1973), 87–88, 116–118; Robert J. Cain, ed., North Carolina Higher–Court Minutes, 1724–1730 (Raleigh, 1981), xii–lviii.

  25 20,000 acres: William Byrd to Gabriel Johnston, [1735?], Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 449.

  26 “the most … saw”: William Byrd to John Perceval, June 10, 1729, ibid., I, 404.

  27 “the Land of Eden”: William Byrd to Johann Rudolph Ochs, [1735?], ibid., II, 451.

  28 “to add … Characters”: Byrd, Writings of Byrd, ed. Bassett, 314; David Smith, “William Byrd Surveys America,” Early American Literature, XI (1976–77), 296–310.

  29 Parke’s will: Helen Hill Miller, Colonel Parke of Virginia: “The Greatest Hector in the Town” (Chapel Hill, 1989); Jo Zuppan, “John Custis of Williamsburg, 1678–1749,” VMHB, XC (April 1982), 177–197; Paula A. Treckel, “ ‘The Empire of My Heart’: The Marriage of William Byrd II and Lucy Parke Byrd,” VMHB, CV (1997), 125–156; Jacob M. Price, Perry of London: A Family and a Firm on the Seaborne Frontier, 1615–1753 (Cambridge, 1992), 68–69; Douglas Southall Freeman, George Washington: A Biography (New York, 1948–57), II, 280–291.

  30 “that little bastard”: John Custis to William Byrd, [ca. Jan. 1725], Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, I, 351.

  31 “no longer … Land”: Wilmer L. Hall, ed., Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, 2d ed. (Richmond, 1967), V, 38. See also John Bartram to William Byrd, [Nov. 1738], The Correspondence of John Bartram, 1734–1777, ed. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley (Gainesville, 1992), 98–99; Albert B. Faust, “Swiss Emigration to the American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century,” AHR, XXII (Oct. 1916), 42; Ned C. Landsman, From Colonials to Provincials: American Thought and Culture, 1680–1760 (New York, 1997), 41; Michael J. Rozbicki, The Complete Colonial Gentleman: Cultural Legitimacy in Plantation America (Charlottesville, 1998); Richard Godbeer, “William Byrd’s ‘Flourish’: The Sexual Cosmos of a Southern Planter,” in Merril D. Smith, ed., Sex and Sexuality in Early America (New York, 1998), 135–162; Dana D. Nelson, The Word in Black and White: Reading “Race” in American Literature, 1638–1867 (New York, 1992), 29–37; Donald T. Siebert, Jr., “William Byrd’s Histories of the Line: The Fashioning of a Hero,” American Literature, XLVII (Jan. 1976), 535–551; Norman S. Grabo, “Going Steddy: William Byrd’s Literary Masquerade,” Yearbook of English Studies, XIII (1983), 84–96; Susan Manning, “Industry and Idleness in Colonial Virginia: A New Approach to William Byrd II,” JAmS, XXVIII (Aug. 1994), 169–190; Richard Beale Davis, Literature and Society in Early Virginia, 1608–1840 (Baton Rouge, 1973), 98–132; David Bertelson, The Lazy South (New York, 1967), 68–85.

  32 “that plague … Company”: Robert Carter to John Pemberton, May 26, 1721, Letters of Carter, ed. Wright, 93.

  33 “plain” … “us”: Robert Carter to William Dawkins, Feb. 23, 1721, ibid., 80–81.

  34 “lay … well”: Entries of Sept. 28–Oct. 1, 1720, Byrd, London Diary, ed. Wright and Tinling, 456–457; William M. S. Rasmussen, “Drafting the Plans,” in Charles E. Brownell et al., The Making of Virginia Architecture (Richmond, 1992), 8.

  35 “a dunce … blockhead”: Robert Carter to Richard Perry, July 13, 1720, Letters of Carter, ed. Wright, 4.

  36 “one of … knew”: John Page, Memoir, Virginia Historical Register, III (July 1850), 144.

  37 “Walpool”: Robert Carter to Thomas, Lord Fairfax, June 24, 1729, Papers of the Fairfax Estate, Add MSS 30306, f. 91, Uk.

  38 “dear friend”: Mann Page, Will, Jan. 24, 1730, VMHB, XXXII (Jan. 1924), 41.

  39 “great tract”: Robert Carter to Thomas Hooper, July 3, 1720, Letters of Carter, ed. Wright, 49.

  40 “the best … Virginia”: Entry of June 28, 1732, “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” ed. Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler, III, VMHB, LXXXV (Jan. 1977), 26. See also Richard L. Bushman, The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities (New York, 1992), 113–114; Reiff, Small Georgian Houses, 288–294.

  41 “very angry”: John Carter to Micajah Perry, July 2, 1737, Carter Family Letterbook, ViU.

  42 George Washington: George Washington to John Posey, June 24, 1767, The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983–), VIII, 3. On Carter, see also Edmund Berkeley, Jr., “Robert ‘King’ Carter” (M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1961); Louis Morton, Robert Carter of Nomini Hall: A Virginia Planter of the Eighteenth Century (Williamsburg, 1941), chap. 1; Manning C. Voorhis, “Crown versus Council in the Virginia Land Policy,” WMQ, 3d ser., III (Oct. 1946), 499–514; Robert D. Mitchell, Commercialism and Frontier: Perspectives on the Early Shenandoah Valley (Charlottesville, 1977); Kenton Kilmer and Donald Sweig, The Fairfax Family in Fairfax County (Fairfax, 1975), chap. 1; Victor Dennis Golladay, “The Nicholas Family of Virginia, 1722–1820” (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1973), 1–37; Clifford Dowdey, The Virginia Dynasties: The Emergence of “King” Carter and the Golden Age (Boston, 1969), chaps. 5–10; Holly Brewer, “Entailing Aristocracy in Colonial Virginia: ‘Ancient Feudal Restraints’ and Revolutionary Reform,” WMQ, 3d ser., LIV (April 1997), 328–332; William Keith, The History of the British Plantations in America (London, 1738), 184–185.d

  43 “Examine … Choose”: Entry of June 28, 1732, “Journal of Grove,” ed. Stiverson and Butler, VMHB, LXXXV (Jan. 1977), 31–32.

  44 “a man” … “by them”: William Byrd to John Perceval, July 12, 1736, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 487–488.

  45 “drained … Cash”: Charles Steuart to Thomas Ogilvie, July 25, 1752, Charles Steuart Letterbooks, PHi.

  46 John Custis: John Custis to Mr. Loyd, 1736, Custis Letter Book, Custis-Lee Families Papers, DLC. On expansion of slavery, see Lorena S. Walsh, “Slave Life, Slave Society, and Tobacco Production in the Tidewater Chesapeake, 1620–1820,” in Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas (Charlottesville, 1993), 170–199; James A. Rawley, The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History (New York, 1981), 164–183, 400–405; Herbert S. Klein, The Middle Passage: Comparative Studies in the Atlantic Slave Trade (Princeton, 1978), chap. 6; Susan Westbury, “Slaves of Colonial Virginia: Where They Came From,” WMQ, 3d ser., XLII (April 1985), esp. 235–236; Walter Minchinton, Celia King, and Peter Waite, eds., Virginia Slave-Trade Statistics, 1698–1775 (Richmond, 1984).

  47 “a monotonous … life”: David Meade, “Family History,” in Henry J. Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, Containing Matters of Interest to the Descendants of David Meade (Chicago, 1883), 7; P. Hamilton Baskervill, Andrew Meade of Ireland and Virginia (Richmond, 1921), chap. 2.

  48 tobacco: Jacob M. Price, Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700–1776 (Cambridge, 1980); Jacob M. Price, France and the Chesapeake: A History of the French Tobacco Monopoly, 1674–1791 (Ann Arbor, 1973); Price, Perry of London; Robert C. Nash, “The English and Scottish Tobacco Trades in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Legal and Illegal Trade,” EcHR, 2d ser., XXXV (Aug. 1982), 354–372; Jacob M. Price and Paul G. E. Clemens, “A Revolution of Scale in Overseas Trade: British Firms in the Chesapeake Trade, 1675–1775,” JEcH, XLVII (March 1987), 1–43; Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1993).

  49 “no Promises … upon”: Richard Corbin to Robert Dinwiddie, July 10, 1761, Letterbook, Richard Corbin Papers, ViWC.

  50 “there’s … Note”: [George Fisher], “The Fisher History,” in Louise Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families (Lynchburg, 1907), II, 773.

  51 “this may … Performing”: Edmund Wilcox to James Russell, May 6, 1760, Hubard Family Papers, NcU.

  52 a “great part”: William Byrd to [Jacob?] Senserff, [ca. June 25, 1729], Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, I, 410.

  53 “scheme of a project”: William Byrd to Martin Bladen, June 13, 1729, ibid., 407–408. The copy Byrd sent to Wager is in the Vernon-Wager Manuscripts, Peter Force Collection, DLC.

  54 “running … did”: William Byrd to Micajah Perry, [ca. July 3, 1728], Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, I, 378.

  55 “National” … “for ever”: F. Hall, The Importance of the British Plantations in America to this Kingdom (London, 1731), iii, 75–76.

  56 hemp: Byrd, Writings of Byrd, ed. Bassett, 366–367; William Byrd to Hans Sloane, May 31, 1737, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 513; George Melvin Herndon, “The Story of Hemp in Colonial Virginia” (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1959); Joseph J. Malone, “England and the Baltic Naval Stores Trade in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” MM, LVIII (Nov. 1972), 390; Alexander Garden to John Ellis, May 6, 1757, in James Edward Smith, ed., A Selection of the Correspondence of Linnaeus and Other Naturalists (London, 1821), I, 403.

  57 “a thousand shifts”: Mr. Allen’s Letter, 1743, James Abercromby Letter Book, Nc-Ar; Ekirch, Poor Carolina, 16.

  58 “Schemes” … “Virginia”: [Edward Kimber], Itinerant Observations in America (Savannah, 1878), 60. See also Thomas C. Parramore, Peter C. Stewart, and Tommy L. Bogger, Norfolk: The First Four Centuries (Charlottesville, 1994), chaps. 5–6; Thomas M. Costa, “Economic Development and Political Authority: Norfolk, Virginia, Merchant-Magistrates, 1736–1800” (Ph.D. diss., College of William and Mary, 1991), chaps. 1–2; Joseph A. Goldenberg, Shipbuilding in Colonial America (Charlottesville, 1976), 117–120.

  59 “intire … Business”: William Lux to John Norton, Aug. 20, 1766, William Lux Letterbook, NNHi.

  60 “Marriage is honourable”: Notes to “Charges Against Spotswood,” VMHB, IV (April 1897), 361–362.

  61 “new Negroes”: Minchinton et al., eds., Virginia Slave-Trade, 125, 131, 137, 139, 143. See also David H. Makinson, Barbados: A Study of North-American–West-Indian Relations, 1739–1789 (The Hague, 1964), 43.

  62 “Assiduity … Business”: William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, May 29, 1767, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

  63 mills and bakeries: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), Oct. 8, 1767; depositions of Philip Carbery and Richard Taylor, Commissioners to Examine Claims in Norfolk, Entry 235, Auditor of Public Accounts, Public Claims, General Records, Vi; George Washington to John Carlyle and Robert Adam, March 9, 1765, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 360; William Lux to Robert Tucker, Oct. 3, 1765, Lux Letterbook, NNHi. On skilled slaves, see Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill, 1998), 225–244.

  64 “all” … “Opulence”: Kimber, Itinerant Observations, 59–60; Francis Jerdone to Buchanan & Hamilton, June 28, 1748, “Letter Book of Francis Jerdone,” WMQ, 1st ser., XI (Jan. 1930), 154.

  65 “choice young Slaves”: Parks’s Virginia Gazette, April 8, 1737, June 8, 1739.

  66 “When … England”: Thomas Nelson to Andrew Stone, Sept. 21, 1747, Newcastle Papers, Home Correspondence, Vol. XXVIII, Add MSS 32,713, f. 98, Uk.

  67 “remove … expedition”: Fisher, “Fisher History,” in Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, II, 765.

  68 an “agent”: Duke of Richmond to Duke of Newcastle, July 17, 1747, The Correspondence of the Dukes of Richmond and Newcastle, ed. Timothy J. McCann, Sussex Record Society, LXXIII (1982–83), 250.

  69 became secretary: William Byrd to Francis Otway, Feb. 10, 1741, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 578, 579n.4; Charles Carter to Foster Cunliffe, Aug. 1, 1742, Foster Cunliffe to Charles Carter, recd. Jan. 14, 1743, Carter Papers, ViFreJM.

  70 “make” … “match”: John Lewis to Lawrence Washington, June 28, 1742, in Moncure Daniel Conway, Barons of the Potomack and Rappahannock (New York, 1892), 161–162.

  71 Elizabeth Burwell: Parks’s Virginia Gazette, Feb. 10, 1738; William Meade, Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia (Philadelphia, 1900 [orig. publ. 1857]), I, 26n, 206; William Nelson to R. C. M. Page, April 3, 1883, in Richard Channing Moore Page, Genealogy of the Page Family in Virginia, 2d ed. (Bridgewater, 1965), 158.

  72 Thomas Nelson built: François-Jean, Marquis de Chastellux, Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781 and 1782, ed. Howard C. Rice, Jr. (Chapel Hill, 1963), II, 385; Ernest McNeill Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay in the American Revolution (Centreville, 1981), 313; Virginia Independent Chronicle (Richmond), April 9, 1788.

  73 a 110 percent markup: T. West to Esther West, Nov. 12, 1756, HCA 30/258, PRO. Compare Francis Jerdone to Samuel Richards, Israel Mauduit & Company, Dec. 14, 1754, “Letter Book of Jerdone,” WMQ, 1st ser., XIV (Jan. 1906), 142–143.

  74 “Nelson … money”: John Syme to Farell & Jones, May 10, 1763, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1799, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Fisher, “Fisher History,” in Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, II, 770.

  75 “conscious Dignity”: Fisher, “Fisher History,” in Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, II, 765.

  76 “except … Country”: Graham Frank to Ellen Frank, Nov. 10, 1756, HCA 30/258, PRO.

  77 “As to … Time”: William Nelson to Thomas Jones, Dec. 22, 1753, Roger Jones and Family Papers, DLC.

  78 “There … that!”: Fisher, “Fisher History,” in Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, II, 770, 783.

  79 “pleasant and entertaining”: Jack P. Greene, ed., “A Mirror of Virtue for a Declining Land: John Camm’s Funeral Sermon for William Nelson,” in J. A. Leo Lemay, ed., Essays in Early Virginia Literature Honoring Richard Beale Davis (New York, 1977), 197.

  80 “prudent & sensible”: “Characters of leading Men & Descriptions of Places in Virginia,” Peter Russell Papers, CaOTP.

  81 “squandered … health”: Thomas Nelson to Henry Tucker, Jan. 21, 1774, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

  82 “in making … place”: John Waller to Benjamin Waller, Dec. 9, 1751, Andrew Lewis Riffe, “The Wallers of Endfield, King William County, Virginia,” VMHB, LIX (Oct. 1951), 474; Henry Tucker to St. George Tucker, April 13, 1774, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

  83 “has … friends”: John Rutherford to William Adair, March 26, 1773, MSS 18741, Sir Thomas Phillips Collection, DLC.

  84 Robert Dinwiddie: Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, June 16, 1753, Board of Trade to Earl of Loudoun, March 17, 1756, Robert Dinwiddie Correspondence, ed. Louis Knott Koontz (Berkeley, 1951), 417–418, 911, 916–919; Robert Dinwiddie to Horace Walpole, Oct. 25, 1754, Robert Dinwiddie to James Abercromby, Oct. 23, 1754, The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, ed. R. A. Brock (Richmond, 1883), I, 370, 374–376.

  85 “upright Character”: John Hook to Gertrude Gresley, Jan. 20, 1774, John Hook Letterbook, Vi.

  86 “that … imposed on”: Thomas Nelson to Francis Fauquier, enclosed in Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Nov. 23, 1764, The Official Papers of Francis Fauquier, ed. George Reese (Charlottesville, 1980–83), III, 1177.

  87 a list of grants: McIlwaine, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 274; Thomas Nelson to Francis Fauquier, enclosed in Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Dec. 27, 1764, Thomas Nelson to Francis Fauquier, enclosed in Francis Fauquier to Earl of Shelburne, May 20, 1767, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1210–1211, 1457; “A true and full Acct,” enclosed in Baron de Botetourt to Board of Trade, July 31, 1770, CO 5/1333, ff. 48–56, PRO.

  88 “it would … Secretary”: George Seaton to Edmund Wilcox, Sept. 7, 1765, Hubard Family Papers, NcU. On the Nelson brothers, see also Emory G. Evans, “The Nelsons: A Biographical Study of a Virginia Family in the Eighteenth Century” (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1957); Emory G. Evans, “The Rise and Decline of the Virginia Aristocracy in the Eighteenth Century: The Nelsons,” in Darrett B. Rutman, ed., The Old Dominion: Essays for Thomas Perkins Abernethy (Charlottesville, 1964), 62–78.

  89 “there … do”: Entries of March 13–14, 1752, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter of Sabine Hall, 1752–1778, ed. Jack P. Greene (Charlottesville, 1965), I, 85–86.

  90 “at their beck”: Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, Aug. 5, 1815, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

  91 “To committees … column”: Edmund Randolph, History of Virginia, ed. Arthur H. Shaffer (Charlottesville, 1970), 174.

  92 “He was … man”: Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, April 12, 1812, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul Leicester Ford (New York, 1892–99), IX, 339.

  93 “had a” … “happy”: William Nelson to Edward and Samuel Athawes, Nov. 13, 1766, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

  94 “universally Esteemed”: “Dinwiddianae,” in Richard Beale Davis, ed., “The Colonial Virginia Satirist,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, LVII, Part I (1967), 24.

  95 “beloved”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, April 10, 1759, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, I, 205; Robert Carter Nicholas to the Printer, Sept. 1, 1766, Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 5, 1766.

  96 “thousand … attentions”: Randolph, History of Virginia, ed. Shaffer, 174.

  97 “warm … friendships”: David Boyd to Richard Henry Lee, Nov. 17, 1766, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

  98 “undue influence”: Robert Carter Nicholas to the Printer, Sept. 1, 1766, Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 5, 1766; William Nelson to Edward and Samuel Athawes, Nov. 13, 1766, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

  99 “indirect methods”: [Richard Bland], “A Freeholder,” Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 17, 1766.

100 “unnatural … House”: Richard Bland to Richard Henry Lee, May 22, 1766, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

101 Pleasant Hill: George Washington to Robert Cary & Co., Nov. 10, 1773, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IX, 378n.4; entry of June 28, 1732, “Journal of Grove,” ed. Stiverson and Butler, VMHB, LXXXV (Jan. 1977), 27–28; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Dec. 21, 1769, Oct. 14, 1773.

102 John Chiswell: Andrew Burnaby to George Washington, Jan. 4, 1760, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 381; Carl Bridenbaugh, “Violence and Virtue in Virginia, 1766: or, the Importance of the Trivial,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, LXXVI (1964), 10–14; Account of the Lead Mine Company with John Robinson, 1760–1768, William Byrd, III, Papers, Section 8, ViRHi. On Robinson, see also Carl Bridenbaugh, Seat of Empire: The Political Role of Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg (Williamsburg, 1950); William Minor Dabney, “John Robinson: Speaker of the House of Burgesses and Treasurer of Virginia” (M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1941); Jack P. Greene, “The Attempt to Separate the Offices of Speaker and Treasurer in Virginia, 1758–1766,” VMHB, LXXI (Jan. 1963), 11-18; Jack P. Greene, “Foundations of Political Power in the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1720–1776,” WMQ, 3d ser., XVI (Oct. 1959), 485–502; David Alan Williams, “Political Alignments in Colonial Virginia Politics, 1698–1750” (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1959), 101–109, 329–337.

103 “mental Qualifications”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, July 31, 1762, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, II, 782.

104 “a shallow weak man”: “Characters of leading Men,” Russell Papers, CaOTP; entry of Sept. 2, 1772, Diary of Landon Carter, ed. Greene, II, 720; George Washington to Jonathan Boucher, Oct. 2, 1772, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IX, 113.

105 “of a … Family”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, July 31, 1762, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, II, 782; McIlwaine, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 229.

106 Their home estate: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 16, 1771; WMQ, 1st ser., XXVII (Jan. 1919), 210. On Burwell, see also Robert Burwell to John Norton, May 9, 1770, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; Nathaniel Burwell, Will, Aug. 20, 1721, Berkeley Family Papers, ViU.

107 Micajah Perry: John Carter to Micajah Perry, July 2, 1737, Aug. 1, 1738, Carter Family Letterbook, ViU.

108 “personal Beauty”: “Old Tombstones in Gloucester County,” WMQ, 1st ser., III (Jan. 1895), 188.

109 “great sums”: William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia (Richmond, Philadelphia, and New York, 1809–23), V, 277–284; Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations from January 1741–2 to December 1749 (London, 1931), 163, 181, 202; H. R. McIlwaine, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses, 1742–1747, 1748–1749 (Richmond, 1909), 90; Parks’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 26, 1745; Mann Page to John Page, Aug. 3, 1779, ViWC.

110 Alice Page: “Old Tombstones in Gloucester County,” WMQ, 1st ser., III (Jan. 1895), 188. “incapable of Business”: William Gooch to Board of Trade, Sept. 25, 1747, CO 5/1326, f. 276, PRO; [Note to Resignation of John Tayloe], VMHB, XVII (Oct. 1909), 370–372.

111 “detestable”: Warner Lewis to Walter Jones, July 8, 1766, Edrington Family Papers, ViRHi.

112 James Patton: James Patton to John Blair, [Jan. 1753], Preston Papers, Vol. I, ff. 75–77, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi; Hall, ed., Executive Journals, 2d ed., V, 134, 172–173, 195.

113 caught fire: McIlwaine, ed., Legislative Journals, 2d ed., 995–996; McIlwaine, ed., Journals of the Burgesses, 1742–1749, 235, 246.

114 “vastly rich”: Lawrence Washington to [?], Nov. 17, 1749, in Conway, Barons of the Potomac, 272–273.

115 “a considerable Time”: William Gooch to Board of Trade, June 16, 1748, CO 5/1327, ff. 4–5, PRO; Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, 1742–1749, 278, 336;

116 Louis Knott Koontz, Robert Dinwiddie: His Career in American Colonial Government and Westward Expansion (Glendale, 1941), 157–159.

117 “for procuring … Land”: Ohio Company, Minutes, Oct. 20, 1748, quoted in Alfred P. James, The Ohio Company: Its Inner History (Pittsburgh, 1959), 15.

118 “public” … “Views”: Thomas Lee to Conrad Weiser, Feb. 27, June 21, 1750, PHi, copies in Lee Family Papers, ViU.

119 grant … Ohio Company: Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, 1742–1749, 342, 356–357, 380; W. L. Grant and James Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council of England. Colonial Series (London, 1908–12), IV, 55–58.

120 “a Certain … Lee”: Entry of May 14, 1755, Diary of Landon Carter, ed. Greene, I, 121.

121 “Mr Secretary … Company”: Ohio Company, Minutes, June 21, 1749, in Lois Mulkearn, ed., George Mercer Papers Relating to the Ohio Company of Virginia (Pittsburgh, 1954), 168.

122 land grants: Hall, ed., Executive Journals, 2d ed., V, 282–283, 288, 295–297, 427; Thomas Lee to Members of the Ohio Company, June 1, 1749, in James, Ohio Company, 196; List of Members of the Loyal Company, Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, Vol. I, DLC; Williams, “Political Alignments,” 332–337.

123 “a circumstantial” … “voluminous”: Robert Beverley to John Craig, April 29, 1791, Robert Beverley Letterbook, DLC.

124 “so pleasing … Memory”: Entry of May 14, 1755, Diary of Landon Carter, ed. Greene, I, 120.

125 Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson: Hall, ed., Executive Journals, 2d ed., V, 310; Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time (Boston, 1948–81), I, 24–25.

126 “in one … Surveys”: Hall, ed., Executive Journals, 2d ed., V, 297.

127 “use … fateage”: Thomas Walker to William Preston, Oct. 23, 1778, Preston Papers, IV, f. 183, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi. See also James O. Breeden, “The Medical World of Thomas Walker,” MACH, LII (1994), 23–37.

128 “They are … all”: Mary Willing Byrd to Anne Willing, 1761, in Joshua Francis Fisher, Recollections of Joshua Francis Fisher, ed. Sophia Cadwalader (Boston, 1929), 97.

129 “to discover … Settlements”: Delf Norona, ed., “Joshua Fry’s Report on the Back Settlements of Virginia, [May 8, 1751],” VMHB, LVI (Jan. 1948), 37.

130 Dr. Walker’s expedition: Thomas Walker, Journal of an Exploration in the Spring of the Year 1750 (Boston, 1888); Archibald Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker and the Loyal Company of Virginia,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 90–91; Lewis Preston Summers, History of Southwest Virginia, 1746–1786 (Baltimore, 1966 [orig. publ. Richmond, 1903]), 48–51; William Stewart Lester, The Transylvania Company(Spencer, 1935), 49.

131 an executive committee: John Meriwether to James Power, July 2, 1752, Fielding Lewis to James Power, July 22, 1752, Page-Walker Manuscripts, ViU.

132 to James Patton: James Patton to John Blair, [Jan. 1753], Preston Papers, I, ff. 75–77, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi; letter of July 9, 1770, in [Samuel Wharton], [Statement for the Petitioners in the Case of the Walpole Company Grant] [London? 1772], appendix I. The unique copy of this pamphlet is in RPJCB.

133 “that … promise”: John Donelson to William Preston, Oct. 1, 1778, Preston Papers, IV, f. 180, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

134 the Pacific Ocean: James Maury to [?], Jan. 10, 1756, in Ann Maury, Memoirs of a Huguenot Family (New York, 1853), 390–392.

135 “the chief … scheme”: Peter Fontaine to John and Moses Fontaine, April 15, 1754, ibid., 342; Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 93; [William Preston], [Affidavit], n.d., Preston Family Papers, P9267f/FA2, ViRHi; Thomas Walker to William Preston, March 23, 1778, Preston Papers, IV, f. 164, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi; Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia (Richmond, 1804 [1805]), 94; George W. Frye, Colonel Joshua Fry of Virginia and Some of His Descendants and Allied Families (Cincinnati, 1966), 10. On Walker, see also Keith Ryan Nyland, “Doctor Thomas Walker: Explorer, Physician, Statesman, Surveyor and Planter of Virginia and Kentucky” (Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1971), chaps. 1–3; Natalie J. Disbrow, “Thomas Walker of Albemarle,” Papers of the Albemarle County Historical Society, I (1940–41), 5–9.

136 Mississippi River: William Byrd to Earl of Orrery, March 6, 1720, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, I, 327.

137 William Byrd’s son: Maria Byrd to [?], Sept. 6, 1745, photostat, ViWC; William Proctor to brother, July 1739, “Letters of William Proctor, Librarian at Westover,” VMHB, X (Jan. 1903), 300–301.

138 “a prodigious … wilderness”: Andrew Burnaby, Travels Through the Middle Settlements in North America in the Years 1759 and 1760, ed. Rufus Rockwell Wilson, 3d ed. (New York, 1904), 39.

139 at Westover: Wenger, “Westover,” 41, 48–49, 58, and see his chap. 5; Rasmussen, “Drafting the Plans,” in Brownell et al., Making of Virginia Architecture, 20–22; Fisher, “Fisher History,” in Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, II, 774; “Will of Colonel William Byrd, 3d,” VMHB, IX (July 1901), 81–82; David Meade to Joseph Prentis, June 13, 1797, Webb Transcripts, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU; William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, Nov. 8, 1803, Wirt Papers, MdBHi. On Virginia architecture and construction, see also Claude Lanciano, “Our Most Skillful Architect”: Richard Taliaferro and Associated Colonial Virginia Constructions (Gloucester, 1981).

140 “dissatisfaction”: J. F. D. Smyth, A Tour in the United States of America (Dublin, 1784), I, 257–258.

141 brothers-in-law: Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, Jan. 29, 1754, Dinwiddie Correspondence, ed. Koontz, 445–446.

142 “the power of self-denial”: Thomas Jefferson to John Page, May 7, 1802, Writings of Jefferson, ed. Ford, VIII, 135n.

143 “Col. Byrd … things”: John Wayles to Farell & Jones, Aug. 17, 1769, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/9, PRO.

II: A SCHEME OF GREAT EXPECTATION

    1 the Dismal Swamp: Wilmer L. Hall, ed., Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, 2d ed. (Richmond, 1967), V, 423–424. On Francis Farley’s partners, see Thomas M. Costa, “Economic Development and Political Authority: Norfolk, Virginia, Merchant-Magistrates, 1736–1800” (Ph.D. diss., College of William and Mary, 1991), esp. 95, 121, 131, 170. On Britons and eighteenth-century forests, see Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory (New York, 1995), chap. 3, part iii.

    2 “Introduceing … Planters”: William Barrell to Theodore Barrell, Feb. 2, 1769, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC.

    3 “He … man”: William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, Nov. 17, 1769, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Samuel Martin to Baron de Botetourt, [ca. Jan. 1769], Letterbook of Samuel Martin, Add MSS 41,350, f. 83, Uk.

    4 “neither … much”: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Sept. 30, 1775, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office, Taunton.

    5 coast of Antigua: [Jacques Nicolas Bellin], Description géographique des isles Antilles possédées par les Anglois (Paris, 1758), 83, 96.

    6 “dog-drivers”: Letters XX–XXIV, July 20–Nov. 9, 1787, John Luffman, A Brief Account of the Island of Antigua, reprinted in Vere Langford Oliver, The History of the Island of Antigua (London, 1894–99), I, cxxxiii–cxxxiv; Mainswete Walrond to Charles Tudway, Sept. 20, 1767, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office; testimony of Robert Forster, Sheila Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century (Wilmington, 1975), LXXXII, 129–133; Edward Thompson, Sailor’s Letters (London, 1766), II, 12–13, 18–19; Clement Caines, Letters on the Cultivation of the Otaheite Cane (London, 1801); Daniel Mackinnon, A Tour Through the British West Indies in the Years 1802 and 1803, 2d ed. (London, 1812), 57–58; J. R. Ward, British West Indian Slavery, 1750–1834: The Process of Amelioration (Oxford, 1988), 14–18; Ward Barrett, “Caribbean Sugar-Production Standards in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” in John Parker, ed., Merchants and Scholars: Essays in the History of Exploration and Trade (Minneapolis, 1965), 147–170.

    7 St. Johns: Janet Schaw, Journal of a Lady of Quality, ed. Evangeline Walker Andrews and Charles McLean Andrews (New Haven, 1922), 88, 107–108; The Laws of the Island of Antigua (London, 1805), I; [F. W. M. Bayley], Four Years’ Residence in the West Indies (London, 1831), 305; entry of Jan. 11, 1784, Seeing America and Its Great Men: The Journal and Letters of Count Francesco dal Verme, 1783–1784, trans. and ed. Elizabeth Cometti (Charlottesville, 1969), 64; entry of Dec. 28, 1795, Francis Baily, Journal of a Tour in the Unsettled Parts of North America in 1796 & 1797, ed. Jack D. L. Holmes (Carbondale, 1969), 12–13; entry of May 7, 1749, Robert Poole, The Beneficent Bee: Or, Traveller’s Companion (London, 1753), 344.

    8 served without pay: Robert Holloway to Charles Tudway, Dec. 31, 1759, Francis Farley to Charles Tudway, Jan. 3, 1761, Oct. 6, 1769, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

    9 “Every … Period”: David Greene to Thomas Fraser, June 15, 1780, David Greene Letterbook, MiU-C.

  10 “Lands … retreat”: Samuel Martin to Samuel Martin, Jr., Aug. 11, 1751, Letterbook of Martin, Add MSS 41,346, f. 32, Uk. See also “Petition of Antigua Planters,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, LIX (1925–26), 171–176.

  11 harsh drought: Samuel Davies, Virginia’s Danger and Remedy (Williamsburg, 1756), 6; Francis Jerdone to Morgan Thomas & Co., Feb. 10, 1756, Francis Jerdone Letterbook, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW.

  12 “as rich … Euphrates”: Rebecca Johnston, ed., “William Byrd’s Title Book,” VMHB, L (April 1942), 176; Lindley S. Butler, “Sauratown Plantation,” Journal of Rockingham County History and Genealogy, VIII (Dec. 1983), 84; John Simon Farley and Elizabeth Morson v. Thomas Lee Shippen and Elizabeth Carter Shippen et al., March 1794, in Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery … by George Wythe (Charlottesville, 1903), 253–255; J. F. D. Smyth, A Tour in the United States of America (Dublin, 1784), I, 258.

  13 “in a very” … “property”: Francis Farley to John Simon Farley, June 11, 1777, July 13, 1778, in Decisions by Wythe, 255; Vere Langford Oliver, ed., Caribbeana (London, 1910–19), IV, 30n. On Antigua, see also David R. Harris, Plants, Animals, and Man in the Outer Leeward Islands, West Indies: An Ecological Study of Antigua, Barbuda, and Anguilla (Berkeley, 1965); Elsa V. Goveia, Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands at the End of the Eighteenth Century (New Haven, 1965); Richard B. Sheridan, Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623–1775 (Baltimore, 1974); David Barry Gaspar, Bondmen and Rebels: A Study of Master-Slave Relations in Antigua (Baltimore, 1985); David Barry Gaspar, “Sugar Cultivation and Slave Life in Antigua before 1800,” in Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas (Charlottesville, 1993), 101–123; Arthur L. Stinchcombe, Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (Princeton, 1995).

  14 “bred … pocket”: “Preliminary Letters,” in “Dinwiddianae,” Richard Beale Davis, ed., “The Colonial Virginia Satirist,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, LVII, Part I (1967), 17; [Peyton Randolph], A Letter to a Gentleman in London, from Virginia (Williamsburg, 1759), 8; John Richard Alden, Robert Dinwiddie: Servant of the Crown (Williamsburg, 1973), 27.

  15 “land” … “Revenue”: Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, June 16, 1753, Robert Dinwiddie Correspondence, ed. Louis Knott Koontz (Berkeley, 1951), 298; Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, Oct. 25, 1754, The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, ed. R. A. Brock (Richmond, 1883–84), I, 363.

  16 “too warm … with”: Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, Dec. 29, 1753, Dinwiddie Correspondence, ed. Koontz, 418.

  17 “a very” … “Neck”: William Stith to Bishop of London, April 21, 1753, John Blair to Bishop of London, Aug. 15, 1752, Fulham Papers, Vol. 13, “Virginia,” Lambeth Palace, London.

  18 “some” … “Fee”: Robert Dinwiddie to James Abercromby, Oct. 23, 1754, Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, Oct. 25, 1754, Official Records of Dinwiddie, ed. Brock, I, 374–375, 362–363; Edmund Jenings to Richard Corbin, May 30, 1754, Edmund Jenings Letterbook, ViRHi.

  19 “I have … heart”: Robert Dinwiddie to Thomas Cresap, Jan. 23, 1752, Official Records of Dinwiddie, ed. Brock, I, 17–18.

  20 “likes … well”: Philip Ludwell Lee to John and Capel Hanbury, Aug. 1, 1753, Philip Ludwell Lee Letterbook, Vi.

  21 “suspected … lands”: State of the British and French Colonies in North America (London, 1755), 113; Thomas Gage, Answers, “Queries of George Chalmers,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 4th ser., IV (1858), 369.

  22 Logg’s Town: Michael N. McConnell, A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774 (Lincoln, 1992), 95–98; Wilbur R. Jacobs, Diplomacy and Indian Gifts: Anglo-French Rivalry along the Ohio and Northwest Frontiers, 1748–1763 (Stanford, 1950), 120–123.

  23 “unfavourable” … “Company”: George Washington to Earl of Loudoun, Jan. 10, 1757, The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983–), IV, 79–80; James Titus, The Old Dominion at War: Society, Politics, and Warfare in Late Colonial Virginia (Columbia, 1991), 24–25; Hayes Baker-Crothers, Virginia and the French and Indian War (Chicago, 1928), 27–31; Patrice Louis-René Higonnet, “The Origins of the Seven Years’ War,” JMH, XL (March 1968), 63.

  24 “go … them”: “Preliminary Letters,” in “Dinwiddianae,” Davis, ed., “Colonial Virginia Satirist,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, LVII, Part I (1967), 17.

  25 “The grants … dispute”: Comte de Jouy to Duc de Mirepoix, Feb. 19, 1755, in Theodore Calvin Pease, ed., Anglo-French Boundary Disputes in the West, 1749–1763 (Springfield, 1936), 134. See also T. R. Clayton, “The Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of Halifax, and the American Origins of the Seven Years’ War,” HJ, XXIV (Sept. 1981), 571–603; William J. Eccles, “Iroquois, French, British: Imperial Rivalry in the Ohio Valley,” in Pathways to the Old Northwest: An Observance of the Bicentennial of the Northwest Ordinance (Indianapolis, 1988), 25–28; Max Savelle, The Diplomatic History of the Canadian Boundary, 1749–1763 (New Haven, 1940), chaps. 3–4.

  26 “rich” … “Acres”: Robert Dinwiddie to Earl of Holdernesse, March 12, 1754, Official Records of Dinwiddie, ed. Brock, I, 95–96.

  27 “general” … “lands”: Isaac Norris to Robert Charles, April 19, 1754, quoted in William S. Sachs and Ari Hoogenboom, The Enterprising Colonials: Society on the Eve of the Revolution (Chicago, 1965), 148.

  28 “universal Monarchy”: H. R. McIlwaine, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1752–1755, 1756–1758 (Richmond, 1909), 189.

  29 “bubbled”: George Washington to Earl of Loudoun, Jan. 10, 1757, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IV, 80–81.

  30 “great ill manners”: Robert Dinwiddie to James Abercromby, Oct. 23, 1754, Official Records of Dinwiddie, ed. Brock, I, 376.

  31 “very disagreeable”: Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, Oct. 25, 1754, Robert Dinwiddie to John Pownall, March 17, 1755, ibid., I, 363–364, II, 2.

  32 “a very good Footing”: Robert Dinwiddie to James Abercromby, Oct. 23, 1754, ibid., I, 375–376.

  33 “unjust and false”: Robert Dinwiddie to Board of Trade, Oct. 25, 1754, ibid., I, 363.

  34 “said … A-se”: Davis, ed., “Colonial Virginia Satirist,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, LVII, Part I (1967), 33.

  35 “the Ingenius Franklin”: Entries of [Feb.] 22–25, 1755, Thomas Walker, Diary, in Archibald Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker and the Loyal Company of Virginia,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 122–123.

  36 Lewis Evans: Lewis Evans, Geographical, Historical, Political, Philosophical and Mechanical Essays (Philadelphia, 1755), 10; Benjamin Franklin to Richard Jackson, Dec. 12, 1754, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Leonard W. Labaree et al. (New Haven, 1959–), V, 447–448.

  37 John Hanbury: [John Shebbeare] A Letter to the People of England (London, 1755), 33–38; Gentleman’s Magazine, XXV (Aug. 1755), 378, (Sept. 1755), 389; Winthrop Sargent, ed., The History of an Expedition Against Fort Du Quesne in 1755 (Philadelphia, 1855), 107, 162; Lewis Evans, Geographical, Historical, Political, Philosophical and Mechanical Essays. Number II (Philadelphia, 1756), 6–7.

  38 George Washington: George Washington to John Robinson, April 20, 1755, George Washington to Earl of Loudoun, Jan. 10, 1757, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., I, 255–256, IV, 89.

  39 “the most … saw”: Entry of June 13, [1755], Charlotte Brown, Journal, DLC.

  40 “daily … concerned”: Edward Braddock to Thomas Robinson, June 5, 1755, Amherst Papers, WO 34/73, ff. 35–37, PRO; Petition of Charles Dick and Thomas Walker, CO 5/1352, f. 44, PRO; Adam Stephen to Henry Bouquet, May 26, 1758, Bouquet Papers, Add MSS 21,643, ff. 92–93, Uk; Thomas Dunbar to Robert Napier, July 24, 1755, anonymous letter, July 25, 1755, Stanley Pargellis, ed., Military Affairs in North America, 1748–1765: Selected Documents from the Cumberland Papers in Windsor Castle (New York, 1936), 109, 118, 120; Robert Orme, Journal, in Sargent, ed., History of an Expedition, 287, 313–316; Titus, Old Dominion at War, 70; Douglas Edward Leach, Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677–1763 (Chapel Hill, 1986), 80–82.

  41 “grave smiles”: Entry of [Feb.] 25, 1755, Walker, Diary, in Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 123.

  42 “Bragging … Promises”: The Expedition of Major General Braddock to Virginia (London, 1755), 16–17, 22–23; William Sparke to [?], Nov. 22, 1755, in Sheldon S. Cohen, “Major William Sparke along the Monongahela: A New Historical Account of Braddock’s Defeat,” PaH, LXII (1995), 550; Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., and Leonard W. Labaree, “Franklin and the ‘Wagon Affair,’ 1755,” American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, CI (Dec. 1957), 551–558.

  43 “the old” … “Defiles”: Expedition of Major General Braddock, 16; Richard Walsh, ed., “Braddock on July 9, 1755,” MHM, LX (Dec. 1965), 422.

  44 Thomas Walker: Jasper Yeates to [?], Aug. 21, 1776, Register of Pennsylvania, VI (Aug. 14, 1830), 104–105. See also McIlwaine, ed., Journals of Burgesses, 1752–1758, 328.

  45 General Braddock: Paul E. Kopperman, Braddock at the Monongahela (Pittsburgh, 1977).

  46 “No … Land”: Quoted in McConnell, A Country Between, 119. See also Edward Braddock to Robert Hunter Morris, April 15, 1755, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1256 (April 1920), Item 104.

  47 “cutting … families”: Walsh, ed., “Braddock on July 9, 1755,” MHM, LX (Dec. 1965), 427; Davies, Virginia’s Danger and Remedy, 9–10; Titus, Old Dominion at War, 74–75.

  48 “in droves of fifties”: George Washington to John Robinson, April 24, 1756, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., III, 48; Matthew C. Ward, “Fighting the ‘Old Women’: Indian Strategy on the Virginia and Pennsylvania Frontier, 1754–1758,” VMHB, CIII (July 1995), 297–320.

  49 “a mere Farce”: Davies, Virginia’s Danger and Remedy, II.

  50 “they … desert”: Robert Dinwiddie to George Washington, July 1, 1756, George Washington to John Robinson, Nov. 9, 1756, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., III, 232, IV, 11–13.

  51 “to cause … Men”: William Peachey to George Washington, Aug. 22, 1757, Landon Carter to George Washington, April 21, 1756, ibid., IV, 382, III, 30–31.

  52 “the most … measures”: Richard Bland to George Washington, June 7, 1757, ibid., IV, 187.

  53 “good … Generosity”: James Robertson to Earl of Morton, Dec. 19, 1758, Pargellis, ed., Military Affairs in North America, 431; John Richard Alden, John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier (Ann Arbor, 1944), 47–50.

  54 “surprised and sorry”: Charles Steuart to William Bowden, Aug. 2, 1754, Charles Steuart Letterbooks, PHi; John Watts to Robert Monckton, Jan. 10, 1765, Aspinwall Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 4th ser., IX–X (1871), II, 548–549.

  55 Elizabeth Carter Byrd: Maria Taylor Byrd to William Byrd, March 15, Dec. 24, 1757, [Feb. 1760?], July 13, Aug. 15, 1760, The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds, ed. Marion Tinling (Charlottesville, 1977), II, 623, 634, 682, 697, 701.

  56 “in a … Behaviour”: John Kirkpatrick to George Washington, Aug. 14, 1756, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., III, 352.

  57 “your … love”: Elizabeth Byrd to William Byrd, Aug. 16, 1757, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 626.

  58 “what … necessary”: William Byrd, Deed of Trust, Dec. 18, 1756, in Herbert A. Elliott, “Sir Peyton Skipwith and the Byrd Land,” VMHB, LXXX (Jan. 1972), 57–58.

  59 “many importunate Creditors”: Richard Corbin to Edmund Jenings, April 26, 1758, Richard Corbin Letterbook, ViWC; Francis Jerdone to Hugh Crawford, Dec. 28, 1756, Nov. 20, 1759, Jerdone Letterbook, ViW.

  60 an accident: Maria Taylor Byrd to William Byrd, July 13, 18, Aug. 15, 1760, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 697, 699–701.

  61 “had … used”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH.

  62 “Terrible”: Richard Corbin to Robert Dinwiddie, Oct. 8, 1760, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC.

  63 “I have … durst”: George Washington to Robert Dinwiddie, May 29, 1754, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., I, 107.

  64 “That … more!”: George Washington to John Robinson, Sept. 1, 1758, ibid., V, 432. See also John Forbes to Henry Bouquet, Sept. 23, 1758, [Mary Carson Darlington], comp., Fort Pitt and Letters from the Frontier (Pittsburgh, 1892), 72–73.

  65 “attacked” … “gay”: John Tayloe to William Byrd, April 4, 1758, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 646.

  66 “little bastard”: John Custis to William Byrd, [ca. Jan. 1725], ibid., I, 351.

  67 her attorney: John Mercer to Martha Custis, Jan. 4, 1758, “Worthy Partner”: The Papers of Martha Washington, ed. Joseph E. Fields (Westport, 1994), 30.

  68 “possibly … him”: John Custis to Caesar Rodney, [ca. 1724], John Custis Letterbook, Custis-Lee Families Papers, DLC; Charles Dunbar v. Daniel Parke Custis, June 24, 1757, Add MSS 36,217, ff. 161–171, Uk; Douglas Southall Freeman, George Washington: A Biography (New York, 1948–57), II, 280–301; “Settlement of the Daniel Parke Custis Estate,” Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 201–313.

  69 “leave … Land”: George Mercer to George Washington, Sept. 16, 1759, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 343.

  70 “mighty” … “Proprietors”: George Mercer to George Washington, Feb. 17, 1760, ibid., 387–388.

  71 “I … despised”: Adam Stephen to Richard Henry Lee, Feb. 24, 1760, Lee Family Papers, ViU; Harry M. Ward, Major General Adam Stephen and the Cause of American Liberty (Charlottesville, 1989), 64–65.

  72 its smallest crops: Peter V. Bergstrom, Markets and Merchants: Economic Diversification in Colonial Virginia, 1700–1775 (New York, 1985), 136; Calvin Brewster Coulter, Jr., “The Virginia Merchant” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1944), 145.

  73 Dr. Thomas Walker: Thomas Walker to George Washington, Aug. 14, 1758, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., V, 391.

  74 “common Price”: John Syme to Lidderdale, Harmer & Farell, May 8, 1757, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  75 “all cash”: Francis Jerdone to Hugh Crawford, June 10, 1758, Jerdone Letterbook, ViW. “continually riding”: John Snelson to William Montgomery & Son, June 4, 1758, Feb. 1, 1759, John Snelson Letterbook, Fredericks Hall Plantation Records, NcU.

  76 1755 Twopenny Act: William Robinson to Bishop of London, Aug. 12, 1765, Fulham Papers, Lambeth Palace.

  77 1758 Twopenny Act: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Jan. 5, 1759, The Official Papers of Francis Fauquier, ed. George Reese (Charlottesville, 1980–83), I, 144.

  78 “founded … Oppression”: Petition to the King, Oct. 20, 1760, CO 5/1330, f. 52, PRO; William Nelson et al. to Edward Montague, Dec. 12, 1759, VMHB, X (April 1903), 349–350.

  79 “they … fortunes”: [William Burke], An Account of the European Settlements in America (London, 1757), II, 208.

  80 “swallowed … Debt”: George Washington to Robert Stewart, April 27, 1763, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 207; Bruce A. Ragsdale, “George Washington, the British Tobacco Trade, and Economic Opportunity in Prerevolutionary Virginia,” VMHB, XCVII (1989), 143–149; Michael J. Rozbicki, The Complete Colonial Gentleman: Cultural Legitimacy in Plantation America (Charlottesville, 1998), 141–150; Robert F. Dalzell, Jr., and Lee Baldwin Dalzell, George Washington’s Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America (New York, 1998), 53–63.

  81 a Pennsylvania farmer: Expedition of Major General Braddock, 23.

  82 “a Great … him”: John Syme to Farell & Jones, Feb. 2, 1764, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi; William W. Reynolds, “Merchant and Investor: Additional Chapters on the Career of Dr. Thomas Walker,” MACH, LII (1994), 1–21; Thomson, “Merchant in Virginia,” 212–213.

  83 “the common … Planters”: Charles Carter to Charles Goore, Aug. 10, 1763, Carter Family Letterbook, ViU.

  84 “Scotch stores”: Garland Anderson to Bogle & Scott, July 30, 1764, Garland Anderson Papers, ViFreJM.

  85 marked up: “A VIRGINIAN,” Rind’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), Dec. 11, 1766; William Allason to Alexander Walker, June 24, 1764, William Allason Letterbooks, Vi; William Lee to Francis Lightfoot Lee, July 24, 1771, William Lee Letterbook, 1769–1771, duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia.

  86 “command” … “Customers”: William Allason to Alexander Walker, June 24, 1764, Allason Letterbooks, Vi. See also T. M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and Their Trading Activities (Edinburgh, 1975), 59–60; William R. Brock, Scotus Americanus (Edinburgh, 1982), chap. 3; Charles J. Farmer, In the Absence of Towns: Settlement and Country Trade in Southside Virginia, 1730–1800 (Lanham, 1993), 174–183.

  87 “common buckskins”: Alexander Stewart, Memorial, Jan. 30, 1749, in Henry Paton, ed., The Lyon in Mourning (Edinburgh, 1895), II, 242.

  88 “seated … Derision”: Brent Tarter, ed., The Order Book and Related Papers of the Common Hall of the Borough of Norfolk, Virginia, 1736–1798 (Richmond, 1979), 101.

  89 “held … Glascow”: John Baylor to John Backhouse, July 18, 1764, John Baylor Letterbook, Vi.

  90 Scots took care: William Lee to Landon Carter, Oct. 30, 1770, William Lee Letterbook, 1770–1771, duPont Library, Stratford.

  91 “secrets … Trade”: William Nelson to Edward and Samuel Athawes, Aug. 12, 1767, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

  92 “Engrossers”: Roger Atkinson to Lionel and Samuel Lyde, July 5, 1769, Roger Atkinson Letterbook, ViU.

  93 “the artful … Nation”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 25, 1773.

  94 “unfortunate Debtors”: [Randolph], Letter to a Gentleman, 11.

  95 “Vassalage & Dependance”: Robert Beverley to [?], n.d. [1764], Robert Beverley Letterbook, DLC.

  96 “prudent Management”: James Maury to Robert Jackson, July 17, 1762, William Earl Hutchinson, “American Families: The Maurys of Virginia,” Manuscripts, XLII (1990), 296.

  97 “maxims” … “future”: Robert Beverley to John Bland, Nov. 16, 1761, Beverley Letterbook, DLC. On Scots, see Charles H. Haws, Scots in the Old Dominion (Edinburgh, 1980), chaps. 6–7; Alan L. Karras, Sojourners in the Sun: Scottish Migrants in Jamaica and the Chesapeake, 1740–1800 (Ithaca, 1992), chap. 3; Ian Charles Cargill Graham, Colonists from Scotland: Emigration to North America, 1707–1783 (Ithaca, 1956), 115–125; David S. Macmillan, “The ‘New Men’ in Action: Scottish Mercantile and Shipping Operations in the North American Colonies, 1760–1825,” in David S. Macmillan, ed., Canadian Business History: Selected Studies, 1497–1971 (Toronto, 1972), 44–103; Jacob M. Price, “The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707–1775,” WMQ, 3d ser., XI (April 1954), 179–199; Jacob M. Price and Paul G. E. Clemens, “A Revolution of Scale in Overseas Trade: British Firms in the Chesapeake Trade, 1675–1775,” JEcH, XLVII (March 1987), 1–43. On tobacco trade and indebtedness, see also John Brewer, “Commercialization and Politics,” in Neil McKendrick, John Brewer, and J. H. Plumb, The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England (Bloomington, 1982), 210–213; Edwin J. Perkins, The Economy of Colonial America (New York, 1980), 30–35; Jacob M. Price, “Capital and Credit in the British-Chesapeake Trade, 1750–1775,” in Virginia Bever Platt and David Curtis Skaggs, eds., Of Mother Country and Plantations (Bowling Green, 1971), 8–14; Jacob M. Price, Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700–1776 (Cambridge, 1980); John W. Tyler, “Foster Cunliffe and Sons: Liverpool Merchants in the Maryland Tobacco Trade, 1738–1765,” MHM, LXXIII (Sept. 1978), 246–279; Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English Business, 1700–1800 (Cambridge, 1987), 98–103; Bruce A. Ragsdale, A Planters’ Republic: The Search for Economic Independence in Revolutionary Virginia (Madison, 1996), chap. 1.

  98 “remarkably homely”: William Wirt Henry, Patrick Henry: Life, Correspondence and Speeches (New York, 1891), II, 128.

  99 “seem’d … Husband”: William Byrd, The Writings of “Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia Esqr.,” ed. John Spencer Bassett (New York, 1901), 383. See also Eva C. Hartless, Sarah Winston Syme Henry: Mother of Patrick Henry (Boston, 1977).

100 “beginning” … “largely”: John Syme to Lidderdale, Harmer & Farell, June 9, 1753, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

101 “Oblig’d … largely”: John Syme to Lidderdale, Harmer & Farell, May 27, 1754, ibid.

102 “My … Expensive”: John Syme to Joseph Farell, June 2, 1760, ibid.

103 “extravagance … economy”: Andrew Burnaby, Travels Through the Middle Settlements in North America, in the Years 1759 and 1760, 3d ed., ed. Rufus Rockwell Wilson (New York, 1904), 55, 61–62.

104 his mother-in-law: John Syme to Mildred Walker, June 5, 1755, Page-Walker Manuscripts, ViU.

105 “I am … also”: John Syme to Joseph Farell, June 2, 1760, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

106 opened a store: John Syme to Farell & Jones, May 25, 1768, ibid. See also Samuel Waterman v. John Syme, 1791, John Jackson v. John Syme, 1798, Smith, Son & Russell v. John Syme, 1796, ibid.; John Snelson to Edward Harford, Jr., June 10, 1772, Snelson Letterbook, NcU.

107 “Clear … score”: John Syme to Farell & Jones, May 21, 1763, and Farell & Jones’s comments on this letter, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

108 “I … Vacancy”: John Syme to Farell & Jones, May 25, 1768, ibid.

109 “my … Credit”: John Syme to Farell & Jones, June 20, 1766, ibid.

110 £20,000: John Wayles to Farell & Jones, Aug. 30, 1766, John M. Hemphill, II, ed., “John Wayles Rates His Neighbours,” VMHB, LXVI (July 1958), 304. See also Charles Steuart to William Bowden, March 4, 1762, Charles Steuart Letterbooks, PHi.

111 “trifling” … “fellow”: John Wayles to Farell & Jones, March 29, 1769, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/9, PRO.

112 “nothing” … “refuse”: John Syme to Farell & Jones, March 29, 1769, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

113 avoid the sheriff: John Wayles to Farell & Jones, July 27, 1769, June 13, 1770, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/9, PRO.

114 Admiral George Anson: John Daly Burk et al., The History of Virginia (Petersburg, 1804–16), III, 333–334; Graham Hood, The Governor’s Palace in Williamsburg: A Cultural Study (Williamsburg, 1991), 143–144; Thomas Jefferson to L. H. Girardin, Jan. 15, 1815, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh (Washington, 1903), XIV, 231–232.

115 “no … happy”: James Abercromby to John Blair, March 3, 1758, The Letter Book of James Abercromby, Colonial Agent: 1751–1773, ed. John C. Van Horne and George Reese (Richmond, 1991), 227.

116 Dinwiddie and the Board: Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations from January 1754 to December 1758 (London, 1933), 386–387; Robert Dinwiddie to Richard Corbin, Nov. 1758, Official Records of Dinwiddie, ed. Brock, II, 723.

117 Fauquier and the Virginians: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, June 11, 28, Sept. 23, 1758, April 10, 1759, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, I, 24, 43–44, 75–76, 204–205.

118 “The Govr … off”: William Ramsay to George Washington, Oct. 17–19, 1758, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 81.

119 Twopenny Act: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Jan. 5, 1759, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, I, 144–145.

120 “it is … Flattery”: [Randolph], Letter to a Gentleman, 11.

121 “the Darling … be”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, May 12, 1761, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, II, 525.

122 “for by … carried”: Robert Stewart to George Washington, March 19, 1762, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 121.

123 “designing People”: James Abercromby to Richard Corbin, Jan. 1, 1760, Letter Book of Abercromby, ed. Van Horne and Reese, 334.

124 “ill” … “satisfaction”: Committee of Correspondence to Edward Montague, June 13, 1761, VMHB, XI (July 1903), 25. See also Jack P. Greene, “The Attempt to Separate the Offices of Speaker and Treasurer in Virginia, 1758–1766,” ibid., LXXI (Jan. 1963), 11–18; Jack P. Greene, “ ‘Virtus et Libertas’: Political Culture, Social Change, and the Origins of the American Revolution in Virginia, 1763–1766,” in Jeffrey J. Crow and Larry E. Tise, eds., The Southern Experience in the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1978), 59–62; Nellie Norkus, “Francis Fauquier, Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, 1758–1768: A Study in Colonial Problems” (Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1954).

125 “great … Country”: “Characters of leading Men & Descriptions of Places in Virginia,” Peter Russell Papers, CaOTP. See also Robert Dinwiddie to Andrew Lewis, Oct. 1757, Official Records of Dinwiddie, ed. Brock, II, 711.

126 Thomas Johnson: H. R. McIlwaine, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1758–1761 (Richmond, 1908), 59, 88–90, 114. See also John Forbes to Henry Bouquet, June 2, 9, 1758, John St. Clair to Henry Bouquet, June 17, 1758, Henry Bouquet to John Forbes, Aug. 20, 1758, The Papers of Henry Bouquet, ed. S. K. Stevens et al. (Harrisburg, 1951), II, 6, 61, 110, 394; George Washington to Henry Bouquet, July 7, 1758, Thomas Walker to George Washington, July 24, Aug. 14, 1758, Charles Smith to George Washington, Aug. 17, 1758, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., V, 267, 324, 391–392; John Stanwix to Henry Bouquet, May 18, 1759, Bouquet Papers, Add MSS 21,638, f. 11, Uk.

127 Cherokee war: Tom Hatley, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians through the Era of Revolution (New York, 1995), chap. 10; Gregory Evans Dowd, “ ‘Insidious Friends’: Gift Giving and the Cherokee-British Alliance in the Seven Years’ War,” in Andrew R. L. Cayton and Fredrika J. Teute, eds., Contact Points: American Frontiers from the Mohawk Valley to the Mississippi, 1750–1830 (Chapel Hill, 1998), 114–150.

128 25,000 acres: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Dec. 1, 1759, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, I, 276; Henry Bouquet to Thomas Cresap, Sept. 12, 1760, Bouquet Papers, Add MSS 21,653, ff. 24–25, Uk.

129 “well … Colony”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Jan. 30, 1759, Board of Trade to Francis Fauquier, June 13, 1760, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, I, 165, 376–377. “no … procured”: Henry Bouquet to Thomas Cresap, Sept. 12, 1760, Bouquet Papers, Add MSS 21,653, ff. 24–25, Uk.

130 “new … Tenure”: Henry Bouquet to Thomas Gage, June 23, 1764, Bouquet Papers, Add MSS 21,637, ff. 39–40, ibid. See also “Hints relative to the Division & Government,” [1763], Grenville Correspondence, STG Box 17(31), CSmH; Jack M. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760–1775(Lincoln, 1961), 42–46; McConnell, A Country Between, 168–169; Philip Lawson, George Grenville: A Political Life (Oxford, 1984), 185–186.

131 a royal proclamation: Oct. 7, 1763, Clarence S. Brigham, ed., British Royal Proclamations Relating to America, 1603–1783, American Antiquarian Society, Transactions and Collections, XII (1911), 212–218.

132 “a temporary … years”: George Washington to William Crawford, Sept. 17, 1767, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 28. See also Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness, 105–109; Louis DeVorsey, Jr., The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 1763–1775 (Chapel Hill, 1966), 34–40.

133 “stragling Settlements”: Francis Fauquier to Earl of Shelburne, Nov. 18, 1766, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1394.

134 “Vagabonds” and “borderers”: Henry Bouquet to Francis Fauquier, Feb. 8, 1762, ibid., II, 677; Thomas Walpole to Earl of Hillsborough, July 16, 1770, The Correspondence of William Nelson as Acting Governor of Virginia, 1770–1771, ed. John C. Van Horne (Charlottesville, 1975), 22.

135 “very troublesome”: Testimony of Mr. Hanny, Feb. 1, 1772, W. L. Grant and James Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council of England. Colonial Series (London, 1908–12), V, 207.

136 “extremely fine”: Francis Fauquier to Earl of Shelburne, Dec. 18, 1766, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1412.

137 “it is … distant”: Grant and Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council, VI, 516. See also Eugene M. Del Papa, “The Royal Proclamation of 1763: Its Effect Upon Virginia Land Companies,” VMHB, LXXXIII (Oct. 1975), 406–411.

138 the Mississippi Company: Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 219–223, 242–250; Clarence E. Carter, ed., “Documents Relating to the Mississippi Land Company, 1763–1769,” AHR, XVI (Jan. 1911), 311–319; [Samuel Wharton], [Statement for the Petitioners in the Case of the Walpole Company Grant] [London?, 1772], 19–20; John Armistead to John Norton & Son, Sept. 15, 1765, BR Box 18(24), CSmH; George Washington, Account with Mississippi Adventure, Ledger A, p. 169, Papers of George Washington, Series 5, Financial Records, Vol. 1, DLC; Nathaniel Whitaker to Eleazar Wheelock, March 19–22, 1766, in Leon Burr Richardson, ed., An Indian Preacher in England (Hanover, 1933), 114.

139 “postpond”: Benjamin J. Hillman, ed., Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia (Richmond, 1966), VI, 257.

140 Walker and the councillors: Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 101.

141 Walker and the Loyal Company: Statement on Behalf of Loyal Company, July 27, 1803, The Letters and Papers of Edmund Pendleton, ed. David John Mays (Charlottesville, 1967), II, 709; [William Preston], [Affidavit], n.d., Preston Family Papers, P9267f/FA2, ViRHi; William Nelson to Secretary of State, Oct. 18, 1770, Correspondence of Nelson, ed. Van Horne, 42; Lewis Preston Summers, History of Southwest Virginia, 1746–1786 (Baltimore, 1966 [orig. publ. Richmond, 1903]), 82–83.

142 more than 150,000 acres: French v. The Successors of the Loyal Company, July 1834, 5 Leigh 663, Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Appeals and in the General Court of Virginia (Charlottesville, 1903), X, 239.

143 “secret … monger”: Richard Henderson to John Williams, Sept. 13, 1779, John Williams Papers, NcD.

144 “to the … Adventurer”: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 458.

145 Some later petitioned: Petition of Inhabitants of Washington and Montgomery Counties, [ca. May 1778?] and “Draught of Petition,” Arthur Campbell Papers, KyLoF. See Thomas Walker to William Preston, May 28, 1778, Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 152.

146 “The Doctrs … broke”: Robert Doack to William Preston, Oct. 28, 1772, Preston Papers, Vol. 2, f. 137, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

147 Norfolk: Malcolm Cameron Clark, “The Coastwise and Caribbean Trade of the Chesapeake Bay, 1696–1776” (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1970); Costa, “Economic Development”; Thomas C. Parramore, Peter C. Stewart, and Tommy L. Bogger, Norfolk: The First Four Centuries (Charlottesville, 1994), chap. 6.

148 Sparling, Jamieson, and Campbell: M. M. Schofield, “The Virginia Trade of the Firm of Sparling and Bolden, of Liverpool,” Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, CXVI (1965), 120; Alexander Fraser, comp., Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario: 1904 (Toronto, 1905), 132–133, 630–633, 646; Memorandum of the Sale, Aug. 17, 1780, Norfolk County, Escheated Estates, Records, Entry 658, Auditor of Public Accounts, Vi.

149 “Saw … return”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Dec. 17, 1767.

150 “were … Builder”: Hugh Edward Egerton, ed., The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists, 1783 to 1785: Being the Notes of Mr. Daniel Parker Coke, M.P. (Oxford, 1915), 366. See also Joseph A. Goldenberg, Shipbuilding in Colonial America (Charlottesville, 1976), 62–65, 117–120; William M. Kelso, “Shipbuilding in Virginia, 1763–1774,” Columbia Historical Society, Records, XLVIII (1971–72), 1–13.

151 seamen: Arthur Pierce Middleton, Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era (Newport News, 1953), 274–278; Jeremiah Morgan to Francis Fauquier, Sept. 11, 1767, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1500–1502; Clark, “Coastwise and Caribbean Trade,” 151.

152 “the Scotch” and “the Buckskin”: Henry Fleming to Littledale & Co., June 7, 1773, Papers of Henry Fleming, Cumbria Record Office, Kendal.

153 William Aitchison and James Parker: Memorial of William Aitchison, March 18, 1784, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/27, PRO; Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 390–391; Costa, “Economic Development,” 106–107; Karras, Sojourners, 157–158; William Lux to Aitchison & Parker, Dec. 26, 1763, April 18, Sept. 17, 1764, William Lux Letterbook, NNHi; “Jamieson-Ellegood-Parker,” WMQ, 1st ser., XIII (April 1905), 287–288.

154 employed Macknight: Thomas Macknight to John Elmsley, Nov. 1, 1791, James Parker to John Elmsley, Jan. 1, 1792, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library; Memorial of Thomas Macknight, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/121–122, PRO; D. L. Corbitt, “Thomas Macknight,” NCHR, II (Oct. 1925), 502–525; entries of May 5, Sept. 14, 1761, Pasquotank County, Granville Proprietary Land Office, Entry Books, 1751–1763, Secretary of State, Nc-Ar; Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 361–368.

155 “a pretty little Town”: Entry of Feb. 19, 1765, Journal of James Auld, William Alexander Smith Papers, Box 32, NcD. See also John W. Reps, Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland (Williamsburg, 1972), 213; Floyd McKnight, “The Town and City of Suffolk, 1742–1957,” in Rogers Dey Whichard, The History of Lower Tidewater Virginia (New York, 1959), II, 157–159; entry of Sept. 13–15, 1773, “Journal of General James Whitelaw,” Vermont Historical Society, Proceedings (1905–06), 144.

156 James Gibson: Memorial of James Gibson, American Loyalist Claims, AO 12/55 and AO 13/58, Folder G, PRO; Fraser, ed., Second Report of the Bureau of Archives of Ontario, 646. cargo to Tenerife: Costa, “Economic Development,” 85; Richard Corbin to Robert Tucker, Feb. 15, 1760, Richard Corbin to Capel and Osgood Hanbury, Feb. 17, 1760, Richard Corbin Letterbook, ViWC.

157 Tucker fell behind: Gerard R. Beekman to Archibald White, Dec. 12, 1761, The Beekman Mercantile Papers, 1746–1799, ed. Philip L. White (New York, 1956), I, 397.

158 bills of exchange: Richard Corbin to Robert Dinwiddie, June 12, 1760, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC.

159 “impatient”: William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia (Richmond, Philadelphia, and New York, 1809–23), VII, 458–461; “The Corbin Family,” VMHB, XXX (July 1922), 310–311.

160 Gawin Corbin: “Corbin Family,” VMHB, XXX (July 1922), 312–313; John Peile, comp., Biographical Register of Christ’s College, 1505–1905 (Cambridge, 1913), II, 262.

161 Two Sisters: Jeremiah Banning, Log and Will of Jeremiah Banning (New York, 1932), unpaginated; Baynton, Wharton & Morgan to Biggen, Bacon & Co., Oct. 21, 1763, Letter Books of Baynton, Wharton & Morgan, PHarH-Ar; Oswald Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 1661–1861 (Baltimore, 1915), II, 358; Silvanus Grove to Samuel Galloway, Feb. 2, 1761, Galloway-Maxcy-Markoe Papers, DLC; Walter Minchinton, Celia King, and Peter Waite, eds., Virginia Slave-Trade Statistics, 1698–1775 (Richmond, 1984), 159; James F. Searing, West African Slavery and Atlantic Commerce: The Senegal River Valley, 1700–1860 (Cambridge, 1993), 106–109. On Banning’s previous voyage, see his advertisement in Maryland Gazette (Annapolis), July 29, 1762, appendix.

162 Anthony Bacon’s contracts: Charles Steuart to Anthony Bacon, Oct. 11, Nov. 10, 1757, Charles Steuart Letterbooks, PHi; Anthony Bacon to Samuel Martin, June 25, 1761, T 1/411, f. 60, PRO; Treasury Minute Books, June 19, 1759, T 29/33, p. 195, PRO; L. B. Namier, “Anthony Bacon, M.P., an Eighteenth-Century Merchant,” JEcBH, II (Nov. 1929), 27–31.

163 a private gallery: George Carrington Mason, “The Colonial Churches of Spotsylvania and Caroline Counties, Virginia,” VMHB, LVIII (Oct. 1950), 455.

164 John Thornton: Joseph Jones to James Madison, Feb. 10, 1792, The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson, William M. E. Rachal, et al. (Chicago and Charlottesville, 1962–), XIV, 227; John Thornton to Robert Dinwiddie, Oct. 29, 1757, William P. Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 1875–93), I, 252–253; Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 74.

165 “the extensive … Ohio”: Edward Athawes et al. to William Pitt, Feb. 6, 1759, Correspondence of the First Lord and Lady Chatham, PRO 30/8/48, f. 187, PRO.

166 sale of lots: William Armstrong Crozier, ed., Spotsylvania County Records, 1721–1800 (Baltimore, 1955), 184, 190, 193, 198, 203, 208, 218, 221–222, 225–226, 255, 257; George Washington to Robert Cary & Co., March 16, 1762, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 119–120.

167 Among Bacon’s customers: Account with Anthony Bacon & Compa, Financial Records, Ledger A, p. 16, Papers of George Washington, Series 5, DLC; Charles Carroll to Anthony Bacon, June 30, Aug. 20, 1758, Aug. 27, 1759, Sept. 17, 1760, Oct. 12, 1763, Oct. 2, 1764, “Letters of Charles Carroll, Barrister,” MHM, XXXII (June 1937), 181, 185, 189–190, (Dec. 1937), 354, XXXIII (June 1938), 191, (Dec. 1938), 381, XXXIV (June 1939), 182–183; George Braxton to Anthony Bacon, Sept. 7, 1757, Frederick Horner, The History of the Blair, Banister, and Braxton Families Before and After the Revolution (Philadelphia, 1898), 145; Maryland Gazette, Sept. 6, Nov. 22, 1764.

168 arms and ammunition: Anthony Bacon to Principal Officers of Ordnance, May 7, Nov. 26, 1756, Feb. 28, 1757, T 1/371, 1/377, PRO; Francis Jerdone to Hugh Crawford, Dec. 28, 1756, Francis Jerdone Letterbook, ViW. See also Jenny West, Gunpowder, Government and War in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (Woodbridge, 1991), 143.

169 the York: Frank F. White, Jr., “A List of Convicts Transported to Maryland,” MHM, XLIII (March 1948), 55–60; John M. Hemphill, II, “Freight Rates in the Maryland Tobacco Trade, 1705–1762,” ibid., LIV (June 1959), 178–179.

170 Captain Comely Coppernose: Elaine G. Breslaw, ed., Records of the Tuesday Club of Annapolis, 1745–1756 (Urbana, 1988), 109–110, 164, 172–173; Alexander Hamilton, The History of the Ancient and Honorable Tuesday Club, ed. Robert Micklus (Chapel Hill, 1990), I—II; Wilson Somerville, The Tuesday Club of Annapolis (1745–1756) as Cultural Performance (Athens, 1997). On Thomas Bacon, see J. A. Leo Lemay, Men of Letters in Colonial Maryland (Knoxville, 1972), 313–342.

171 in Whitehaven: Jacob M. Price, France and the Chesapeake: A History of the French Tobacco Monopoly, 1674–1791 (Ann Arbor, 1973), I, 597.

172 the elder William Waters: See marginal note, Oct. 21, 1757, on William Waters, Will, July 3, 1720, 205 Marlborough, 6th folio, Will-Register Books, Principal Probate Registry, London. Summarized in “Virginia Gleanings in London,” VMHB, X (April 1903), 411–412. The powers of attorney are in American Papers, No. 34, House of Lords, London.

173 William Waters, the son: David Meade, “Family History,” in Henry J. Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, Containing Matters of Interest to the Descendants of David Meade (Chicago, 1883), 28; Mary E. McWilliams, “William Waters House Historical Report, 12,” ViWC; Inventory and Appraisement of the Estate of William Waters, Wills and Inventories, 1760–1771, ff. 460–472, York County Records, No. 21, Yorktown, Virginia.

174 “of a … value”: Memorial of London Merchants, [ca. June 21, 1758], Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, I, 38–41.

175 North Carolina currency: William L. Saunders et al., eds., The Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1886–), VI, 16–17.

176 Earl Granville: Ibid., 249–250, 307–308, 323–324, 423–424, 517, 692; Walter Clark, ed., The State Records of North Carolina (Winston and Goldsboro, 1895–1905), XXIII, 392–398; Memorial of Anthony Bacon, Joshua Sharpe Papers, NcU; Desmond Clarke, Arthur Dobbs, Esquire: 1689–1765 (London, 1958), 176–177; Schaw, Journal of a Lady, ed. Andrews and Andrews, appendix vii; Beverley W. Bond, The Quit-Rent System in the American Colonies (New Haven, 1919), 76–80, 301–309; Ella Lonn, The Colonial Agents of the Southern Colonies (Chapel Hill, 1945), 80–83; Thornton W. Mitchell, “The Granville District and Its Land Records,” NCHR, LXX (April 1993), 114–116.

177 Mann Page’s debts: Claim of John Lloyd, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/19, 79/38, PRO.

178 Hanover-Town: John Pendleton Kennedy, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1761–1765 (Richmond, 1907), 10, 19, 22, 25, 27; Royle’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 4, 1763; Richard Corbin to Capel and Osgood Hanbury, Nov. 19, 1763, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC; Malcolm H. Harris, “The Port Towns of the Pamunkey,” WMQ, 2d ser., XXIII (Oct. 1943), 511–512.

179 the Council and Burwell: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 228–229; Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, July 31, 1762, May 28, 1763, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, II, 781–783, 957.

180 “on account … station”: Richard Henry Lee to James Abercromby, Aug. 27, 1762, The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. James Curtis Ballagh (New York, 1912), I, 1–2.

181 “dayly … Interests”: James Abercromby to Francis Fauquier, Feb. 5, 1763, Letter Book of Abercromby, ed. Van Horne and Reese, 410–411.

182 the Board and Fauquier: Board of Trade to Francis Fauquier, March 11, 1763, Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, July 31, 1762, May 28, 1763, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, II, 929, 783, 957; Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 257.

183 “a scheme” … “certain assurances”: [Samuel Johnston] to [Thomas Barker], [ca. April 1763], Hayes Collection, Johnston Family Series, Box 1, NcU.

184 for a grant: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 257–258; Dismal Swamp Land Company Articles of Agreement, Nov. 3, 1763, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 271–273n.1.

185 “a low … Agriculture”: John Harvie to Thomas Jefferson, May 15, 1798, Andrew Kidd to William Vaughan, March 3, 1805, William Short Papers, DLC.

186 Washington felt certain: Entry of Oct. 15, 1763, The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (Charlottesville, 1976–79), I, 319–326; cash accounts, May 1763, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 209–212; “A survey made for the Dismal Swamp Compy,” Papers of George Washington, Series 9, Box 1, DLC; Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Berkeley, “Man and the Great Dismal,” Virginia Journal of Science, XXVII (1976), 146–147.

187 “of … others”: Articles of Agreement, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 273n.1.

188 “Gentlemen” … “Expectations”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, July 23, 1764, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1132.

189 its first meeting: Articles of Agreement and Minutes of Meeting, Nov. 3, 1763, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 269–276; Miles King, Receipt, Nov. 5, 1763, Gershom Nimmo, Receipt, Nov. 5, 1763, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

190 Queen Elizabeth’s Hospital: John Entick, The Present State of the British Empire (London, 1774), III, 363; C. P. Hill, The History of Bristol Grammar School (London, 1951), 56–59; John Latimer, The Annals of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century (n.p., 1893), 12, 16, 46–49, 486; William Barrett, The History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol(Bristol, 1789), 376–379; Roger Wilson, “Bristol’s Schools,” in C. M. MacInnes and W. F. Whittand, eds., Bristol and Its Adjoining Counties (Bristol, 1955), 313; Ronald W. Herlan, “Relief of the Poor in Bristol from Late Elizabethan Times until the Restoration Era,” American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, CXXVI (June 1982), 218; Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society (London, 1969–73), I, chap. 9; Paul Langford, A Polite and Commercial People: England, 1727–1783 (Oxford, 1989), 128–133. On Gloucestershire weavers, see J. deL. Mann, The Cloth Industry in the West of England from 1640 to 1880 (Oxford, 1971), esp. chap. 4.

191 “for my … Plantership”: Samuel Martin to Samuel Martin, Jr., Jan. 31, 1774, Samuel Martin Letterbook, 1768–1776, Add MSS 41,348, f. 157, Uk.

192 “Store … attention”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, July 21, 1767, Jos. Smith’s Admr et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

193 Gist and John Smith: Jos. Smith’s Admr et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi; William Nelson to Thomas and Rowland Hunt, July 3, 1772, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, T 79/39, PRO; C. G. Chamberlayne, ed., The Vestry Book of St. Paul’s Parish, Hanover County, Virginia, 1706–1786 (Richmond, 1940), 312, 339–340; Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, May 15, 1752; Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants (Baltimore, 1987–93), IV, 16; Bond, May 5, 1737, Indenture, 1737, John Shore to William Pollard, July 7, 1800, William Pollard Papers, Pollard Family Papers, ViRHi; Francis Jerdone to Morgan Thomas & Co., May 15, 1756, Jerdone Letterbook, ViW; “Massie Family,” WMQ, 1st ser., XIII (1905), 196–199; Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, VII, 127–130; Old Homes of Hanover County, Virginia (Hanover, 1983), 17, 23–24, 64.

194 “I had … with it”: John Snelson to Christopher Lilly, Sept. 23, 1757, John Snelson to Edward Harford, Sr., Oct. 29, 1757, Snelson Letterbook, NcU.

195 Maury trial: James Maury to John Camm, Dec. 12, 1763, in Ann Maury, Memoirs of a Huguenot Family (New York, 1853), 418–423; William Robinson to Bishop of London, Aug. 12, 1765, William Stevens Perry, ed., Historical Collections Relating to the American Colonial Church (Hartford, 1870), I, 514; Joseph Henry Smith, Appeals to the Privy Council from the American Plantations (New York, 1950), 607–626.

196 “much conversation”: Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, Aug. 14, 1814, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul Leicester Ford (New York, 1892–99), IX, 467.

197 Speaker Robinson and burning: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, June 1, 1763, Account of Treasury Notes, May 23, 1763, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, II, 960–963, 971–973; Richard Henry Lee, Speech, May 1763, Lee Family Papers, ViU; Richard Corbin to Robert Cary, Aug. 8, 1763, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC; Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution (Lincoln, 1965), 22–29; Joseph Albert Ernst, Money and Politics in America, 1755–1775: A Study in the Currency Act of 1764 and the Political Economy of Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1973), 63–76.

198 grants: Joseph Jones and Martha Jones, Indenture, Dec. 7, 1764, John Richardson Kilby Papers, Box 43, NcD; Petition of James Murdaugh, Nov. 12, 1791, Legislative Petitions, Nansemond County, Vi; Nansemond County Land Book, 1782, Nansemond County Tax Lists, Vi; James Murdaugh, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Jan. 13, 1771.

199 Parker, Aitchison, Macknight: James Parker to Charles Steuart, July 5, Nov. 15, 1769, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL; Claim of Thomas Macknight, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/121–122, PRO; Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 363–365; [Samuel Johnston] to [Thomas Barker], [ca. April 1763], Hayes Collection, NcU.

200 “in the … line”: March 26, April 16, 1763, Granville Proprietary Land Office, Entry Books, 1751–1763, Pasquotank County, Nc-Ar.

201 “secure” … “Expectation”: [Samuel Johnston] to [Thomas Barker], [ca. April 1763], Hayes Collection, NcU.

202 Alexander Elmsly: Charles Steuart to James Parker, Feb. 6, 1770, Parker Family Papers, Liverpool Public Library; James Parker to Charles Steuart, Aug. 5–15, 1770, Steuart Papers, UkENL; Mitchell, “Granville District,” NCHR, LXX (April 1993), 116–117.

203 “will … utility”: Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, VIII, 18–19; H. R. McIlwaine, ed., Legislative Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, 2d ed. (Richmond, 1979), 1318–1319; Kennedy, ed., Journals of the Burgesses, 1761–1765, 214–219, 222.

204 Page and Burwell: Maria Beverley to Maria Carter, April 20, 1764, “Some Family Letters of the Eighteenth Century,” VMHB, XV (April 1908), 434; Robert Burwell, Will, Jan. 10, 1777, WMQ, 1st ser., VII (April 1899), 311.

205 political economists: John Rutherfurd, The Importance of the Colonies to Great Britain (London, 1761), 5–9, 15, 29–31; Adam Anderson, An Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce (London, 1764), I, xvi; Malachy Postlethwayt, Britain’s Commercial Interest Explained and Improved (New York, 1968 [orig. publ. London, 1757]), 176–178; [John Mitchell], The Present State of Great Britain and North America (London, 1767), 143–146; Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XXIII, 613–614.

206 £740,000: Peter Wyche to Charles Carter, May 30, 1761, Guard Book, Vol. 6, No. 49, Royal Society of Arts, London. Compare Rutherfurd, Importance, 8, 15.

207 £300,000: [Mitchell], Present State, 8–9n.

208 the Empress Catherine: Macmillan, “ ‘New Men’ in Action,” in Macmillan, ed., Canadian Business History, 83.

209 first lord of the Admiralty: Earl of Egmont to George Grenville, April 16, 1764, The Grenville Papers, ed. William Jones Smith (London, 1852), II, 290–291.

210 “of the … Plant”: Charles Carter to Peter Wyche, [Feb. 28, 1761], Guard Book, Vol. 6, No. 47, Royal Society of Arts.

211 “I firmly … Debts”: Robert Beverley to [?], [1764], Beverley Letterbook, DLC.

212 lapsed bounty: Charles Garth to Committee of Correspondence, Feb. 19, 1763, Charles Garth Letterbook, MiU-C; William Knox, “Reasons for granting a Bounty,” William Knox Papers, MiU-C; Memorial of the Several Merchants, Nov. 30, 1763, Original Correspondence, Board of Trade, 1763–1764, CO 323/17, ff. 52–53, PRO; Extracts from a Report, Feb. 9, 1764, Liverpool Papers, Add MSS 38,337, ff. 162–173, Uk; R. C. Simmons and P. D. G. Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliaments Respecting North America, 1754–1783 (Millwood, 1982–87), I, 517; Grant and Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council, IV, 631–636; Sosin, Agents and Merchants, 21–22; L. B. Namier, “Charles Garth, Agent for South Carolina,” EnHR, LIV (Oct. 1939), 638–639; Norman Macdonald, “Hemp and Imperial Defence,” CHR, XVII (Dec. 1936), 386–387; Herbert H. Kaplan, Russian Overseas Commerce with Great Britain During the Reign of Catherine II (Philadelphia, 1995), 66–72.

213 “I am … Navy”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, July 23, 1764, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1132.

214 Bacon and contracts: Alexander Fall to Charles Jenkinson, Jan. 29, 1764, The Jenkinson Papers, 1760–1766, ed. Ninetta S. Jucker (London, 1949), 258–259; Lucy Sutherland, “The City of London in Eighteenth-Century Politics,” in Aubrey Newman, ed., Politics and Finance in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1984), 43; Norman Baker, Government and Contractors: The British Treasury and War Supplies, 1775–1783 (London, 1971).

215 “very extensive”: Grant and Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council, IV, 551; Harold A. Innis, The Cod Fisheries: The History of an International Economy, rev. ed. (Toronto, 1954), 191.

216 Sir George Yonge: George Grenville to George Yonge, Sept. 26, 1763, George Grenville Letterbooks, ST 7, CSmH; John Bindley to Charles Jenkinson, Sept. 19, 1763, Alexander Fall to Charles Jenkinson, Jan. 29, 1764, Jenkinson Papers, ed. Jucker, 193–194n, 194, 259.

217 “he had … deserved”: Baron Holland to George Selwyn, Aug. 4, 1765, in John Heneage Jesse, George Selwyn and His Contemporaries (London, 1843), I, 389; Charles Townshend to Duke of Buccleugh, Dec. 30, 1765, Charles Townshend Papers, MiU-C; Lawson, Grenville.

218 “the vulgar,” “the rabble”: John Wilkes to Heaton Wilkes, Sept. 3, 1760, John Wilkes to John Dell, June 22, 23, 1757, Aug. 25, 1759, Dec. 27, 1760, Jan. 1, 24, 27, 31, April 21, 1761, John Wilkes Papers, MiU-C; Alan Dell, “A Political Agent at Work in Eighteenth-Century Aylesbury,” Records of Buckinghamshire, XXX (1988), 117–122; George Rudé, Wilkes and Liberty: A Social Study of 1763 to 1774 (Oxford, 1962), 17–19.

219 seditious libel: Lawson, Grenville, 166–179; Peter D. G. Thomas, John Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty (Oxford, 1996), chaps. 1–3; John Beckett, The Rise and Fall of the Grenvilles: The Dukes of Buckingham and Chandos, 1710 to 1921 (Manchester, 1994), 45.

220 Bacon and Grenville: George Grenville to Richard Lowndes, Jan. 21, 1764, George Grenville to Charles Lowndes, Jan. 21, 1764, George Grenville to Earl Temple, Sept. 10, 1769, ST 7 and STG Box 192(11), CSmH; Alexander Fall to Charles Jenkinson, Jan. 29, 1764, Jenkinson Papers, ed. Jucker, 259. See also George Grenville to James Oswald, March 17, 1748, in Memorials of the Public Life and Character of the Right Hon. James Oswald (Edinburgh, 1825), 385–388.

221 silver and gold coins: T 1/402, ff. 88–89, PRO.

222 “he … favourite”: Jeremy Bentham to Richard Clark, Aug. 16, 1768, The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, ed. Timothy L. S. Sprigge (London, 1968), I, 130. See John Sainsbury, “John Wilkes, Debt, and Patriotism,” JBS, XXXIV (April 1995), 165–195.

223 Wilkes’s pamphlet: John Wilkes, A Letter to the Worthy Electors of the Borough of Aylesbury (London, 1764), 3, 10–11, 14, 16; John Wilkes to Humphrey Cotes, Jan. 20, 1764, John Wilkes Correspondence, Add MSS 30,868, f. 25, Uk.

224 seeking a contract: T 1/365, f. 48, PRO; John Wilkes to Heaton Wilkes, March 16, 1764, Wilkes Papers, MiU-C.

225 warned Grenville: Simmons and Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates, I, 508; [Anthony Bacon], A Short Address to the Government (London, 1775), 2–3, 6–7.

226 John Syme: John Syme to Farell & Jones, May 10, 21, Nov. 15, 1763, Feb. 2, 1764, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

227 “miserable”: Rowland Ash to Charles Tudway, July 24, 1762, May 16, July 25, 1763, Francis Farley to Charles Tudway, Nov. 3, 1762, Dec. 28, 1763, May 20, 1764, Stephen Blizard to Charles Tudway, July 16, 1763, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office; Samuel Martin to Samuel Martin, Jr., March 20, 1762, Martin Letterbook, Add MSS 41,347, ff. 128–129, Uk; Theodore Barrell to William Barrell, May 17, 1762, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC.

228 “valuable property”: Francis Farley to John Simon Farley, July 13, 1778, Decisions in Chancery by Wythe, 255.

229 at Louisburg: John Knox, An Historical Journal of the Campaigns in North America, ed. Arthur G. Doughty (Toronto, 1914), I, 112–113, 250–253n, 259n; Thomas Byam Martin, “Reminiscences and Notes,” Letters and Papers of Admiral of the Fleet Sir Thos. Byam Martin, ed. Richard Vesey Hamilton (London, 1903), I, 95; Edward Boscawen to William Pitt, July 26, 1758, in Jeffery Amherst, A Journal of the Landing of His Majesty’s Forces on the Island of Cape-Breton, and of the Siege and Surrender of Louisbourg, 3d ed. (Boston, [1758]), 20; entry of July 25, 1758, The Journal of Jeffery Amherst, ed. J. Clarence Webster (Toronto, 1931), 71; William Wood, ed., The Logs of the Conquest of Canada (Toronto, 1909), 65–66, 76–77, 189–190, 201; entry of July 25, 1758, “Copy of Journal Kept by—Gordon,” Nova Scotia Historical Society, Collections, V (1886–87), 140–141.

230 “a handsome fortune”: Charles Steuart to William Aitchison and James Parker, May 4, 1764, Parker Family Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

231 Laforey in Virginia: John Laforey to Phillip Stephens, July 7, 1767, Adm 1/2052, PRO; Samuel Martin to Christopher Baldwin, June 22, 1765, Martin Letterbook, Add MSS 41,350, ff. 13–14, Uk; entry of April 25, 1765, “Journal of a French Traveller in the Colonies, 1765,” AHR, XXVI (July 1921), 741–742.

232 Meade and Waters: Meade, “Family History,” in Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 9–29; Hugh F. Rankin, The Theater in Colonial America (Chapel Hill, 1965), 74, 101.

233 “inheriting … patrimony”: Meade, “Family History,” in Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 14, 21. Meade’s debts and holdings: Claim of Wakelin Welch, T 79/3, ff. 344–346, 388–394, PRO; Mary Meade to St. George Tucker, June 23, 1809, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, VIII, 470–473; Deeds, June 10, July 10, 1765, Kilby Family Papers, Box 1, Vi; Nansemond County Land Book, 1782, Nansemond County Tax Lists, Vi.

234 “one … Country”: “Characters of leading Men,” Russell Papers, CaOTP.

235 “Dismal Adventure”: Entry of April 30, 1764, Cash Account, Account with Fielding Lewis, Ledger A, p. 176, Financial Records, Papers of George Washington, Series 5, DLC.

236 Walker and Moore: Thomas Walker to Bernard Moore, May 27, 1764, Bernard Moore to Thomas Walker, May 28, 1764, in Philip Slaughter, Memoir of Col. Joshua Fry (Richmond, 1880), 63; John Baylor to John Backhouse, April 20, 1764, John Baylor Letterbook, Vi; William Allason to Alexander Walker, May 21, 1765, Allason Letterbooks, Vi.

237 shipment to Spain: William Lux to Robert Tucker, Sept. 27, 1764, Lux Letterbook, NNHi.

238 “narcotic” … “worst”: Simon Paulli, A Treatise on Tobacco, Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate, trans. R. James (London, 1746), 22, 36, 118. See also James Walvin, Fruits of Empire: Exotic Produce and British Taste, 1660–1800 (New York, 1997).

239 a stamp tax: Proceedings of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence, June 15, 1764, Committee of Correspondence to Edward Montague, July 28, 1764, VMHB, XII (July 1904), 6–13.

240 Cape Breton Island: Grant and Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council, VI, 362–364; Richard Brown, A History of the Island of Cape Breton (London, 1869), 354–355.

241 on draining: Thomas Hale, A Compleat Body of Husbandry (London, 1756), 105.

242 bills of exchange: Entries of May 4, July 28, 1764, Virginia Gazette Daybooks, ViU.

243 £1,794: “Account of Doct. Walker with Loyal Company,” Rives Family Papers, ViU; account of the Lead Mine Company with John Robinson, William Byrd III Papers, Section 8, ViRHi; Carl Bridenbaugh, “Violence and Virtue in Virginia, 1766: or, the Importance of the Trivial,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, LXXVI (1964), 13.

244 “altogether” … “in”: Account of Treasury Notes, Aug. 27, 1764, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1143–1153.

245 David Campbell: John Meriditt and Fanny Meriditt, Indenture, Sept. 26, 1817, Kilby Family Papers, Box 1, Vi.

246 “Dismal plantation”: Patent, Oct. 20, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Smyth, Tour in the United States, II, 150; Mills Riddick, Bond, Nov. 24, 1766, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 476–477.

247 slaves: Appraisement of Dismal Swamp Slaves, July 4, 1764, Papers of Washington: Colonial, eds. Abbot et al., VII, 314–315; “Acct of Geo. Washington with the Dismal Swamp Comp.,” Papers of George Washington, Series 9, Box 1, DLC; David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Dec. 23, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO. On Burwell family slaves, see Lorena S. Walsh, From Calabar to Carter’s Grove: The History of a Virginia Slave Community (Charlottesville, 1997).

248 “set … work”: Account with Adventurers for Draining the Dismal Swamp, Financial Records, Ledger A, p. 194, Papers of George Washington, Series 5, DLC.

249 thousands of … shingles: On colonial shingle-making, see Rob Tarule, “The Ward House Cedar Shingles,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections, CXXI (April 1987), 107–115.

250 to “run about”: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Dec. 23, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; entry of Dec. 15, 1764, Memoranda D. S. Company, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

251 Washington, Walker, Lewis: Stephen Wright and Ann Wright, Indenture, Dec. 7, 1764, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Joseph Jones and Martha Jones, Indenture, Dec. 10, 1764, James Wright, Deed, Feb. 11, 1765, Kilby Papers, Box 43, NcD; George Washington, Will, July 9, 1799, The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, 1931–40), XXXVI, 296–297; advertisement, Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (Richmond), Sept. 11, 1802; Francis Walker to John Walker, Sept. 2, 1803, Washington Family Letters, ViU.

252 “that … Emolument”: Robert Stewart to George Washington, Aug. 18, 1765, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 390.

253 wrote his will: Robert Tucker, Will and Codicil, Jan. 10–12, 1765, Norfolk County Will Book, No. 1, 1755–1772, ff. 159–166, Norfolk County Courthouse, Portsmouth, Virginia.

254 the depression: Ernst, Money and Politics, 66; Joseph Albert Ernst, “The Robinson Scandal Redivivus: Money, Debts, and Politics in Revolutionary Virginia,” VMHB, LXXVII (April 1969), 151; Walter E. Minchinton, “The Stamp Act Crisis: Bristol and Virginia,” ibid., LXXIII (April 1965), 148; Richard Corbin, Memorial to the Treasury, CO 5/1330, ff. 126–127, PRO.

255 William Byrd: Entry of April 25, 1765, “French Traveller,” AHR, XXVI (July 1921), 742; William Allason to Alexander Walker, June 24, 1764, Allason Letterbook, Vi; testimony of George Mercer, Feb. 12, 1766, Add MSS 33,030, f. 128, Uk.

256 Samuel Gist: John Snelson to Edward Harford, Jr., May 19, 1765, Snelson Letterbook, NcU.

257 200 percent: William Allason to Alexander Walker, June 24, 1764, Allason Letterbook, Vi.

258 drought: Richard Corbin to Capel and Osgood Hanbury, Aug. 1, 1765, Richard Corbin to Philip Ludwell, Aug. 2, 1765, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC; James Gibson to Neil Jamieson, June 26, 1765, Neil Jamieson Papers, DLC; James Gibson to Samuel Galloway, July 18, 1765, Galloway-Maxcy-Markoe Papers, DLC.

259 George Grenville: George Grenville to Baron de Botetourt, Nov. 3, 1765, ST 7, CSmH; Harold William Thompson, ed., The Anecdotes and Egotisms of Henry Mackenzie, 1745–1831 (Oxford, 1927), 4; John L. Bullion, A Great and Necessary Measure: George Grenville and the Genesis of the Stamp Act, 1763–1765 (Columbia, 1982), chaps. 2, 4; Lawson, Grenville, 195; Daniel A. Baugh, “Maritime Strength and Atlantic Commerce,” in Lawrence Stone, ed., An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 (London, 1994), 207; Ian R. Christie, “A Vision of Empire: Thomas Whately and The Regulations Lately Made Concerning the Colonies,” EnHR, CXIII (April 1998), 300–320. For a summary of American smuggling, see Thomas Gage to Earl of Shelburne, April 28, 1767, The Correspondence of General Thomas Gage, ed. Clarence Edwin Carter (New Haven, 1931–33), I, 135–137.

260 “fondly” … “administer it”: William Strahan to David Hall, May 10, 1766, in Robert D. Harlan, “David Hall and the Stamp Act,” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, LXI (1967), 36.

261 “a beneficial employment”: Richard Henry Lee to Printer of the Virginia Gazette, July 25, 1766, Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. Ballagh, I, 16.

262 Peter Francklyn: Peter Francklyn to Earl of Sandwich, Feb. 19, 1765, STG Box 13(8), CSmH.

263 chose distributors: George Grenville to Thomas Whately, April 11, 1765, ST 7, CSmH; Sosin, Agents and Merchants, 62.

264 “considerable sums”: William Allason to Alexander Walker, May 21, 1765, Allason Letterbook, Vi.

265 unwise leniency: Richard Corbin to Philip Ludwell, Aug. 2, 1765, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC; William Allason to Alexander Walker, May 21, 1765, Allason Letterbook, Vi; Ernst, “Robinson Scandal,” VMHB, LXXVII (April 1969), 151–152.

266 “very valuable”: Henry Fitzhugh to John Stewart & Campbell, July 5, 1766, Letterbook, Henry Fitzhugh Papers, NcD.

267 At least £50,000: Kennedy, ed., Journals of the Burgesses, 1761–1765, 356–357, 359.

268 “extricate … Circumstances”: Charles Carter to Landon Carter, May 20, 1765, Sabine Hall Papers, ViU.

269 “to help … himself”: Richard Corbin to Capel and Osgood Hanbury, May 31, 1765, Richard Corbin to Philip Ludwell, Aug. 2, 1765, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC; John Syme to Farell & Jones, June 4, 1765, Jones’ Exor. v. John Syme, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Ernst, “Robinson Scandal,” VMHB, LXXVII (April 1969), 154–155.

270 During court days: William Allason to Alexander Walker, May 21, 1765, Allason Letterbook, Vi.

271 Robinson and the British Constitution: J. A. Leo Lemay, “John Mercer and the Stamp Act in Virginia, 1764–1765,” VMHB, XCI (Jan. 1983), 21–24; Paul Carrington, Sr., to William Wirt, Oct. 3, 1815, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC.

272 £35,000 … £45,000: Testimony of George Mercer, Feb. 12, 1766, Add MSS 33,030, f. 123, Uk; George Washington to Robert Cary & Co., Sept. 20, 1765, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 401–402.

273 House of Burgesses: Entries of May 30–31, 1765, “French Traveller,” AHR, XXVI (July 1921), 745–746; Paul Carrington, Sr., to William Wirt, Oct. 3, 1815, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC; Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, Aug. 14, 1814, Aug. 5, 1815, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC; William Robinson to Bishop of London, Aug. 12, 1765, Perry, ed., Historical Collections, I, 514–515; Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, June 5, 1765, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1250–1251.

274 newspapers in other colonies: Edmund S. Morgan, ed., Prologue to Revolution: Sources and Documents on the Stamp Act Crisis, 1764–1766 (Chapel Hill, 1959), 49–50.

275 “exceed … extravagance”: George Grenville to Thomas Whately, Aug. 13, 1765, ST 7, CSmH.

276 Mercer in Williamsburg: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Nov. 3, 1765, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1290–1295; Alfred Procter James, George Mercer of the Ohio Company: A Study in Frustration (Pittsburgh, 1963), 51–55. See, in general, Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1953); Ragsdale, A Planters’ Republic, chap. 2.

277 Richard Henry Lee: John Camm to Mrs. McClurg, July 24, 1766, WMQ, 1st ser., II (April 1894), 238; Oliver Perry Chitwood, Richard Henry Lee: Statesman of the Revolution (Morgantown, 1967), 36–38; Haws, Scots in the Old Dominion, 103–104.

278 Planters in Antigua: Letter from Antigua, Dec. 20, 1765, Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of the Earl of Dartmouth (London, 1887–96), II, 495; Selwyn H. H. Carrington, The British West Indies During the American Revolution (Dordrecht, 1988), 152.

279 “vast … people”: Francis Fauquier to Board of Trade, Nov. 3, 1765, Official Papers of Fauquier, ed. Reese, III, 1291; entry of April 28, 1765, “French Traveller,” AHR, XXVI (July 1921), 742.

280 Gist in Williamsburg: Entry of Sept. 27, 1765, Virginia Gazette Daybooks, ViU; Sarah Gist to Samuel Gist, Dec. 9, 1765, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; Samuel Gist, Answer to Thomas R. Rootes, Oct. 29, 1805, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

281 his expenses: George Mercer to John Robinson, Dec. 22, 1775, T 1/445, PRO.

III: THE LAND OF CAKES

    1 “safe … planters”: John Hook to Peter Davies, Aug. 15, 1765, Letter Book of John Hook, Vi. See also James Morrison to John Hook, Feb. 9, 1783, John Hook Papers, NcD. “Land of cakes” usually refers to Scotland.

    2 “immense” … “shew”: Jonathan Sewall to Edward Winslow, Jan. 10, 1776, William Bell Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents of the American Revolution (Washington, 1964–), III, 496; Thomas Heyward, Jr., to Daniel Heyward, Feb. 11, 1767, Old Northwest Genealogical Quarterly, VII (Oct. 1904), 259–260; entry of Jan. 14, 1779, Journal of Peter Van Schaack in Henry C. Van Schaack, The Life of Peter Van Schaack (New York, 1842), 135. See also William L. Sachse, The Colonial American in Britain (Madison, 1956), chap. 3.

    3 “narrowly … Dray-horse”: Entry of Sept. 18, 1766, Narrative of American Voyages and Travels of Captain William Owen, R. N., ed. Victor Hugo Paltsits (New York, 1942), 6; entry of Feb. 10, 1766, Diary of Samson Occom in Leon Burr Richardson, ed., An Indian Preacher in London (Hanover, 1933), 83; [John] Trusler, The London Adviser and Guide (London, 1786), 115–116, 129–138, 146–153.

    4 “ragged … Jills”: Entry of July 17, 1775, The Journal of Samuel Curwen, Loyalist, ed. Andrew Oliver (Cambridge, 1972), I, 33; James Habersham to Joseph Habersham, May 10, 1768, The Letters of Hon. James Habersham, 1756–1775, Georgia Historical Society, Collections, VI (1904), 70.

    5 “my … any?”: Entry of Oct. 5, 1780, Journal of Curwen, ed. Oliver, II, 673.

    6 “Everything … magnificent”: Carl Philip Moritz, Journeys of a German in England in 1782, 2d ed., trans. and ed. Reginald Nettel (New York, 1965), 26. See also John Gray to Tobias Smollett, July 8, 1771, in [Lewis Saul Benjamin], The Life and Letters of Tobias Smollett (London, 1926), 248; Pierre Jean Grosley, A Tour to London, trans. Thomas Nugent (Dublin, 1772), I, 35–36, 47–50; Samuel Johnson to Elizabeth Johnson, Jan. 21, 1775, Samuel Johnson to Mary Johnson, Feb. 22, 1775, Sir Joshua’s Nephew: Being Letters Written, 1769–1778, by a Young Man to His Sisters, ed. Susan M. Radcliffe (London, 1930), 30; James H. Watmough to Anna Watmough, Feb. 5, 1787, PMHB, XXIX (1905), 296–306; François Auguste de Frénilly, Recollections of Baron de Frénilly, ed. Arthur Chuquet, trans. Frederic Lees (New York, 1909), 31; Peter Brimblecombe, The Big Smoke: A History of Air Pollution in London Since Medieval Times (London, 1987), chap. 4; Dan Cruickshank and Neil Burton, Life in the Georgian City (London, 1990), chap. 1; Jules Lubbock, The Tyranny of Taste: The Politics of Architecture and Design in Britain, 1550–1960 (New Haven, 1995), Part I; Roy Porter, “Visitors’ Visions: Travellers’ Tales of Georgian London,” in Chloe Chard and Helen Langdon, eds., Transports: Travel, Pleasure, and Imaginative Geography, 1600–1830 (New Haven, 1996), 31–47.

    7 “the tenderest affection”: [Edward Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History and Description (London, 1805–13), III, 7.

    8 “the most … London”: Quoted in Nicholas Rogers, “Money, Land and Lineage: The Big Bourgeoisie of Hanoverian London,” Social History, IV (1979), 440. See also Nicholas Rogers, Whigs and Cities: Popular Politics in the Age of Walpole and Pitt (Oxford, 1989), 111–112.

    9 won other contracts: T 1/430, ff. 19–20, 1/429, ff. 422–423, PRO; W. L. Grant and James Munro, eds., Acts of the Privy Council of England. Colonial Series (London, 1908–12), IV, 617–618; R. C. Simmons and P. D. G. Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliaments Respecting North America, 1754–1783 (Millwood, 1982–87), III, 181; Grey Cooper to Viscount Barrington, May 7, 1766, An Eighteenth-Century Secretary at War: The Papers of William, Viscount Barrington, ed. Tony Hayter (London, 1988), 347.

  10 “it is … here”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, March 7, 1771, William Lee Letterbook, 1769–1772, Lee Family Papers ViRHi.

  11 “the most … saw”: Entries of Feb. 24, May 8, 1767, The Diary of Sylas Neville, 1767–1788, ed. Basil Cozens-Hardy (London, 1950), 4, 7.

  12 “waddle … duck”: Samuel Martin to Samuel Martin, Jr., April 28, 1769, Samuel Martin Letterbook, Add MSS 41,348, f. 46, Uk.

  13 “The trade … secret”: Malachy Postlethwayt, The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, 4th ed. (New York, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1774]), I, Introduction; [Daniel Defoe], The Anatomy of Exchange-Alley: Or, A System of Stock-Jobbing, 2d ed. (London, 1719), 42–43; E. Victor Morgan and W. A. Thomas, The Stock Exchange: Its History and Functions, 2d ed. (London, 1969), 67.

  14 “a mere … job”: John Warner to George Selwyn, May 28, 1779, John Heneage Jesse, George Selwyn and His Contemporaries (London, 1844), IV, 164.

  15 “Room … Rural”: Quoted in Lesley Lewis, “The Architects of the Chapel at Greenwich Hospital,” Art Bulletin, XXIX (Dec. 1947), 265. See also Daniel Lysons, The Environs of London, 2d ed. (London, 1811), I, Part II, 702–703; Thomas Wright, The History and Topography of the County of Essex (London, 1836), II, 506–507; P. H. Reaney and Hilda E. P. Grieve, “Walthamstow,” in W. R. Powell, ed., A History of the County of Essex (Oxford, 1973), VI, 259–260.

  16 Merthyr Tydfil: Moelwyn I. Williams, “The Economic and Social History of Glamorgan, 1660–1760,” in Glanmor Williams, ed., Glamorgan County History: Early Modern Glamorgan (Cardiff, 1974), IV, 372; Chris Evans, “The Labyrinth of Flames”: Work and Social Conflict in Early Industrial Merthyr Tydfil (Cardiff, 1993), 11.

  17 “our industrious poor”: [Anthony Bacon], A Short Address to the Government (London, 1775), 38.

  18 the Brownriggs: J. V. Beckett, “Dr. William Brownrigg, F. R. S.: Physician, Chemist and Country Gentleman,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, XXXI (Jan. 1977), 255–271; Richard Pococke, The Travels Through England of Dr. Richard Pococke, ed. James Joel Cartwright (London, 1888), I, 16–17; William Watson, “Some Account of an Oil, transmitted by Mr. George Brownrigg, of North Carolina,” Annual Register, XIII (1770), Useful Projects, 109–111.

  19 Charles Wood: Evans, Labyrinth of Flames, 58.

  20 “that place … there”: Entry of Aug. 2, 1767, The Diary of William Thomas, ed. R. T. W. Denning (Cardiff, 1995), 192.

  21 “Bacon’s Mineral Kingdom”: Robert L. Galloway, Annals of Coal Mining and the Coal Trade, 1st ser. (London, 1898), 360; W. H. Chaloner, “Isaac Wilkinson, Potfounder,” in L. S. Pressnell, ed., Studies in the Industrial Revolution (London, 1960), 23–51; Evans, Labyrinth of Flames, 15–16, 34–35, 147–149; Moelwyn Williams, The Making of the South Wales Landscape (London, 1975), 191–192; Charles Wilkins, The History of the Iron, Steel, Tinplate, and Other Trades of Wales (Merthyr Tydfil, 1903), 48–53, 148; Charles Wilkins, The History of Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tydfil, 1908), 227–231; John Lloyd, The Early History of the Old South Wales Iron Works (London, 1906), 48–50; [John Henry Manners, Duke of Rutland], Journal of a Tour Through North and South Wales, the Isle of Man, &c. &c. (London, 1805), 60–74; Benjamin Heath Malkin, The Scenery, Antiquities, and Biography of South Wales (Wakefield, 1970 [orig. publ. London, 1804]), 164–183; Robert Erskine to Richard Atkinson, Oct. 20–24, 1770, in Albert H. Heusser, George Washington’s Map Maker: A Biography of Robert Erskine (New Brunswick, 1966), 59.

  22 Joseph Manesty: Joseph Manesty to Earl of Dartmouth, Jan. 8, 1766, Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of the Earl of Dartmouth (London, 1887–96), II, 32; Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution (Lincoln, 1965), 71.

  23 “Reflections … ministry”: George Grenville to Baron de Botetourt, Nov. 3, 1765, George Grenville to Mr. Sarjent, Nov. 7, 1765, George Grenville Letterbooks, ST 7, CSmH.

  24 Charles O’Hara: Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations from January 1764 to December 1767 (London, 1936), 295, 303, 345–346; Charles O’Hara to Board of Trade, Sept. 1, 1766, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 90, MiU-C; Eveline C. Martin, The British West African Settlements, 1750–1821: A Study in Local Administration (New York, 1970 [orig. publ. London, 1927]), 80–81. The correspondence concerning Bacon’s conflicts with O’Hara is calendared in List and Index Society, Volume 244: Treasury Board Papers, 1765–1770 (1991), 327–329.

  25 “superintend”: Sheila Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century (Wilmington, 1975), LXXI, 80–81; Anthony Bacon to Charles Lowndes, Oct. 7, 1766, T 1/445, ff. 467–468, PRO.

  26 “No … manufactories”: Gilbert Francklyn, Observations Occasioned by the Attempts Made in England to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade (London, 1789), 11; John Rule, The Experience of Labour in Eighteenth-Century English Industry (New York, 1981), esp. 76–85.

  27 David Jameson: Account of Samuel Gist with David Jameson, June 1766, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; David Jameson to William Nelson, Jr., Jan. 4, 1785, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  28 John and Joseph Smith: Samuel Gist, Answer to Thomas R. Rootes, Oct. 29, 1805, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  29 “young Ladies”: Benjamin Howard to Samuel Gist, Aug. 25, 1766, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

  30 “a very … neighbourhood”: [Edward Pugh], Walks Through London (London, 1817), I, 12–13.

  31 fourteen almshouses: [Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History, II, 212.

  32 “whores and thieves”: Walter Besant, London in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1902), 130–131; [Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History, II, 183; [Pugh], Walks, I, 13.

  33 “the lame … maimed”: Samuel Kelly, Samuel Kelly: An Eighteenth Century Seaman, ed. Crosbie Garstin (New York, 1925), 129.

  34 “decayed … widows”: Thomas Allen, The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent (London, 1828), III, 98.

  35 “penitent prostitutes”: William Thornton, The New, Complete, and Universal History, Description, and Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster (London, [1784]), 429; Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society (London, 1969–73), I, 119–121.

  36 The garrets: Thomas Erskine to Alexander Gordon, June 28, [ca. 1767], in William Mure, ed., Selections from the Family Papers Preserved at Caldwell (Glasgow, 1854), Part II, Vol. II, 114.

  37 “foreign” … “lame”: William Mylne to Anne Mylne, Aug. 29–Sept. 4, 1773, in William Mylne, Travels in the Colonies in 1773–1775, ed. Ted Ruddock (Athens, 1993), 17.

  38 “very elegant edifice”: Thornton, New, Complete, and Universal History, 429, 443; Besant, London in the Eighteenth Century, 130–131; [Pugh], Walks, I, 12–13; [Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History, II, 183; Dorothy Stroud, George Dance: Architect, 1741–1825 (London, 1971), 84–86; Roy Porter, “Cleaning Up the Great Wen: Public Health in Eighteenth-Century London,” in W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter, eds., Living and Dying in London (London, 1991), 61–75; James Ayres, Building the Georgian City (New Haven, 1998).

  39 Gist and Walker: Samuel Gist to Thomas Walker, March 4, 1768, Thomas Walker Papers, William Cabell Rives Papers, Box 162, DLC; entry of Oct. 7, 1767, List of Ships and Vessels Cleared Outwards in Port of York, Virginia, T 1/461, PRO; Brian L. Evans, “Ginseng: Root of Chinese-Canadian Relations,” CHR, LXVI (March 1985), 1–26.

  40 “vile” … “evil”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, Aug. [31?], 1767, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  41 “a man … pay it”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, Sept. 18–20, 1767, ibid.

  42 “I can … them”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, Aug. [31?], 1767, ibid.

  43 a fee of two guineas: Eliot Howard, ed., Eliot Papers: John Eliot of London, Merchant, 1735–1813 (London, 1895), 31; Warren R. Dawson, “The London Coffee-Houses and the Beginnings of Lloyd’s,” in Essays by Divers Hands, Being the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom, 3d ser., XI (1932), 102–103; Bryant Lillywhite, London Coffee Houses (London, 1963), 329–334.

  44 “I am … can be”: Report from the Select Committee Appointed to Consider … the State and Means of Effecting Marine Insurance in Great Britain, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p. 67.

  45 “a Man … America”: Bourdieu, Chollet & Bourdieu to Nicholas Low, Feb. 7, 1787, Nicholas Low Papers, DLC.

  46 “an Underwriter … way”: Philip Eliot to John Eliot, Nov. 16, 1757, Eliot Papers, ed. Howard, 45.

  47 risks: Report on Marine Insurance, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p. 60.

  48 “Sea Gulls”: Ibid., p. 116.

  49 “long … Underwriter”: Ibid., p. 110.

  50 “I should … it”: Ibid., pp. 75–76.

  51 “a merchant … premium”: Quoted in Annals of Lloyd’s Register ([London], 1934), 14. See also James Allan Park, A System of the Law of Marine Insurance, 2d ed. (London, 1790), 223–224.

  52 capital of £100,000: Jeremiah Osborne to Aaron Lopez, Feb. 14, 25, 1767, Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, 1726–1800, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 7th ser., IX–X (1914–15), I, 181, 191; William Hayley to Eliza Hayley, Aug. 1, 1783, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of William Hayley, Esq., ed. John Johnson (London, 1823), I, 308–309; Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754–1790 (New York, 1964), II, 602–603.

  53 “intimate & close”: Hayley & Hopkins to Stephen Collins, March 20, 1777, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC.

  54 “No one … articles”: William Neate to Stephen Collins, Aug. 15, 1771, ibid.; Neate, Pigou & Booth to Field & Dowell, July 10, 1765, John Chaloner Collection, MiU-C.

  55 “had the … House”: Alexander Carlyle, Anecdotes and Characters of the Times, ed. James Kinsley (London, 1973), 256.

  56 James Bourdieu: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, XXVI, 281; Lucy S. Sutherland, A London Merchant, 1695–1774 (London, 1962 [orig. publ. Oxford, 1933]), 71; Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations from January 1776 to May 1782 (London, 1938), 18.

  57 “rather … peremptory”: Entry of Aug. 30, 1789, Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport (Boston, 1939), I, 201.

  58 “the old … Respect”: Isaac Low to Nicholas Low, Aug. 20, 1784, Low Papers, DLC. On Lloyd’s, see also Charles Wright and C. Ernest Fayle, A History of Lloyd’s from the Founding of Lloyd’s Coffee House to the Present Day (London, 1928); G. Clayton, British Insurance (London, 1971), 58–59; James Oldham, The Mansfield Manuscripts and the Growth of English Law in the Eighteenth Century (Chapel Hill, 1992), I, 450–478; Sutherland, London Merchant, 54–80; Jacob M. Price, “Transaction Costs: A Note on Merchant Credit and the Organization of Private Trade,” in James D. Tracy, ed., The Political Economy of Merchant Empires (Cambridge, 1991), 289–292; John Weskett, A Complete Digest of the Theory, Laws, and Practice of Insurance (Dublin, 1783), xxii–xxix.

  59 “utter Ruin”: Edmund S. Morgan, ed., Prologue to Revolution: Sources and Documents on the Stamp Act Crisis, 1764–1766 (Chapel Hill, 1959), 130–131.

  60 sent “Agents”: George Grenville to Baron de Botetourt, Nov. 3, 1765, ST 7, CSmH.

  61 “spared” … “instrumental”: Capel and Osgood Hanbury to Charles Carter, March 27, 1766, Carter Papers, ViFreJM; Simmons and Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates, II, 195–197; Richard Champion to Caleb and John Lloyd, Feb. 15, 1766, The American Correspondence of a Bristol Merchant, 1766–1776: Letters of Richard Champion, ed. G. H. Guttridge (Berkeley, 1934), 11.

  62 “insolent Rebells”: Henry Cruger, Jr., to Henry Cruger, Sr., Feb. 14, 1766, Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, I, 139–143.

  63 Bacon … also spoke: Henry Seymour Conway to the King, March 5, 1766, The Correspondence of King George the Third, ed. John Fortescue (London, 1927–28), I, 271.

  64 “Act of Oppression”: George Washington to Capel and Osgood Hanbury, July 25, 1767, The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983–), VIII, 15.

  65 “that unconstitutional … act”: John Snelson to Edward Harford, Jr., May 11, 1766, John Snelson Letterbook, Fredericks Hall Plantation Records, NcU. See also Edmund S. and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1953), chap. 15; Sosin, Agents and Merchants, 71–80; P. D. G. Thomas, British Politics and the Stamp Act Crisis (Oxford, 1975); Paul Langford, “The Rockingham Whigs and America, 1767–1773,” in Anne Whiteman et al., eds., Statesmen, Scholars, and Merchants: Essays in Eighteenth-Century History Presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland (Oxford, 1973), 144–146.

  66 “is now” … “establish’d”: George Grenville to Baron Clive, July 19, 1767, ST 7, CSmH. “do … future”: George Grenville to R. Nugent, June 21, 1766, The Grenville Papers, ed. William James Smith (London, 1852–53), III, 250.

  67 “exceeding” … “improvement”: George Washington to John Lewis, April 17, 1782, The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, 1931–40), XXIV, 130–131; Marmaduke Norfleet, Deed, April 26, 1766, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 436–437.

  68 bills of exchange: Robert Tucker, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), Sept. 12, 1766; Judgment, May 4, 1770, Edward and Thomas Hunt v. Estate of Robert Tucker, Phillips MSS 19705, Sir Thomas Phillips Collection, DLC.

  69 Hasenclever, Seton & Crofts: Gerhard Spieler, “Peter Hasenclever, Industrialist,” New Jersey Historical Society, Proceedings, LIX (Oct. 1941), 231–256; Heusser, George Washington’s Map Maker, 25–26, 103; Arthur Cecil Bining, Pennsylvania Iron Manufacture in the Eighteenth Century (Harrisburg, 1938), 109–110; John Watts to Robert Monckton, June 11, 1764, Nov. 11, 1766, Aspinwall Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 4th ser., IX–X (1871), II, 526, 593; entry of July 1, 1768, [John Lees], Journal of J. L., of Quebec, Merchant (Detroit, 1911), 17; Robert Erskine to Printer of New-York Gazette, July 10, 1773, in New-York Gazette, Aug. 9, 1773, reprinted in Archives of the State of New Jersey, 1st ser. (Paterson, 1916), XXVIII, 586–588; William Alexander et al. to William Franklin, July 8, 1769, ibid., 247–253; Hugh Wallace to Frederick Haldimand, July 18, Nov. 7, 1770, Peter Hasenclever to Hugh Wallace, March 9, 1771, Report on Canadian Archives: 1885 (Ottawa, 1886), 174.

  70 Dismal Swamp Company: Entry of May 3, 1766, Cash Accounts, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 438; entries of May 3, 1766, Account with Adventurers for Draining the Dismal Swamp, Financial Records, Ledger A, Papers of George Washington, Series 5, DLC; David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 3, 1784, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; Original Members, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, May 9, 1766.

  71 Then drought: Samuel Johnston to Thomas Barker, Aug. 20, 1766, Hayes Collection, Johnston Family Series, NcU; Benjamin Howard to Samuel Gist, Aug. 25, 1766, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

  72 buy Dismal Plantation: Entry of Dec. 1766, “Acct. Go. Washington with the Disml Swamp Comp,” Papers of George Washington, Series 9, Box 1A, DLC; Mills Riddick, Bond, Nov. 24, 1766, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 476–477; Cash Accounts, Nov. 1766, ibid., 469–470; Fillmore Norfleet, Suffolk in Virginia (n.p., 1974), 115.

  73 Hanover-Town: Samuel Gist to John Smith, Aug. 15, 1768, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, April 25, 1766; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, June 20, 1766, Oct. 15, 1767; Malcolm M. Harris, “The Port Towns of the Pamunkey,” WMQ, 2d ser., XXIII (Oct. 1943), 511–513.

  74 “God … dies”: Warner Lewis to Walter Jones, July 8, 1766, Edrington Family Papers, ViRHi; Maria Beverley to Maria Carter, April 20, 1764, “Some Family Letters of the Eighteenth Century,” VMHB, XV (April 1908), 434.

  75 John’s patrimony: Mann Page to John Page, Aug. 3, 1779, ViWC; John Page to John Norton, Oct. 11, 1771, John Page to John Hatley Norton, Feb. 27, 1790, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; John Page to Robert Carter, March 12, 1795, John Page Papers, NcD.

  76 Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson to John Page, Feb. 21, 1770, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Julian P. Boyd et al. (Princeton, 1950–), I, 35–36.

  77 John Clayton: Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley, John Clayton: Pioneer of American Botany (Chapel Hill, 1963), 165–166; Margaret Page to John Page, Jan. 19, 1820, Page-Saunders Papers, ViW; Benjamin Smith Barton, “Memorandums of the Life and Writings of Mr. John Clayton, the Celebrated Botanist of Virginia,” Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal, II (1805), 141–142.

  78 more than 15 hogsheads: John Page to John Norton, April 20, May 27, 1769, Oct. 11, 1771, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

  79 “I … existing”: Thomas Jefferson to Albert Gallatin, Aug. 28, 1801, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul Leicester Ford (New York, 1892–99), VIII, 85. Peyton Randolph: Peyton Randolph to Landon Carter, May 11, 1766, ViWC; Archibald Cary to William Preston, May 14, 1766, Preston Papers, Vol. 2, ff. 95–96, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

  80 “very considerable deficiency”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, June 27, Sept. 5, 1766; Richard Bland to Richard Henry Lee, May 22, 1766, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

  81 “Conversation … complaint”: William Nelson to Edward and Samuel Athawes, Nov. 13, 1766, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

  82 “immediately”: Edmund Randolph, History of Virginia, ed. Arthur H. Shaffer (Charlottesville, 1970), 174.

  83 “often” objected: Robert C. Nicholas to Richard Henry Lee, May 23, 1766, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

  84 “arbitrary conduct”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 17, 1766.

  85 Susanna Robinson: Joseph Albert Ernst, “The Robinson Scandal Redivivus: Money, Debts, and Politics in Revolutionary Virginia,” VMHB, LXXVII (April 1969), 156.

  86 “a considerable … company”: Deposition of John Taylor, April 12, 1813, File 5, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs et al., 1832, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  87 Robert Carter Nicholas: Randolph, History of Virginia, ed. Shaffer, 185; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, June 27, 1766.

  88 “that many” … “country”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, June 27, 1766.

  89 credit and currency: Francis Fauquier to Earl of Shelburne, Dec. 18, 1766, The Official Papers of Francis Fauquier, ed. George Reese (Charlottesville, 1980–83), III, 1411–1412.

  90 “affronted”: Francis Jerdone to Buchanan & Hamilton, July 14, 1750, “Letter Book of Francis Jerdone,” WMQ, 1st ser., XI (Jan. 1903), 158.

  91 “we could … Mine”: Edmund Pendleton to William Preston, Feb. 6, 1768, The Letters and Papers of Edmund Pendleton, ed. David John Mays (Charlottesville, 1967), I, 37; Account of Lead Mine Company with John Robinson, William Byrd III Papers, Section 8, ViRHi.

  92 “as good … Chiswell”: Carl Bridenbaugh, “Violence and Virtue in Virginia, 1766: or, the Importance of the Trivial,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, LXXVI (1964), 6.

  93 to bail: John Camm to Mrs. McClurg, July 24, 1766, WMQ, 1st ser., II (April 1894), 238–239; J. A. Leo Lemay, “Robert Bolling and the Bailment of Colonel Chiswell,” Early American Literature, VI (1971), 99–142; Bridenbaugh, “Violence and Virtue,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, LXXVI (1964), 7–8.

  94 “partial magistrates”: John Tazewell to Thomas Burke, Sept. 28, 1766, Thomas Burke Papers, NcU.

  95 his “connections”: John Camm to Mrs. McClurg, July 24, 1766, WMQ, 1st ser., II (April 1894), 238–239.

  96 “advanced … others”: Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, June 13, 1766.

  97 no correct books: Notes on John Mercer to George Mercer, Dec. 22, 1767, Mercer Family Papers, Section 28, ViRHi.

  98 “in great” … “paper”: Deposition of John Taylor, April 12, 1813, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs et al., 1832, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Representation of John Robinson’s Administrators, Nov. 22, 1769, Letters and Papers of Pendleton, ed. Mays, I, 50.

  99 “to prevent” … “designed”: Richard Bland to Richard Henry Lee, May 22, 1766, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

100 “to break” … “trust”: [Richard Bland], “A Freeholder,” Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 17, 1766.

101 “very … office”: Richard Corbin to John Roberts, May 15, 1767, Corbin Letterbook, ViWC.

102 “a Scheme … Extent”: Richard Bland to Richard Henry Lee, May 22, 1766, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

103 “no Influence”: Robert C. Nicholas to Richard Henry Lee, May 23, 1766, ibid.

104 pay their arrears: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 23, 1766.

105 “can … excuse”: Ibid., Sept. 5, 1766.

106 “scurrilous”: William Nelson to John Norton, Nov. 12, 1766, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

107 “Error” … “with”: William Nelson to Edward and Samuel Athawes, Nov. 13, 1766, ibid.

108 charity and circulation: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, July 25, Aug. 1, 1766.

109 “application” … “resist”: William Nelson to Edward and Samuel Athawes, Nov. 13, 1766, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, June 13, 1766; Representation of Administrators, Nov. 22, 1769, Letters and Papers of Pendleton, ed. Mays, I, 50.

110 “a Man … Disposition”: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Aug. 8, 1766.

111 “shamefully bepraised”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 12, 1766.

112 “very great influence”: Ibid., Oct. 17, 1766.

113 “Distrust” … “morality”: Ibid., Sept. 12, 1766.

114 “indifferent … Justice”: John Tazewell to Thomas Burke, Sept. 28, 1766, Thomas Burke Papers, NcU.

115 Robinson’s debtors: For a list of the debtors, see David John Mays, Edmund Pendleton, 1721–1803: A Biography (Cambridge, 1952), I, appendix ii. For a list of Robinson’s debts, see “A State of demands against Estate of John Robinson,” Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs et al., 1832, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

116 “always” … “authors”: Littleton Waller Tazewell, History of the Tazewell Family, p. 135, NcU.

117 “rigorous Measures”: John Pendleton Kennedy, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1766–1769 (Richmond, 1906), 67; Representation of Administrators, Nov. 22, 1769, Letters and Papers of Pendleton, ed. Mays, I, 50.

118 “hopeless” … “debt”: Deposition of John Taylor, April 12, 1813, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs et al., 1832, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Kennedy, ed., Journals of Burgesses, 1766–1769, 66–67.

119 Dismal Swamp Company: Fielding Lewis, Receipt, April 11, 1767, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs et al., 1832, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

120 John Chiswell: Bridenbaugh, “Violence and Virtue,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, LXXVI (1964), 23–24; Lemay, “Robert Bolling,” Early American Literature, VI (1971), 111–115; Anne Y. Zimmer, Jonathan Boucher: Loyalist in Exile (Detroit, 1978), 62–66, 331–333. See also J. A. Leo Lemay, ed., Robert Bolling Woos Anne Miller: Love and Courtship in Colonial Virginia, 1760 (Charlottesville, 1990).

121 Robinson’s grave: Malcolm Hart Harris, Old New Kent County (West Point, 1977), I, 356–357.

122 about £4,700: William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, May 29, 1767, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Edward and Thomas Hunt v. Estate of Robert Tucker, May 4, 1770, Phillips MSS 19705, Sir Thomas Phillips Collection, DLC.

123 “a Man … Reflection”: William Nelson to John Norton, Sept. 12, 1766, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Kennedy, ed., Journal of Burgesses, 1766–1769, 58, 63; Robert Tucker, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 12, 1766.

124 “your … much”: William Lux to Robert Tucker, Oct. 3, 1766, William Lux Letterbook, NNHi.

125 “real” … “Secrecy”: William Lux to Robert Tucker, Dec. 1, 1766, Jan. 13, 19, Feb. 5, 1767, ibid.; William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, May 29, 1767, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Edward and Thomas Hunt v. Estate of Robert Tucker, May 4, 1770, Phillips MSS 19705, Sir Thomas Phillips Collection, DLC; Heusser, George Washington’s Map Maker, 32; Alexander Mackrabie to Philip Francis, June 4, 1768, The Francis Letters, ed. Beata Francis and Eliza Keary (London, [1901]), I, 96.

126 “totally”: William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, May 29, 1767, William Nelson to John Norton, Aug. 14, 1767, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Charles Steuart to William Aitchison and James Parker, Oct. 15, 1767, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

127 “at” … “Appearances”: William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, May 29, 1767, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Edward and Thomas Hunt v. Estate of Robert Tucker, May 4, 1770, Phillips MSS 19705, Sir Thomas Phillips Collection, DLC.

128 written his will: William Waters, Will, Dec. 23, 1766, Wills and Inventories, 1760–1771, pp. 350–351, York County Records, No. 21, Yorktown, Virginia.

129 David Meade: David Meade, “Family History,” in Henry J. Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, Containing Matters of Interest to the Descendants of David Meade (Chicago, 1883), 28–29.

130 went to probate: Inventory and Appraisement of the Estate of William Waters, Wills and Inventories, 1760–1771, pp. 460–475, York County Records.

131 was insolvent: Robert Carter Nicholas to John Norton, Oct. 3, 1768, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

132 Tucker’s obituary: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, July 9, 1767.

133 “prepared” … “Purpose”: William Nelson to Edward Hunt & Son, July 9, 1768, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Edward and Thomas Hunt v. Estate of Robert Tucker, May 4, 1770, Phillips MSS 19705, Sir Thomas Phillips Collection, DLC.

134 “extremely weak”: William Nelson to John Tucker, Feb. 20, 1768, Nelson Letter-book, Vi.

135 declared his love: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Feb. 25, 1768, reprinted in TQHGM, XIII (April 1932), 287. On land, see Thomas Swepson and Richard W. Byrd, Indenture, May 18, 1802, Kilby Family Papers, Box 1, Vi.

136 “buy … Family”: William Nelson to John Norton, Aug. 27, 1768, Nelson Letterbook, Vi. At the sale: Thomas Newton, Sr., and John Taylor, Advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Aug. 18, 1768; Letter to Mr. Rind, Sept. 20, 1768, Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 6, 1768.

137 Talbot Thompson: Benjamin J. Hillman, ed., Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia (Richmond, 1966), VI, 320.

138 Tucker’s land: Benjamin Waller, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 20, 1768; Thomas Burke to Neil Jamieson, Aug. 28, 1770, Thomas Burke to Thomas Jefferson, Sept. 3, 1770, April, July 10, Aug. 19, Sept. 24, 1771, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., I, 52–59, 69–70, 73–74, 81–85.

139 at Castle Hill: K. Edward Lay and Martha Tuzson Stockton, “Castle Hill: The Walker Family Estate,” MACH, LII (1994), 39–63.

140 The Greenbrier and New rivers: William Crawford to George Washington, Sept. 29, 1767, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 39.

141 “obstinate”: Franklin Minor, “Memoranda of Inquiries about Dr. Thomas Walker,” Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, p. 25, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi; “Noland-Harrison-Powell-Gilmer: Records from Family Bible,” TQHGM, II (Oct. 1920), 133.

142 casks of ginseng: Entry of Oct. 7, 1767, A List of Ships and Vessels Cleared Outwards in Port of York, Virginia, T 1/461, ff. 59–60, PRO; John Hatley Norton to John Norton, Oct. 1767, Frances Norton Mason, John Norton & Sons: Merchants of London and Virginia (Richmond, 1937), 33.

143 “to restore … Winter”: Francis Farley to Charles Tudway, Oct. 24, 1767, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office, Taunton; “Historical and Genealogical Notes,” TQHGM, I (July 1919), 70; John Laforey to Phillip Stephens, July 7, 1767, Adm 1/102, PRO.

144 Dismal Plantation: Cash Accounts, Nov. 3, 1767, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 50.

145 “offered … lady”: Thomas Jefferson to Robert Smith, July 1, 1805, quoted in Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time (Boston, 1948–81), I, 154.

146 the king’s gifts: Samuel Wharton to Benjamin Franklin, Dec. 2, 1768, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Leonard W. Labaree et al. (New Haven, 1959–), XV 275–279.

147 in New York City: Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia), Nov. 24, 1768.

148 “an absolute necessity”: Andrew Lewis and Thomas Walker to William Johnson, July 29, 1768, The Papers of Sir William Johnson, ed. James Sullivan et al. (Albany, 1921–62), VI, 297.

149 even “disclaimed”: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 309.

150 Walker and Lewis: Andrew Lewis and Thomas Walker to Baron de Botetourt, Feb. 2, 1769, “Virginia and the Cherokees,” VMHB, XIII (July 1905), 30–36.

151 House of Burgesses addressed: Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations from January 1768 to December 1775 (London, 1937), 29–30. See also Thomas Gage to Earl of Shelburne, March 12, 1768, Clarence W. Alvord and Clarence E. Carter, eds., Trade and Politics, 1767–1769, Illinois State Historical Library, Collections, XVI (1921), 208–209.

152 Mississippi Company: Clarence E. Carter, ed., “Documents Relating to the Mississippi Land Company, 1763–1769,” AHR, XVI (Jan. 1911), 318–319; John Armistead to John Norton & Son, Sept. 15, 1765, BR Box 18(24), CSmH.

153 William Fleming: Patrick Henry to William Fleming, June 10, 1767, Archibald Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker and the Loyal Company of Virginia,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 141–142.

154 William Crawford: George Washington to William Crawford, Sept. 17, 1767, William Crawford to George Washington, Sept. 29, 1767, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 26–29, 37–40.

155 at Johnson Hall: Ray A. Billington, “The Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768,” NYH, XXV (April 1944), 192–193; entry of May 12, 1769, A Tour of Four Great Rivers: Being the Journal of Richard Smith, ed. Francis W. Halsey (New York, 1906), 25.

156 Samuel Wharton: Jack M. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760–1775 (Lincoln, 1961), 174; George E. Lewis, The Indiana Company, 1763–1798: A Study in Eighteenth Century Frontier Land Speculation and Business Venture (Glendale, 1941), 45–47, 63–64.

157 “Necessary” … “Indians”: William Johnson to John Blair, Sept. 25, 1768, John Blair to William Johnson, March 10, 1768, Papers of Johnson, ed. Sullivan et al., VI, 406, 143–144; Address of Sir William Johnson, Oct. 26, 1768, E. B. O’Callaghan et al., eds., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York (Albany, 1856–87), VIII, 118–119; Thomas Gage to Earl of Hillsborough, Jan. 5, 1769, May 14, Nov. 12, 1770, The Correspondence of General Thomas Gage, ed. Clarence Edwin Carter (New Haven, 1931–33), I, 209, 258, 282. See also Dorothy V. Jones, License for Empire: Colonialism by Treaty in Early America (Chicago, 1982), 83–102; Michael N. McConnell, A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774 (Lincoln, 1992), 244–258; Eric Hinderaker, Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673–1800 (Cambridge, 1997), 161–170; William N. Fenton, The Great Law and the Longhouse: A Political History of the Iroquois Confederacy(Norman, 1998), 533–540.

158 George Mason: George Mason to Edmund Randolph, Oct. 19, 1782, The Papers of George Mason, 1725–1792, ed. Robert A. Rutland (Chapel Hill, 1970), II, 746–755; Deposition of [Thomas] Walker-Fragmentary Notes, in Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 147–148.

159 “the Rapacity … insatiable”: John Stuart to Earl of Hillsborough, Jan. 20, 1770, David Ross to Alexander Cameron, Dec. 20, 1768, CO 5/71, ff. 52, 65–66, PRO; Thomas Gage to Earl of Hillsborough, April 1, 1769, Correspondence of Gage, ed. Carter, I, 221–222; John Richard Alden, John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier (Ann Arbor, 1944), 266–281, 299; J. Russell Snapp, John Stuart and the Struggle for Empire on the Southern Frontier (Baton Rouge, 1996), 74–76; Louis DeVorsey, Jr., The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 1763–1775 (Chapel Hill, 1966), 62–67; Patricia Givens Johnson, General Andrew Lewis of Roanoke and Greenbrier (Blacksburg, 1980), chap. 15.

160 totaling 845,000 acres: A true and full Acct of all the Orders of Council for Granting Lands, Dec. 6, 1769, CO 5/1333, ff. 54–55, PRO.

161 “I … Remedy”: Earl of Hillsborough to Thomas Gage, June 12, 1770, Correspondence of Gage, ed. Carter, II, 104–105.

162 appointment of Botetourt: Viscount Barrington to Thomas Gage, Aug. 1, 1768, John Shy, ed., “Confronting Rebellion,” in Howard H. Peckham, Sources of American Independence (Chicago, 1978), I, 44; Viscount Barrington to Francis Bernard, Nov. 1, 1768, The Barrington-Bernard Correspondence, ed. Edward Channing and Archibald Cary Coolidge (Cambridge, 1912), 175; Horace Walpole to Horace Mann, Aug. 13, 1768, The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole’s Correspondence, ed. W. S. Lewis et al. (New Haven, 1937–83), XXIII, 43–44.

163 “writes … business”: Simmons and Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates, III, 314.

164 “politest … manners”: Ralph Bigland, Historical, Monumental and Genealogical Collections Relative to the County of Gloucester, ed. Brian Frith (Bristol, 1989–95), III, 1170.

165 “cringing … fawning”: A Collection of the Letters of Atticus, Lucius, Junius, and Others (London, 1769), 45.

166 “If … iron”: Horace Walpole to Henry Seymour Conway, Aug. 9, 1768, Yale Edition of Walpole’s Correspondence, ed. Lewis et al., XXXIX, 104.

167 Hillsborough and Grafton: Peter D. G. Thomas, The Townshend Duties Crisis: The Second Phase of the American Revolution, 1767–1773 (Oxford, 1987), chap. 5.

168 “violence & passion”: William Dowdeswell to Earl of Albemarle, [Aug. 1768], Amherst Papers, U 1350, 065/46, Kent County Archives.

169 a “tool”: London Chronicle, Aug. 25–26, 1768.

170 “answer … Master”: Baron de Botetourt to Baron Le Despencer, May 23, 1769, “Some Letters of Sir Francis Dashwood, Baron Le Despencer, as Joint Postmaster General, 1766–1781,” ed. Betty Kemp, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, XXXVII (Sept. 1954), 218.

171 never to return: Thomas Whately to George Grenville, Aug. 4, 1768, Augustus Hervey to George Grenville, Aug. 13, 1768, Grenville Papers, ed. Smith, IV, 330, 341.

172 The Warmley Company: Bryan Little, “Norborne Berkeley: Gloucestershire Magnate,” VMHB, LXIII (Oct. 1955), 379–409; P. K. Stembridge, The Goldney Family: A Bristol Merchant Dynasty (Bristol, 1998), 46–51; Armand Budington DuBois, The English Business Company After the Bubble Act, 1720–1800 (New York, 1938), 30–34; Arthur Raistrick, Quakers in Science and Industry (London, 1950), 194–196; Graham Hood, The Governor’s Palace in Williamsburg: A Cultural Study (Williamsburg, 1991), 138; Derek Jarrett, “The Myth of ‘Patriotism’ in Eighteenth-Century English Politics,” in J. S. Bromley and E. H. Kossmann, eds., Britain and the Netherlands, Volume V: Some Political Mythologies (The Hague, 1975), 138; Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, Autobiography and Political Correspondence of Augustus Henry, Third Duke of Grafton, ed. William R. Anson (London, 1898), 184–187; Horace Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of King George the Third, ed. G. F. Russell Barker (London, 1894), III, 107–108; Mary Coke, The Letters and Journals of Lady Mary Coke (Edinburgh, 1889), II, 332–333; Joseph Redington et al., eds., Calendar of Home Office Papers of the Reign of George III (London, 1878–81), II, 265; A Collection of the Letters of Atticus and Others, 41, 45; Junius: Including Letters by the Same Writer Under Other Signatures, rev. ed. (London, 1850), II, 227.

173 “totally ruined”: Horace Walpole to Henry Seymour Conway, Aug. 9, 1768, Yale Edition of Walpole’s Correspondence, ed. Lewis et al., XXXIX, 104; Walpole, Memoirs of George the Third, ed. Russell Barker, III, 108, 156; Little, “Norborne Berkeley,” VMHB, LXIII (Oct. 1955), 404.

174 as plenipotentiary: Thomas Whately to George Grenville, Aug. 4, 1768, Grenville Papers, ed. Smith, IV, 331; Earl of Albemarle to Duke of Newcastle, Aug. 4, 1768, Newcastle Papers, General Correspondence, CCCV, ff. 378–379, Uk.

175 He arrived: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 27, 1768.

176 “basket-making”: Baron de Botetourt to Baron Le Despencer, May 23, 1769, “Some Letters of Sir Francis Dashwood,” ed. Kemp, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, XXXVII (Sept. 1954), 218. See also [Francis Grose], A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue (London, 1785), “Basket making.”

177 Washington and Fielding Lewis: Entries of Oct. 26–28, 1768, The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (Charlottesville, 1976), II, 102.

178 “practised … arts”: Francis Lightfoot Lee to William Lee, March 9, 1769, Lee Family Correspondence, BR Box 4(6), CSmH.

179 “every … People”: William Nelson to Arthur Lee, March 31, 1769, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

180 “soothing”: Walpole, Memoirs of George the Third, ed. Russell Barker, III, 156; William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, Dec. 6, 1770, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

181 by the Cherokees: Baron de Botetourt to Andrew Lewis and Thomas Walker, Dec. 20, 1768, “Virginia and the Cherokees,” VMHB, XIII (July 1905), 28–30; Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 308–310; “Observations and Answers,” March 5, 1771, in [Samuel Wharton], [Statement for the Petitioners in the Case of the Walpole Company Grant] [London?, 1772], appendix iii, 14; DeVorsey, Indian Boundary, 67–92; Johnson, General Andrew Lewis, 146–153.

182 James Parke Farley: Francis Farley to Charles Tudway, July 25, 1765, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office; Samuel Martin to Baron de Botetourt, [ca. Oct. 1768], Letter-book of Samuel Martin, Add MSS 41,350, f. 83, Uk.

183 his first grandson: John Marshall, Royal Navy Biography (London, 1823), I, 446.

184 a woman’s saddle: Accot of the sales of the Furniture of John Laforey, Jan. 6, 1769, Richard Corbin Papers, ViWC.

185 “to stay … order”: Francis Farley to Charles Tudway, April 29, 1769, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

186 Land of Eden and Munford: Francis Farley to Robert Munford, Jan. 15, 1778, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

187 Samuel Gist: On Samuel Gist and the elopement of Mary Gist and William Anderson, see Samuel Gist to John Smith, Feb. 6, July 24, Aug. 5, 1767, Jan. 9–25, Jan. 26–Feb. 12, March 4, 12, April 12, June 15–19, 1768, Jos. Smith’s Admr et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi; John Hook to Samuel Gist, Dec. 2, 1767, Letter Book of Hook, Vi; Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; Samuel Galloway to Silvanus Grove, Aug. 20, 1767, Samuel Galloway Letter Book, Galloway-Maxcy-Markoe Papers, DLC; Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, Feb. 2, 1779, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC; John Norton to John Hatley Norton, April 1, 1768, April 1768, William Anderson to John Norton, Sept. 20, 1771, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; William Anderson, Will, July 30, 1793, VMHB, XXXVII (Jan. 1929), 39; Account with William Anderson, Aug. 14, 1769, April 10, 1775, Garrett Minor Papers, DLC.

188 John Tabb: Tabb’s Administrators v. Gist, Opinion, Dec. 9, 1802, The Papers of John Marshall, ed. Herbert A. Johnson et al. (Chapel Hill, 1974–), VI, 129–142.

189 DeBerdt, Burkitt & Sayre: John R. Alden, Stephen Sayre: American Revolutionary Adventurer (Baton Rouge, 1983), 20–24; Dennys DeBerdt to Joseph Reed, March 18, 1766, Joseph Reed to Charles Pettit, May 7, 1770, William B. Reed, The Life of Esther DeBerdt, Afterwards Esther Reed (Philadelphia, 1853), 77–79, Jackson & Bromfield to DeBerdt, Burkitt & Sayre, Feb. 24, 1768, in Kenneth Wiggins Porter, The Jacksons and the Lees: Two Generations of Massachusetts Merchants, 1765–1844 (Cambridge, 1937), I, 192–194.

190 “an elegant entertainment”: London Chronicle, Aug. 11, 1768.

191 “allmost kill’d me”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, Jan. 26–Feb. 12, 1768, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

192 “best” … “Honor”: Samuel Gist to George Washington, June 17, 1769, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 216. See also John Fothergill to Samuel Fothergill, Dec. 6, 1768, Chain of Friendship: Selected Letters of Dr. John Fothergill of London, 1735–1780, ed. Betsy C. Corner and Christopher C. Booth (Cambridge, 1971), 292; Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, July 4, 1768, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

193 “grave” … “Bankrupt”: Peter Lyons to John Norton, Sept. 24, 1768, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

194 “a set of Wilkes’s”: [?] Fairfax to [?], May 20, 1769, Pickering & Chatto Ltd., List Ten (Oct. 1982), Item 15; Alexander Stephens, Memoirs of John Horne Tooke (New York, 1968 [orig. publ. London, 1813]), I, 178; Paul Langford, “London and the American Revolution,” in John Stevenson, ed., London in the Age of Reform (Oxford, 1977), 56–57; Peter D. G. Thomas, John Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty (Oxford, 1996), chap. 10; Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765–1776 (New York, 1972), chap. 6.

195 “some … drinking”: Arthur Beardmore to John Wilkes, July 24, 1767, John Wilkes Correspondence, Add MSS 30,869, f. 148, Uk.

196 “another regular stock”: George James Williams to George Selwyn, [March 1768], Jesse, George Selwyn, II, 265.

197 “He was … comedy”: Nathaniel William Wraxall, The Historical and Posthumous Memoirs of Sir Nathaniel William Wraxall, 1772–1784, ed. Henry B. Wheatley (London, 1884), II, 48.

198 “abhorrence … government”: Annual Register, XII (1769), 2d ed. (London, 1773), “The History of Europe,” 195–196.

199 merchants deliver address: George Rudé, “The Anti-Wilkite Merchants of 1769,” Guildhall Miscellany, II (Sept. 1965), 283–304; John Norton to Thomas Walker, March 8, 1769, Thomas Walker Papers, William Cabell Rives Papers, Box 162, DLC; Mrs. James Harris to James Harris, Jr., March 24, 1769, A Series of Letters of the First Earl of Malmesbury, ed. J. H. Harris, Earl of Malmesbury (London, 1870), I, 176–179; entry of March 22, 1769, Journals of Charles Beatty, 1762–1769, ed. Guy Soulliard Kent (University Park, 1962), 85; Annual Register, XII (1769), 84.

200 “I am … History”: David Hume to Hugh Blair, March 28, 1769, David Hume to Gilbert Elliot, Oct. 16, 1769, The Letters of David Hume, ed. J. Y. T. Greig (Oxford, 1932), II, 197–198, 208. See also William Strahan to David Hume, April 1, 1768, John Hill Burton, ed., Letters of Eminent Persons Addressed to David Hume (Edinburgh, 1849), 86–90; J. G. A. Pocock, “Hume and the American Revolution: The Dying Thoughts of a North Briton,” in David Fate Norton et al., eds., McGill Hume Studies (San Diego, 1979), 325–343.

201 “absurd”: [Bacon], Short Address to the Government, 9.

202 “Ministerial … America”: Extract of a Letter from London, March 25, 1769, Virginia Gazette, June 22, 1769, reprinted in Pennsylvania Gazette, July 6, 1769.

203 “They” … “America”: Roger Atkinson to Samuel Gist, July 10, 1769, Roger Atkinson Letterbook, ViU.

204 “meant” … “concern’d”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, Aug. 30, 1769, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

205 Middlesex electors: George Rudé, Wilkes and Liberty: A Social Study of 1763 to 1774 (Oxford, 1962); Lucy Sutherland, “The City of London and the Opposition to Government, 1768–74,” in Stevenson, ed., London in the Age of Reform, 30–54; John Brewer, Party Ideology and Popular Politics at the Accession of George III (Cambridge, 1976), chap. 9; Joel J. Gold, “Mr. Serjeant Glynn: Radical Politics in the Courtroom,” Harvard Library Journal, XXIX (April 1981), 197–209; Christina Bewley and David Bewley, Gentleman Radical: A Life of John Horne Tooke, 1736–1812 (London, 1998), 7–32; Deborah D. Rogers, Bookseller as Rogue: John Almon and the Politics of Eighteenth-Century Publishing (New York, 1986), chap. 2.

206 “A Jew … well’ ”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, Aug. 30, 1771, William Lee Letterbook, 1770–1771, duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia; Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, Bart., Memoirs of a Banking-House (London, 1860), 25–26.

207 “every … days”: Henry Laurens to James Laurens, Aug. 19, 1772, The Papers of Henry Laurens, ed. Philip M. Hamer et al. (Columbia, 1968–), VIII, 422.

208 “many thousand pounds”: Morning Chronicle (London), July 3, 1777, reprinted in Oldham, Mansfield Manuscripts, I, 520n.2. See also James Peller Malcolm, Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of London During the Eighteenth Century (London, 1808), 212–213; London Chronicle, Sept. 29, 1772; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Jan. 23, 1772; Rind’s Virginia Gazette, May 30, 1771, April 23, 1772; Pennsylvania Gazette, April 9, 1772; William Strahan to David Hall, Feb. 10, 1772, “Correspondence Between William Strahan and David Hall, 1763–1777,” PMHB, XII (1888), 241–242.

209 New Lloyd’s: Lillywhite, London Coffee Houses, 395–396; Wright and Fayle, History of Lloyd’s, 98–99; Dawson, “London Coffee-Houses,” Essays by Divers Hands, 3d ser., XI (1932), 93–94, 103; [Pugh], Walks, I, 57.

210 “Confusion”: Anthony Todd to Baron Le Despencer, March 31, 1769, “Some Letters of Sir Francis Dashwood,” ed. Kemp, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, XXXVII (Sept. 1954), 216–217.

211 “tickets insured”: Oldham, Mansfield Manuscripts, I, 523–524; London Chronicle, Aug. 30, 1770.

212 “put … House”: Adams et al. v. Crouch, in Reginald G. Marsden, ed., Reports of Cases Determined by the High Court of Admiralty … 1758–1774 (London, 1885), 111.

213 were “put up”: Duncan Campbell to Somervell & Noble & Hugh Lenox, April 30, 1773, Business Letterbook, Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, Mitchell Library, Sydney, Australia; John Norton to John Hatley Norton, July 12, 1770, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

214 subscription books: London Chronicle, March 19, 21, 1772.

215 underwriters and underwriting: Report on Marine Insurance, 1810 (226) IV. 247, pp. 92, 63, 77.

216 “what … those”: James Russell to Samuel Galloway, May 7, 1770, Galloway-Maxcy-Markoe Papers, DLC; Samuel Galloway to James Russell, Aug. 27, 1771, Samuel Galloway Letter Book, ibid.

217 a list of frauds: Report on Marine Insurance, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p. 88.

218 “extremely … health”: Public Characters of 1803–1804 (London, 1804), 388.

219 “Building … House”: Wright and Fayle, History of Lloyd’s, 110–111; Frederick Martin, The History of Lloyd’s and of Marine Insurance in Great Britain (New York, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1876]), 145–149.

220 to choose a committee: Wright and Fayle, History of Lloyd’s, 112.

221 “If I … underwrite”: Testimony of John Ewer, Oldham, Mansfield Manuscripts, I, 573.

222 “a contractor … Government”: James Jenkins, The Records and Recollections of James Jenkins, ed. J. William Frost (New York, 1984), 457–458; John Bartlet Brebner, The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years (New York, 1937), 150.

223 “broke … pieces”: Duncan Campbell to Somervell & Noble & Hugh Lenox, Jan. 5, 1774, Campbell Letterbooks, Mitchell Library, Sydney; P. W. Matthews, History of Barclays Bank, Limited, ed. Anthony W. Tuke (London, 1926), 31–38.

224 “there … Country”: Isaac Low to Nicholas Low, May 3, 1785, Low Papers, DLC.

225 May 8, 1769: Meade, “Family History,” in Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 30; John Daly Burk et al., The History of Virginia (Petersburg, 1804–16), III, 342; Hood, Governor’s Palace, 250–251.

226 “some … Assembly”: John Page to John Norton, April 20, 1769, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

227 “we … free”: [John Dickinson and Arthur Lee], The Farmer’s and Monitor’s Letters (Williamsburg, 1769), 85.

228 in the same vein: William Nelson to Farell & Jones, Nov. 19, 1768, Jan. 11, 1769, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; George Washington to George Mason, April 15, 1769, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 178–180.

229 four resolutions: William J. Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence (Charlottesville, 1973–83), I, 70–71; Samuel Washington to William Lee, May 26, 1769, Emmet Collection, NN.

230 “completely … ambition”: Meade, “Family History,” in Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 29–30.

231 “a regular Association”: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, I, 72–77.

232 “will … Colony”: Richard Henry Lee to Arthur Lee, May 19, 1769, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 67, p. 73, MiU-C.

233 “seems … end”: Baron de Botetourt to Baron Le Despencer, May 23, 1769, “Some Letters of Sir Francis Dashwood,” ed. Kemp, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, XXXVII (Sept. 1954), 218.

234 “very” … “Frugality”: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, I, 74–75.

235 A satirist: Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, May 2, 1766 (supplement). The unique copy of this issue is in ViWC.

236 “when … assembly”: William Allason to William Gregory, Oct. 28, 1769, Allason Letterbook, Vi; John Norton to Robert Carter Nicholas, Nov. 10, 1769, Wilson Cary Nicholas Papers, DLC; Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire Before the American Revolution (New York, 1958–70), XI, 266; Bruce A. Ragsdale, A Planters’ Republic: The Search for Economic Independence in Revolutionary Virginia (Madison, 1996), 85–88.

237 intended to repeal: Dennys DeBerdt to Caesar Rodney, May 20, 1769, “Letters of Dennys DeBerdt,” Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Transactions, XIII (1910–11), 374.

238 “universally steady”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, Feb. 6, 1770, BR Box 4(8), CSmH.

239 “to do … age”: Baron de Botetourt to Duchess Dowager of Beaufort, Dec. 18, 1769, Botetourt Transcripts, ViWC.

240 “as merchts … orders”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, Feb. 6, 1770, BR Box 4(8), CSmH; William Neate to Stephen Collins, Feb. 7, 1770, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC; Dennys DeBerdt to Thomas Cushing, Feb. 2, 1770, Dennys DeBerdt Letterbook, DLC; William Lee to William Fitzhugh, Jan. 19, 1770, William Lee Letterbook, 1769–1771, duPont Library, Stratford; Thomas, Townshend Duties Crisis, 156–158.

241 ship Nancy: Samuel Gist to Thomas Tabb & Son, Jan. 24, 1770, Mss2, G4477, a1, ViRHi; John Tabb to Samuel Gist, Jan. 6, 1770, Samuel Gist v. John Tabb, 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Lloyd’s List, Feb. 23, 1770; Lloyd’s Register, 1768–1771 (London, n.d.), N-55.

242 her happiness: William Nelson to Francis Farley, Feb. 22, 1770, Nelson Letterbook, Vi. orders were larger: William Nelson to John Norton, July 19, 1770, ibid.

243 “large … Montreal”: William Neate to Stephen Collins, March 26, 1770, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC; William Strahan to David Hall, Aug. 24, 1770, “Correspondence Between Strahan and Hall,” PMHB, XI (1887), 351–352; Lois Green Carr and Lorena S. Walsh, “Changing Lifestyles and Consumer Behavior in the Colonial Chesapeake,” in Cary Carson et al., eds., Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century (Charlottesville, 1994), 59–166; T. H. Breen, “The Meaning of Things: Interpreting the Consumer Economy in the Eighteenth Century,” in John Brewer and Roy Porter, eds., Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993), 249–260.

244 “merchants … side”: Joseph Reed to Charles Pettit, May 7, 1770, Reed, Life of Esther De-Berdt, 149–150.

245 “till … redressed”: [Arthur Lee], The Political Detection; or, the Treachery and Tyranny of Administration (London, 1770), 101–102.

246 vessels in the Thames: S. Eliot to Jonathan and John Amory, March 6, 1770, Amory Family Papers, DLC; Harry Piper to Dixon & Littledale, April 3, 1770, Harry Piper Letter-book, Douglass Family Papers, ViU; Gipson, British Empire, XI, 267–273.

247 “Hornsby, the Taylor”: Francis Jerdone to Hugh Crawford, Aug. 21, 1753, “Letter Book of Francis Jerdone,” WMQ, 1st ser., XI (April 1903), 239.

248 “acquired … Trade”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 28, 1772.

249 Joseph Hornsby: On business activities, see Murdock & Co. v. William Byrd’s Extx., 1797, Hornsby’s Exors et al. v. Byrd’s Exors et al., Nov. 1824, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs., 1832, Byrd v. Byrd, 1838, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/9, PRO; Robert Cary & Co. to William Byrd, May 13, Aug. 5, 1774, The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684–1776, ed. Marion Tinling (Charlottesville, 1977), II, 789–791, 795–798.

250 The latest book: [John Mitchell], The Present State of Great Britain and North America (London, 1767), 8–9n, 143–146.

251 “produced but little”: John Blair to Earl of Hillsborough, Sept. 20, 1768, King’s 206, f. 50, Uk.

252 the soil of the low country: William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, July 5, 1769, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

253 George Washington: Robert Stewart to George Washington, Jan. 25, 1769, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 162.

254 “inexhaustible” supply: James Parker to Charles Steuart, Nov. 15, 1769, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL.

255 “considerably … deaths”: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 7, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

256 Venus and Jack: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Dec. 5, 1771, Feb. 18, 1773; Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, July 10, 1778; Robert Burwell, Will, Jan. 10, 1777, “Isle of Wight County Records,” WMQ, 1st ser., VII (April 1899), 312.

257 “lying out”: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, June 23, 1768; Jacob Collee to David Jameson, July 31, 1781, Dec. 26, 1784, David Jameson to John Driver, Dec. 5, 1783, David Jameson to Jacob Collee, Dec. 30, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

258 harvest, cash: Matthew Barnard to William Barrell, May 16, 1769, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC.

259 fire swept: Gentleman’s Magazine, XXXIX (Nov. 1769), 538–539; John Luffman, A Brief Account of the Island of Antigua (London, 1789), Letter V, reprinted in Vere Langford Oliver, The History of the Island of Antigua (London, 1894), I, cxxix; Mainswete Walrond to Charles Tudway, Aug. 25, 1769, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

260 “the ridiculous … making”: John Page to John Norton, April 20, 1769, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC. See also John Gilman Kolp, Gentlemen and Freeholders: Electoral Politics in Colonial Virginia (Baltimore, 1998), chap. 1.

261 “one … World”: John Page to John Norton, May 27, 1769, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

262 “the most … Rosewell”: John Page to John Norton, July 31, 1771, ibid.

263 two astronomical events: Brook Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America (Chapel Hill, 1956), 146–165, 175; David Rittenhouse to John Page, Aug. 18, 1777, Paul C. Richards—Autographs, Catalogue 208, Item 144.

264 Fielding Junior: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, Sept. 16, 1769, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 245.

265 the “slave account”: Lewis’s Executor v. Bacon’s Legatee and Executors, 3 Hening & Munford 100, Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia (Charlottesville, 1903), III, 601.

266 Dr. Walker spent: Petition to the House of Delegates from Inhabitants of Washington and Montgomery Counties, Arthur Campbell Papers, C 187/22, KyLoF; Vance v. Walker, 3 Hening & Munford 288–296, Reports of Supreme Court of Virginia, III, 667–674.

267 “Cosmo Medici”: John Thompson to Thomas Jones, July 8, 1769, Roger Jones and Family Papers, DLC; John Arthur Coke, Jr., “Lucy Gray Briggs,” in Alexander Wilbourne Weddell, ed., A Memorial Volume of Virginia Historical Portraiture, 1585–1830 (Richmond, 1930), 205; Margaretta M. Lovell, “Painters and Their Customers: Aspects of Art and Money in Eighteenth-Century America,” in Carson et al., eds., Of Consuming Interests, 284–306; T. H. Breen, “The Meaning of ‘Likeness’: Portrait-Painting in an Eighteenth-Century Consumer Society,” in Ellen G. Miles, ed., The Portrait in Eighteenth-Century America (Newark, 1993), 37–60.

268 Parker and Macknight: James Parker to Charles Steuart, July 5, Nov. 15, 1769, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL; Edward Egerton, ed., The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists, 1783 to 1785: Being the Notes of Mr. Daniel Parker Coke, M.P. (Oxford, 1915), 363. his colleagues on the Council: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, 334.

269 Norfolk County: Arthur Boush, Memorandum, Aug. 7, 1770, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

270 veterans of 1754: George Washington to Baron de Botetourt, Dec. 8, 1769, George Washington, Petition to Baron de Botetourt, [ca. Dec. 15], 1769, George Washington to Charles Washington, Jan. 31, 1770, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 272–279, 300–303.

271 “a grand … entertainment”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, June 7, 1770.

272 “A meeting … interests”: Ibid., June 21, 1770.

273 Robert Burwell: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, March 8, 1770; Robert Burwell to John Norton, May 9, 1770, Martha Goosley to John Norton, Sept. 1, 1770, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; entry of Sept. 2, 1772, The Diary of Landon Carter of Sabine Hall, 1752–1778, ed. Jack P. Greene (Charlottesville, 1965), II, 720. On Mildred Lightfoot, see Lyon G. Tyler, “Lightfoot Family,” WMQ, 1st ser., III (Oct. 1894), 110.

274 the “robbery”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, June 15–19, 1768, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

275 Higham Hill: Lewis, “Architects,” Art Bulletin, XXIX (Dec. 1947), 265; Lysons, Environs of London, 2d ed., I, Part II, 702–703; Wright, History and Topography of Essex, II, 506–507; Reany and Grieve, “Walthamstow,” in Powell, ed., History of Essex, VI, 260; [Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History, VI, 297; The Ambulator; or, the Stranger’s Companion in a Tour Round London (London, 1774), 195.

276 “great” … “us”: Anthony Bacon to J. Artiguenaret, April 18, 1761, Mercer Family Papers, ViRHi.

277 Church of St. Bartholomew: [Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History, III, 7; Gentleman’s Magazine, XL (May 1770), 239.

278 Mary Bushby: Lloyd, Early History of Iron Works, 56–60.

279 cargo of the Nancy: Samuel Gist to Thomas Tabb & Son, Jan. 24, 1770, ViRHi; Lloyd’s List, Jan. 12, Feb. 23, 1770.

280 “be as … home”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, July 24, 1767, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

281 John Norton: John Smith to John Norton, Jan. 8, 1767, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

282 “he will” … “Title”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, May 20, 1767, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

283 “a little singular”: Patrick Henry to Joseph Smith, Feb. 15, 1770, ibid.

284 “Sundry European Goods”: A List of All Ships and Vessels Which Have Entered Inwards in the Port of York River, Virginia, Dec. 25, 1767-June 24, 1768, T 1/461, PRO.

285 a hurricane: Robert Carter Nicholas to John Norton, Sept. 16, 1769, Mason, John Norton, 107; Lloyd’s List, Nov. 3, 17, 1769; Roger Atkinson to Lionel and Samuel Lyde, Oct. 26, 1769, Atkinson Letterbook, ViU; Thomas Jett to John Morton Jordan & Co., Sept. 13, 1769, “Letter Book of Thomas Jett,” WMQ, 1st ser., XVII (July 1908), 86; Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 14, 1769; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 14, 1769; Maryland Gazette (Annapolis), Sept. 14, 1769.

286 The Fitzhugh: Samuel Galloway to James Russell, [Jan. 1770?], Aug. 27, 1771, Samuel Galloway and Stephen Steward to James Russell, July 20, 1770, Galloway Letterbook, Galloway-Maxcy-Markoe Papers, DLC.

287 Fitzhugh underwriters: James Russell to Samuel Galloway, May 7, 1770, Samuel Galloway and Stephen Steward to James Russell, July 20, 1770, Samuel Galloway to James Russell, Sept. 17, Nov. 18, 1770, Aug. 27, 1771, ibid. See also Nathaniel Mills to Champion, Dickason & Co., Aug. 20, 1784, “The Letter-book of Mills & Hicks,” ed. Robert Earle Moody and Charles Christopher Crittenden, NCHR, XIV (Jan. 1937), 80–81.

288 the Providence: Lloyd’s List, June 8, July 27, Aug. 24, 1770; Lloyd’s Register: 1768–1771, P–400; Maryland Gazette, July 19, 1770. For the previous voyage of the Providence, see M. M. Schofield, “Lancashire Shipping in the 18th Century: The Rise of a Seafaring Family,” Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, CXL (1990), 8.

289 Phripp, Taylor & Company: Phripp, Taylor & Co. to Samuel Gist, Dec. 18, 1772, Samuel Gist v. Taylor & Co., 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

290 Elizabeth: Lloyd’s List, Oct. 22, 1771; Samuel Gist, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Jan. 30, 1772.

291 “in Advance”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Jan. 28, Aug. 8, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi; List of Debts Contracted with Samuel Gist, Claim of Samuel Gist, T 79/31, PRO.

292 John Smith: John Norton to John Hatley Norton, Feb. 16, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; John Smith, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Jan. 10, 1771; Edward Pleasants Valentine, comp., The Edward Pleasants Valentine Papers (Richmond, n.d.), IV, 2170; Commissioner’s Report, June 1808, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

293 Bacon and the swamp: Charles Steuart to James Parker, Feb. 6, 1770, Parker Family Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

294 “advances” … “out”: William Aitchison and James Parker to Charles Steuart, April 2, 1770, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL.

295 “never would see”: Viscount Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Jan. 18, 1763, Henry Ellis, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 2d ser., IV (London, 1827), 459.

296 “superintendent of a bagnio”: Quoted in George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, ed. Vicary Gibbs et al. (London, 1910–40), VI, 92n.

297 “He drinks … heated”: Elizabeth Montagu to Edward Montagu, Dec. 5, 1764, Mrs. Montagu “Queen of the Blues”: Her Letters and Friendships from 1762 to 1800, ed. Reginald Blunt (London, [1923]), I, 120.

298 “no” … “of it”: Charles Steuart to William Aitchison and James Parker, June 8, Aug. 3, 1770, Parker Family Papers, Liverpool Public Library; William Senhouse to Humphrey Senhouse, May 22, 1770, in Edward Hughes, North Country Life in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1965), II, 252.

299 “a species … use”: Testimony, June 7, 1784, Claim of Thomas Macknight, photocopies in English Records, Box ER8, Folder 20, Nc-Ar; Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 363.

300 “Channel … Empire”: George Washington to Thomas Johnson, July 20, 1770, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 358–360.

301 Such migration: Thomas Adams to [?], July 4, 1771, in [Wharton], [Statement for the Petitioners], 22. See also [?] to Thomas Walpole, July 9, 1770, in The Correspondence of WilliamNelson as Acting Governor of Virginia, 1770–1771, ed. John C. Van Horne (Charlottesville, 1975), 27.

302 Wharton and Walpole: Samuel Wharton to Thomas Pitt, July 3, 1770, STG Box 12(32), CSmH; Edward Montague to Committee of Correspondence, Jan. 18, Feb. 6, 1770, VMHB, XII (Oct. 1904), 159–165; Thomas Walpole to Earl of Hillsborough, July 16, 1770, [?] to Thomas Walpole, July 9, 1770, Correspondence of Nelson, ed. Van Horne, 23, 27.

303 “give … blow”: George Washington to Baron de Botetourt, Oct. 5, 1770, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VIII, 389.

304 “alarming”: Thomas Walker to William Preston, May 27, 1771, Preston Papers, Vol. 2, ff. 125–126, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

305 George Mercer: George Mercer to George W. Fairfax, Dec. 2, 1773, in Edward D. Neill, The Fairfaxes of England and America in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Albany, 1868), 140–142; Alfred Procter James, George Mercer of the Ohio Company: A Study in Frustration (Pittsburgh, 1963), 62–63.

306 Arthur Lee: Arthur Lee to Richard Henry Lee, July 12, 1770, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

307 “faithless & dishonourable”: George Morgan to Richard Neave, Oct. 1, 1774, Letter Books of George Morgan, PHarH-Ar.

308 “in … Vandals”: Samuel Wharton to Joseph Galloway and Thomas Wharton, April 9, 1773, Papers of Franklin, ed. Labaree et al., XX, 146n.

309 “The worst … undertakings”: George Morgan to John Baynton, Nov. 1770, quoted in Max Savelle, George Morgan: Colony Builder (New York, 1932), 82.

310 “very” … “sentiment”: [Wharton], [Statement for the Petitioners], appendix iii, pp. 19–20. Earl of Hillsborough: Peter Marshall, “Lord Hillsborough, Samuel Wharton and the Ohio Grant, 1769–1775,” EnHR, CCCXVII (Oct. 1965), 717–739; Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness, chaps. 7–8; Thomas, Townshend Duties Crisis, 66–72; B. D. Bargar, Lord Dartmouth and the American Revolution (Columbia, 1965), chap. 8; Gipson, British Empire, XI, 464–473.

311 “the Spirit of Association”: William Nelson to John Norton, July 19, 1770, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

312 “luxury and extravagance”: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, I, 80.

313 promptings from England: Baron de Botetourt to Earl of Hillsborough, June 30, 1770, Earl of Hillsborough to Baron de Botetourt, Oct. 3, 1770, K. G. Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, 1770–1783 (Shannon and Dublin, 1972–80), I, 128, 177.

314 the Association attracted: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, I, 82–83; Thomas Jett to John Anderson, July 8, 1770, Thomas Jett Letterbook, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW; Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 6, 1770.

315 called for December 14: William Nelson to Earl of Hillsborough, Dec. 19, 1770, Correspondence of Nelson, ed. Van Horne, 99. See also Ragsdale, Planters’ Republic, 91–103; Thomas, Townshend Duties Crisis, 204–206.

316 death of Lord Botetourt: James Parker to Charles Steuart, Dec. 1770, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL; William Nelson to Earl of Hillsborough, Oct. 15, 1770, Correspondence of Nelson, ed. Van Horne, 35.

317 burial and estate: William Nelson to Earl of Hillsborough, Oct. 15, 1770, Correspondence of Nelson, ed. Van Horne, 35; William Nelson et al. to Duke of Beaufort, Oct. 30, 1770, Botetourt Transcripts, ViWC; William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, Dec. 6, 1770, May 16, 1771, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 18, 1770; Hugh B. Grigsby to Henry S. Randall, Feb. 26, 1859, Randall-Grigsby Correspondence, CSmH.

318 “a free … Resignation”: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 367. On Blair, see Carter Braxton to William Cabell, March 10, 1768, Emmet Collection, NN; Richard Henry Lee to William Lee, Dec. 17, 1769, July 7, 1770, Lee Family Papers, Section 108, ViRHi.

319 “universally lamented”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 18, 1770.

320 “the compleatest … experienced”: William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, Dec. 6, 1770, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

321 “Wou’dbe”: Robert Munford, “The Candidates,” ed. Jay B. Hubbell and Douglass Adair, WMQ, 3d ser., V (April 1948), 231.

IV: THE LAST VOYAGE OF THE SLAVE SHIP HOPE

    1 “French made free”: Entry 2359, Register of Passes, Adm 7/96, PRO. See, for example, London Chronicle, Aug. 16, 1770. On the rigging of a snow, see Karl Heinz Marquardt, Eighteenth-Century Rigs and Rigging, 2d ed. (London, 1992), 115–116. On smuggling, see W. Rawlings to Earl of Dartmouth, Sept. 16, 1765, Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of the Earl of Dartmouth (London, 1887–96), III, 178–179; “Extracts from the Old Books of the Custom-House of Irvine,” in Topographical Account of the District of Cunningham, Ayrshire (Glasgow, 1858), appendix, 233–234; Walter Long to Treasury Board, April 8, 1772, T 1/496/126–128, PRO, calendared in List and Index Society, Volume 250: Treasury Board: Papers, 1771–1772 (1992); L. M. Cullen, The Brandy Trade Under the Ancien Régime: Regional Specialisation in the Charente (Cambridge, 1998), 19, 37–38; H. S. K. Kent, War and Trade in Northern Seas (Cambridge, 1973), 115; Geoffrey W. Place, The Rise and Fall of Parkgate, Passenger Port for Ireland: 1686–1815, Chetham Society, 3d ser., XXXIX (1994), 222–226; Cal Winslow, “Sussex Smugglers,” in Douglas Hay et al., Albion’s Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England (New York, 1975), 125–126, 147–152; Hervey Benham, The Smugglers’ Century: The Story of Smuggling on the Essex Coast, 1730–1830 (Chelmsford, 1986), chaps. 3–4, 8, 14, 23; Robin Craig and John Whyman, “Kent and the Sea,” in Alan Armstrong, ed., The Economy of Kent (Woodbridge, 1995), 175–181; Hervey Benham, Once Upon a Tide (London, 1955), chap. 14; Gebhard Windeborn, A View of England Towards the Close of the Eighteenth Century (Dublin, 1791), I, 153.

    2 “African Scheme”: Roger Atkinson to Samuel Gist, Jan. 10, 1771, Roger Atkinson Letterbook, ViU.

    3 “add largely”: William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, May 2, 1772, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

    4 Gist offered to lend: William Nelson to Thomas and Rowland Hunt, July 3, 1772, ibid.

    5 He shipped clothing: David Jameson to William Nelson, Jr., Jan. 4, 1785, Account of Dismal Swamp Company with David Jameson, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

    6 “it … fond of” and buyers: Roger Atkinson to Samuel Gist, Jan. 10, 1771, Atkinson Letterbook, Harry Piper to Dixon & Littledale, Dec. 16, 1770, Harry Piper Letterbook, Douglass Family Papers, ViU.

    7 “what” … “Negroes”: Oct. 10, 1770, A Letter to an American Planter, from His Friend in London (London, 1781), 3–4.

    8 an annual ship: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Jan. 28, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi. See also James A. Rawley, The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History (New York, 1981), 400–404; Susan Westbury, “Slaves of Colonial Virginia: Where They Came From,” WMQ, 3d ser., XLII (April 1985), 235–236.

    9 the Gold Coast: Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill, 1998), 64–65; Darold D. Wax, “Preferences for Slaves in Colonial America,” JNH, LVIII (Oct. 1973), 396; Carter Braxton to Nicholas Brown & Co., Oct. 16, 1763, Brown Family Papers, RPJCB; David Beekman to Christ[opher] and George Champlin, July 12, 1770, West Indies Collection, LU; testimony of Richard Miles, Report of the Lords of the Committee of Council … Concerning the Present State of the Trade to Africa (London, 1789), unpaginated; [John Peter Demarin], A Treatise Upon the Trade from Great Britain to Africa (London, 1772), appendix G, p. 42.

  10 Providence: New-Lloyd’s List, Jan. 4, Nov. 12, 1771; Lloyd’s Register: 1768–1771 (London, n.d.), P–400.

  11 “a merchant … Trade”: Archibald Dalziel to Andrew Dalziel, Sept. 7, 1771, Archibald Dalzel Letters, UkEU. Several years later the brothers adopted the spelling “Dalzel.”

  12 Ross & Mill: Samuel Bainbridge, Samuel Gist, John Shoolbred et al. to Board of Trade, [March 17, 1772], in [Demarin], Treatise Upon the Trade, appendix G, pp. 46–50.

  13 The ship Peggy: Lloyd’s Register: 1768–1771, P–495; Lloyd’s Register: 1776 (London, n.d.), P–99; Gilbert Francklyn, Observations Occasioned by the Attempts Made in England to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade (London, 1789), xv; St. James’s Chronicle (London), May 14, 1774.

  14 “I … Shoolbred”: Archibald Dalziel to Andrew Dalziel, Feb. 25, 1774, Dalzel Letters, UkEU.

  15 “the Effects … it”: John Shoolbred to Committee of Council for Trade, Feb. 19, 1788, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part I, Paper No. 1. See also [Edward Long], Candid Reflections Upon the Judgement (London, 1772), 39–40; Gilbert Ross, James Mill, John Shoolbred et al., Memorial to the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, [1775?], Item 772 in K. E. Ingram, Sources of Jamaican History, 1655–1838 (Zug, 1976), II, 820–821; B. L. Anderson, “The Lancashire Bill System and Its Liverpool Practitioners: The Case of a Slave Merchant,” in W. H. Chaloner and Barrie M. Ratcliffe, eds., Trade and Transport: Essays in Economic History in Honour of T. S. Willan (Manchester, 1977), 59–97; Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492–1800 (London, 1997), 395–398; David Richardson, “The British Empire and the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1660–1807,” in P. J. Marshall, ed., The Oxford History of the British Empire, Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1998), 440–464.

  16 profits: Roger Anstey, “The Volume and Profitability of the British Slave Trade, 1761–1807,” in Stanley L. Engerman and Eugene D. Genovese, eds., Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere: Quantitative Studies (Princeton, 1975), 3–31; J. E. Inikori, “Market Structure and the Profits of the British African Trade in the Late Eighteenth Century,” JEcH, XLI (Dec. 1981), 745–766; Herbert S. Klein, “Economic Aspects of the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Slave Trade,” in James D. Tracy, ed., The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World (Cambridge, 1990), 287–310; Blackburn, Making of New World Slavery, 383–390. See also David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785 (Cambridge, 1995), chap. 6; Elaine Forman Crane, A Dependent People: Newport, Rhode Island, in the Revolutionary Era (New York, 1985), chap. 2.

  17 “a man … service”: Richard Brew to Liverpool Merchants, Oct. 1, 1771, in [Demarin], Treatise upon the Trade, appendix H, p. 110.

  18 about 38,000 slaves: Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1993), 133.

  19 almost 6,000: Sheila Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century (Wilmington, 1975), XXXII, 15.

  20 from Liverpool: James A. Rawley, “The Port of London and the Eighteenth Century Slave Trade: Historians, Sources, and a Reappraisal,” AfEcH, IX (1980), 85–100.

  21 “any” … “Guineaman”: John Baker Holroyd, Earl of Sheffield, Observations on the Project for Abolishing the Slave Trade, 2d ed. (London, 1791), 20n; Robert Louis Stein, The French Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century: An Old Regime Business (Madison, 1979), 70–71.

  22 the Meredith made: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Jan. 21, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi; entry 2096, Register of Passes, Adm 7/96, PRO; New-Lloyd’s List, Oct. 4, 1771, Dec. 18, 1772.

  23 “liable … subject”: The Case of the Mills Frigate [London, 1765], 5; James Allan Park, A System of the Law of Marine Insurances, 2d ed. (London, 1790), 222–224.

  24 her cargo: Marion Johnson, “The African Slave Trade and the Economy of West Africa,” in Roger Anstey and P. E. H. Hair, eds., Liverpool, the African Slave Trade, and Abolition (Bristol, 1976), 15–19; David Richardson, “West African Consumption Patterns and Their Influence on the Eighteenth-Century English Slave Trade,” in Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (New York, 1979), 303–330; Jenny West, Gunpowder, Government and War in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (Woodbridge, 1991), 124–127, 131–135; Anderson, “Lancashire Bill System,” in Chaloner and Ratcliffe, eds., Trade and Transport, 64–67, 88–91; Richard Brew to [Miles Barber?], Aug. 25, 1771, [Demarin], Treatise Upon the Trade, appendix H, p. 104.

  25 hired a crew: W. E. Minchinton, “The Voyage of the Snow Africa,” MM, XXXVII (July 1951), 187–196; James Laroche et al. to David Duncombe, 1759, in C. M. MacInnes, England and Slavery (Bristol, 1934), 46–49; William Johnston & Co. to David Lindsay, June 10, 1754, in George C. Mason, “The African Slave Trade in Colonial Times,” American Historical Record, I (July 1872), 340–341; testimony of Robert Norris, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part II.

  26 Captains met: London Chronicle, Sept. 25, 1770.

  27 “a great … money”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Jan. 21, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  28 The brig Unanimity: Smith et al. Assignees of Hague v. DeSilva et al., 2 Cowper 469–472, The English Reports (Edinburgh, 1909), XCVIII, 1191–1192; testimony of John Shoolbred, Feb. 6, 1778, The Parliamentary Register (London, 1778), X, 200; Archibald Dalziel to Andrew Dalziel, Sept. 7, 1771, Dalzel Letters, UkEU; David Richardson, “Profits in the Liverpool Slave Trade: The Accounts of William Davenport, 1757, 1784,” in Anstey and Hair, eds., Liverpool, 65.

  29 a “Considerable” portion: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Jan. 21, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  30 extending credit: Miles Barber to James Christie, May 14, 1762, MS tipped into Joseph Warren Keifer, Slavery and Four Years of War (New York, 1900), II, CSmH; R. B. Sheridan, “The Commercial and Financial Organization of the British Slave Trade, 1750–1807,” EcHR, 2d ser., XI (Dec. 1958), 249–263; Joseph E. Inikori, “The Credit Needs of the African Trade and the Development of the Credit Economy in England,” ExEcH, XXVII (1990), 197–231; Jacob M. Price, “Credit in the Slave Trade and Plantation Economies,” in Barbara L. Solow, ed., Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System (Cambridge, 1991), 293–339; Sheffield, Observations on the Project, 20n.

  31 “never” … “push”: Samuel Martin to Earl of Sandwich, Feb. 12, 1778, The Private Papers of John, Earl of Sandwich, ed. G. R. Barnes and J. H. Owen (n.p., 1932), I, 267–268. See also Melinda Elder, The Slave Trade and the Economic Development of Eighteenth-Century Lancaster (Halifax, 1992), 147–150. On high-risk slave merchants, see entry of May 23, 1774, Radical Adventurer: The Diaries of Robert Morris, 1772–1774, ed. J. E. Ross (Bath, 1971), 182.

  32 Thomas Jones & Company: Lloyd’s Register: 1768–1771, T–40.

  33 sixteen-month voyage: David Richardson, ed., Bristol, Africa and the Eighteenth-Century Slave Trade to America (Bristol, 1986–96), IV, 12.

  34 a “coast commission”: James Laroche et al. to David Duncombe, 1759, in MacInnes, England and Slavery, 46–49; William Johnston & Co. to David Lindsay, June 10, 1754, in Mason, “African Slave Trade,” American Historical Record, I (July 1872), 340–341.

  35 “more” … “Disposition”: Testimony of Robert Norris, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part II. Compare Norris’s comments in Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade (London, 1808), I, 381.

  36 Captain George Colley: Thomas Clarkson, comp., The Substance of the Evidence of Sundry Persons on the Slave-Trade (London, 1789), 59; Walter Minchinton, Celia King, and Peter Waite, eds., Virginia Slave-Trade Statistics, 1698–1775 (Richmond, 1984), 161; Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXXXII, 29.

  37 Captain Samuel Pemberton: Clarkson, comp., Substance of the Evidence, 129; entry 2116, Register of Passes, Adm 7/96, PRO; Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, ed. Vincent Carretta (New York, 1995), 56–57; Carl B. Wadstrom, Observations on the Slave Trade (London, 1789), 38.

  38 his brig Will: Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia), April 13, 1774; Daily Advertiser (London), March 20, 1774; Shrewsbury Chronicle, March 5, 12, 1774; entry of June 29, 1775, Chronicle, Annual Register, XVIII (1775), 6th ed. (London, 1801), 134; entry 86, Register of Passes, Adm 7/98, PRO. On mortality among captains, see Stephen D. Behrendt, “The Captains in the British Slave Trade from 1785 to 1807,” Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, CXL (1990), 132–140. See also Peter Earle, Sailors: English Merchant Seamen, 1650–1775 (London, 1998), chap. 10.

  39 “requires … Harpooneers”: Charles Goore to Robert Tomlinson, Jan. 26, 1775, Charles Goore Letterbook, James S. Schoff Revolutionary War Collection, MiU-C.

  40 “Debauchery and Intoxication”: Testimony of Robert Norris, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part II.

  41 “Beware … goes in”: Quoted in George E. Brooks, Jr., Yankee Traders, Old Coasters, and African Middlemen: A History of American Legitimate Trade with West Africa in the Nineteenth Century (Boston, 1970), 13. See also Stephen D. Behrendt, “Crew Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century,” SA, XVIII (April 1997), 49–71, esp. 57–58.

  42 The Duke of Bridgewater: New-Lloyd’s List, May 28, 1771, supplement.

  43 the African Queen: Ibid., April 16, May 3, 1771.

  44 the George: Ibid., May 31, June 4, 1771.

  45 the Sam: Lloyd’s List, Jan. 10, 1772; Daily Advertiser, Jan. 10, 1772.

  46 The Loyalty: St. James’s Chronicle, May 17, 1774.

  47 the sloop Expedition: Lloyd’s List, April 13, Sept. 14, 1770; Edward Grace to Stevenson & Went, April 23, 1770, Letters of a West African Trader: Edward Grace, 1767–70, ed. T. S. Ashton (London, 1950), 38. On the Gregson, see also Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXXXII, 122–123. For another example of abandoning a foundering slave vessel, see “Extract of a letter from Philadelphia,” Nov. 11, 1762, Chronicle, Annual Register, V (1762), 5th ed. (London, 1787), 117–118.

  48 Gist and Tucker: William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, May 2, June 18, 1772, William Nelson to Thomas and Rowland Hunt, July 3, 1772, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

  49 Gist, Hope, and Mentor: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Jan. 21, 28, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Susan Westbury, “Analysing a Regional Slave Trade: The West Indies and Virginia, 1698–1775,” SA, VII (Dec. 1986), 241–256.

  50 Vessels to the Gold Coast: John Adams, Remarks on the Country Extending from Cape Palmas to the River Congo (London, 1966 [orig. publ. 1823]), 223–227; Hugh Crow, Memoirs of the Late Captain Hugh Crow of Liverpool (London, 1830), 183–187; Selena Axelrod Winsnes, trans. and ed., Letters on West Africa and the Slave Trade: Paul Erdmann Isert’s Journey to Guinea and the Caribbean Islands in Columbia (Oxford, 1992), 24–27, 210–211; John Matthews, A Voyage to the River Sierra-Leone, on the Coast of Africa (London, 1788), 33; New-Lloyd’s List, Dec. 27, 1771, supplement; Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Nov. 2, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  51 Annamaboe anchorage: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXVIII, 129–130; testimony of Robert Norris and Richard Miles, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part I; Report from the Select Committee on the Settlements of Sierra Leone and Fernando Po (1830), Irish University Press Series of British Parliamentary Papers, Slave Trade: Volume I (Shannon, 1968), 93; John Entick, The Present State of the British Empire (London, 1774), IV, 510–511; David Eltis and David Richardson, “West Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade: New Evidence of Long-Run Trends,” SA, XVIII (April 1997), 22–23.

  52 “dreadfull” … “sharks”: Charles Bell to Committee, May 12, 1762, Gilbert Petrie to Committee, Aug. 20, 1767, Company of Merchants Trading to Africa, Letterbooks, T 70/31, ff. 5, 140, PRO; [Horatio Bridge], Journal of an African Cruiser, ed. Nathaniel Hawthorne (New York, 1845), 137; John M’Leod, A Voyage to Africa (London, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1820]), 7–9; “Remarks on Cape Coast Castle,” Commonplace Book, Navigation, 1797–1817, HM 28915, CSmH.

  53 The new white fort: A. W. Lawrence, Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa (Stanford, 1964), 349–355; Henry Meredith, An Account of the Gold Coast of Africa (London, 1967 [orig. publ. 1812]), 129–131; Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, XXXII, 29, 44; Thomas Clarkson, A Few Chosen Places for Colonization, Thomas Clarkson Papers, CN69, CSmH; Winsnes, ed., Letters on West Africa, 173.

  54 a town with two districts: George Metcalf, “Gold, Assortments and the Trade Ounce: Fante Merchants and the Problem of Supply and Demand in the 1770s,” JAfH, XXVIII (1987), 27–41; Adams, Remarks on the Country, 38; Thomas Thompson, An Account of Two Missionary Voyages (London, 1937 [orig. publ. 1758]), 49–63.

  55 Richard Brew: Margaret Priestley, West African Trade and Coast Society: A Family Study (London, 1969); M. A. Priestley, “Richard Brew: An Eighteenth-Century Trader at Anomabu,” Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, IV, Part I (1959), 29–46.

  56 “the most … earth”: Gilbert Petrie to Committee, Aug. 20, 1767, T 70/31, f. 141, PRO. For the diary of an African slave trader on another part of the coast, see Daryll Forde, ed., Efik Traders of Old Calabar: Containing the Diary of Antera Duke (London, 1968).

  57 “our … ruined”: David Mill to Committee, June 22, 1772, T 70/31, f. 221, PRO; Alexander Falconbridge, An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa (London, 1788), 53–54; J. J. Crooks, ed., Records Relating to the Gold Coast Settlements from 1750 to 1874 (Dublin, 1923), 37; J. K. Fynn, “Ghana-Asante (Ashanti),” in Michael Crowder, ed., West African Resistance: The Military Response to Colonial Occupation (New York, 1971), 24; James Sanders, “The Expansion of the Fante and the Emergence of Asante in the Eighteenth Century,” JAfH, XX (1979), 349–364; A. Adu Boahen, “Fante Diplomacy in the Eighteenth Century,” in K. Ingham, ed., “Foreign Relations of African States,” Colston Papers, XXV (1974), 25–49.

  58 the gold-taker: John Grossle to Committee, Sept. 8, 1769, T 70/31, f. 188, PRO; Adams, Remarks on the Country, 9–11; entry of May 2, 1774, [Robert Champlin], A Rhode Island Slaver: Trade Book of the Sloop Adventure, 1773–1774, ed. Verner W. Crane (Providence, 1922), 7; Winsnes, ed., Letters on West Africa, 84–87; John Kofi Fynn, ed., Oral Traditions of Fante States (Legon, 1974), III, 118, IV, 41.

  59 Annamaboe slave dealers: Metcalf, “Gold, Assortments and the Trade Ounce,” JAfH, XXVIII (1987), 30.

  60 Philip Quaque: Philip Quaque to Samuel Johnson, Nov. 26, 1767, April 5, 1769, in Herbert Schneider and Carol Schneider, eds., Samuel Johnson, President of King’s College: His Career and Writings (New York, 1929), I, 425, 428–430; Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXXXII, 40; See also Francis L. Bartels, “Philip Quaque, 1741–1816,” Transactions of the Gold Coast and Togoland Historical Society, I, Part V (1955), 153–177; Margaret Priestley, “Philip Quaque of Cape Coast,” in Philip D. Curtin, ed., Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade (Madison, 1967), 99–139; Grace Bansa, “Quaque, P.,” Encyclopaedia Africana Dictionary of African Biography (New York, 1977), I, 305–306.

  61 Dougall, gunpowder: Bristol Port Book, April 5, 1770–July 5, 1770, ff. 17, 21, E 190/1228/2, PRO.

  62 “fully … Fantees”: Gilbert Petrie to Committee, Sept. 13, 1766, Oct. 9, 1767, T 70/31, ff. 110, 142–143, PRO; Joseph Raymond LaTorre, “Wealth Surpasses Everything: An Economic History of Asante, 1750–1874” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1978), 391, 422–424.

  63 Gold Coast slaves: J. K. Fynn, Asante and Its Neighbours: 1700–1807 (London, 1971), chap. 5; Johnson, “Atlantic Slave Trade,” in Anstey and Hair, eds., Liverpool, 27–29; Kwame Y. Daaku, “Trade and Trading Patterns of the Akan in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” in Claude Meillassoux, ed., The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West Africa (Oxford, 1971), 170–171; Ray A. Kea, “ ‘I am here to plunder on the general road’: Bandits and Banditry in the Pre-Nineteenth-Century Gold Coast,” in Donald Crummey, ed., Banditry, Rebellion, and Social Protest in Africa (London, 1986), 124–125; T. C. McCaskie, State and Society in Pre-Colonial Asante(Cambridge, 1995), 26; John K. Thornton, “The African Background to American Colonization,” in Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of the United States: The Colonial Era (Cambridge, 1996), 82–94; Kwasi Boaten, “Commerce in Northern Asante, 1702–1945,” Bulletin of the Ghana Geographical Association, XIV (1969), 22–27; LaTorre, “Wealth Surpasses Everything,” 421–435; Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge, 1983), 78–122; John Mensah Sarbah, Fanti Customary Laws, 3d ed. (London, 1968 [orig. pub. 1897]), 7–8, 115, 282–283. See also Clarkson, comp., Substance of the Evidence, 12–13, 19, 30–31, 42–43, 50–51, 62–63, 69–72; Wadstrom, Observations, 1–2, 17–18; Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXXIII, 388; Winsnes, ed., Letters on West Africa, 81–87, 133–134; testimony of Robert Norris, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part I.

  64 “The Gold … Languages”: Testimony of Jerome Bernard Weuves, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part I. See also Equiano, Interesting Narrative, ed. Carretta, 54–55; Fynn, ed., Oral Traditions of Fante States, I, Berase, 12–13, Ankaase, 9–10, Abirema-Agina, 9–11, II, 34–35, 50–51, 62–63, III, 13–14, 37–38, 51–52, 63–64, 87, 99, 108–109, IV, 15, 40, 63.

  65 “they … power”: Archibald Dalziel to Andrew Dalziel, Nov. 20, 1763, Dalzel Letters, UkEU; Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations from January 1768 to December 1775 (London, 1937), 92, 141, 144.

  66 ten ounces: David Mill to Committee, March 12, 1772, T 70/31, f. 215, PRO.

  67 “the Choice … Trade”: Thomas Westgate to Committee, April 10, 1777, T 70/32, f. 31, PRO.

  68 “essential” … “accidentally”: James Oldham, The Mansfield Manuscripts and the Growth of English Law in the Eighteenth Century (Chapel Hill, 1992), I, 557; Earl of Rochford to Robert Walpole, Sept. 21, 1773, Robert Walpole to Earl of Rochford, Oct. 25, 1773, Marquis de Pombal to Robert Walpole, Nov. 2, 1773, SP 89/75, ff. 116, 152, 171, PRO, calendared in Descriptive List of the State Papers, Portugal, 1661–1780, in the Public Record Office, London (Lisbon, 1979–83), III, 127, 129–130; José da Silva Lisboa to Domingos Vandelli, Oct. 18, 1781, in Annais da Biblioteca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro: 1910 (Rio deJaneiro, 1914), XXXII, 504–505; Summaries of Reports from Gov. O’Hara, July 25, 1766, Minutes of African Affairs, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 90, MiU-C; [Demarin], Treatise Upon the Trade, 23–24; Winsnes, ed., Letters on West Africa, 139. See also Joseph C. Miller, Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730–1830 (Madison, 1988); LaTorre, “Wealth Surpasses Everything,” 395, 397, 471n.227; Carlos Agostinho das Neves, S. Tomé e Príncipe na segunda metade do séc. XVIII (Lisbon, 1989), 100–111; Kenneth R. Maxwell, Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil and Portugal, 1750–1808 (Cambridge, 1973), 214–215; Jordan Goodman, Tobacco in History: The Culture of Dependence (London, 1993), 162–165; Catherine Lugar, “The Portuguese Tobacco Trade and Tobacco Growers of Bahia in the Late Colonial Period,” in Dauril Alden and Warren Dean, eds., Essays Concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India (Gainesville, 1977), 26–69; Stuart B. Schwartz, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society: Bahia, 1550–1835 (Cambridge, 1985), 340–345; Pierre Verger, Bahia and the West African Trade: 1549–1851 (Ibadan, 1964); A. J. R. Russell-Wood, “Ports of Colonial Brazil,” in Franklin W. Knight and Peggy K. Liss, eds., Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in the Atlantic World (Knoxville, 1991), 196–239. On the Dutch, see also Johannes Menne Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1815 (Cambridge, 1990), 76–78; Harvey M. Feinberg, “Africans and Europeans in West Africa: Elminans and Dutchmen on the Gold Coast During the Eighteenth Century,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, LXXIX, Part 7 (1989).

  69 Charles Bell and David Mill: Richard Brew to Liverpool Merchants, Oct. 15, 1770, [Demarin], Treatise Upon the Trade, appendix H, pp. 85–93; Benedict Der, “Edmund Burke and Africa, 1772–1792,” Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, XI (1970), 12; Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, XXXII, 15–17; John Grossle to Committee, Sept. 8, 1769, T 70/31, ff. 187–188, PRO; St. James’s Chronicle, Nov. 8, 1774; Richard Miles to John Shoolbred, April 9, 1778, in Eveline C. Martin, The British West African Settlements: A Study in Local Administration (New York, 1970 [orig. publ. London, 1927]), 40. the snow Greenwich: David Mill to Committee, March 12, 1772, T 70/31, f. 215, PRO; Richardson, ed., Bristol, Africa and the Slave Trade, IV, 18.

  70 the Exeter: Entry 1647, Register of Passes, Adm 7/96, PRO; Pennsylvania Gazette, June 25, 1772; London Chronicle, Aug. 8, 1772; Matthews, Voyage to Sierra-Leone, 3–4; Henry Laurens to John Holman, Sept. 8, 1770, The Papers of Henry Laurens, ed. Philip M. Hamer et al. (Columbia, 1968–), VII, 344–345, 344n.6.

  71 Betty and Jenny: Daily Advertiser, Sept. 3, 1772; entry 2322, Register of Passes, Adm 7/96, PRO.

  72 two slaves every three: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Nov. 2, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  73 “you … rate”: [?] to Liverpool Merchants, March 30, 1772, [Demarin], Treatise Upon the Trade, appendix H, pp. 122–123.

  74 rolls of tobacco: David Mill to Committee, Nov. 19, 1770, March 12, 1772, T 70/31, ff. 202–203, 214.

  75 John Marshall: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXXIII, 383. See also Darold D. Wax, “Thomas Rogers and the Rhode Island Slave Trade,” AN, XXXV (Oct. 1975), 289–301.

  76 The Maesgwin: Richardson, ed., Bristol, Africa and the Slave Trade, IV, 34.

  77 Few slaves were brought: Samuel [Tuell] to Christopher Champlin, June 16, 1772, Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, 1726–1800, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 7th ser., IX–X (1914–15), I, 402; Crooks, ed., Records Relating to the Gold Coast, 37; David Mill to Committee, June 22, Dec. 12, 1772, T 70/31, ff. 220–221, 223, PRO; Margaret Priestley, “The Ashanti Question and the British: Eighteenth-Century Origins,” JAfH, II (1961), 35–59; Sanders, “Expansion of the Fante,” JAfH, XX (1979), 361–362; Fynn, Asante and Its Neighbours, 108–115.

  78 “hideous yelling”: Clarkson, comp., Substance of the Evidence, 20, 44–45, 75; testimony of Robert Norris, Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part II; Samuel Kelly, Samuel Kelly: An Eighteenth Century Seaman, ed. Crosbie Garstin (New York, 1925), 288; Equiano, Interesting Narrative, ed. Carretta, 56; James Irving to Mary Irving, Dec. 2, 1786, in Suzanne Schwarz, ed., Slave Captain: The Career of James Irving in the Liverpool Slave Trade (Wrexham, 1995), 113; Charles Garland and Herbert S. Klein, “The Allotment of Space for Slaves aboard Eighteenth-Century British Slave Ships,” WMQ, 3d ser., XLII (April 1985), 238–248; Earle, Sailors, 77–78.

  79 the Thomas: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), July 30, 1772; Richardson, ed., Bristol, Africa and the Slave Trade, IV, 25.

  80 an address to the king: William J. Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence (Charlottesville, 1973–83), I, 87; Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Hillsborough, May 1, 1772, K. G. Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, 1770–1783 (Shannon and Dublin, 1972–80), V, 94–95; Bruce A. Ragsdale, A Planters’ Republic: The Search for Economic Independence in Revolutionary Virginia (Madison, 1996), 133–134.

  81 Dougall and Gricewood: David Mill to Committee, June 22, 1772, T 70/31, f. 220, PRO; Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Nov. 2, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  82 “filled … Christians”: Thomas Lothrop to Aaron Lopez, Dec. 11, 1774, The Americas, XXXV (April 1979), 574–580.

  83 Bogle & Scott: Robert Bogle to George Bogle, Nov. 19, 1772, Bogle Papers, Mitchell Library, Glasgow; T. M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow (Edinburgh, 1975), 7.

  84 “disagreeably … property”: Duncan Campbell to John Tayloe, June 24, 1772, Business Letterbook, Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, Mitchell Library, Sydney, Australia.

  85 Robert Bogle, Jr.: London Chronicle, June 27, 1772; George F. Norton to John Hatley Norton, July 8, 1772, Frances Norton Mason, John Norton & Sons, Merchants of London and Virginia (Richmond, 1937), 254.

  86 “every … Abyss”: Robert Bogle to George Bogle, Nov. 19, 1772, Bogle Papers, Mitchell Library, Glasgow.

  87 John Gilchrist: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 21, 1773.

  88 close to a dead stop: Peleg Clarke to John Fletcher, July 25, Nov. 3, 1772, Samuel Tuell to Christopher Champlin, Sept. 26, 1772, in Elizabeth Donnan, ed., Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America (Washington, 1930–35), III, 259, 261, 262n; David Mill to Committee, Aug. 12, 1772, T 70/31, f. 222, PRO; Virginia Bever Platt, “ ‘And Don’t Forget the Guinea Voyage’: The Slave Trade of Aaron Lopez of Newport,” WMQ, 3d ser., XXXII (Oct. 1975), 612–613.

  89 sprung a leak: David Mill to Committee, Dec. 12, 1772, T 70/31, f. 223, PRO. On leaks, see John Harland, Seamanship in the Age of Sail(London, 1985), 303–305.

  90 Ilha do Príncipe: T. Boteler, “Memoir Descriptive of Prince’s Island and Anno Bom,” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, II (1832), 274–278; Raquel Soeiro de Brito, “A Ilha do Príncipe,” Geographica, III (April 1967), 3–17; J. K. Tuckey, Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire (London, 1818), 47–54, 256–257; Gerardo A. Pery, Geographia estatistica geral de Portugal e colonias (Lisbon, 1875), 342–345; Clado Ribeiro de Lessa, Crônica da uma embaixado Luso-Brasileira à Costa d’África em fins do século XVIII (São Paulo, 1957), 140–141; das Neves, S. Tomé e Príncipe, 112–119, 130; Francisco Travassos Valdez, Six Years of a Traveller’s Life in Western Africa (London, 1861), II, 8–9; “Remarks on Prince’s Harbour,” Commonplace Book, Navigation, HM 28915, CSmH.

  91 “arbitrariedades e extorsões”: R. J. da Cunha Matos, Compêndio histórico das possessões de Portugal na África (Rio de Janeiro, 1963), 182; Bernardo Castro de Mesquita to Martinho de Mello e Castro, April 15, 1772, in Fernando Castello-Branco, “Os Franceses e as Ilhas do Golfo da Guiné,” Arquivos de Centro Cultural Português (Paris, 1971), III, 717–718; Samuel Swan, Memoranda of the African Trade, [ca. 1810], in Brooks, Yankee Traders, 339–340.

  92 the island and slave trade: Vicente Gomes Ferreira to Martinho de Mello e Castro, March 15, 1771, in das Neves, S. Tomé e Príncipe, 336–341; Conde de Pavolide to Martinho de Mello e Castro, July 3, 1771, Annais da Biblioteca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, XXXII, 259; Joseph Banfield, Journal, HM 57345, CSmH; Dieudonné Rinchon, Pierre-Ignace-Liévin van Alstein: capitaine négrier (Dakar, 1964), 264–269; Tony Hodges and Malyn Newitt, São Tomé and Príncipe: From Plantation Colony to Micro State (Boulder, 1988), 24–25; K. David Patterson, The Northern Gabon Coast to 1875 (Oxford, 1975), chap. 2; Stein, French Slave Trade, 95–96.

  93 the Fancy: Earl of Rochford to Robert Walpole, Nov. 8, 1773, April 11, 1775, Robert Walpole to Martinho de Mello e Castro, Nov. 24, 1773, May 11, 1775, SP 89/75, ff. 157, 180, 89/79, ff. 62, 156, PRO, calendared in Descriptive List of the State Papers, Portugal, III, 129, 131, 157, 161.

  94 “totally irrepairable”: David Mill to Committee, May 8, 1773, T 70/31, f. 231, PRO.

  95 the Nancy: Letter from Barbados, June 24, 1773, Daily Advertiser, Aug. 5, 1773; Lloyd’s Register: 1768–1771, N–87.

  96 the Hope’s surgeon: David Mill to Committee, Dec. 12, 1772, T 70/31, f. 224, PRO.

  97 “The Hope … Africa”: Lloyd’s Evening Post (London), April 21, 1773; Daily Advertiser, April 21, 1773; New-Lloyd’s List, April 20, 1773; London Chronicle, April 22, 1773.

  98 Samuel Gist: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Nov. 2, 1772, April 26, 1773, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  99 “Particular … Hope”: David Mill to Committee, Sept. 12, 1773, T 70/32, f. 1, PRO.

100 New Britannia: Letter from Fort James, April 12, 1773, Daily Advertiser, Oct. 12, 1773; Bristol Journal, June 19, 1773; New-Lloyd’s List, June 18, 1773; Journals of the House of Commons: 1547–1800 ([London], 1803), XXXVII, 311–312.

101 number of slaves exported: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, XXXII, 15; David Mill to Committee, July 29, 1774, T 70/32, f. 7, PRO.

102 “putrid” … “mortification”: Testimony of James Chisholme, Two Reports (One presented the 16th of October, the other on the 12th of November, 1788) from the Committee of the Honourable House of Assembly of Jamaica (London, 1789), appendix 6, pp. 27–28; Clarkson, comp., Substance of the Evidence, 45–46; Sheffield, Observations on the Project, 2d ed., 27n; James Lind, An Essay on the Most Effectual Means of Preserving the Health of Seamen in the Royal Navy and a Dissertation on Fevers and Infections, 2d ed. (London, 1779), reprinted in Christopher Lloyd, ed., The Health of Seamen (London, 1965), 92–93; John Gabriel Stedman, Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam, ed. Richard Price and Sally Price (Baltimore, 1988), 166–168, 174–175.

103 The Peggy’s slaves: New-Lloyd’s List, Jan. 18, 1774; Henry Laurens to John Lewis Gervais, March 22–April 7, 1773, Henry Laurens to Ross & Mill, July 16, 1773, Papers of Laurens, ed. Hamer et al., VIII, 636, IX, 95.

104 £54: Thomas Dolbeare to Lopez & Rivera, Oct. 22, 1773, Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, I, 457–458. See also John Rhodes, The Surprising Adventures and Sufferings of John Rhodes, a Seaman of Workington (New York, 1798), 11; St. James’s Chronicle, April 19, 1774; David Richardson, “The Costs of Survival: The Transport of Slaves in the Middle Passage and the Profitability of the 18th-Century British Slave Trade,” ExEcH, XXIV (April 1987), 178–196.

105 Gist: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Feb. 4, 1774, March 18, 1775, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

106 “if … halter”: Elizabeth Harris to James Harris, April 6, 1773, A Series of Letters of the First Earl of Malmesbury, ed. J. H. Harris, Earl of Malmesbury (London, 1870), I, 271.

107 “Combinations” … “Spirit”: Entry of May 19, 1778, Hester Lynch Thrale Piozzi, Thraliana: The Diary of Mrs. Hester Lynch Thrale, 1776–1809, ed. Katherine C. Balderston (Oxford, 1942), I, 333–335.

108 trading commodities: Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754–1790 (New York, 1964), II, 235–236; Lucy Sutherland, “Sir George Colebrooke’s World Corner in Alum, 1771–1773,” in Lucy Sutherland, Politics and Finance in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Aubrey Newman (London, 1984), esp. 450–452; London Chronicle, Jan. 26, 1773.

109 “very ill used”: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, LXXI, 80–84; Peter Leger and William Greenwood to John Durand, Oct. 22, Dec. 9, 1771, July 4, 1772, Peter Leger and William Greenwood to Anthony Richardson, Nov. 15, 1771, Leger & Greenwood Letterbook, MiU-C.

110 the East India Company: John Durand to Lords of Treasury, Feb. 21, 1771, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, I, 272; Bernard Pool, Navy Board Contracts, 1660–1832: Contract Administration Under the Navy Board (Hamden, 1966), 82–91; R. J. B. Knight, comp., Portsmouth Dockyard Papers, 1774–1783: The American War (Portsmouth, 1987), appendix IV.

111 the Kennebec River: James Bowdoin et al. to Lords of Treasury, Dec. 18, 1771, William Willis et al., eds., Documentary History of the State of Maine, Maine Historical Society, Collections, 2d ser., I-XXIV (1869–1916), XIV, 150–151; Admiralty minutes, Oct. 27, 1768, The Hawke Papers, a Selection: 1743–1771, ed. Ruddock F. Mackay (Aldershot, 1990), 432.

112 Lumbermen: Thomas Scammell to Thomas Hutchinson, April 2, 1772, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, V, 58; Gordon E. Kershaw, The Kennebeck Proprietors, 1749–1775 (Portland, 1975), 212–219.

113 the Court of Hustings: William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia (Richmond, Philadelphia, and New York, 1809–23), VIII, 401–402; A. G. Roeber, Faithful Magistrates and Republican Lawyers: Creators of Virginia Legal Culture, 1680–1810 (Chapel Hill, 1981), 131–132; Calvin Brewster Coulter, Jr., “The Virginia Merchant” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1944), 239–240.

114 before the Board of Trade: Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, 1768–1775, 258–259.

115 “Junius Americanus”: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 17, 1771.

116 “a little … Change”: William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, May 2, 1772, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

117 “his character … one”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, Dec. 10, 1770, William Lee Letterbook, 1769–1771, duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia.

118 “Ld Dunmore’s Weaknesses”: Entry of March 27, 1774, Historical Memoirs from 16 March 1763 to 9 July 1776 of William Smith, ed. William H. W. Sabine (New York, 1956), 180; Richard Bland to Thomas Adams, Aug. 1, 1771, Adams Family Papers, ViRHi; Mary Lou Lustig, Privilege and Prerogative: New York’s Provincial Elite, 1710–1776 (Madison, 1995), 158–163.

119 “conscious … do”: William Nelson to Earl of Hillsborough, March 2, 1771, The Correspondence of William Nelson as Acting Governor of Virginia, 1770–1771, ed. John C. Van Horne (Charlottesville, 1975), 129.

120 “where … society”: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Hillsborough, July 2, 1771, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, III, 127; entry of Feb. 11, 1771, Smith, Historical Memoirs 1763–1776, ed. Sabine, 99.

121 “longer … Pasture”: William Nelson to Rowland Hunt, May 16, 1771, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

122 “I’m almost … him”: William Aitchison to Charles Steuart, April 6, 1771, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL.

123 the Dismal Swamp Company: Accounts, May 11, 1771, The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983—), VIII, 454; David Jameson to Thomas Nelson, Nov. 26, 1783, and entry of May 11, 1771, Memoranda, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

124 “disposed … properly”: William Nelson to Rowland Hunt, May 16, 1771, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

125 “every … lost”: Samuel Johnston to Thomas Barker, June 10, 1771, Hayes Collection, Johnston Family Series, NcU; Roger Atkinson to Matthew Gale, June 10, 1771, Atkinson Letterbook, ViU; Harry Piper to Dixon & Littledale, June 4, 1771, Piper Letterbook, ViU; Alexander Steuart to John Smith, June 26, 1771, Pocket Plantation Papers, ViU; Richard Bland to Thomas Adams, Aug. 1, 1771, Adams Family Papers, ViRHi; Neil Jamieson to James Glassford, May 30, 1771, Neil Jamieson Papers, DLC; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 30, June 6, 1771; William Nelson to Earl of Hillsborough, June 14, 1771, Correspondence of Nelson, ed. Van Horne, 144–145.

126 “known … Colony”: John Pendleton Kennedy, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1770–1772 (Richmond, 1906), 120.

127 Tryon and Dunmore: Entry of July 9, 1771, Smith, Historical Memoirs 1763–1776, ed. Sabine, 107; Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Hillsborough, July 9, 1771, William Tryon to Earl of Hillsborough, July 9, 1771, E. B. O’Callaghan et al., eds., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York (Albany, 1856–87), VIII, 278; William Tryon to [Earl of Hillsborough?], Aug. 31, 1771, The Correspondence of William Tryon, ed. William S. Powell (Raleigh, 1980–81), II, 831–832; Paul David Nelson, William Tryon and the Course of Empire: A Life in British Imperial Service (Chapel Hill, 1990), 88–91.

128 a marble statue: Kennedy, ed., Journals of Burgesses, 1770–1772, 138–140.

129 Lord Dunmore arrived: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 26, 1771.

130 100,000 acres: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Hillsborough, March 1772, CO 5/154, ff. 35–36, PRO.

131 the ministry forbade: Instructions to Earl of Dunmore, Feb. 7, 1771, in Merrill Jensen, ed., English Historical Documents, Volume IX: American Colonial Documents to 1776 (London, 1955), 206–207.

132 Dunmore and Nelson: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Hillsborough, May 2, 1772, CO 5/1350, ff. 62–65, PRO; Robert Wheeler, “The County Court in Colonial Virginia,” in Bruce C. Daniels, ed., Town and County: Essays on the Structure of Local Government in the American Colonies (Middletown, 1978), 111–133.

133 William Byrd: William Byrd to Jeffery Amherst, Dec. 31, 1771, “Some Unpublished Correspondence of William Byrd III,” ed. Marion Tinling, VMHB, LXXXVIII (July 1980), 290.

134 Richard Henry Lee: Richard Henry Lee to William Lee, July 12, 1772, Lee Family Papers, Section 108, ViRHi.

135 a swift, abrupt reply: Earl of Hillsborough to Earl of Dunmore, July 1, 1772, CO 5/1350, ff. 72–73, PRO.

136 “by not … Reversions”: Earl of Hillsborough to Frederick North, Aug. 7, 1772, Manuscripts of the Earl of Dartmouth, II, 86.

137 “very hearty”: William Lee to Philip Ludwell Lee, July 12, 1770, Lee Letterbook, 1769–1771, duPont Library, Stratford.

138 Dartmouth and Dunmore: Earl of Dartmouth to Earl of Dunmore, Feb. 3, 1773, Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Nov. 16, 1772, CO 5/1351, ff. 14–17, 1–7, PRO.

139 “Tory principles”: John Page, Memoir, Virginia Historical Register, III (July 1850), 148–149.

140 “advantageous … family”: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Hillsborough, March 1772, CO 5/154, ff. 35–36, PRO.

141 the new boundary: John Richard Alden, John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier (Ann Arbor, 1944), 282–286; Louis DeVorsey, Jr., The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 1763–1775 (Chapel Hill, 1966), 79–92; Tom Hatley, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians Through the Era of Revolution (New York, 1995), 211–215.

142 “some disturbance” … “Hedge”: Thomas Walker to William Preston, May 27, 1771, Preston Papers, Vol. 2, ff. 125–126, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

143 William Crawford: Sarah S. Hughes, Surveyors and Statesmen: Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia ([Richmond], 1979), 102.

144 the Mississippi Company: Entry of Jan. 1, 1772, Account with Mississippi Adventure, Financial Records, Ledger A, p. 169, Papers of George Washington, Series 5, DLC.

145 “settling … spots”: George Washington to Earl of Dunmore, June 15, 1772, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IX, 55.

146 “People … Seen”: William Crawford to George Washington, May 1, 1772, ibid., 37.

147 the Loyal Company’s land: Thomas Walker to William Preston, May 27, 1771, Preston Papers, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

148 “immediately … Possessions”: Benjamin J. Hillman, ed., Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia (Richmond, 1966), VI, 458.

149 squatters held out: Richard Henderson to John Williams, Sept. 13, 1779, John Williams Papers, NcD; Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, April 2, 1774, CO 5/1352, ff. 49–51, PRO.

150 “they … doors”: Alexander Cameron to John Stuart, March 19, 1771, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, III, 72; Thomas Gage to the Earl of Hillsborough, May 14, 1770, Oct. 7, 1772, The Correspondence of General Thomas Gage, ed. Clarence Edwin Carter (New Haven, 1931–33), I, 258, 336. For Shawnees’ reaction, see Alexander McKee’s report, June 20, 1773, in Kathrine Wagner Seineke, The George Rogers Clark Adventure in the Illinois (New Orleans, 1981), 136. For Creeks’ reaction, see Peter Chester to Earl of Hillsborough, March 9, 1771, in Eron O. Rowland, “Peter Chester: Third Governor of the Province of British West Florida,” Mississippi Historical Society, Publications, V (1925), 38–41.

151 “the established … settled”: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 24, 1774, CO 5/1353, ff. 7–39, PRO.

152 John Stewart: Daily Advertiser, Feb. 21, 1772; testimony of Duncan Campbell, April 1, 1779, Journal of the House of Commons, XXXVII, 310–311.

153 Bacon’s contract: John Norton to John Hatley Norton, Feb. 24, 1772, Norton Papers, ViRVal; William Lee to Francis Lightfoot Lee, March 3, 1772, Lee Family Papers, ViU; Memorial of Duncan Campbell, Feb. 24, 1772, “Transportation of Felons to the Colonies,” MHM, XXVII (Dec. 1932), 266–267.

154 the contractor’s vessel: Earl of Fife to George Selwyn, April 28, 1770, in John Heneage Jesse, George Selwyn and His Contemporaries (London, 1843), II, 389.

155 More than 14 percent: Testimony of Duncan Campbell, April 1, 1779, Journal of the House of Commons, XXXVII, 311.

156 contractors: A. Roger Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718–1775 (Oxford, 1987), 228; Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains: A Social History of Forced Emigration to the Americas, 1607–1776 (Baltimore, 1992), 67–69, 82–85; Christine Woodland, “Transportation to America,” Warwickshire History, X (1996–97), 71–81. Bacon and North: John Norton to John Hatley Norton, Aug. 6, 1772, March 20, 1773, Norton Papers, ViRVal; John Norton to John Hatley Norton, July 6, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

157 “black Monday”: R. Glover to Earl Temple, July 12, 1772, The Grenville Papers, ed. William James Smith (London, 1852–53), IV, 539–543.

158 “universal bankruptcy”: Annual Register, XV (1772), 6th ed. (London, 1800), Chronology, 110.

159 “distress … change”: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Davidson, June 22, 1772, Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Letterbook, MdAA.

160 Alexander Fordyce: “An account of the examinations of Mr Alexander Fordyce,” Scots Magazine, XXXIV (Sept. 1772), 473–480; Harman and others, assignees of Fordyce v. Fishar, 1 Cowper 118, English Reports, XCVIII, 998.

161 “everything is gone”: William Cuninghame & Co. to James Robinson, July 1, 1772, Cuninghame of Lainshaw Muniments, GD-247, bundle P/2, SRO; William Maxwell to William Pulteney, June 18, 1772, Sir William Pulteney Collection, CSmH; [James Murray], The Travels of the Imagination; A True Journey from Newcastle to London(Philadelphia, 1778 [orig. publ. London, 1773]), 85.

162 The Bank of England: John Clapham, The Bank of England: A History (Cambridge, 1944), I, 247; Roger Fulford, Glyn’s, 1753–1953: Six Generations in Lombard Street (London, 1953), 27–30; Michael C. Lovell, “The Role of the Bank of England as Lender of Last Resort in the Crises of the Eighteenth Century,” Explorations in Entrepreneurial History, X (1957–58), 14–15.

163 Sir George Colebrooke: R. Glover to Earl Temple, July 12, 1772, Grenville Papers, ed. Smith, IV, 540; Horace Walpole, Journal of the Reign of King George the Third, ed. John Doran (London, 1859), I, 122; Thomas Bradshaw to Robert Murray Keith, Jan. 19, 1772 [1773], April 2, 1773, Memoirs and Correspondence (Official and Familiar) of Sir Robert Murray Keith, ed. Mrs. Gillespie Smyth (London, 1849), I, 364, 385–386.

164 “Immense … property”: John Norton to Robert Carter Nicholas, July 9, 1772, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 5th ed. (Edinburgh, 1811), II, 52–65; Charles W. Munn, The Scottish Provincial Banking Companies, 1747–1864 (Edinburgh, 1981), 29–36.

165 Scottish firms and others: James Robinson to William Cuninghame & Co., June 1, 1772, T. M. Devine, ed., A Scottish Firm in Virginia, 1767–1777: W. Cuninghame & Co. (Edinburgh, 1984), 80; Edward C. Papenfuse, In Pursuit of Profit: The Annapolis Merchants in the Era of the American Revolution, 1763–1805 (Baltimore, 1975), 61; Jacob M. Price, “Joshua Johnson in London, 1771–1775: Credit and Commercial Organization in the British Chesapeake Trade,” in Anne Whiteman et al., eds., Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants: Essays in Eighteenth-Century History Presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland (Oxford, 1973), 163–164.

166 depositors’ money: Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English Business, 1700–1800 (Cambridge, 1987), 136. On Colebrooke and the panic of 1772, see also Paul Langford, A Polite and Commercial People: England, 1727–1783 (Oxford, 1989), 569–571; T. S. Ashton, Economic Fluctuations in England, 1700–1800 (Oxford, 1959), 127–129; Richard B. Sheridan, “The British Credit Crisis of 1772 and the American Colonies,” JEcH, XX (June 1960), 170–172; Henry Hamilton, “The Failure of the Ayr Bank, 1772,” EcHR, 2d ser., VIII (1956), 405–417; Lucy S. Sutherland and John A. Woods, “The East India Speculations of William Burke,” Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Proceedings, XI (Jan. 1966), 183–216; F. G. Hilton Price, A Handbook of London Bankers (London, 1891), 120–121; “Memoirs of a Late Famous Banker,” London Chronicle, July 2, 1772; William Forbes, Memoirs of a Banking-House (London, 1860), 39–42.

167 more than £166,000: Sutherland, “Sir George Colebrooke’s World Corner,” in Politics and Finance, 451–465; Clapham, Bank of England, I, 243–244.

168 “Fictitious … notes”: William Lee to Robert Carter Nicholas, Aug. 3, 1772, William Lee Letterbook, 1769–1772, Lee Family Papers, ViRHi; Samuel Johnson to John Taylor, Aug. 15, 1772, The Letters of Samuel Johnson, ed. Bruce Redford (Princeton, 1992–), I, 392.

169 “It … Suspicion”: David Hume to Adam Smith, June 27, 1772, The Letters of David Hume, ed. J. Y. T. Greig (Oxford, 1932), II, 263.

170 “fear … Brother”: Duncan Campbell to James Stewart, June 23, 1772, Campbell Letterbooks, Mitchell Library, Sydney.

171 “Continue … go”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Aug. 8, 1772, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, Samuel Gist to Jones & Watson, Aug. 8, 1772, Samuel Gist v. Jones & Watson, 1806, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Joshua Johnson to John Davidson and Charles Wallace, Oct. 7, 1772, Joshua Johnson’s Letterbook, ed. Jacob M. Price (London, 1979), 49.

172 buying East India Company stock: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, XXVI, 297.

173 “dismall” … “triffle”: David Ross to John Hook, Aug. 25, 1772, John Hook Papers, NcD.

174 more than £1,000,000: Robert Walter Coakley, “Virginia Commerce During the American Revolution” (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1949), 85; Jacob M. Price, Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700–1776 (Cambridge, 1980), chaps. 6–7.

175 tobacco prices: John Norton to John Hatley Norton, Aug. 6, 1772, April 26, 1773, Norton Papers, ViRVal; Joshua Johnson to Wallace, Davidson & Johnson, May 17, 1773, Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Letterbook, MdAA; James Robinson to W. Cuninghame & Co., Dec. 19, 1772, Devine, ed., Scottish Firm, 100–101; Forbes, Memoirs of a Banking-House, 44.

176 Scottish storekeepers: Henry Fleming to Littledale & Co., June 7, 1773, Papers of Henry Fleming, Cumbria Record Office, Kendal; James Robinson to J. Neilson, Aug. 19, 1772, Devine, ed., Scottish Firm, 58–59.

177 “the Scotch … trade”: Samuel Gist to Jones & Watson, Aug. 8, 1772, Samuel Gist v. Jones & Watson, 1806, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

178 as if stunned: Henry Fleming to Fisher & Bragg, July 31, 1773, Papers of Fleming, Cumbria Record Office; Charles J. Farmer, In the Absence of Towns: Settlement and Country Trade in Southside Virginia, 1730–1800 (Lanham, 1993), 174–177.

179 Pieter Clifford & Sons: Shrewsbury Chronicle, Jan. 9, 1773; David Ross to John Hook, April 3, 1773, Hook Papers, NcD; Charles Wilson, Anglo-Dutch Commerce and Finance in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1941), 170–187, 216–223.

180 “It … Mankind”: Letter from Amsterdam, Jan. 15, 1773, Berrow’s Worcester Journal, Jan. 21, 1773.

181 the Royal Exchange: David Ross to John Hook, April 3, 1773, Hook Papers, NcD.

182 “120 … ruined”: Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, Aug. 28, 1773.

183 bankruptcies: Hoppit, Risk and Failure, 132; Ashton, Economic Fluctuations, 129; Michael Fry, The Dundas Despotism (Edinburgh, 1992), 44–45.

184 William James: Shrewsbury Chronicle, Jan. 9, 1773.

185 “little … Baronet”: Ibid., March 20, April 10, 1773.

186 Trustees took control: Namier and Brooke, History of Parliament, II, 236; Hilton Price, London Bankers, 42.

187 “a broken Heart”: Lloyd’s Evening Post, March 31, 1773.

188 James Russell: Papenfuse, In the Pursuit of Profit, 63; Jacob M. Price, “One Family’s Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain, and India, 1707–1857,” MHM, LXXII (1977), 186–188.

189 “as you … year”: James Russell to John Galloway, April 12, 1773, Galloway-Maxcy-Markoe Papers, DLC.

190 “tis … Debts”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, April 17, 1773, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

191 “a new … Summer”: Shrewsbury Chronicle, June 5, 1773.

192 The Bankrupt: Samuel Foote, The Bankrupt: A Comedy in Three Acts (London, 1776), 39, 45, 47. The play was submitted to the Lord Chamberlain on July 8, 1773. See Larpent Collection, LA 355, CSmH. See also Simon Trefman, Sam. Foote, Comedian, 1720–1777 (New York, 1971), 214–215; Richard Bevis, The Laughing Tradition: Stage Comedy in Garrick’s Day (Athens, 1980), 170–171.

193 Confidence and credit revived: In addition to the works cited above, see Larry Neal, The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason (Cambridge, 1990), 170–171; Edwin J. Perkins, The Economy of Colonial America (New York, 1980), 33; T. S. Ashton, An Economic History of England: The 18th Century (London, 1955), 193.

194 “I … Virginia”: Henry Fleming to Fisher & Bragg, [Dec. 1773], Papers of Fleming, Cumbria Record Office.

195 William Nelson: William Nelson to William Lee, Aug. 1, 1772, William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, Aug. 14, 1772, Nelson Letterbook, Vi; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 19, 1772; Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 19, 1772.

196 a violent gale: Letter from New York, Sept. 21, 1772, Berrow’s Worcester Journal, Nov. 12, 1772.

197 frigate Glasgow: Daily Advertiser, Dec. 19, 1772.

198 “there … way”: Benjamin Harrison to William Palfrey, Jan. 20, 1772, William Palfrey Letters, MH; Thomas Russell to Michael Harris, Aug. 4, 1772, Papers of the Principio Iron Company, Add MSS 29,600, f. 27, Uk; Neil R. Stout, The Royal Navy in America, 1760–1775 (Annapolis, 1973), 133–134.

199 unusually dry weather: Charles Gordon to Clement Tudway, March 5, 1771, Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, March 5–21, Aug. 11, 1771, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office, Taunton.

200 carnivorous ants: Lowell Ragatz, The Old Plantation System in the British West Indies (London, [1954]), 60; E. M. Johnston, “Grenada, 1775–1779,” in Peter Roebuck, ed., Macartney of Lisanoure, 1737–1806: Essays in Biography (Belfast, 1983), 111; Maria [Woodley] R[iddell], Voyages to the Madeira, and Leeward Caribbean Isles (Edinburgh, 1792), 72–73.

201 small ship Tom: Pennsylvania Gazette, Oct. 14, 1772; entry 1754, Register of Passes, Adm 7/96, PRO; New-Lloyd’s List, Dec. 11, 1772.

202 The hurricane: Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, Dec. 12, 1772; De la Court Walsh to James Scott, Sept. 18, 1772, Vere Langford Oliver, ed., Caribbeana (London, 1910–19), II, 322; Bartholomew James, Journal of Rear-Admiral Bartholomew James, 1752–1828, ed. John Knox Laughton (London, 1896), 11; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 12, 1772; Gentleman’s Magazine, XLII (Dec. 1772), 590; William Robertson to Neil Jamieson & Co., Sept. 11, 1772, Neil Jamieson Papers, DLC; Vere Langford Oliver, The History of the Island of Antigua (London, 1894–99), I, cxxi; Pennsylvania Gazette, Oct. 14, 1772.

203 “was … dieing”: James Parker to Thomas Burke, Oct. 12, 1772, Thomas Burke Papers, NcU.

204 He wrote his will: William Nelson, Will, Oct. 6, 1772, York County Wills and Inventories, No. 22, 1771–1783, pp. 132–136, Yorktown. Printed in VMHB, XXXII (April 1925), 190–192.

205 “sat … him”: Jack P. Greene, ed., “A Mirror of Virtue for a Declining Land: John Camm’s Funeral Sermon for William Nelson,” in J. A. Leo Lemay, ed., Essays in Early Virginia Literature Honoring Richard Beale Davis (New York, 1977), 195–196.

206 the “great Ditch”: Wills Cowper and Josiah Granbery, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 19, 1772.

207 “servant … adventurers”: Quoted in George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, ed. Vicary Gibbs et al. (London, 1910–40), VI, 93n.

208 “the outcasts” … “corruption”: Josiah Martin to Earl of Dartmouth, Nov. 28, 1772, William L. Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1886–), IX, 358–359.

209 Granville appointed: Earl of Dartmouth to Josiah Martin, March 3, 1773, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, IV, 268–269; Thornton W. Mitchell, “The Granville District and Its Land Records,” NCHR, LXX (April 1993), 117–119.

210 “a shabby fellow”: Thomas Nelson, Jr., to Samuel Athawes, Jan. 24, 1773, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

211 Gist’s snow Planter: Entries of Oct. 17, 1772, Dec. 3, 1773, Lists of Ships Entered Inwards and Outwards in Upper District of James River, Oct. 1772–Jan. 1773, T 1/498, PRO; New-Lloyd’s List, July 24, 1772; entry 191, Register of Passes, Adm 7/98, PRO; Lloyd’s Register: 1776, P–203.

212 James Mercer: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 5, 1772.

213 “as … possible”: Samuel Gist to Jones & Watson, Aug. 8, 1772, Samuel Gist v. Jones & Watson, 1806, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

214 John Smith: John Norton to John Hatley Norton, Feb. 16, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; Commissioner’s Report, June 1808, Gist et al., Exors of Anderson v. Henry S. Shore, 1817, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Report of the Agent of the Board, Claim of Samuel Gist, T 79/39, ff. 245–247, List of Debts Contracted with Samuel Gist, T 79/31, PRO.

215 “the most … Colony”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 24, 1772.

216 Maria Byrd: William Byrd, Will, July 6, 1774, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 86; Robert Cary & Co. to William Byrd, Nov. 10, 1773, “Correspondence of Byrd,” ed. Tinling, VMHB, LXXXVIII (July 1980), 290.

217 “uneasy” … James Parke Farley: Thomas Evans to Farell & Jones, Nov. 12, Dec. 6, 1771, John Wayles to Farell & Jones, Aug. 17, 1771, Feb. 24, 1772, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/9, PRO.

218 “equal … America”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 24, 1772.

219 “conveniently get”: John Mayo to Samuel Gist, Nov. 22, 1772, Samuel Gist v. Mayo’s Exors, 1798, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

220 to sell 1,000 acres: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, March 31, 1774.

221 deed of trust: VMHB, IX (July 1901), 82.

222 Washington and veterans: Petition, ca. Nov. 4, 1772, George Washington to Charles Mynn Thruston, March 12, 1773, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IX, 118–120; entries of Oct. 24–Nov. 5, 1772, The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (Charlottesville, 1976–79), III, 138–141; Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 513–514.

223 “deep affliction”: Thomas Nelson, Jr., to Samuel Martin, Jan. 27, 1773, William Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

224 “The chief … Country”: Peter Lyons to John Norton, Nov. 25, 1772, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 19, 1772; Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 19, 1772.

225 “tread … steps”: Greene, ed., “Mirror of Virtue,” in Lemay, ed., Essays in Early Virginia Literature, 194–200.

226 “I told … Mistress”: William Nelson to Samuel Athawes, Sept. 1, 1772, Nelson Letterbook, Vi.

227 “a magnificent Statue”: Ralph Bigland, Historical, Monumental and Genealogical Collections Relative to the County of Gloucester, ed. Brian Frith (Bristol, 1989–95), III, 1170.

228 “America … continent”: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, May 13, 1773.

229 grants to Washington: Edgar B. Sims, Making a State (Charleston, 1956), 129–130; George Washington to Earl of Dunmore, Sept. 12, 1773, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IX, 322–324; Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 521; Jack Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760–1775 (Lincoln, 1961), 226–227.

230 Dr. Walker and settlers: Vance v. Walker, 3 Hening & Munford 293, Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia (Charlottesville, 1903), III, 669; Lewis Preston Summers, Annals of Southwest Virginia, 1769–1800 (Abingdon, 1929), 624–625, 668–669.

231 Loyal Company surveys: Lewis Preston Summers, History of Southwest Virginia, 1746–1786 (Baltimore, 1966 [orig. publ. Richmond, 1903]), 83.

232 Patrick Henry and the Council: Hillman, ed., Executive Journals, VI, 548–549, 551; John Blair to George Washington, Nov. 8, 1773, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., IX, 364–365; Archibald Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker and the Loyal Company of Virginia,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 108–109.

233 Tea Act: Benjamin Woods Labaree, The Boston Tea Party (New York, 1964), chap. 4; Peter Whiteley, Lord North: The Prime Minister Who Lost America (London, 1996), chap. 8; W. M. Elofson, The Rockingham Connection and the Second Founding of the Whig Party, 1768–1773 (Montreal, 1996), chap. 8; H. V. Bowen, Revenue and Reform: The Indian Problem in British Politics, 1757–1773 (Cambridge, 1991).

234 “to make … duty”: John Norton to Peyton Randolph et al., July 6, 1773, William P. Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 1875–93), VIII, 24.

235 “Utopian” … “whatever”: [Anthony Bacon], A Short Address to the Government (London, 1775), 11–16.

236 “we … performance”: Brook Watson and Robert Rashleigh to the Committee of Warehouse, July 1, 1773, in Francis S. Drake, ed., Tea Leaves: Being a Collection of Letters and Documents (Boston, 1884), 223; Benjamin Faneuil, Memorial, in Hugh Edward Egerton, ed., The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists, 1783 to 1785: Being the Notes of Mr. Daniel Parker Coke, M.P. (Oxford, 1915), 234–235; Labaree, Boston Tea Party, 88–103.

237 “obvious” … “spirit”: [Bacon], Short Address, 13, 15–16.

238 “Ld North’s contractors”: Earl of Pembroke to William Hamilton, May 1, 1781, Alfred Morrison, comp., The Collection of Autograph Letters and Historical Documents Formed by Alfred Morrison, Second Series: 1882–1893. The Hamilton and Nelson Papers (n.p., 1893), I, 70. See also J. A. Cochrane, Dr. Johnson’s Printer: The Life of William Strahan (Cambridge, 1964), 191–193.

239 governor of New Hampshire: Benjamin Franklin to William Franklin, July 25, 1773, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Leonard W. Labaree et al. (New Haven, 1959–), XX, 326. a pension of £600: L. B. Namier, “Anthony Bacon, M. P., an Eighteenth-Century Merchant,” JEcBH, II (Nov. 1929), 66–67.

240 “upon … Board”: Ibid., 46–47; Robert Erskine to Richard Atkinson, Oct. 20–24, 1770, in Albert H. Heusser, George Washington’s Map Maker: A Biography of Robert Erskine (New Brunswick, 1966), 58–59; Ifor Edwards, “John Wilkinson and the Development of Gunfounding in the Late Eighteenth Century,” WHR, XV (Dec. 1991), 524–544; James Watt to Joseph Black, March 11, 1779, Partners in Science: Letters of James Watt and Joseph Black, ed. Eric Robinson and Douglas McKie (Cambridge, 1970), 60. For a description of the casting of a cannon, see entry of June 6, 1774, Radical Adventurer: The Diaries of Robert Morris, 1772–1774, ed. J. E. Ross (Bath, 1971), 194–196.

241 “casting … way”: Quoted in Edwards, “John Wilkinson,” WHR, XV (Dec. 1991), 527. at Broseley: Entries of Aug. 19–20, 1776, An American Quaker in the British Isles: The Travel Journals of Jabez Maud Fisher, 1775–1779, ed. Kenneth Morgan (Oxford, 1992), 264–267; Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England: Shropshire (London, 1958), 86–87, 155–157.

242 Merthyr Tydfil: Chris Evans, “The Labyrinth of Flames”: Work and Social Conflict in Early Industrial Merthyr Tydfil (Cardiff, 1993), 23–29; John P. Addis, The Crawshay Dynasty: A Study in Industrial Organisation and Development, 1765–1867 (Cardiff, 1957), 2–3; entry of Oct. 27, 1776, Arthur Young, “A Tour in Wales &c.,” Annals of Agriculture and Other Useful Arts, VIII (1787), 48; John Lloyd, The Early History of the Old South Wales Iron Works (London, 1906), 48–50.

243 William Anderson: William Anderson to John Norton, Sept. 4, 1769, Jan. 11, June 20, Sept. 20, Oct. 30, Dec. 20, 1771, Feb. 7, June 17, 1772, Jan. 22, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

244 Joseph Smith: Samuel Gist to Joseph Smith, March 20, 1770, Pleading of Thomas R. Rootes, Samuel Gist’s Answer to Thomas R. Rootes, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Eugenia G. Glazebrook and Preston G. Glazebrook, comps., Virginia Migrations: Hanover County (Richmond, 1949), II, 29.

245 John Smith: Report of Agent, Claim of Samuel Gist, T 79/39, ff. 245–247, PRO; Commissioner’s Report, June 1808, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi; John Norton to John Hatley Norton, Feb. 16, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; John Norton to John Hatley Norton, March 23, 1773, Norton Papers, ViRVal.

246 “He … son”: Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Jan. 28, 1773; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Jan. 28, 1773; Mary Anderson to Thomas R. Rootes, March 27, 1800, Thomas R. Rootes v. Martin Pearkes et al., 1817, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Schedule of Samuel Gist’s Estate, Sept. 30, 1789, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

247 “never … Connexion”: Samuel Gist to John Smith, June 15–19, 1768, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

248 “I hope … it”: William Anderson to John Norton, Feb. 2, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

249 to secure insurance: John Norton to John Hatley Norton, April 26, 1773, Norton Papers, ViRVal.

250 “Pursuant … Will”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Aug. 5, Oct. 14, 1773, April 21, 1774.

251 “I expect … me”: William Anderson to John Norton, Nov. 28, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC. See also Samuel Gist to Garrett Minor, March 12, 1774, Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, DLC.

252 the Mary: Lloyd’s Register: 1776, M–185; John Tabb to Samuel Gist, June 6, 1775, Saml. Gist v. Tabb, 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi; James Miller, Letter, Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, May 12, 1775.

253 America Square: [Edward Pugh], Walks Through London (London, 1817), I, 12–13; [Edward Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History and Description of the British Metropolis and Its Neighbourhood (London, 1805–13), II, 183; Walter Besant, London in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1902), 130–131; Walter George Bell, Unknown London (London, 1951 [orig. publ. 1919]), 15, 33; Dorothy Stroud, George Dance: Architect, 1747–1825 (London, 1971), 84–87; The New Complete Guide to All Persons Who Have Any Trade or Concern with the City of London, 14th ed. [London, 1774], 224. For a description of countinghouses, see Hancock, Citizens of the World, 90–104.

254 to hire laborers: Account with David Jameson, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

255 Norton and servants: George F. Norton to John Hatley Norton, Nov. 20, 1773, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; Bernard Bailyn, Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution (New York, 1986), chaps. 5, 10; Ekirch, Bound for America, chap. 4; J. M. Bumsted, The People’s Clearance: Highland Emigration to British North America, 1770–1815 (Edinburgh, 1982), 9–18.

256 Gist and servants: Charles Yates to Samuel Gist, Jan. 24, 1774, Charles Yates Letterbook, ViU; Thomas Jett to Samuel Gist, March 12, 1774, Thomas Jett Letterbook, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW.

257 “unless … Contrary”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Feb. 5, 1774, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

258 The Planter’s voyage: Entries of Jan. 26–May 15, 1774, The Journal of John Harrower, ed. Edward Miles Riley (Williamsburg, 1963), 17–39, appendix ii; Bailyn, Voyagers to the West, 277; entry 1971, Register of Passes, Adm 7/98, PRO; Daily Advertiser, Feb. 21, 1774.

259 “in the … Gist”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 5, 1774.

260 “Soul drivers”: Entries of May 16–21, 1774, Journal of Harrower, ed. Riley, 39–40; Bailyn, Voyagers to the West, 346–348; John Tabb to Samuel Gist, March 6, 1774, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

261 loaded the Planter: James Robinson to W. Cuninghame & Co., May 28, 1774, Devine, ed., Scottish Firm, 141; Thomas Jett to Samuel Gist, May 6, 1774, Jett Letterbook, ViW; Thomas Shore to Samuel Gist, Aug. 21, 1774, Saml. Gist v. Tabb, 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Rind’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 15, 1774.

262 “I yet … America”: John Harrower to Ann Harrower, Dec. 6, 1774, Journal of Harrower, ed. Riley, 76.

V: THE AGE OF PAPER

    1 “the natural” … “severity”: [Anthony Bacon], A Short Address to the Government (London, 1775), 5, 38–39.

    2 East India Company’s tea: Benjamin Woods Labaree, The Boston Tea Party (New York, 1964), chap. 7; T. H. Breen, “ ‘Baubles of Britain’: The American and Consumer Revolutions of the Eighteenth Century,” PP, CXIX (May 1988), 97–103.

    3 “naturally conciliating disposition”: “Late Lord Guilford,” European Magazine, XXX (Aug. 1796), 82; Peter Whiteley, Lord North: The Prime Minister Who Lost America (London, 1996), 15.

    4 “to bring … duty”: [Bacon], Short Address, 49.

    5 “The town … be”: R. C. Simmons and P. D. G. Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliaments Respecting North America, 1754–1783 (White Plains, 1982–87), IV, 128; Lord North to the King, March 25, 1774, The Correspondence of King George the Third, ed. John Fortescue (London, 1927–28), III, 85.

    6 “totally enslaved”: Journals of the House of Commons: 1547–1800 ([London], 1803), XXXIV, 696; John Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots: London Supporters of Revolutionary America, 1769–1782 (Kingston, 1987), 69–74.

    7 “instead … G.B.”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, Sept. 10, 1774, Lee Family Papers, ViU; Thomas Fisher to James Russell, Aug. 27, 1774, Russell Papers, Bundle 6, Coutts & Company, London.

    8 “Nothing … Colonies”: William Hoopes to James Iredell, June 21, 1774, James Iredell Papers, NcD.

    9 “Destruction … War”: William J. Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence (Charlottesville, 1973–83), I, 95.

  10 “to avoid … Britain”: Ibid., 97–98.

  11 “with Horrour” … “Virtue”: Ibid, 231–234.

  12 “I … Sway”: George Washington to Bryan Fairfax, Aug. 24, 1774, The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983–), X, 155.

  13 “fixed Intention”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), July 8, 1774.

  14 Anthony Bacon: [Bacon], Short Address, 16–17, 26.

  15 North: Journal of the House of Commons, XXXIV, 696; The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803 (London, 1806–20), XVII, 1315.

  16 “unseasonable … remonstrances”: [Bacon], Short Address, 39–40.

  17 “cared … got?”: Robert Gibbs, A History of Aylesbury (Chicheley, 1971 [orig. publ. Aylesbury, 1885]), 244–245, 249–250; John Entick, The Present State of the British Empire (London, 1774), II, 39–40; entry of Sept. 24, 1774, The Diary and Letters of His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, ed. Peter Orlando Hutchinson (London, 1883), I, 249; Frank O’Gorman, Voters, Patrons and Parties: The Unreformed Electoral System of Hanoverian England, 1734–1832 (Oxford, 1989), 28–32; Richard W. Davis, Political Change and Continuity, 1760–1885: A Buckinghamshire Study (Newton Abbot, 1972), 21–22, 30–31.

  18 “that he … opponent”: Shrewsbury Chronicle, March 20, 1773. On occasional conveyances, see Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754–1790 (New York, 1964), I, 30–31.

  19 “They say … them”: William Thomas Laprade, ed., Parliamentary Papers of John Robinson, 1774–1784 (London, 1922), 21. See also William Strahan to David Hall, Feb. 13, 1768, “Correspondence Between William Strahan and David Hall, 1763–1777,” PMHB, X (1886), 329.

  20 John Aubrey: Gibbs, History of Aylesbury, 244; Namier and Brooke, History of Parliament, II, 32–33.

  21 Lord North: Bernard Donoughue, British Politics and the American Revolution: The Path to War, 1773–1775 (London, 1964), chap. 8.

  22 Antigua supplies: Letter from Boston, Aug. 4, 1774, Daily Advertiser (London), Sept. 16, 1774; Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Dec. 29, 1775, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office, Taunton.

  23 Some planters emigrated: Simmons and Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates, IV, 14; Report of Sir Ralph Payne, 1774, CO 318/2, f. 4, PRO; D. H. Murdoch, “Land Policy in the Eighteenth-Century British Empire: The Sale of Crown Lands in the Ceded Islands, 1763–1783,” HJ, XXVII (Sept. 1984), 549–574.

  24 “we … chance”: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Dec. 29, 1775, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

  25 “much … writing”: “Officers of Admiral Keppel’s Fleet,” Correspondence of George the Third, ed. Fortescue, IV, 226; John Charnock, Biographia Navalis (London, 1794–98), VI, 322; J. H. Broomfield, “The Keppel-Palliser Affair, 1778–1779,” MM, XLVII (Aug. 1961), 195–207; Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots, 146–148.

  26 a miscarriage: Samuel Martin to George Thomas, Oct. 8, 1770, June 13, 1774, Samuel Martin to Christopher Baldwin, [ca. Nov.–Dec. 1774], Letterbook of Samuel Martin, Add MSS 41,350, ff. 142–143, 174–175, 41,351, f. 20, Uk.

  27 entered his mare: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 26, 1774.

  28 Chiswell lead mine: A List of Payments Made the Treasurer, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs. et al., 1832, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  29 James Parke Farley’s debts: Claim of Dinwiddie, Crawford & Company, T 79/13, List of Debtors, p. 41, PRO; Account with Dinwiddie, Crawford & Company, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Charles Duncan to Samuel Greenhow, Oct. 20, 1804, ibid.; Draft of Proposed Bill, [ca. 1787], Miscellaneous Legal Materials, Box 74, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

  30 “an advance” … “him”: Thomas Evans to Farell & Jones, June 2, 1774, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/9, PRO; William Lee to John Tayloe, Feb. 10, 25, 1775, William Lee Letterbook, Lee Family Papers, ViRHi.

  31 Westover: Robert Cary & Company to William Byrd, Aug. 5, 1774, The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, ed. Marion Tinling (Charlottesville, 1977), II, 798; Benjamin Waller to Monkhouse Davison and Abram Newman, May 20, Dec. 7, 1773, Dec. 24, 1774, Claim of Exors of Monkhouse Davison and Abram Newman, T 79/32, PRO; Lloyd’s Register: 1776 (London, n.d.), W–45; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 27, 1774. On Byrd’s acquaintance with Gist, see William Byrd to [Thomas Willing?], April 26, 1765, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 770.

  32 “vile … People”: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Dec. 29, 1775, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

  33 “remain” … “troubles”: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Dec. 29, 1775, Oct. 27, 1777, ibid.

  34 “poor” … “Eden”: Francis Farley to James Parke Farley, March 31, 1772, quoted in John Simon Farley and Elizabeth Morson v. Thomas Lee Shippen and Elizabeth Carter Shippen et al., March 1794, in Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery … by George Wythe (Charlottesville, 1903), 255.

  35 about one hundred slaves: A List of Negroes at the Land of Eden, 1773, and at Maycox, 1773, Richard Corbin Papers, ViWC; Francis Farley to Robert Munford, Jan. 15, 1778, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  36 Meade in Nansemond: David Meade to Neil Jamieson, July 1, 13, Aug. 18, 25, 1773, Neil Jamieson Papers, DLC.

  37 He bought 600 acres: John Webb, advertisement, Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 13, 1774; David Meade, “Family History,” in Henry J. Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, Containing Matters of Interest to the Descendants of David Meade (Chicago, 1883), 32.

  38 at Maycox: [Mary Virginia Terhune], More Colonial Homesteads and Their Stories (New York, 1899), 67; entry of April 28, 1782, François-Jean, Marquis de Chastellux, Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782, ed. Howard C. Rice, Jr. (Chapel Hill, 1963), II, 431; entry of Feb. 26, 1782, The Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig von Closen, 1780–1783, trans. and ed. Evelyn M. Acomb (Chapel Hill, 1958), 187; Meade, “Family History,” Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 33; John Jones Spooner, “A Topographical Description of the County of Prince George in Virginia, 1793,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 1st ser., III (1794), 90. See also Barbara Wells Sarudy, Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700–1805 (Baltimore, 1998), chap. 7; James D. Kornwolf, “The Picturesque in the American Garden and Landscape Before 1800,” Eighteenth Century Life, new series, VIII (Jan. 1983), 93–106; Peter Martin, The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson (Princeton, 1991), 103; Max F. Schulz, Paradise Preserved: Recreations of Eden in Eighteenth-and Nineteenth-Century England (Cambridge, 1985), 9–37; Malcolm Andrews, The Search for the Picturesque: Landscape Aesthetics and Tourism in Britain, 1760–1805 (Stanford, 1989), 61–65; Keith Thomas, Man and the Natural World: A History of Modern Sensibility (New York, 1983), Part 5.

  39 called it “Belview”: Elizabeth Farley to William Byrd, June 10, July 6, Oct. 17, 1775, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 807–809, 816; entry of June 29, 1775, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina, ed. Adelaide L. Fries et al. (Raleigh, 1922–69), II, 876.

  40 “Friend & Husband”: Elizabeth Farley to Thomas Taylor Byrd, June 25, 1783, Byrd Letterbook, Byrd Family Papers, ViRHi.

  41 Saura Town: J. F. D. Smyth, A Tour in the United States of America (London, 1784), I, 258–259; An Account of the Property … on the Saura Town Plantation, Oct. 15, 1795, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Lindley S. Butler, “Sauratown Plantation,” Journal of Rockingham County History and Genealogy, VIII (Dec. 1983), 84–85; Lindley S. Butler, Rockingham County: A Brief History (Raleigh, 1982), 12.

  42 “worthy of Paris”: Entry of Feb. 26, 1782, Journal of von Closen, ed. Acomb, 187.

  43 “a plain … manners”: Smyth, Tour in the United States, I, 250–251.

  44 “Unhappy” … “Channel”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Feb. 4, 1775, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  45 Samuel Sellick: Phripp, Taylor & Co. to Samuel Gist, March 19, 1774, Samuel Gist v. Taylor & Co., 1797, ibid.

  46 Lloyd’s moved: Charles Wright and C. Ernest Fayle, A History of Lloyd’s from the Founding of Lloyd’s Coffee House to the Present Day (London, 1928), 113–119; Bryant Lillywhite, London Coffee Houses (London, 1963), 396–397; Vanessa Harding and Priscilla Metcalf, Lloyd’s at Home (London, 1986), 90; Ann Saunders, “The Second Exchange,” in Ann Saunders, ed., The Royal Exchange (London, 1997), chap. 14.

  47 the subscribers’ room: G. Clayton, British Insurance (London, 1971), 60.

  48 “pestiferous” … “worse”: John Weskett, A Complete Digest of the Theory, Laws, and Practice of Insurance (Dublin, 1783), xxiv; Charles Steuart to James Parker, July 6, 1792, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

  49 The Marine Society: [Jonas Hanway], The Bye-Laws, and Regulations of the Marine-Society (London, 1772), 41, 34, 14, 59, 28, 16, 24; Donna T. Andrew, Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century (Princeton, 1989), 109–115, 128–129; Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society (London, 1969–73), I, 109–116; James Stephen Taylor, Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain (London, 1985), esp. 70–74, 155–159; John H. Hutchins, Jonas Hanway, 1712–1786 (London, 1940), chap. 4; John Noorthouck, A New History of London (London, 1773), 603; Henry Humpherus, History of the Origin and Progress of the Company of Watermen and Lightermen (London, n.d.), II, 302–303.

  50 “as … subscribers”: Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, June 4, 1774; Wright and Fayle, History of Lloyd’s, 118.

  51 Frederick the Great: Abraham Clibborn, Risk Book, C 107/11, PRO.

  52 Such scenes happened often: Weskett, Complete Digest, lv; entry of Sept. 25, 1787, Diary of Carter Braxton, Jr., duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia; Pierre Jean Grosley, A Tour to London, trans. Thomas Nugent (Dublin, 1772), I, 127.

  53 John Weskett: Weskett, Complete Digest, xiv, xxii–xxiii, xxix, lv.

  54 “the facility … description”: Report from Select Committee Appointed to Consider … the State and Means of Effecting Marine Insurance in Great Britain, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p. 94.

  55 “As long … there”: Ibid., p. 86.

  56 “calculating features”: Entry of July 24, 1805, [Benjamin Silliman], A Journal of Travels in England, Holland, and Scotland, 2d ed. (Boston, 1812), I, 272–273; entries of Aug. 31, Sept. 13, 1799, Diary of Littleton Dennis Teackle, DLC; entries of May 10, 1781, July 30, Nov. 19, 28, 1782, The Journal of Samuel Curwen, Loyalist, ed. Andrew Oliver (Cambridge, 1972), II, 753, 847, 871–872, 874; N. M. Karamzin, Letters of a Russian Traveler, 1789–1790, trans. Florence Jonas (New York, 1957), 288–289; Warren R. Dawson, The Treasures of Lloyd’s, 4th ed. (London, 1930), 46.

  57 “the old” … “write”: Report on Marine Insurance, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p. 86.

  58 “had … you”: Samuel Gist to John Mayo, July 30, 1774, Samuel Gist v. Mayo’s Exors, 1798, USCCVD(EC), Vi; New-Lloyd’s List, June 28, 1774.

  59 that carmen working: Petition of John Hyndman & Co., Samuel Gist, and others, July 1774, Sessions Papers, SR 1774, Corporation of London Record Office; [John] Trusler, The London Adviser and Guide (London, 1786), 101.

  60 “I hope … detain’d”: Samuel Gist to John Mayo, July 30, 1774, Samuel Gist v. Mayo’s Exors, 1798, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 6, 1774; Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants (Baltimore, 1987–93), IV, 225–226.

  61 Leitch sailed: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, Sept. 29, Nov. 10, 1774; Thomas Shore to Samuel Gist, Feb. 11, June 20, 1775, Gist v. Tabb’s Admr., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  62 James Barron: “A Biographical Notice of Commodore Barron,” Virginia Historical Register, I (1848), 23–25.

  63 “so saucy … do it”: Henry Fleming to Fisher & Bragg, Nov. 17, 1774, Papers of Henry Fleming, Cumbria Record Office, Kendal.

  64 the Elizabeth: Entry of Feb. 15, 1775, List of All Ships and Vessels Cleared Outwards, Upper District, James River, Jan. 5–April 5, 1775, T 1/512, PRO; entry of Feb. 14, 1775, James River Naval Office, Manifest Book, 1774–1775, William Bell Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents of the American Revolution (Washington, 1964–), I, 1388; Thomas Shore to Samuel Gist, Feb. 11, 1775, Gist v. Tabb’s Admr., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  65 new ship Mary: St. James’s Chronicle, Feb. 11, 16, 18, 21, 23, March 9, 1775.

  66 buy tobacco: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Feb. 4, April 5, 1775, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  67 the Liberty: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, June 28, 1775, ibid.; Lloyd’s Register: 1776, L–124; St. James’s Chronicle, March 18, 1775; Thomas and Rowland Hunt to Robert Carter, Feb. 24, 1775, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, I, 410.

  68 “if … Price”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, Feb. 4, 1775, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  69 a “large Fortune”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, May 28, 1772.

  70 more than £4,000: Account of the Estate of William Byrd with Mary Byrd, extx., Murdock & Co. v. Wm. Byrd’s Extx, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  71 more than £850: Judgment on Bonds, Estate of John Robinson, Lidderdale et al. v. Robinson’s Admrs. et al., 1832, ibid.

  72 “to commence … Persons”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, June 18, 1772, Sept. 2, 1773, Dec. 15, 1774.

  73 “very cheap”: Ibid., Dec. 15, 1774.

  74 one-half of a share: List of Partners, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  75 “a jolly” … “living”: Entry of Sept. 23, 1774, “Turmoil at Pittsburgh: Diary of Augustine Prevost, 1774,” ed. Nicholas B. Wainwright, PMHB, LXXXV (April 1961), 143.

  76 a remonstrance: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, April 2, 1774, CO 5/1352, ff. 49–51, PRO.

  77 “Ld … you”: Thomas Wharton to Thomas Walpole, Sept. 23, 1774, “Letters of Thomas Wharton, 1773–1783,” PMHB, XXXII (1909), 445; deposition of William Christian, June 3, 1777, deposition of Patrick Henry, June 4, 1777, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Julian P. Boyd et al. (Princeton, 1950–), II, 82, 69–71.

  78 “a confederacy” … “inevitable”: George Washington to George William Fairfax, June 10–15, 1774, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., X, 96–97.

  79 “the Indians … friendship”: Edward Johnson to William Preston, July 2, 1774, Preston Family Papers-Davie Collection, KyLoF; Alexander Hamilton to James Brown, Sr., May 18, 1774, Piscattaway Letterbooks, John Glassford & Company Papers, DLC; Richard Henry Lee to Francis Lightfoot Lee, May 21, 1775, The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. James Curtis Ballagh (New York, 1911), I, 136–137.

  80 “while … Indians”: Earl of Dartmouth to Earl of Dunmore, Sept. 8, 1774, Aspinwall Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 4th ser., IX–X (1871), II, 726. On confederacy see Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745–1815 (Baltimore, 1992), 44–46; Woody Holton, “The Ohio Indians and the Coming of the American Revolution in Virginia,” JSH, LX (Aug. 1994), 453–478.

  81 “What … boy?”: Entry of Sept. 22, 1774, “Diary of Prevost,” ed. Wainwright, PMHB, LXXXV (April 1961), 142.

  82 “Shocking” … “Indians”: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 24, 1774, Reuben Gold Thwaites and Louise Phelps Kellogg, eds., Documentary History of Dunmore’s War (Madison, 1905), 386; John Connolly, A Narrative of the Transactions, Imprisonment, and Sufferings of John Connolly (New York, 1889 [orig. publ. London, 1783]), 3–4; Earl P. Olmstead, David Zeisberger: A Life Among the Indians (Kent, 1997), chap. 18.

  83 Shawnees withdraw: Eric Hinderaker, Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673–1800 (Cambridge, 1997), 189–195; Michael N. McConnell, A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774 (Lincoln, 1992), 264–279; Jack M. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760–1775 (Lincoln, 1961), 222–229; R. Douglas Hurt, The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720–1830 (Bloomington, 1996), 57–60; Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815 (Cambridge, 1991), 362–364; Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, II, 105–108.

  84 “acted” … “interest”: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 24, 1774, Thwaites and Kellogg, eds., Documentary History, 390–391.

  85 called it Transylvania: John Richard Alden, John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier (Ann Arbor, 1944), 290–292; deposition of Patrick Henry, June 4, 1777, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., II, 70; James Hogg to Proprietors of Transylvania Company, Jan. 1776, in James Hall, Sketches of History, Life, and Manners in the West (Philadelphia, 1836), II, 250–254.

  86 along the Mississippi River: Earl of Dunmore to Thomas Townshend, Aug. 24, 1782, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 67, pp. 412–415, MiU-C.

  87 “Pretence” … “imprisoned”: Earl of Dunmore, Proclamation, March 21, 1775, broadside reproduced in Archibald Henderson, The Conquest of the Old Southwest (New York, 1920), facing p. 240.

  88 Henderson: William Stewart Lester, The Transylvania Colony (Spencer, 1935); Stephen Aron, How the West Was Lost: The Transformation of Kentucky from Daniel Boone to Henry Clay(Baltimore, 1996), 59–64.

  89 Lewis’s debt: Fielding Lewis to Anthony Bacon, Jan. 24, 1775, Anthony Bacon to Joseph Court, April 13, 1775, summarized in Lewis’s Executor v. Bacon’s Legatee, 3 Hening & Munford 92–94, Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia (Charlottesville, 1903), III, 598–599.

  90 Lewis’s new house: Jane Taylor Duke, Kenmore and the Lewises (Garden City, 1949); Thomas Tileston Waterman, The Mansions of Virginia, 1706–1776 (Chapel Hill, 1945), 313–326; Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 23, 1775, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., X, 343.

  91 “immediately … Defence”: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, II, 366–367.

  92 “it seems … latter”: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 23, 1775, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., X, 343.

  93 armed men gathered: Entries of April 28, 29, 1775, The Journal of John Harrower, ed. Edward Miles Riley (Williamsburg, 1963), 94; Michael Wallace to Gustavus Brown Wallace, May 14, 1775, in Horace Edwin Hayden, Virginia Genealogies: A Genealogy of the Glassell Family (Wilkes-Barre, 1891), 705.

  94 “that the … itself”: Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, Aug. 5, 1775.

  95 Dunmore: John E. Selby, The Revolution in Virginia, 1775–1783 (Williamsburg, 1988), 1–6, 41–47.

  96 “has abilities … in law”: “Characters of leading Men & Descriptions of Places in Virginia,” Peter Russell Papers, CaOTP.

  97 had Dismal Plantation: John Driver to David Jameson, Jan. 15, 1790, Thomas Walker and David Jameson to John Taylor, May 17, 1777, David Jameson to John Ball, Jan. 16, 1779, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, March 31, 1774.

  98 At the meeting: Entry of June 17, 1775, Memoranda Dismal Swamp Company, Thomas Walker and David Jameson to John Taylor, May 17, 1777, David Jameson to William Nelson, Jr., Oct. 25, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 7, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; “Descendants of Two John Washingtons,” VMHB, XXVI (Oct. 1918), 420.

  99 “not … party”: John Blackburn to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 22, 1774, quoted in Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots, 75.

100 they do nothing: Letter from London, Jan. 6, 1775, Peter Force, ed., American Archives (Washington, 1837–53), 4th ser., I, 1088.

101 “a Ministerial manoeuvre”: Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia), March 9, 1775.

102 Gist: William Lee to Francis Lightfoot Lee, Feb. 25, 1775, William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, April 6, 1775, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

103 “most” … “Remedies”: Journal of the House of Commons, XXXV, 71.

104 “committee of oblivion”: Quoted in Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots, 76. See also Richard Price to Josiah Quincy, Jr., [April or May 1775], The Correspondence of Richard Price, ed. D. O. Thomas and W. Bernard Peach (Durham, 1983–91), I, 206–207; Josiah Wedgwood to Thomas Bentley, Feb. 6, 1775, Letters of Josiah Wedgwood, ed. Katherine Farrer (Manchester, [1973; orig. publ. 1903]), II, 222–223.

105 Gist and Anderson: Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; William Anderson, Will, July 20, 1793, William Anderson to Samuel Gist, July 18, 1776, Indenture, Oct. 2, 1777, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Commissioner’s Report, June 1808, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, ibid.

106 “must” … “guilt”: Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, May 5, 1775; William Reynolds to John Norton & Son, May 16, 1775, William Reynolds Letterbook, DLC. On Wilkinson, see David Syrett, “The Procurement of Shipping by the Board of Ordnance During the American War, 1775–1782,” MM, LXXXI (Nov. 1995), 409–416; David Syrett, “The Victualling Board Charters Shipping, 1775–82,” HR, LXVIII (June 1995), 212–224.

107 Captain Miller: Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, May 12, 1775.

108 “he … loaded”: John Tabb to Samuel Gist, June 6, 1775, Gist v. Tabb, svg ptr., Hill & Co., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

109 hailed a schooner: Pinkney’s Virginia Gazette, June 15, 1775; Richard Derby, Sr., to Daniel Hathorn, May 9, 1775, in Robert E. Peabody, Merchant Venturers of Old Salem (Boston, 1912), 37–38.

110 a plot among slaves: Letter from Norfolk, Virginia, Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, June 10, 1775.

111 “for any … Ex[chang]e”: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, June 28, 1775, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

112 with 1,434 hogsheads: Jacob M. Price, ed., Joshua Johnson’s Letterbook, 1771–1774 (London, 1979), 159; Jacob M. Price and Paul G. E. Clemens, “A Revolution of Scale in Overseas Trade: British Firms in the Chesapeake Trade, 1675–1775,” JEcH, XLVII (March 1987), 23–24; T. M. Devine, “Glasgow Merchants and the Collapse of the Tobacco Trade, 1775–1783,” SHR, LII (April 1973), 50–63; T. M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and Their Trading Activities (Edinburgh, 1975), 119; J. F. S. Gordon, ed., Glasghu Facies: A View of the City of Glasgow (Glasgow, n.d.), II, 758, 1054, 1063.

113 he insured them: Account of Moss Armistead & Company, Gist v. Tabb’s Admr., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

114 Sir Robert Herries: William Lee to Edward Browne, May 20, 1775, William Lee to John Ballantine & Co., Aug. 4, 1775, William Lee Letterbook, 1774–1775, Lee Family Papers, ViRHi; William Forbes, Memoirs of a Banking-House (London, 1860), 45–48; Robert Cary & Co. to William Byrd, Feb. 10, 1775, “Some Unpublished Correspondence of William Byrd III,” ed. Marion Tinling, VMHB, LXXXVIII (July 1980), 295–296; Farell & Jones to William Byrd, March 10, 1775, Jones, svg ptr. v. Byrd’s Extx, 1818, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

115 to make small arms: William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia (Richmond, Philadelphia, and New York, 1809–23), IX, 71–73; Charles Dick to Thomas Jefferson, Jan. 23, 1781, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IV, 430–431. See, in general, Selby, Revolution in Virginia, chap. 3.

116 cleared her out of port: Entry of Aug. 14, 1775, James River Naval Office, Manifest Book, 1774–1775, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, I, 1393; John Tabb to Samuel Gist, June 20, 1775, Gist v. Tabb, svg ptr. Hill & Co., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

117 Barron quits: Biographical Notice, Virginia Historical Register, I (1848), 25.

118 “a fine … service”: Ibid.

119 the Lion and the Brilliant: Lloyd’s Register: 1776, B–315, L–155.

120 “his … abilities”: Archibald Cary to Richard Henry Lee, Dec. 24, 1775, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

121 “We … Valour”: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, V, 277. See also William Bell Clark, Captain Dauntless: The Story of Nicholas Biddle of the Continental Navy (Baton Rouge, 1949), 129–130.

122 Lord Dunmore warned: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, June 25, 1775, K. G. Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, 1770–1783 (Shannon and Dublin, 1972–80), IX, 207–208.

123 “to inform … ruin”: William Byrd to Jeffery Amherst, July 30, 1775, William Byrd to Ralph Wormeley, Oct. 4, 1775, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 812, 814.

124 “the spirit for warfare”: Robert Munford to William Byrd, April 20, 1775, ibid., 806.

125 “Goodness of Heart”: William Byrd, Will, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 86.

126 her sister, Dorothy: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH; Joshua Francis Fisher, Recollections of Joshua Francis Fisher, ed. Sophia Cadwalader (Boston, 1929), 72, 76–77; Burton Alva Konkle, Thomas Willing and the First American Financial System (Philadelphia, 1937), 23–24; Clark, Captain Dauntless, 38.

127 “Things … Thing”: Benjamin Waller to Davison & Newman, July 5, 1775, Claim of Davison & Newman, T 79/32, PRO.

128 “kept” … “books”: Answer of William Byrd Page, June 10, 1820, James Hopkirk v. Byrd’s Exors, 1805, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

129 “inattention to accounts”: Byrd, Will, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 85–86.

130 published an attack: Pinkney’s Virginia Gazette, June 1, 1775.

131 “You” … “Foot”: William Byrd to Samuel Griffin, June 7, 1775, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC. See also Michael A. McDonnell, “Popular Mobilization and Political Culture in Revolutionary Virginia: The Failure of the Minutemen and the Revolution from Below,” Journal of American History, LXXXV (Dec. 1998), 946–981.

132 “most … order”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH. See also John Bartram to Peter Collinson, July 18, 1739, The Correspondence of John Bartram, 1734–1777, ed. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley (Gainesville, 1992), 122.

133 “poets corner”: Account of the Sales of the Estate of the late Honble William Byrd, Byrd v. Byrd, 1838, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Mary Byrd, Will, VMHB, VI (April 1899), 348–358.

134 “amenity of manners”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH.

135 “the splendid … Westover”: David Meade to Joseph Prentis, Jr., Sept. 26, 1826, Webb Transcripts, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

136 “very” … “charming”: Entry of Feb. 26, 1782, Journal of von Closen, ed. Acomb, 187; Charles Lee to William Byrd, April 17, 1776, BR Box 258(27), CSmH.

137 “many … violent”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

138 David Meade saw: Meade, “Family History,” Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 38.

139 “exposed … them”: Thomas Taylor Byrd to Thomas Gage, July 11, 1775, Gage Papers, MiU-C.

140 “the brave” … “resolution”: William Byrd to Ralph Wormeley, Oct. 4, 1775, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 815–816.

141 “I flatter” … “purpose”: William Byrd to Jeffery Amherst, July 30, 1775, ibid., 812.

142 “a change of government”: William Byrd to Ralph Wormeley, Oct. 4, 1775, ibid., 814–815.

143 signed a proclamation: Van Schreeven et al., eds., Revolutionary Virginia, IV, 334–335.

144 “Col.… thing”: Ibid., V, 386–387n; Meade, “Family History,” in Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 38; entry of Feb. 25, 1776, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter of Sabine Hall, 1752–1778, ed. Jack P. Greene (Charlottesville, 1965), II, 989.

145 Lord Dunmore’s schooners: John Johnson to [?], Nov. 16, 1775, “Intercepted Letters of Virginian Tories, 1775,” AHR, XII (Jan. 1907), 342.

146 Scottish merchants: Ibid.; Neil Jamieson to Glassford, Gordon, Montieth & Co., Nov. 17, 1775, Papers of the Continental Congress, Microfilm Reel 65, Item 51, Vol. 1, p. 393, DNA.

147 “this” … “People”: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Oct. 5, 1775, CO 5/1353, ff. 300–302, PRO.

148 “the elopement … Negroes”: Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, Aug. 5, 1775; John Johnson to [?], Nov. 16, 1775, “Intercepted Letters,” AHR, XII (Jan. 1907), 341.

149 at Great Bridge: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 6, 1775–Feb. 18, 1776, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XII, 58–59; Earl of Dunmore to William Howe, Nov. 30, 1775, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, II, 1210; Hugh Edward Egerton, ed., The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists, 1783 to 1785: Being the Notes of Mr. Daniel Parker Coke, M.P. (Oxford, 1915), 362; John Page to Virginia Delegates to Congress, Nov. 17, 1775, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

150 “the language … President”: Archibald Cary to Richard Henry Lee, Dec. 24, 1775, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

151 “men … Slaves”: Ibid. See also Woody Holton, “ ‘Rebel Against Rebel’: Enslaved Virginians and the Coming of the American Revolution,” VMHB, CV (1997), 157–192; Judith Bell to Alexander Speirs, Feb. 16, 1776, quoted in William R. Brock, Scotus Americanus (Edinburgh, 1982), 147.

152 “be as … Country”: Robert Shedden to John Shedden, Jr., Nov. 20, 1775, “Intercepted Letters,” AHR, XII (Jan. 1907), 346.

153 George: “Examination of negroes George and Ned,” Dec. 5, 1775, “The Letters of Col. William Woodford, Col. Robert Howe and Gen. Charles Lee to Edmund Pendleton,” Richmond College Historical Papers, I (June 1915), 104, 111–113. For the names of many black people who joined Dunmore, see Graham Russell Hodges, ed., The Black Loyalist Directory: African Americans in Exile After the American Revolution (New York, 1996).

154 regiments: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 6, 1775–Feb. 18, 1776, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XII, 59; Earl of Dunmore to William Howe, Nov. 30, 1775, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, II, 1210.

155 “the Absurdity” … “Morass”: J. D. to Earl of Dumfries, Jan. 14, 1776, CO 5/40, ff. 123–126, PRO.

156 HMS Liverpool: Earl of Dunmore to Earl of Dartmouth, Dec. 6, 1775–Feb. 18, 1776, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XII, 62; H. S. Parsons, comp., “Contemporary English Accounts of the Destruction of Norfolk in 1776,” WMQ, 2d ser., XIII (Oct. 1933), 219–224; Samuel Inglis to Robert Morris, Jan. 6, 1776, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1183 (Jan. 1917), Item 397.

157 “the people … them”: Deposition of Robert Brett, Sept. 16, 1777, Commissioners to Examine Claims in Norfolk, Auditor of Public Accounts, Public Claims, Entry 235, General Records, Vi.

158 “they … Tory”: Deposition of Samuel Willson, Sept. 17, 1777, deposition of Paul Watlington, Sept. 29, 1777, ibid.

159 Colonel Robert Howe: Robert Howe to Edmund Pendleton, Jan. 6, 1776, “Letters,” Richmond College Historical Papers, I (June 1915), 152–153; Selby, Revolution in Virginia, chap. 4; Thomas C. Parramore, Peter C. Stewart, and Tommy L. Bogger, Norfolk: The First Four Centuries (Charlottesville, 1994), chap. 7; Charles E. Bennett and Donald R. Lennon, A Quest for Glory: Major General Robert Howe and the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1991), chap. 3.

160 “a Speculation” … “Chance”: Testimony of James Parker, June 5, 1784, Commissioners of American Claims, copies in English Records, Box ER 8, folder 20, Nc-Ar.

161 Parker’s property: Claim of James Parker, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/34, PRO; Report of Commissioners to Examine Claims in Norfolk, Oct. 10, 1777, Auditor of Public Accounts, Public Claims, Entry 235, General Records, Vi; Parramore et al., Norfolk, 97.

162 “most obnoxious”: James Ingram to Charles Steuart, May 31, 1783, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL; William Aitchison to James Parker, Nov. 14, 1774, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

163 “What … force”: James Parker to Charles Steuart, May 6, 1775, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL.

164 “did … hanged”: Robert Shedden to John Shedden, Nov. 9, 1775, VMHB, XIV (Oct. 1906), 132.

165 worth £30,000: Josiah Martin to Lord George Germain, July 6, 1776, William L. Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1886–), X, 655–656. Compare Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 363. See also State of the Case of Mr. Thomas Macknight, Shelburne Papers, Box 87, Item 1, MiU-C; Thomas Macknight, Memorial and Petition, D. L. Corbitt, ed., “Thomas Macknight,” NCHR, II (Oct. 1925), 509–521; Memorial of Thomas Macknight, Dartmouth Papers, Charles M. Andrews Transcripts, DLC; Claim of Thomas Macknight, T 79/21, PRO.

166 “I am … promises”: James Parker to Charles Steuart, Nov. 6, 1790, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL.

167 “without … clothes”: Thomas Macknight to James Macknight, Dec. 26, 1775, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, III, 260–261; Thomas Macknight to Grey Cooper, Nov. 6, 1776, Corbitt, ed., “Macknight,” NCHR, II (Oct. 1925), 506.

168 “Disingenuous” … “Liberty”: Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, IX, 1184, 1227–1228; Rob Smith to Joseph Hewes, May 23, 1775, Hayes Collection, Johnston Family Series, NcU.

169 “a pest of society”: Quoted in Thomas Macknight to Joseph Jones, June 21, 1775, Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, X, 34.

170 Aitchison’s property: Memorial of William Aitchison, March 18, 1784, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/27, PRO; Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 391; Adele Hast, Loyalism in Revolutionary Virginia: The Norfolk Area and the Eastern Shore (Ann Arbor, 1982), 82–83. In the fire: Certification by Earl of Dunmore, March 15, 1784, Claim of William Aitchison, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/27, PRO.

171 “Commercial” … “Goods”: Aitchison & Parker to Charles Steuart, May 14, 1776, James Parker to Charles Steuart, June 6, 1777, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL; James Parker to Margaret Parker, Nov. 8, 1776, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

172 “he … Country”: J. D. to Earl of Dumfries, Jan. 14, 1776, CO 5/40, ff. 123–126, PRO.

173 “laid … degree”: James Parker to Margaret Parker, Nov. 8, 1776, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

174 death of Aitchison: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, July 14, 1786, ibid.; James Parker to Charles Steuart, June 6, 1777, Charles Steuart Papers, UkENL; Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, Nov. 8, 1776.

175 “immediately” … “quarters”: Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, July 19, 1776; John Page to Thomas Jefferson, July 20, 1776, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., I, 469; James Cunningham’s Examination, July 18, 1776, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, V, 1135; Donald G. Shomette, Shipwrecks on the Chesapeake (Centreville, 1982), chap. 6; Selby, Revolution in Virginia, 104–106, 124–127.

176 his land and slaves: Saunders et al., eds., Colonial Records of North Carolina, X, 529–530, 565; Walter Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina (Winston and Goldsboro, 1895–1905), XXIV, 263–264.

177 “in the … manner”: Thomas Macknight, Petition to the Treasury, Dartmouth Papers, Andrews Transcripts, DLC.

178 “distraction” … “distress”: Thomas Macknight to Earl of Dartmouth, July 24, 1781, ibid. See decision in the case of Thomas Macknight, AO 12/103, f. 40, PRO.

179 Walker and Flying Crow: Reuben Gold Thwaites and Louise Phelps Kellogg, eds., The Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 1775–1777 (Madison, 1908), 118, 107.

180 over the battlefield: Jasper Yeates to [?], Aug. 21, 1776, Register of Pennsylvania, VI (Aug. 14, 1830), 104–105.

181 warned western settlers: Thomas Walker et al. to County Lieutenants, Aug. 31, 1776, Thwaites and Kellogg, eds., Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 190–191.

182 “by no” … “Cruelty”: Thomas Walker et al. to Committee for Indian Affairs, Sept. 25, 1776, Papers of the Continental Congress, Microfilm Reel 104, Item 78, Vol. 23, pp. 305–309, DNA.

183 “if you … fall”: Thwaites and Kellogg, eds., Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 118.

184 at Dismal Plantation: William Anderson to Samuel Gist, May 12, 1777, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

185 Scottish factors: Entry of Aug. 24, 1776, Diary of Thomas Moffat, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, Item 106, DLC. For names of Scottish refugees, see Esther Clark Wright, The Loyalists of New Brunswick (Fredericton, 1955), 255–345.

186 “providence” … “me”: Samuel Gist to William Anderson, May 4, 1776, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

187 Dr. Walker visited: Account with David Jameson, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

188 “have as … have”: William Anderson to Samuel Gist, May 12, 1777, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

189 heavy rains: Entries of June 12, 13, 1777, “The Journal of Ebenezer Hazard in Virginia, 1777,” ed. Fred Shelley, VMHB, LXII (Oct. 1954), 412–413.

190 attacks of vertigo: John Page to Thomas Jefferson, Aug. 9, 1802, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC. On Virginia’s government, see Selby, Revolution in Virginia, 116–123.

191 “crowded … House”: John Page to St. George Tucker, Sept. 28, 1776, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

192 the lead stripped: William Harwood to John Page, Dec. 13, 1775, John Page, Memorandum, 1775, Miscellaneous Manuscripts, ViWC.

193 “I believe” … “Happiness”: John Page to St. George Tucker, Sept. 28, 1776, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

194 debts in Virginia: Richard R. Beeman, The Old Dominion and the New Nation, 1788–1801 (Lexington, 1972), 123.

195 Fielding Lewis: Joseph A. Goldenberg and Marion West Stoer, “The Virginia State Navy,” in Ernest McNeill Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay in the American Revolution (Centreville, 1981), 174–178; Shomette, Shipwrecks, 54–55; Robert Armistead Stewart, The History of Virginia’s Navy of the Revolution (Richmond [1934]), 57–59; Fielding Lewis to James Hunter, July 22, 1776, Kenmore Manuscript Collection, Fredericksburg, Virginia.

196 “This … Loyd’s”: [William Carmichael] to Joshua Johnston [Johnson], Feb. 24, 1777, in B. F. Stevens, ed., Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Archives Relating to America, 1773–1783 (London, 1889–95), I, No. 39. On the Reprisal, see William Bell Clark, Lambert Wickes: Sea Raider and Diplomat (New Haven, 1932).

197 “The American … vessel”: John Nicol, The Life and Adventures of John Nicol, Mariner (Edinburgh, 1822), 18.

198 nearing £600,000: Entry of June 18, 1776, Diary and Letters of Hutchinson, ed. Hutchinson, II, 71; William Lee to Nathan Rumsey, Sept. 3, 1776, William Lee Letterbook, 1775–1776, duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia; V. G. Lizakevich to N. I. Panin, Sept. 27, 1776, in Nikolai N. Bolkhovitinov, Russia and the American Revolution, trans. C. Jay Smith (Tallahassee, 1976), 205; M. Garnier to Comte de Vergennes, Oct. 18, 1776, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, VII, 698; Public Advertiser (London), Nov. 9, 1776, reprinted ibid., 734.

199 more than £1,800,000: Parliamentary History of England, XIX, 709–713; Samuel Wharton to Benjamin Franklin, Jan. 17, 1777 [1778], The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Leonard W. Labaree et al. (New Haven, 1959–), XXIII, 203. For lists of captured British vessels, see Thomas Clark, Naval History of the United States, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1814), II, 161–179.

200 rose to 15 percent: William Vassall to John Wedderburn, May 21, 1777, William Vassall Letter Books, UkSh; Parliamentary History of England, XIX, 709; Arthur Lee to Robert Morris, Sept. 9, 1777, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, IX, 636; John Bourke to Philip Francis, Oct. 29, 1776, The Francis Letters, ed. Beata Francis and Eliza Keary (London, [1901]), I, 273

201 charged 28 percent: Roger Sherman to Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., April 17, 1777, Paul H. Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates to Congress: 1774–1789 (Washington, 1976–98), VI, 607; Edgar Stanton Maclay, A History of American Privateers (New York, 1899), xiii.

202 Willing & Morris: John Robinson to John Pownall, Jan. 18, 1776, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, X, 190.

203 a premium of 50 percent: Robert Morris to Silas Deane, Feb. 27, 1777, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, VII, 1307.

204 “a considerable” … “Scheme”: Willing, Morris & Company to William Bingham, Sept. 14, 27, Oct. 20, 1776, William Bingham Papers, DLC.

205 “I … another”: Silas Deane to Elizabeth Deane, March 3, 1776, The Deane Papers, New-York Historical Society, Collections, XIX–XXIII (1886–90), I, 121.

206 Patrick Henry: Silas Deane to Patrick Henry, Jan. 2, 1775, ibid., 35–37; James Hall, Sketches of History, Life and Manners in the West (Philadelphia, 1835), II, 228–233, 249–254.

207 “You … World”: Robert Morris to Silas Deane, Aug. 11, 1776, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, VI, 149.

208 seize Bermuda: Silas Deane to Robert Morris, April 26, 1776, ibid., IV, 1277. See also Henry Wilkinson, comp., “Notes on American Privateering as Recorded in Bermuda, 1760–1781,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections, LXXXII (April 1946), 174–178.

209 French aid, privateers: Earl of Rochford to Horace St. Paul, Sept. 29, 1775, Viscount Weymouth to Horace St. Paul, May 10, 1776, George G. Butler, ed., Colonel St. Paul of Ewart, Soldier and Diplomat (London, 1911), II, 292–293, 387–388; Silas Deane to Robert Morris, May 26, 1777, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1183 (Jan. 1917), Item 129; Elizabeth Miles Nuxoll, Congress and the Munitions Merchants: The Secret Committee of Trade During the American Revolution, 1775–1777 (New York, 1985), chaps. 6–7; David Syrett, The Royal Navy in European Waters During the American Revolutionary War (Columbia, 1998), chap. 1; Thomas Perkins Abernethy, “Commercial Activities of Silas Deane in France,” AHR, XXXIX (April 1934), 477–485; Thomas Perkins Abernethy, Western Lands and the American Revolution (New York, 1937), 181–187, 208–209; H. James Henderson, Party Politics in the Continental Congress (New York, 1974), 189–192; Orville T. Murphy, Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes(Albany, 1982), chap. 19; Nicholas Tracy, Navies, Deterrence, and American Independence: Britain and Seapower in the 1760s and 1770s (Vancouver, 1988), chap. 6; Thomas J. Schaeper, France and America in the Revolutionary Era: The Life of Jacques-Donatien Leray de Chaumont, 1725–1803 (Providence, 1995), 208–210; Ruth Y. Johnston, “American Privateers in French Ports, 1776–1778,” PMHB, LIII (Oct. 1929), 352–374; Alan G. Jamieson, “American Privateers in the Leeward Islands, 1776–1778,” AN, XLIII (Jan. 1983), 20–30; Robert C. Alberts, The Golden Voyage: The Life and Times of William Bingham, 1752–1804 (Boston, 1969), chap. 5; John D. Faibisy, “Privateers and Prize Cases: The Impact upon Nova Scotia, 1775–83,” Prologue, XI (1979), 185–199. On British privateers, see David J. Starkey, British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century (Exeter, 1990), chap. 8.

210 “Roderigue” … 177: For the Beaumarchais–Lee correspondence, see Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, For the Good of Mankind: Political Correspondence Relative to the American Revolution, trans. Antoinette Shewmake (Lanham, 1987). See also Labaree et al., eds., Papers of Franklin, XXIII, 425n.3; Jonathan R. Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (New Haven, 1985), chap. 7; Katharine Prescott Wormeley, trans., The Prince de Lignes: His Memoirs, and Miscellaneous Papers (Boston, 1899), I, 291.

211 Anthony Bacon: Viscount Stormont to Viscount Weymouth, Nov. 6, 1776, Stevens, ed., Facsimiles, XIV, No. 1372. See also Lieutenant of police to Comte de Vergennes, Dec. 12, 1776, quoted in Louis de Loménie, Beaumarchais and His Times, trans. Henry S. Edwards (New York, 1857), 291; Edward E. Hale and Edward E. Hale, Jr., Franklin in France (Boston, 1888), I, 46–47n.2; Horace St. Paul to Viscount Weymouth, May 1, 1776, Butler, ed., Colonel St. Paul, II, 380; Prince de Masserano to Marqués de Grimaldi, July 12, 1776, Antonio Martí Alanis, ed., Canadá en la correspondencia diplomatica de los embajadores de España en Londres, 1534–1813 (Madrid, 1980), 132–133; Buchanan Parker Thomson, Spain: Forgotten Ally of the American Revolution (North Quincy, 1976), 32, 36; “Information intended to be given to Ld. W[eymouth],” Sept. 4, 1776, Richard W. Van Alstyne, “Thomas Walpole’s Letters to the Duke of Grafton on American Affairs,” HLQ, XXX (Nov. 1966), 25–27; Richard W. Van Alstyne, “Great Britain, the War for Independence, and the ‘Gathering Storm’ in Europe, 1775–1778,” HLQ, XXVII (Aug. 1964), 311–346.

212 “gaming policies”: Thomas Attwood Digges to Arthur Lee, Aug. 30, 1778, Letters of Thomas Attwood Digges, ed. Robert H. Elias and Eugene D. Fitch (Columbia, 1982), 13–14.

213 “counter-insurance”: Edward Bancroft to Thomas Walpole, n.d., Edward Bancroft to Samuel Wharton, n.d., [Joseph Wharton] to Edward Bancroft, Nov. 10, 1777, Paul Wentworth to William Eden, n.d., Stevens, ed., Facsimiles, III, Nos. 289, 290, 301, 324; [Edmund Jenings] to Arthur Lee, May 12, 19, 1778, Lee Family Papers, ViU; Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, March 16, 1778, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC; Arthur Lee to President of Congress, Feb. 10, 1779, in Edward D. Ingraham, ed., Papers in Relation to the Case of Silas Deane (Philadelphia, 1855), 158–161; Arthur Lee to Committee of Correspondence, Aug. 7, 1778, The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, ed. Francis Wharton (Washington, 1889), II, 680; Dull, Diplomatic History, 64; Samuel Flagg Bemis, “British Secret Service and the French-American Alliance,” AHR, XXIX (April 1924), 484; Julian P. Boyd, “Silas Deane: Death by a Kindly Teacher of Treason?” WMQ, 3d ser., XVI (July 1959), 319–342; Donald MacDonald to nephew, [May 1778], in Richard Henry Lee, Life of Arthur Lee (Boston, 1829), II, 103.

214 “He … W——le”: Paul Wentworth to William Eden, n.d., Stevens, ed., Facsimiles, III, No. 324; Lewis Einstein, Divided Loyalties: Americans in England During the War of Independence (Boston, 1933), 22–25.

215 “to make … accordingly”: James Lovell to Samuel Adams, July 27, [1779], Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XIII, 302; Labaree et al., eds., Papers of Franklin, XXIII, 202n.4, XXV, 417n.5, XXVII, 229 headnote; Abernethy, Western Lands, 206.

216 an express messenger: Public Characters of 1799–1800 (London, 1799), 325–326; John Cartwright, Life and Correspondence of Major Cartwright, ed. Frances D. Cartwright (London, 1826), I, 174–175; Van Alstyne, “Great Britain,” HLQ, XXVII (Aug. 1964), 344; Edward Bancroft, Memorial to the Marquis of Carmarthen, Sept. 16, 1784, Bemis, “British Secret Service,” AHR, XXIX (April 1924), 494; Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, Mémoire particulier pour les ministres du Roi, [Jan. 22, 1778], Gunnar and Mavis von Proschwitz, eds., Beaumarchais et le Courier de l’Europe: Documents inédits ou peu connus (Oxford, 1990), I, 440–446; Viscount Weymouth to Viscount Stormont, Jan. 30, Feb. 27, 1778, British Diplomatic Instructions, 1689–1789, ed. James Frederick Chance et al., Camden Society, 3d ser., XXXII–XLIX (1922–34), VII, 175–176. See also H. M. Scott, British Foreign Policy in the Age of the American Revolution (Oxford, 1990), 260–261; Einstein, Divided Loyalties, 37–39.

217 Transylvania and Vandalia: Abernethy, Western Lands, 210–214; Boyd, “Silas Deane,” WMQ, 3d ser., XVI (Oct. 1959), 534–535.

218 “Mr.… Life”: [Silas Deane] to Edward [Bancr]oft, [Jan. 8, 1778], Stevens, ed., Facsimiles, V, No. 490. See also Louis W. Potts, Arthur Lee: A Virtuous Revolutionary(Baton Rouge, 1981), 155–163; Schaeper, France and America, chap. 3.

219 “We … place”: Silas Deane to Barnabas Deane, May 14, 1781, Silas Deane to Simeon Deane, Sept. 29, 1780, Deane Papers, IV, 331, 238.

220 America’s reunion: Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston, March 4, 1782, The Works of Benjamin Franklin, ed. John Bigelow (New York, 1887–88), VII, 406–407; Andrew Allen to Earl of Shelburne, Oct. 17, 1782, Silas Deane to Andrew Allen, Dec. 25, 1782, Shelburne Papers, Box 87, Items 119, 249, MiU-C; Dull, Diplomatic History, 116.

221 His will: VMHB, IX (July 1901), 85–88.

222 “debts of honour”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH.

223 “her … Byrd”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

224 “heartfelt affection”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH.

225 “my son … me”: William Byrd, Will, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 87.

226 “civilities” … “spirits”: Charles Lee to William Byrd, April 17, 1776, BR Box 258(27), CSmH.

227 “greatly” … “life”: William Byrd, Will, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 85–86.

228 David Meade: Meade, “Family History,” in Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 36, 39.

229 “her great” … “other”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH.

230 “extraordinary … grief”: Nelson W. Evans and Emmons B. Stivers, A History of Adams County, Ohio (West Union, 1900), 530–531.

231 “too … her”: William Byrd, Will, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 88.

232 describes Westover: Mary Willing Byrd to Anne Willing, 1761, quoted in Fisher, Recollections, ed. Cadwalader, 95, 97.

233 “great” … “activity”: Entry of April 27, 1782, Chastellux, Travels, ed. Rice, II, 430.

234 “The Library … you”: Mary Willing Byrd to Anne Willing, 1761, quoted in Fisher, Recollections, ed. Cadwalader, 95.

235 “Colo … her”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

236 “not … injured”: Elizabeth Willing Powel to Martha Washington, Nov. 1787, “Worthy Partner”: The Papers of Martha Washington, ed. Joseph E. Fields (Westport, 1994), 199.

237 “village of quarters”: Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, Dec. 30–31, 1783, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

238 auctions: Account of the Sales of the Estate of the late Honble William Byrd Esqr., Byrd v. Byrd, 1838, Account of the estate of William Byrd with Mary Byrd, Murdock & Co. v. William Byrd’s Extx, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi. The total of the first sale of slaves given in the latter account is in error. See William Nelson, Jr., to Edmund Randolph and Bushrod Washington, n.d., Byrd Family Papers, Mss2, B9966, c17, ViRHi.

239 “I hope … ever”: Mary Willing Byrd to Jerman Baker, Dec. 4, 1781, Byrd Family Papers, ViRHi.

240 “singular intelligence”: Fisher, Recollections, ed. Cadwalader, 102.

241 “I … Currency”: Benjamin Waller to Davison & Newman, July 28, 1783, Claim of Exors of Monkhouse Davison and Abram Newman, T 79/32, PRO.

242 “the age of paper”: David Jameson to David Meade, April 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

243 “the very … LIBRARY”: Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, March 14, 1777.

244 Isaac Zane, Jr.: Edwin Wolf, 2nd, “The Dispersal of the Library of William Byrd of Westover,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, LXVIII (April 1958), 19–106; Kevin J. Hayes, The Library of William Byrd of Westover (Madison, 1997), 95–103; entry of Dec. 3, 1773, Jefferson’s Memorandum Books, ed. James A. Bear, Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton (Princeton, 1997), I, 327.

245 “neatly kept”: Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, Dec. 30–31, 1783, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

246 “very … company”: Entry of Feb. 26, 1782, Journal of von Closen, ed. Acomb, 186–187.

247 “smart repartee”: Entry of Aug. 26, 1781, “Extracts from the Journal of Lieutenant John Bell Tilden,” PMHB, XIX (1895), 53.

248 “sat … Beer”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

249 James’s father’s slaves: Marvin L. Michael Kay and Lorin Lee Cary, Slavery in North Carolina, 1748–1775 (Chapel Hill, 1995), 37–38, 43.

250 owed £1,700: James Parke Farley to David Russell, March 14, 1775, Account of James Parke Farley, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Schedule of Debts, Claim of Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co., T 79/13, PRO.

251 At least twenty vessels: Norfolk Customhouse Ledger, Auditor of Public Accounts, Entry 18, Solicitor General, Vi.

252 were glutted: John Hardin to James Hunter, Jr., Sept. 2, 1775, Hunter-Garnett Collection, ViU; Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Oct. 23, 1775, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

253 “an obliging … Wife”: Francis Farley to Robert Munford, Jan. 15, 1778, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

254 “I know … off”: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Dec. 29, 1775, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

255 slave uprising or a French invasion: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Sept. 22, 1778, ibid.; Samuel Martin to Christopher Baldwin, April 16, 1776, Samuel Martin Letterbook, Add MSS 41,351, f. 76, Uk; William Mathew Burt to Samuel Barrington, Sept. 22, 1778, The Barrington Papers: Selected from the Letters and Papers of Admiral the Hon. Samuel Barrington, ed. D. Bonner-Smith (n.p., 1937–41), II, 66.

256 “high Loyalists”: David Greene to Thomas Fraser, Feb. 13, 1777, David Greene Letterbook, MiU-C.

257 selling gunpowder: James Young to Council, Aug. 14, 1775, Thomas Jarvis to James Young, Aug. 17, 1775, James Young to Thomas Jarvis, Aug. 22, 1775, James Young to Philip Stephens, Aug. 30, 1775, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, I, 1148–1149, 1171, 1209, 1268.

258 drought settled: John Taylor to St. George Tucker, May 1, 1776, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Samuel Martin to W. Barton, May 17, 1776, Samuel Martin Letterbook, Add MSS 41,351, f. 84, Uk; Mainswete Walrond to Clement Tudway, April 18, 1776, Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, June 19, 22, July 20, 1776, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office; Richard B. Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves: A Medical and Demographic History of Slavery in the British West Indies, 1680–1834 (Cambridge, 1985), 156–157.

259 attracted speculators: David Greene to Thomas Fraser, June 12, 1777, Greene Letter-book, MiU-C; James Young to Philip Stephens, April 7, 1776, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, IV, 704–705; John Taylor to St. George Tucker, May 1, 1776, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Samuel Martin to Henry Martin, July 12, 1776, Samuel Martin Letterbook, Add MSS 41,351, f. 110, Uk; Samuel Martin, Jr., to Earl of Sandwich, April 4, 1777, The Private Papers of John, Earl of Sandwich, ed. G. R. Barnes and J. H. Owen (n.p., 1932–38), I, 391.

260 died “suddenly”: Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, May 23, 1777; Samuel Greenhow, Commissioner’s Report, Oct. 1804, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

261 “a Victim … country”: Elizabeth Farley to Thomas Taylor Byrd, June 25, 1783, Byrd Family Papers, ViRHi.

262 Thomas Taylor Byrd: Cecil Johnson, British West Florida, 1763–1783 (New Haven, 1943), 147; J. Leitch Wright, Jr., Florida in the American Revolution (Gainesville, 1975), 104 and chap. 10.

263 “a slave … country”: Francis Farley to John Simon Farley, June 11, 1777, July 13, 1778, quoted in Decisions in Chancery by Wythe, 255.

264 “burnt” … “seen”: William Vassall to John Wedderburn, Aug. 2, 1777, Vassall Letter Books, UkSh.

265 “extremely busy”: Robert Martin to Clement Tudway, June 12, 1777, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

266 condition of slaves: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Oct. 27, 1777, ibid.; William Mathew Burt to Lord George Germain, Oct. 7, 1777, Historical Manuscripts Commission, Report on the Manuscripts of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville (Hereford, 1904–10), II, 272.

267 food for slaves: Selwyn H. H. Carrington, The British West Indies During the American Revolution (Dordrecht, 1988), 76–80; Richard B. Sheridan, “The Crisis of Slave Subsistence in the British West Indies During and After the American Revolution,” WMQ, 3d ser., XXXIII (Oct. 1976), 622–624.

268 Farley’s letter to Munford: Francis Farley to Robert Munford, Jan. 15, 1778, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi. On tobacco sales, see David Greene to Lane, Son & Fraser, June 12, 1777, Greene Letterbook, MiU-C.

269 ninety-one slaves: Richard R. Beeman, “Robert Munford and the Political Culture of Frontier Virginia,” JAmS, XII (1978), 173.

270 “the appearance of magnificence”: Entry of May 15, 1792, “Diary of Richard N. Venable, 1791–1792,” TQHGM, II (Oct. 1920), 138.

271 He had drawn: Jamieson & Cameron, svg ptrs. v. Byrd, Exor of Munford, 1798, Johnson & Cross’s Exor v. Byrd, Exor of Munford, 1798, USCCVD(EC), Vi; James Robinson to William Cuninghame & Co., May 7, 1772, April 16, 1774, T. M. Devine, ed., A Scottish Firm in Virginia, 1767–1777: W. Cuninghame and Co. (Edinburgh, 1984), 77, 137; Otway Byrd to St. George Tucker, June 3, 1785, William Munford to St. George Tucker, Dec. 22, 1805, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

272 “the intemperate warmth”: Robert Munford to William Byrd, April 20, 1775, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 806.

273 “expelling  … Scotchmen”: James Gilchrist to James Parker, Dec. 22, 1774, “Jamieson-Ellegood-Parker,” WMQ, 1st ser., XIII (July 1904), 69.

274 petitioned the House of Delegates: Peyton Skipwith et al. to House of Delegates, May 14, 1777, Legislative Petitions, Mecklenburg County, Vi.

275 “moderate” … “war”: Robert Munford to William Byrd, April 20, 1775, Correspondence of the Byrds, ed. Tinling, II, 806.

276 The Patriots: Norman Philbrick, ed., Trumpets Sounding: Propaganda Plays of the American Revolution (New York, 1972), 266–337. See also Rodney M. Baine, Robert Munford: America’s First Comic Dramatist (Athens, 1967).

277 “he was … aristocrat”: Quoted in G. Brown Goode, Virginia Cousins: A Study of the Ancestry and Posterity of John Goode of Whitby (Richmond, 1887), 68. See also Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, April 1, June 3, 1775.

278 “this unhappy time”: Francis Farley to Robert Munford, Jan. 15, 1778, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

279 80 hogsheads: William Anderson to Samuel Gist, May 12, 1777, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, ibid.

280 Thomas Shore: Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, July 25, 1777.

281 plantation of Smith: Ibid., July 11, 1777.

282 “an alien … country”: Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, Dec. 1, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

283 “to such … Charge”: Merchants et al. to Viscount Weymouth, Nov. 24, 1777, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, X, 1023.

284 “said … Subject”: Edmund Burke to Marquis of Rockingham, Dec. 16, 1777, The Correspondence of Edmund Burke, ed. Thomas W. Copeland et al. (Cambridge and Chicago, 1958–78), IX, 417; Thomas Coutts to Earl of Stair, Dec. 10, 1777, in Ernest Hartley Coleridge, The Life of Thomas Coutts, Banker (London, 1920), I, 86.

285 They signed: Merchants of London to Lord George Germain, Jan. 17, 1778, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XV, 30.

286 William Anderson: Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, Dec. 1, 1783, copy of Council action, Feb. 24, 1778, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

287 more than $21,750: William Anderson to Samuel Gist, Feb. 1, 1783, ibid.

288 awarded him contracts: L. B. Namier, “Anthony Bacon, M.P., an Eighteenth-Century Merchant,” JEcBH, II (Nov. 1929), 49–54; A. H. John, The Industrial Development of South Wales, 1750–1850: An Essay (Cardiff, 1950), 99–100; Alan Valentine, Lord George Germain (Oxford, 1962), 115.

289 Richard Crawshay: John P. Addis, The Crawshay Dynasty: A Study in Industrial Organisation and Development, 1765–1867 (Cardiff, 1957), 3–7; G. G. L. Hayes, Introduction, in The Letterbook of Richard Crawshay, 1788–1797, ed. Chris Evans (Cardiff, 1990), xi.

290 Bacon leased: John, Industrial Development, 25; John Lloyd, The Early History of the Old South Wales Iron Works (London, 1906), 49–50.

291 around Merthyr Tydfil: Chris Evans, “The Labyrinth of Flames”: Work and Social Conflict in Early Industrial Merthyr Tydfil (Cardiff, 1993), 30–34; C. W. Chalklin, The Provincial Towns of Georgian England (London, 1974), 44, 186; Benjamin Heath Malkin, The Scenery, Antiquities, and Biography of South Wales (Wakefield, 1970 [orig. publ. London, 1804]), 176–179.

292 in Cardiff: William Henry Smyth, Nautical Observations on the Port and Maritime Vicinity of Cardiff (Cardiff, 1840), 8; entry of July 7, 1776, An American Quaker in the British Isles: The Travel Journal of Jabez Maud Fisher, 1775–1779, ed. Kenneth Morgan (Oxford, 1992), 207; entry of July 31, 1777, Journal of Curwen, ed. Oliver, I, 388; entry of Aug. 9, 1797, [J. H. Manners, Duke of Rutland], Journal of a Tour Through North and South Wales, the Isle of Man, &c. (London, 1805), 77–79; William Gilpin, Observations on the River Wye, and Several Parts of South Wales (London, 1782), 83–84; Samuel Molyneux Lowder, A Letter by the Rev. Mr. Lowder, to George Hardinge, Esq. (London, 1789).

293 ordnance depots: Syrett, “Procurement of Shipping,” MM, LXXXI (Nov. 1995), 409–416.

294 to supply coal: Namier, “Anthony Bacon,” JEcBH, II (Nov. 1929), 61–63; Norman Baker, Government and Contractors: The British Treasury and Supplies, 1775–1783 (London, 1971), 190–193; entry of Aug. 7, 1778, Treasury Minute Books, T 29/47, ff. 156–157, PRO. in 1778. For 1779: Journal of the House of Commons, XXXVII, 224; Articles of Agreement, Nov. 13, 1778, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 139, pp. 23–27, MiU-C. See also Thomas M. Truxes, Irish-American Trade, 1660–1783 (Cambridge, 1988), 76–78, 150–157, 186–189, 238–241.

295 “extremely … publick”: Memorandum, Aug. 29, 1782, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 147, MiU-C; Contractors during the American War, PRO 30/8/344, ff. 123–125, PRO; Proposals from Anthony Bacon, T 1/389, f. 64, PRO; Edward Grace to Moses Franks, May 29, 1777, Colebrooke, Nesbitt, Colebrooke & Franks Papers, DLC; John Robinson to Comptrollers, May 9, 1777, T 27/31, pp. 570–571, PRO; Baker, Government and Contractors, 28–35, 46–49, 196–197; David Syrett, “Christopher Atkinson and the Victualling Board, 1775–1782,” HR, LXIX (June 1996), 129–142.

296 Ordnance Board debentures: Richard Price to Earl of Shelburne, Oct. 16, 1780, George Jeffery to Richard Price, April 12, 1782, Correspondence of Price, ed. Thomas and Peach, II, 83–84, 120–121. See also James Pattison to Board of Ordnance, Aug. 22, 1779, Official Letters of Major General James Pattison, New-York Historical Society, Collections, VIII (1875), 103.

297 “an amazing … Commerce”: William Lee to Richard Henry Lee, Oct. 15, 1776, Lee Family Papers, ViU; Bernard Pool, Navy Board Contracts, 1660–1832: Contract Administration Under the Navy Board (Hamden, 1966), Part 3.

298 “Once … nothing”: [Jonathan Boucher], “Biographia Cumbria,” in William Hutchinson, The History of the County of Cumberland (Wakefield, 1974 [orig. publ. Carlisle, 1794]), II, 87n. On Boucher, see ibid., I, xix; Jonathan Boucher to John James, Oct. 23, 1776, “Letters of Jonathan Boucher,” MHM, IX (Sept. 1914), 233; Anne Y. Zimmer, Jonathan Boucher: Loyalist in Exile (Detroit, 1978), 248–249.

299 remained loyal: Donald E. Ginter, ed., Voting Records of the British House of Commons, 1761–1820 (London, 1995), II, 59; Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots, 114–125 and appendix C.

300 “extraordinaries” … “abuses”: John Hatsell, Precedents and Proceedings in the House of Commons (London, 1785), III, 154–155.

301 “The expence” … “money”: Simmons and Thomas, eds., Proceedings and Debates, VI, 200–201, 22, 463; John Francis, Chronicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange (London, 1850), 157–160.

302 received complaints: Baker, Government and Contractors, 31–34, 108, 113–115.

303 “for being” … “society!”: The Parliamentary Register, 1st ser. (London, 1775–80), IX, 156–157.

304 “We … Bill”: John Robinson to Earl of Sandwich, May 5, 1778, Papers of Sandwich, ed. Barnes and Owen, II, 45.

305 £1,500 was allotted: Laprade, ed., Parliamentary Papers of Robinson, 58; Ian R. Christie, ed., “John Robinson’s ‘State’ of the House of Commons, July 1780,” Camden Miscellany, Camden Society, 4th ser., XXXIX (1990), 445.

306 Sir William Mayne: [Herbert Croft], The Abbey of Kilkhampton, 3d ed. (London, 1780), 78; Baker, Government and Contractors, 46; Thomas Coutts to Earl of Stair, Aug. 19, 1782, Coleridge, Life of Coutts, I, 149.

307 Robert Mayne: Namier and Brooke, History of Parliament, III, 124.

308 David Garrick: David Garrick to Grey Cooper, Jan. 29, 1776, The Letters of David Garrick, ed. David M. Little and George M. Kahrl (Cambridge, 1963), III, 1067–1068; Journal of the House of Commons, XXXV, 554, 679; George Winchester Stone, Jr., and George M. Kahrl, David Garrick: A Critical Biography (Carbondale, 1979), 607.

309 Evan Evans: Lewis Morris to Edward Richard, Aug. 5, 1758, Nov. 18, 1759, Lewis Morris to Evan Evans, Dec. 20, 1759, Additional Letters of the Morrises of Anglesey, ed. Hugh Owen (London, 1947–49), I, 349, II, 420, 430–431. See also Charles Wilkins, The History of the Iron, Steel, Tinplate, and Other Trades of Wales (Merthyr Tydfil, 1903), 59; Charles Wilkins, History of Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tydfil, 1908), 242–243; A. O. H. Jarman, Aneirin: Y Gododdin: Britain’s Oldest Heroic Poem (Llandysul, 1988), lxxxii–lxxxiii; Historical Manuscripts Commission, Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language (London, 1902), II, 91; Aneirin Lewis, ed., The Percy Letters (Baton Rouge, 1957), xix–xxi, 18–19n.15; William Lloyd to Daines Barrington, July 16, 1774, in John Nichols, Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1817–58), V, 600; Prys Morgan, The Eighteenth Century Renaissance (Llandysul, 1981), 79–80; Brinley Thomas, “A Cauldron of Rebirth: The Industrial Revolution and the Welsh Language,” in Brinley Thomas, The Industrial Revolution and the Atlantic Economy: Selected Essays (London, 1993), 215–216.

310 “what … were”: Parliamentary Register, XV, 226.

311 “Whatever … power”: Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, Feb. 2, 1780, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC.

312 was tobacco: Neil Jamieson to Thomas Jefferson, July 12, 1784, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VII, 365–371; New-Lloyd’s List, April 13, 1781; Benjamin Franklin to John Jay, June 25, 1780, Papers of Franklin, ed. Labaree et al., XXXII, 592; John Robinson to Stanier Porter, Jan. 15, 1777, Letters of Digges, ed. Elias and Fitch, xl–xli; Caron de Beaumarchais to Comte de Sartine, Sept. 19, 1777, Beaumarchais, For the Good of Mankind, trans. Shewmake, 241–246; Joseph Gardoqui & Sons to Joseph Lee & Co., Aug. 31, Oct. 18, 1777, Kenneth Wiggins Porter, The Jacksons and the Lees: Two Generations of Massachusetts Merchants, 1765–1844 (Cambridge, 1937), I, 416–417; Schaeper, France and America, chaps. 6–7.

313 “all … Risques”: Robert Morris to Silas Deane, Aug. 11, 1776, Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, VI, 148.

314 fourteen ships of war: Letter from a French captain, April 14, 1778, enclosed in John Bondfield to Arthur Lee, April 25, 1778, Stevens, ed., Facsimiles, XXII, No. 1918.

315 “Tis … chased”: Jo Vesey to Milner & Haynes, Dec. 25, 1778, Ship’s Papers Willis, HCA 32/491, PRO; Marine Committee to Commissioners of the Navy Board, Jan. 9, 1779, Out-Letters of the Continental Marine Committee and Board of Admiralty, ed. Charles Oscar Paullin (New York, 1914), II, 37.

316 fell to one-fourth: Arthur Pierce Middleton, “Ships and Shipbuilding in the Chesapeake and Tributaries,” Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay, 106.

317 “smugglers … King”: Testimony of Francis Moore, Charles Townshend Papers, 8/34/56, MiU-C; George Rodney and John Vaughan to Lord George Germain, June 25, 1781, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XIX, 132.

318 St. Eustatius held: Robert A. Selig, “The French Capture of St. Eustatius,” JCarH, XXVII (1993), 129–130; F. C. Van Oosten, “Some Notes Concerning the Dutch West Indies During the American Revolutionary War,” AN, XXXVI (July 1976), 162–163; J. Franklin Jameson, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” AHR, VIII (July 1903), 700–701; Van Alstyne, “Great Britain,” HLQ, XXVII (Aug. 1964), 318–322; Cornelius Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in the Guianas, 1680–1791, ed. Maria J. L. van Yperen (Assen, 1985), 141–152; Jan Willem Schulte Nordholt, The Dutch Republic and American Independence, trans. Herbert H. Rowen (Chapel Hill, 1982), 37–46; Johannes Menne Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1815 (Cambridge, 1990), 223–224.

319 “Our … world”: Decisions in the High Court of Admiralty; During the Time of Sir George Hay and of Sir James Marriott (London, 1801), I, 115. See also Janet Schaw, Journal of a Lady of Quality, ed. Evangeline Walker Andrews and Charles McLean Andrews (NewHaven, 1922), 137–138; Edmund Burke to John Noble, April 26, 1781, Maggs Bros., Autograph Letters and Historical Documents, No. 522 (1929), Item 696.

320 “a prodigious Sale”: John Hatley Norton to Samuel and J. H. Delap, Dec. 9, 1778, Ship’s Papers Willis, HCA 32/491, PRO.

321 “went … Eustatius”: James Ramsay to Lord George Germain, Nov. 23, 1779, Report on the Manuscripts of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville, II, 279; New-Lloyd’s List, July 30, Nov. 19, 1779; Paul Baker and William Leycester to James Dunlop, Nov. 27, 1779, Dunlop Family Papers, DLC; Robert Prescott to Lord George Germain, Nov. 20, 1779, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XVI, 220.

322 to Martinique: Charles Greville to William Hamilton, Oct. 16, 1780, Hamilton-Greville Correspondence, CSmH. See also David H. Makinson, Barbados: A Study of North-American–West-Indian Relations, 1739–1789 (The Hague, 1964), 101–105.

323 “I … finished”: George Rodney to John Laforey, Feb. 27, 1781, in “Biographical Memoir of the Late Right Honourable George Rodney, Lord Rodney, K.B.,” Naval Chronicle, I (1799), 385.

324 120 percent to 400 percent: Van Oosten, “Notes,” AN, XXXVI (July 1976), 163; Selig, “French Capture,” JCarH, XXVII (1993), 130–131; Ronald Hurst, The Golden Rock: An Episode of the American War of Independence, 1775–1783 (Annapolis, 1996), 61–77. On St. Eustatius in the Seven Years’ War, see Cathy Matson, Merchants and Empire: Trading in Colonial New York (Baltimore, 1998), 270–274.

325 Carter Braxton: Carter Braxton to [?], Nov. 1, 1777, HM 22612, CSmH. See also Carter Braxton to [?] Hudson, Dec. 5, 1777, Magazine of History, IX (March 1909), 175; Carter Braxton to Francis Lewis, July 10, 1779, in Charles Hamilton, American Autographs (Norman, 1983), I, 16; Alonzo Thomas Dill, Carter Braxton, Virginia Signer: A Conservative in Revolt (Lanham, 1983), chap. 6.

326 “from … country”: William Lee to Henry Lee, June 7, 1779, Letters of William Lee, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford (Brooklyn, 1891), II, 651; Robert E. Wright, “Thomas Willing (1731–1821): Philadelphia Financier and Forgotten Founding Father,” PaH, LXIII (1996), 544–545. Compare Carter Braxton to Robert Wormeley Carter, Aug. 18, 1782, Emmet Collection, NN.

327 “European … Cost”: John Hatley Norton to Samuel & J. H. Delap, Dec. 8, 1778, John Hatley Norton to J. Rocquette, T. A. Elsevier, and P. T. Rocquette, Dec. 16, 1778, Ship’s Papers Willis, HCA 32/491, PRO.

328 a premium of 35 percent: John Lloyd to Ralph Izard, March 20, April 26, 1777, Correspondence of Mr. Ralph Izard, comp. Anne Izard Deas (New York, 1844), 260, 276–277; Daniel Crommelin & Sons to Aaron Lopez, Dec. 18, 1780, Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, 1726–1800, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 7th ser., IX–X (1914–15), II, 113.

329 asked 45 or 50 percent: Samuel and J. H. Delap to St. George Tucker, Aug. 15, 1778, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Bondfield to the Commissioners, Oct. 13, 1778, Jan. 1, Feb. 2, 1779, Papers of John Adams: The Adams Family Papers, Third Series, ed. Robert J. Taylor et al. (Cambridge, 1977–), VII, 140, 329, 391; John G. Clark, La Rochelle and the Atlantic Economy During the Eighteenth Century (Baltimore, 1981), 193–197.

330 “that … States”: Report of the Commissioners, March 3, 1778, Kenmore Manuscript Collection, Fredericksburg. See also Chevalier de la Luzerne to Comte de Vergennes, Oct. 16, 1781, Report on Canadian Archives: 1913 (Ottawa, 1914), 208 [for “five per cent” read “five hundred per cent”]; Calendar of Historical Manuscripts Relating to the War of the Revolution (Albany, 1868), II, 55–60.

331 Betsey, Virginia: Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette, Dec. 14, 1777, April 24, 1778; Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Dec. 12, 1777, March 27, 1778.

332 “May … us”: Samuel Davies to James Hunter, Jr., Jan. 19, 1778, Hunter-Garnett Collection, ViU.

333 sold for £500: Eliezer Callender, [Articles of Sale], Sept. 6, 1777, ibid.

334 “it’s … best”: Fielding Lewis to James Hunter, July 30, 1778, Kenmore Manuscript Collection, Fredericksburg.

335 substantial profits: William Peachey to [?], Dec. 15, 1778, Ship’s Papers Willis, HCA 32/491, PRO; Joshua Storrs to Samuel Davies, Dec. 24, 1778, Samuel Davies to James Hunter, Jr., Feb. 15, April 23, May 19, 1779, Miscellaneous Accounts 1779, Hunter-Garnett Collection, ViU.

336 “would … Fortune”: John Page to St. George Tucker, Sept. 28, 1776, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

337 skirting the Dismal Swamp: Entry of March 10, 1777, St. George Tucker, Journal to Charleston, ibid. On the Tuckers of Bermuda, see Henry C. Wilkinson, Bermuda in the Old Empire (Oxford, 1950).

338 “nearly … commerce”: Elkanah Watson, Men and Times of the Revolution; or, Memoirs of Elkanah Watson, ed. Winslow C. Watson (New York, 1856), 37.

339 a 100-acre farm: Wilfred Brenton Kerr, Bermuda and the American Revolution, 1760–1783 (Princeton, 1936), 58. On Maurice Simons, see William Pollard to B. & J. Bowers, Jan. 25, 1774, in H. Roy Merrens, ed., The Colonial South Carolina Scene (Columbia, 1977), 276.

340 South Quay: Norman C. Delaney, “The Outer Banks of North Carolina During the Revolutionary War,” NCHR, XXXVI (Jan. 1959), 5–9; John Crump Parker, “Old South Quay in Southampton County,” VMHB, LXXXIII (April 1975), 166–167; Petition of Inhabitants, Nov. 11, 1784, calendared in “Nansemond County Legislative Petitions,” VG, VI (1962), 105; Thomas Pleasants to St. George Tucker, Oct. 3, 1778, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

341 “a bad one”: Entry of Dec. 16, 1777, “Journal of Hazard,” ed. Shelley, VMHB, LXII (Oct. 1954), 423.

342 The road leading: Entries of March 5–6, 1765, Journal of James Auld, William Alexander Smith Papers, Box 32, NcD.

343 stood South Quay: Joseph A. Goldenberg, “Virginia Ports,” in Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay, 321–322; John Page to Richard Henry Lee, Feb. 17, 1778, Lee Family Papers, ViU. a cargo of salt: Josiah Jordan, Jr., to [David Ross], March 3, 1781, Revolutionary Government, Commercial Agent, General Correspondence, 1780–1782, Vi; Elbridge Gerry to Thomas Gerry, May 13, 1777, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, VII, 72–74; Isaac J. Greenwood, ed., The Revolutionary Services of John Greenwood (New York, 1922), 84–85; John Bach McMaster, The Life and Times of Stephen Girard, Mariner and Merchant (Philadelphia, 1918), I, 28–29.

344 “return’d … outrages”: William Caswell to Thomas Burke, Sept. 4, 1781, Thomas Burke Papers, NcU; Watson, Men and Times, ed. Watson, 36; Thomas Newton, Jr., to Benjamin Harrison, Aug. 9, 1782, William P. Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 1875–93), III, 252; H. Murfree to Jethro Sumner, July 22, 1781, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XV, 560–561; Thomas C. Parramore, Southampton County, Virginia (Charlottesville, 1978), 38; Parramore et al., Norfolk, 98–99; Hast, Loyalism, 96–120.

345 “You … this”: John Banks to James Hunter, Jr., May 13, 1782, Hunter-Garnett Collection, ViU.

346 “I can … All)”: John Cooper to James Hunter, [Jr.], Oct. 11, 1782, Hunter Family Papers, ViRHi.

347 “the Demon” … “us”: John Page to Richard Henry Lee, Feb. 17, 1778, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

348 “the graspers” … “almost”: Edmund Pendleton to George Washington, April 27, 1778, The Letters and Papers of Edmund Pendleton, 1734–1803, ed. David John Mays (Charlottesville, 1967), I, 255.

349 “Planters … monopolizers”: A. Drummond to John Coles, March 13, 1780, Carter Section, Correspondence, Carter-Smith Family Papers, ViU.

350 “none … speculators”: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 24, 1781, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

351 “every … neighbour”: A. Drummond to John Coles, March 13, 1780, Carter-Smith Family Papers, ViU.

352 “luxury, and extravagancy”: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 24, 1781, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

353 “Indolence”: John Page to Richard Henry Lee, Oct. 15, 1778, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

354 “dissipation”: George Washington to Robert Howe, Nov. 20, 1779, The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, 1931–40), XVII, 144.

355 goods in demand: John Holker to Jonathan Williams, Aug. 7–8, 1779, Schoff Revolutionary War Collection, MiU-C; Edward Channing, “Commerce During the Revolutionary Epoch,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, XLIV (Feb. 1911), 371–377.

356 £30,000 in Virginia currency: Edmund Pendleton to William Woodford, Nov. 1, 1779, Letters of Pendleton, ed. Mays, I, 303.

357 £240 sterling: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 24, 1781, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

358 “dirty paper”: A. Drummond to John Coles, March 13, 1780, Carter-Smith Family Papers, ViU.

359 “no … leaves”: Edmund Pendleton to George Washington, April 27, 1778, Letters of Pendleton, ed. Mays, I, 255.

360 7.5 percent of the value: George Washington to George William Fairfax, Feb. 27, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 388.

361 “the Spirit of Traffic”: John Page to Richard Henry Lee, Feb. 17, 1778, Lee Family Papers, ViU.

362 “the licentious … us”: Walter Jones to Frederick Jones, Dec. 20, 1784, Roger Jones and Family Papers, DLC.

363 “probably … did”: Carter Braxton to [?], Nov. 1, 1777, HM 22612, CSmH.

364 a “Dismal Crop”: Langford Lovell to William Codrington, June 10, 1780, Howard S. Mott, Inc., Catalogue 233 (1997), Item 10; Report of the Lords of the Committee of Council … Concerning the Present State of the Trade to Africa (London, 1789), Part III, A. No. 31; Henry de Ponthieu to Joseph Banks, Aug. 4, 1779, The Banks Letters, ed. Warren R. Dawson (London, 1958), 680.

365 7,600 black people: Thomas Southey, Chronological History of the West Indies (London, 1827), II, 459; William Mathew Burt to Lord George Germain, May 3, 1779, William Mathew Burt to Board of Trade, Sept. 26, 1779, in Lowell Joseph Ragatz, The Fall of the Planter Class in the British Caribbean, 1763–1833 (New York, 1928), 157–158; Report Concerning the Trade to Africa, Part III, A. Nos. 11, 15; Mainswete Walrond to Clement Tudway, Sept. 27, 1778, Sept. 29, 1779, Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, Sept. 27, 1778, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office; Sheila Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century (Wilmington, 1975), LXXII, 33, 40; James Murray to Elizabeth Murray Smyth, Nov. 14, 1779, in James Murray, Letters from America, 1773 to 1780, ed. Eric Robson (Manchester, 1951), 68; Sheridan, “Crisis of Slave Subsistence,” WMQ, 3d ser., XXXIII (Oct. 1976), 624; Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves, 158.

366 “any … us”: Francis Farley to Clement Tudway, June 10, 1778, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office.

367 wrote his will: Francis Farley, Will, March 27, 1779, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

368 island of Montserrat: Alexander Willock to Clement Tudway, April 21, 1779, Mainswete Walrond to Clement Tudway, April 18, 1779, Tudway Papers, Somerset Record Office. Admiral Augustus Keppel: Broomfield, “Keppel-Palliser Affair,” MM, XLVII (Aug. 1961), 195–207; Syrett, Royal Navy in European Waters, chap. 2; Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots, 146–148; N. A. M. Rodger, The Wooden World: An Anatomy of the Georgian Navy (London, 1986), chap. 7; Kathleen Wilson, The Sense of the People: Politics, Culture and Imperialism in England, 1715–1785 (Cambridge, 1995), 253–260; Nicholas Rogers, Crowds, Culture, and Politics in Georgian Britain (Oxford, 1998), chap. 4; John Frodsham to Thomas Townshend, April 24, 1779, Sydney Papers, MiU-C. For Laforey’s testimony, see Universal Magazine, LXIV (March 1779), 118.

369 “extremely happy”: “Officers of Admiral Keppel’s Fleet,” [Nov. 1778], Earl of Sandwich to the King, Sept. 7, 1779, Correspondence of George the Third, ed. Fortescue, IV, 226, 429.

370 English Harbor: John Laforey to Charles Middleton, Aug. 8, 23, Sept. 26, Nov. 10, Dec. 25, 1780, Letters and Papers of Charles, Lord Barham, ed. John Knox Laughton (n.p., 1907–11), II, 84–86, 98–99, 101–104, 112–113; John Laforey to George Brydges Rodney, Feb. 23, 1782, Letter-Books and Order-Book of George, Lord Rodney, New-York Historical Society, Collections, LXV–LXVI (1932–33), I, 231–232; David Spinney, Rodney (London, 1969), 367–368.

371 took St. Eustatius: Kenneth Breen, “Sir George Rodney and St Eustatius in the American War: A Commercial and Naval Distraction, 1775–81,” MM, LXXXIV (May 1998), 193–203; Hurst, Golden Rock; Spinney, Rodney, chap. 21.

372 Commodore Sir George Collier: George Collier to Lord George Germain, May 22, 1779, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XVII, 130–131; Robert Fallaw and Marion West Stoer, “The Old Dominion Under Fire: The Chesapeake Invasions, 1779–1781,” Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay, 444.

373 other supplies: Entry of June 1, 1779, Historical Memoirs from 26 August 1778 to 12 November 1783 of William Smith, ed. William H. W. Sabine (New York, 1971), 111–112; John Daly Burk et al., The History of Virginia (Petersburg, 1804–16), IV, 335.

374 James Parker: Parramore et al., Norfolk, 98; Hast, Loyalism, 100.

375 “the province” … “cattle”: George Collier to Lord George Germain, April 19, 1779, Report on the Manuscripts of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville, II, 126; George Collier to Henry Clinton, May 16, 1779, “Expedition to Portsmouth, Virginia, 1779,” WMQ, 2d ser., XII (July 1932), 182; Baron Mulgrave to Earl of Sandwich, Dec. 14, 1777, Papers of Sandwich, ed. Barnes and Owen, I, 336–337.

376 a small American force: Selby, Revolution in Virginia, 205.

377 rich prizes: Shomette, Shipwrecks, 56.

378 surveying wharves: Return of Stores, Ships, &c., “Expedition to Portsmouth,” WMQ, 2d ser., XII (July 1932), 183–184.

379 cleared £5,000: Charles Blagden to Joseph Banks, June 16, 1779, Bulletin of the New York Public Library, VII (Nov. 1903), 444; entry of May 19, 1779, Carson I. A. Ritchie, ed., “A New York Diary of the Revolutionary War,” New-York Historical Society Quarterly, L (Oct. 1966), 420.

380 “came … Men”: Simeon Deane to John Holker, May 26, July 16, 1779, Simeon Deane, Journal, John Holker Papers, DLC; deposition of Pierre Raphael Charlet, June 6, 1779, in R. T. Whitehurst, “A Legend of the Dismal Swamp,” VMHB, XXXVI (April 1928), 184–186.

381 Deane in swamp: Simeon Deane, Journal, Holker Papers, DLC.

382 more than 3,000 barrels: Return of the Stores, May 15, [1779], in Robert Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain (London, 1804), VI, 175–176; Shyers Singleton et al. to Richard Caswell, May 19, 1779, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XIV, 85–86, 94–95.

383 The fires they set: Entry of June 1, 1779, Smith, Historical Memoirs 1778–1783, ed. Sabine, 112; Burk et al., History of Virginia, IV, 337; Hast, Loyalism, 100; Jean Blair to James Iredell, May 17, 1779, The Papers of James Iredell, ed. Don Higginbotham (Raleigh, 1976), II, 84.

384 “for … Negro”: Entry of June 23, 1779, Account with David Jameson, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD. For the names of many black people departing with the British, see Hodges, ed., Black Loyalist Directory.

385 As the British departed: Fallaw and Stoer, “Old Dominion Under Fire,” Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay, 449–450.

386 “Speculators … likeness”: Entry of May 29, 1779, Diary of Baylor Hill, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, comp. Beverley Fleet (Baltimore, 1937–61), XXXIII, 75.

387 the Indiana Company: George E. Lewis, The Indiana Company, 1763–1798: A Study in Eighteenth Century Frontier Land Speculation and Business Venture (Glendale, 1941), 219–222; Selby, Revolution in Virginia, 232.

388 Richard Henderson: Lester, Transylvania, chap. 11; Selby, Revolution in Virginia, 144, 158–159.

389 “the greatest” … “leaders”: George Dabney to Charles Dabney, July 3, 1779, Charles William Dabney Papers, NcU.

390 “His … Indiana co. &c.”: Thomas Jefferson, “Notes on my title to 485 acres of land,” Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., II, 138.

391 the Ohio Company: Memorial and Petition, Nov. 20, 1778, Resolutions, June 9, 1779, The Papers of George Mason, ed. Robert A. Rutland (Chapel Hill, 1970), I, 444–450, II, 509–512.

392 “mutilated … Peices”: George Mason to Richard Henry Lee, June 4, 1779, ibid., II, 507; Pamela C. Copeland and Richard K. MacMaster, The Five George Masons: Patriots and Planters of Virginia and Maryland (Charlottesville, 1975), 143–147.

393 “People … Land”: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Ruston, Nov. 2, 1784, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XXII, 8; William Christian to brother, July 11, 1779, Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, DLC; Hinderaker, Elusive Empires, 204–207; Patricia Watlington, The Partisan Spirit: Kentucky Politics, 1779–1792 (Chapel Hill, 1973), 17–18; Aron, How the West Was Lost, 70–73; Neal O. Hammon, “Land Acquisition on the Kentucky Frontier” and “Settlers, Land Jobbers, and Outlyers: A Quantitative Analysis of Land Acquisition on the Kentucky Frontier,” KHSR, LXXVIII (1980), 297–321, LXXXIV (1986), 241–262; John Bradford, The Voice of the Frontier: John Bradford’s Notes on Kentucky, ed. Thomas D. Clark (Lexington, 1993), 30–31. For purchases and grants, see Willard Rouse Jillson, Old Kentucky Entries and Deeds (Louisville, 1926); Willard Rouse Jillson, The Kentucky Land Grants (Louisville, 1925).

394 “I suppose … sum”: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 4, 1780, Papers of George Washington, DLC. See also Mordecai Gist to Robert Munford, Oct. 24, 1780, MHM, IV (Dec. 1909), 371; Petition, June 1, 1782, James Rood Robertson, ed., Petitions of the Early Inhabitants of Kentucky (Louisville, 1914), 66–68.

395 “except … Swamp”: Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, X, 38. On the legislation, see Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., II, 133–167.

396 “knowing … government”: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 7, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

397 “necessary Business”: Richard Henderson to Richard Caswell, June 19, 1779, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XIV, 122.

398 “considerably … climacteric”: Thomas Walker to Thomas Nelson, Jr., Aug. 7, 1781, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, II, 299.

399 Loyal Company’s title: Archibald Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker and the Loyal Company of Virginia,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 113–114.

400 “making … Accurate”: William Christian to brother, July 11, 1779, Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, DLC.

401 “at … Line”: Thomas Walker to William Preston, Aug. 14, 1779, Preston Papers, Vol. 5, p. 6, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi.

402 329 surface miles: Entry of Aug. 26, 1779, Journal of Daniel Smith, George Rogers Clark Papers, Vol. 46, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi; Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith to House of Delegates, 1780, Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, IX, 562.

403 Henderson sat: Richard Henderson to John Williams, Sept. 13, 1779, John Williams Papers, NcD.

404 “madness and rage”: Richard Henderson to Richard Caswell, June 19, 1779, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XIV, 122.

405 a delegation of Cherokees: Entries of Sept. 24–27, 1779, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi. See also John Page to the Delawares, Sept. 18, 1777, Reuben Gold Thwaites and Louise Phelps Kellogg, eds., Frontier Defense on the Upper Ohio, 1777–1778 (Madison, 1912), 88–91; M. Thomas Hatley, “The Three Lives of Keowee: Loss and Recovery in Eighteenth-Century Cherokee Villages,” in Peter H. Wood et al., eds., Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast (Lincoln, 1989), 223–248; Colin G. Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (Cambridge, 1995), chap. 7.

406 “in making … another”: Arthur Campbell to Edmund Randolph, Dec. 10, 1787, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, IV, 365; entries of Oct. 13–Nov. 3, 1779, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi; Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith to House of Delegates, 1780, Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, IX, 562–563; Richard Henderson et al. to Richard Caswell, Nov. 17, 1779, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XIV, 353–355.

407 “The accuracy … gentlemen”: Andrew Ellicott to James Monroe, Sept. 26, 1802, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, IX, 322. See also A. W. Richeson, English Land Measuring to 1800: Instruments and Practices (Cambridge, 1966), chap. 6.

408 “this abortive undertaking”: Richard Henderson et al. to Richard Caswell, Nov. 17, 1779, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XIV, 355. On Henderson, see Archibald Henderson, “Richard Henderson: The Authorship of the Cumberland Compact and the Founding of Nashville,” Tennessee Historical Magazine, II (Sept. 1916), 155–172; entry of March 31, 1780, “John Donelson’s Journal,” in Three Pioneer Tennessee Documents (Nashville, 1964), 9; John Floyd to William Preston, Feb. 20, 1780, Louise Phelps Kellogg, ed., Frontier Retreat on the Upper Ohio, 1779–1781 (Madison, 1917), 141–142; entry of Dec. 25, 1779, “William Fleming’s Journal,” Mereness, ed., Travels in the Colonies, 626. See also William Christian to Benjamin Harrison, Dec. 30, 1782, Executive Papers, Gov. Benjamin Harrison, Vi, and accompanying sketched map, which is reproduced in Jere L. Krakow, Location of the Wilderness Road at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park ([Washington], 1987), map 8; entries of Oct. 17–20, 1783, “Tours into Kentucky and the Northwest Territory: Three Journals by the Rev. James Smith of Powhatan County, Va., 1783–1795–1797,” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, XVI (1907), 356–358.

409 sounded mutinous: Entry of Nov. 22, 1779, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi.

410 “where … speedily”: Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith to House of Delegates, 1780, Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, IX, 563; Daniel Smith to William Campbell, Dec. 26, 1779, BR Box 258(54), CSmH.

411 “a River … before”: Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith to House of Delegates, 1780, Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, IX, 563.

412 “almost … Capes”: George Meriwether to George Rogers Clark, Jan. 24, 1780, in Ronald R. Van Stockum, “George Meriwether (1745–1782),” FCHQ, LXXII (Jan. 1998), 80; David Bailie Warden, “Journal of a Voyage from Annapolis to Cherbourg,” MHM, XI (June 1916), 136; Marshall W. Butt, Portsmouth Under Four Flags, 1752–1970(Portsmouth, 1971), 15; Ian H. Adams, “The Complicity of Climate with the American Cause,” in Owen Dudley Edwards and George Shepperson, eds., Scotland, Europe and the American Revolution (New York, 1977), 54–55.

413 “The old … surprizingly”: Daniel Smith to William Campbell, Dec. 26, 1779, BR Box 258(54), CSmH.

414 remained in camp: Francis Walker to Daniel Smith, Dec. 22, 1791, Virginia MSS, Vol. 7, p. 33, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi; Franklin Minor, “Memoranda of Inquiries about Dr. Thomas Walker,” Franklin Minor Letters, ibid., Vol. 13; entries of Jan.–Feb. 1780, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, ibid., Series J. See also entries of Jan. 2–12, 1780, “The Journal of James Nourse, Jr., 1779–1780,” FCHQ, XLVII (July 1973), 260–262; entries of Jan. 1–Feb. 6, 1780, “William Fleming’s Journal,” Mereness, ed., Travels in the Colonies, 628–630.

415 “a tolerable” … “River”: Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith to House of Delegates, 1780, Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, IX, 564; entries of Feb. 26–27, 1780, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi.

416 had reached 36°40’: W. R. Garrett, “Northern Boundary of Tennessee,” American Historical Magazine, VI (1901), 18–39; Samuel Cole Williams, Tennessee During the Revolutionary War (Nashville, 1944), chap. 14.

417 “fix … importance”: Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith, Jan. 29, 1780, George Rogers Clark to Thomas Jefferson, Sept. 23, 1779, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., III, 278, 88–89; entry of April 7, 1780, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi.

418 “I … mine”: Thomas Walker to William Preston, Feb. 21, 1781, Thomas Walker Papers, William Cabell Rives Papers, Box 162, DLC; entries of July 1780, Journal of Smith, Clark Papers, Draper Collection, Series J, WHi.

419 “the Sport … Fables”: Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, March 16, 1778, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC.

420 The convoy: William Carmichael to John Jay, Aug. 20, 1780, John Jay: Unpublished Papers, ed. Richard B. Morris et al. (New York, 1975–80), I, 808–809; Annual Register, XXIV (1781), History of Europe, 2–3; Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs, V, 148–154; New-Lloyd’s List, Aug. 22, Sept. 15, 1780; Jonathan R. Dull, The French Navy and American Independence: A Study of Arms and Diplomacy, 1774–1787 (Princeton, 1975), 193–194; Piers Mackesy, The War for America, 1775–1783 (Cambridge, 1964), 357.

421 “It … Loyd’s”: Thomas Attwood Digges to John Adams, Aug. 22, 1780, Papers of Adams, ed. Taylor et al., X, 89; Thomas Attwood Digges to Benjamin Franklin, Sept. 18, 1780, Papers of Franklin, ed. Labaree et al., XXXIII, 301.

422 “many … Underwriters”: Report on Marine Insurance, 1810 (226) IV. 247, pp. 43, 47, 66. a loss of £1,500,000: Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs, V, 154; C. Ernest Fayle, “Shipowning and Marine Insurance,” in C. Northcote Parkinson, ed., The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade During the French Wars, 1793–1815 (London, 1948), 38; Alan Cameron and Roy Farndon, Scenes from Sea and City: Lloyd’s List, 1734–1984 (London, 1984), 36; Samuel Flagg Bemis, The Hussey-Cumberland Mission and American Independence (Princeton, 1931), 84.

423 “had … company”: James Trevenen to John Trevenen, Oct. 16, 1781, in Christopher Lloyd and R. C. Anderson, eds., A Memoir of James Trevenen (London, 1959), 47. See also Henry Shoolbred to John Shoolbred, July 1, 1778, Report on Canadian Archives: 1888 (Ottawa, 1889), B 202, p. 21; George Cartwright to Joseph Banks, Sept. 14, 1778, A. M. Lysaght, Joseph Banks in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1766 (London, 1971), 268–269.

424 losses neared £400,000: Robert R. Livingston to John Jay, Aug. 26, 1780, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XV, 624; Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia), Aug. 30, 1780; New-Lloyd’s List, Sept. 29, 1780; Annual Register, XXIV (1781), History of Europe, 3; Thomas Attwood Digges to Benjamin Franklin, Aug. 29, Sept. 18, 29, 1780, Thomas Ruston to Benjamin Franklin, Sept. 29, 1780, Papers of Franklin, ed. Labaree et al., XXXIII, 236, 301, 344, 347–348. See also entry of Oct. 11, 1780, Journal of Solomon Drowne, in Maclay, American Privateers, 171.

425 provide better convoys: Memorials of Feb. 13, 1781, calendared in Report on Canadian Archives: 1890 (Ottawa, 1891), 122.

426 “much” … “risques”: Harry Clarke to R. Dunmore & Co., Feb. 17, Mar. 16, 17, Sept. 15, 1778, Cuninghame of Lainshaw Muniments, GD-247, Q/2, SRO.

427 the Jamaica Pollock and the Friendship: Carrington, British West Indies, 63–64.

428 “I was … War”: John Walter to Lord Kenyon, Baron of Gredington, July 6, 1799, Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of Lord Kenyon (London, 1894), 551. See also Joshua Johnson to James Russell, Oct. 11, 1781, Russell Papers, Coutts & Co., London; Assignees of William Stead to Christopher Champlin, Aug. 9, 1780, Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, II, 100–101.

429 “Mr. Delarive”: Gentleman’s Magazine, LIII (Aug. 1783), 715.

430 “quitted the Coffee-house”: Report on Marine Insurance, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p. 47.

431 “speculate in insurances”: Johann Archenholz, A Picture of England (Dublin, 1791), 199–200; Pierre Nicolas Chantreau, Voyage dans les trois royaumes d’Angleterre, d’Écosse et d’Irlande, fait en 1788 et 1789 (Paris, 1792), I, 162–163.

432 fluctuated around 50 percent: Samuel and J. H. Delap to St. George Tucker, Aug. 15, 1778, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Neil Jamieson to Thomas Jefferson, July 12, 1784, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VII, 368; John Rucker to Tench Coxe, May 28, 1782, Tench Coxe Papers, Series II, PHi; John Bondfield to Commissioners, Oct. 13, 1778, Jan. 1, 1779, Papers of Adams, ed. Taylor et al., VII, 140, 329; Jacques-Donatien Leray de Chaumont to Benjamin Franklin, [before June 15, 1780], Papers of Franklin, ed. Labaree et al., XXXII, 527.

433 In Spain: Joseph Gardoqui & Sons to Aaron Lopez, March 22, 1781, Ford, ed., Commerce of Rhode Island, II, 130.

434 “Merchant” … “Price”: Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers, XXXII, 130. Of the 6,000 vessels: Wright and Fayle, History of Lloyd’s, 156.

435 “the underwriters … miscarried”: Samuel Martin to Earl of Sandwich, Feb. 12, 1778, Papers of Sandwich, ed. Barnes and Owen, I, 269; Patrick Crowhurst, The Defence of British Trade, 1689–1815 (Folkestone, 1977), chaps. 2–3. For a journal of a convoy’s voyage, see entries of July 31–Oct. 2, 1778, Thomas Pasley, Private Sea Journals, 1778–1782, ed. Rodney M. S. Pasley (London, 1931), 35–50. On wages, see David J. Starkey, “War and the Market for Seafarers in Britain, 1736–1792,” in Lewis R. Fischer and Helge W. Nordvik, eds., Shipping and Trade, 1750–1950: Essays in International Maritime Economic History (Pontefract, 1990), 33–35.

436 late vessels: Harry Clarke to R. Dunmore & Co., May 23, 1778, Cuninghame of Lainshaw Muniments, SRO; Public Advertiser, Aug. 20, 1776, in Clark et al., eds., Naval Documents, VI, 556.

437 the ship had left convoy: New-Lloyd’s List, Jan. 22, 1782; Samuel Martin to Earl of Sandwich, Feb. 12, 1778, Papers of Sandwich, ed. Barnes and Owen, I, 269; Annual Register, XXVI (1783), Chronicle, 198–199; Syrett, “Procurement of Shipping,” MM, LXXXI (Nov. 1995), 410–411.

438 vessels retaken: Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, July 24, 1778, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC; Samuel Kelly, Samuel Kelly: An Eighteenth Century Seaman, ed. Crosbie Garstin (New York, 1925), 46–50, 65; Robert Stevens, An Essay on Average and on Other Subjects Connected with the Contract of Marine Insurance, 2d ed. (London, 1816), 182n.

439 “This … clear”: Manning v. Gist, April 27, 1782, 3 Dougl. 74–75, The English Reports (Edinburgh, 1909), XCIX, 545–546; James Oldham, The Mansfield Manuscripts and the Growth of English Law in the Eighteenth Century (Chapel Hill, 1992), I, 574–576.

440 “this kind” … “profit”: Gist v. Mason, Jan. 26, 1786, 1 T. R. 88–90, English Reports, XCIX, 987; James Allan Park, A System of the Law of Marine Insurances, 2d ed. (London, 1790), 243; Oldham, Mansfield Manuscripts, I, 608.

441 he had 69: An Account of the Quantities of Tobacco, July 26, 1776, An Account of the Numbers of Hhds, Feb. 12, 1782, Papers on the Tobacco Trade, Add MSS 8133B, ff. 358, 361, Uk.

442 “left … Brokers”: Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, Feb. 2, 1779, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC; Mills & Hicks to Champion, Dickason & Co., May 27, 1782, “The Letter-book of Mills & Hicks,” ed. Robert Earle Moody and Charles Christopher Crittenden, NCHR, XIV (Jan. 1937), 61.

443 French purchases and 120 shillings: Charles Goore to Mary Evans, Oct. 24, 1777, Charles Goore Letterbook, Schoff Revolutionary War Collection, MiU-C; Parliamentary History of England, XIX, 709; Devine, “Glasgow Merchants,” SHR, LII (April 1973), 72–74.

444 Moss Armistead: Account of Moss Armistead & Co., Gist v. Tabb’s Admr., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

445 Jones & Watson: Deposition of Richard Foster, May 10, 1797, Account of Jones & Watson, April 11, 1798, Samuel Gist to Jones & Watson, May 19, 1775, Samuel Gist v. Jones & Watson, 1806, ibid.

446 William Molleson: Donald MacDonald to nephew, [May 1778], in Lee, Arthur Lee, II, 103; Jacob M. Price, “One Family’s Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain, and India, 1707–1857,” MHM, LXXII (1977), 196–197.

447 Royal Exchange Assurance and London Assurance: Barry Supple, The Royal Exchange Assurance: A History of British Insurance, 1720–1970 (Cambridge, 1970), 62; A. H. John, “The London Assurance Company and the Marine Insurance Market of the Eighteenth Century,” Economica, XXV (May 1958), 130; Wright and Fayle, History of Lloyd’s, 158; Frederick Martin, The History of Lloyd’s and of Marine Insurance in Great Britain (New York, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1876;]), 165.

448 “The distress … per Cent”: Charles Greville to William Hamilton, May 5, 1778, Hamilton-Greville Correspondence, CSmH. On Bacon, see Gedalia Yogev, Diamonds and Coral: Anglo-Dutch Jews and Eighteenth-Century Trade (Leicester, 1978), 206, 310n.82.

449 put £100,000: Letter from London, April 2, 1784, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser (Richmond), Sept. 11, 1784. On investment in the funds, see David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785 (Cambridge, 1995), 260–272.

450 Sir George Brydges Rodney: Thomas Jefferson to Samuel Huntington, Nov. 3, 1780, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IV, 92; Hardy Murfree to Abner Nash, Nov. 1, 1780, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XV, 138; Fallaw and Stoer, “Old Dominion Under Fire,” Eller, ed., Chesapeake Bay, 453–457.

451 “inwardly suspected”: Alexander Leslie to Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Nov. 9, 1780, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/4, ff. 78–79, PRO.

452 “settling Themselves”: Thomas Jefferson to James Wood, Nov. 1, 1780, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IV, 87–88.

453 “very useful”: George Gayton to George Brydges Rodney, Nov. 5, 1780, Adm 1/311, PRO.

454 “shy” … “post”: George Brydges Rodney to Earl of Sandwich, Nov. 15, 1780, Papers of Sandwich, ed. Barnes and Owen, III, 263.

455 “it hurts … it”: Alexander Leslie to Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Nov. 9, 1780, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/4, ff. 78–79, PRO.

456 “will … again”: John Holloway to Curson & Gouverneur, Nov. 21, 1780, CO 5/1344, f. 371, PRO.

457 Black people: Hardy Murfree to Abner Nash, Nov. 1, 1780, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XV, 138; Robert Taylor to Neil Jamieson, April 2, 1783, Neil Jamieson Papers, DLC.

458 “Refugees” … “time”: Alexander Leslie to Henry Clinton, Nov. 19, 1780, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XV, 300; John Saunders to John G. Simcoe, Nov. 14, 1780, Simcoe Papers, MiU-C.

459 “Great … negroes”: Thomas Jefferson to Horatio Gates, Nov. 19, 1780, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IV, 127; David Jameson to James Madison, Nov. 18, 1780, The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson and William M. E. Rachal et al. (Chicago and Charlottesville, 1962–), II, 187.

460 “will … loyalty”: George Brydges Rodney to Earl of Sandwich, Nov. 15, 1780, Papers of Sandwich, ed. Barnes and Owen, III, 263.

461 “tedious and turbulent”: Francis Dundas to Robert Dundas, Dec. 19, 1780, Historical Manuscripts Commission, Report on the Laing Manuscripts (London, 1914–25), II,503.

462 James Parker after capture: Entries of Feb. 9, 24, 1781, “Alexandre Berthier’s Journal of the American Campaign,” trans. Marshall Morgan, RIH, XXIV (July 1965), 80–81; Thomas Boone to Earl Cornwallis, Aug. 13, 1782, James Parker et al. to Earl of Shelburne, July 6, 1782, deposition of John Cramond, Oct. 30, 1782, HO 28/2, ff. 291–292, 383–384, 395–396, PRO; James Madison et al. to Chevalier de la Luzerne, April 2, 1781, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XVII, 118, 124.

463 “intelligent … River”: Bartholomew James, Journal of Rear-Admiral Bartholomew James, 1752–1828, ed. John Knox Laughton (London, 1896), 94.

464 “a very … breakfast”: Entry of Jan. 4, 1781, Johann Ewald, Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal, trans. Joseph P. Tustin (New Haven, 1979), 261.

465 Mary Byrd: Julian P. Boyd, “The Affair of Westover,” Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., V, appendix I.

466 “to the … inhabitants”: Benedict Arnold to Henry Clinton, Jan. 21, 1781, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XX, 42.

467 “The whole … families”: Ewald, Diary, trans. Tustin, 274.

468 “spreading … loyalists”: Ibid., 279. See also James Robertson to Jeffery Amherst, May 8, 1781, The Twilight of British Rule in Revolutionary America: The New York Letter Book of General James Robertson, 1780–1783, ed. Milton M. Klein and Ronald W. Howard (Cooperstown, 1983), 194; depositions in John Harvie Creecy, ed., Virginia Antiquary, Volume I: Princess Anne County Loose Papers 1700–1789 (Richmond, 1954), 121–124.

469 About 250 black people: William Phillips to Henry Clinton, April 3, 1781, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/5, f. 161, PRO; Benedict Arnold to Henry Clinton, Feb. 13, 1781, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XVII, 984.

470 “to break … Carolina”: William Phillips to Earl Cornwallis, April 8, 1781, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/70, ff. 1–2, PRO; Henry Clinton, Substance of Several Conversations, April 26, 1781, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 68, p. 63, MiU-C.

471 return to Petersburg: John Banister to Theodorick Bland, May 16, 1781, Theodorick Bland Papers, DLC; Benedict Arnold to Henry Clinton, May 12, 1781, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XX, 143; William Withers to St. George Tucker, May 20, 1781, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

472 “much watch’d”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library; Arthur Lee to Theodorick Bland, March 21, 1781, in Charles Campbell, History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia (Philadelphia, 1860), 711–712.

473 “persecutors” … “American?”: Mary Willing Byrd to Thomas Jefferson, Feb. 23, 1781, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IV, 691; Mary Willing Byrd to Baron von Steuben, Feb. 23, 1781, ibid., V, 689.

474 “if she … stories”: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH; James Hadden to Charles Mellish, May 27, 1781, Mellish of Hodstock MSS Me C 29/11, University of Nottingham.

475 would be compensated: Memorandum of Earl Cornwallis, n.d. [Oct. 1781?], Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/74, f. 140, PRO; Earl Cornwallis to Alexander Ross, April 9, 1784, Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis Cornwallis, ed. Charles Ross (London, 1859), I, 173.

476 forty-nine slaves from Westover: Mary Byrd to Thomas Nelson, Jr., Aug. 10, 1781, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, II, 312–313.

477 “those … promises”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

478 “extreme … grave”: Mary Byrd to John Francis Mercer, Oct. 27, 1782, Mercer Papers, ViRHi.

479 “Tobacco … check”: James Hadden to Charles Mellish, May 27, 1781, Mellish of Hodstock MSS Me C 29/11, University of Nottingham; Samuel Graham, Memoir of General Graham, ed. James J. Graham (Edinburgh, 1862), 36; John Banister to Robert Morris, May 15, 1781, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1183 (Jan. 1917), Item 218. See also William B. Willcox, Portrait of a General: Sir Henry Clinton in the War of Independence (New York, 1964), 385–391.

480 Benjamin Toler: Deposition of Benjamin Toler, March 27, 1784, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

481 Tarleton: Peter Lyons to Newman Brockenbrough, Sept. 20, 1784, John Cook Wyllie, ed., “A New Documentary Light on Tarleton’s Raid: Letters of Newman Brockenbrough and Peter Lyons,” VMHB, LXXIV (Oct. 1966), 457–461; Paroles, June 4, 1781, John Syme to Banastre Tarleton, June 15, 1781, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/93, ff. 12–18, PRO; Francis Kinloch to Thomas Boone, Oct. 1, 1782, “Letters of Francis Kinloch to Thomas Boone, 1782–1788,” ed. Felix Gilbert, JSH, VIII (Feb. 1942), 92–93; Benjamin Harrison to Joseph Jones, June 8, 1781, quoted in Joseph Jones to George Washington, June 20, 1781, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XVII, 337; William Fleming to William Preston, June 12, 1781, Preston Papers, Defense of Southwestern Virginia, Auditor of Public Accounts, Entry 223, Vi; Malone, Jefferson, I, 355–358.

482 by thirty of Jefferson’s slaves: Thomas Jefferson to Alexander McCaul, April 19, 1786, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IX, 389.

483 “all … enemy”: Richard Henry Lee to William Lee, July 15, 1781, Letters of Richard Henry Lee, ed. Ballagh, II, 242.

484 reached the Dismal Swamp: Ewald, Diary, trans. Tustin, 318.

485 South Quay: Alexander Leslie to Earl Cornwallis, June 1781, Earl Cornwallis to Henry Clinton, July 17, 1781, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/6, f. 158, 30/11/74, ff. 43–44, PRO; Hardy Murfree to Jethro Sumner, July 22, 1781, Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, XV, 560–561; Jean Blair to James Iredell, July 21, 1781, Papers of Iredell, ed. Higginbotham, II, 267; Petition of Inhabitants of Nansemond County, Nov. 11, 1784, VG, VI (1962), 105; Parker, “Old South Quay,” VMHB, LXXXIII (April 1975), 170.

486 visited Dismal Plantation: Jacob Collee to David Jameson, July 13, 1781, “Memo of Negroes &c. Feby 1783,” Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; “List Losses sustain’d by the Dismal Swamp Compy,” “Loss the Inhabitants of Nansemond County,” Nov. 18, 1782, Losses Sustained from the British, Nansemond County, General Assembly, Office of the Speaker, Correspondence, Vi; David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 7, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; Edmund Ruffin, “Observations Made During an Excursion to the Dismal Swamp,” Farmer’s Register, IV (Jan. 1, 1837), 516.

487 “if … with him”: Thomas Nelson, Jr., to Earl Cornwallis, July 23, 1781, Earl Cornwallis to Thomas Nelson, Jr., Aug. 6, 1781, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/90, ff. 17–19, PRO; Thomas Nelson, Jr., to Eliza Fitzhugh, Aug. 17, 1781, Emmet Collection, NN.

488 at Portsmouth: Mathieu Dumas, Memoirs of His Own Time (Philadelphia, 1839), I,54.

489 and their fellow merchants: Memorial of the Merchants of London, Aug. 3, 1781, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XX, 214–215.

490 Brigadier General O’Hara: Charles O’Hara to Earl Cornwallis, Aug. 5, 9, 15, 17, 1781, Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/70, ff. 12, 17, 21–22, PRO; entry of July 15, 1781, Johann Ernst Prechtel, A Hessian Officer’s Diary of the American Revolution, trans. Bruce E. Burgoyne (Bowie, 1994), 208. See also Connolly, Narrative, 53–54.

491 “Negro emigrants”: For names of black people who may have left the Dismal Swamp Company, see Hodges, ed., Black Loyalist Directory, 27, 92–93, 183–184, 187, 189,200.

492 the British evacuation: Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1961), 167–177; James W. St. G. Walker, The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783–1870 (New York, 1976), chap. 1; Sylvia R. Frey, Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age (Princeton, 1991), chap. 6; entry of Oct. 1788, William Dyott, Dyott’s Diary: 1781–1845, ed. Reginald W. Jeffery (London, 1907), I, 57; Wright, Loyalists of New Brunswick, 60.

493 “a change of air”: Petition of Richard Brooke and James Tutt, May 13, 1784, Legislative Petitions, Fredericksburg, Vi; J. P. Custis to George Washington, July 26, 1780, “Letters from John Parke Custis to George and Martha Washington, 1778–1781,” ed. Billy J. Harbin, WMQ, 3d ser., XLIII (April 1986), 284.

494 the small arms factory: Fielding Lewis to Thomas Jefferson, Feb. 2, 1780, Charles Dick to Thomas Jefferson, Jan. 23, 1781, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., III, 281, IV, 430–431; Fielding Lewis to George Brooke, Feb. 9, 1781, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, I, 502–503; Duke, Kenmore and the Lewises, 132–135; Kathleen Bruce, Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era (New York, 1931), 32–42.

495 Fielding Junior: Fielding Lewis to Fielding Lewis, Jr., May 22, 1779, Emmet Collection, NN.

496 George Lewis: W. Frank Craven, “George Lewis,” in Richard A. Harrison, Princetonians, 1769–1775: A Biographical Dictionary (Princeton, 1980), 500–501.

497 Lewis on inflation: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 4, 1780, April 24, 1781, Papers of George Washington, DLC. On western land, see also Fielding Lewis to John Lewis, March 14, 1780, Kenmore Manuscript Collection, Fredericksburg.

498 A chicken cost: Chevalier de la Luzerne to Comte de Vergennes, Dec. 30, 1781, Report on Canadian Archives: 1913, 226; Benjamin Harrison to General Assembly, Dec. 3, 1782, The Frederick S. Peck Collection of American Historical Autographs, Part Two (March 17, 1947), Item 84; Thomas Nelson, Jr., to David Jameson, Sept. 27, 1781, Letters of Thomas Nelson, Jr., Governor of Virginia (Richmond, 1874), 44–45. On paper money and reaction against it, see Janet A. Riesman, “Money, Credit, and Federalist Political Economy,” in Richard R. Beeman et al., eds., Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity (Chapel Hill, 1987), 128–161.

499 “vigorously”: Lloyd, Early History of the Old South Wales Iron Works, 11, 15.

500 “those … contracts”: William Windham to Bartlett Gurney, March 25, 1782, The Diary of the Right Hon. William Windham, 1784 to 1810, ed. Cecilia Anne Baring (London, 1866), 37; Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power (New York, 1988), 40.

501 Earl of Shelburne: Edmond Fitzmaurice, Life of William, Earl of Shelburne (London, 1876), III, 6–7; Parliamentary Register, XV, 226–234; John Norris, Shelburne and Reform (London, 1963), chaps. 7–8.

502 John Sawbridge: Nathaniel William Wraxall, The Historical and the Posthumous Memoirs of Sir Nathaniel William Wraxall, 1772–1784, ed. Henry B. Wheatley (London, 1884), III, 244–245; Brown, Collinson & Tritton to Charles Jenkinson, Feb. 16, 1782, Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of the Marquess of Abergavenny, Lord Braye, G. F. Luttrell, Esq., &c. (London, 1887), 49. See also Philip Harling, The Waning of “Old Corruption”: The Politics of Economical Reform in Britain, 1779–1846 (Oxford, 1996), 32–42.

503 “they … absurd”: Robert Gregson to Earl of Shelburne, Sept. 13, 1782, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 147, MiU-C; Baker, Government and Contractors, 35; Norris, Shelburne and Reform, 226–229.

504 assessments: Fielding Lewis to George Washington, April 24, 1781, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

505 “how … dayly”: Charles Greville to William Hamilton, Dec. 3, 1775, Hamilton-Greville Correspondence, CSmH.

506 Nathaniel Burwell: Affidavit of Benjamin Waller, Sept. 12, 1810, Claim of John Tyndale Warre, T 79/3, ff. 407–425, PRO.

507 Mann Page: Mann Page to John Page, Aug. 3, 1779, ViWC; John Page to John Hatley Norton, Feb. 27, 1790, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; John Page to St. George Tucker, May 23, 1787, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

508 But John Page: John Page to St. George Tucker, March 24, 1783, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Page to Arthur Lee, June 7, 1780, Lee Family Papers, ViU; John Page to [Theodorick Bland?], Jan. 21, 1781, Bland-Ruffin Papers, ViU; Hanbury’s Exor (Lloyd) v. Burwell, Page et al., 1803, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Jane Carson, James Innes and His Brothers of the F. H. C. (Williamsburg, 1965), 103–105.

509 “valuable … streets”: Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, Nov. 2, 1782; Malcolm H. Harris, “The Port Towns of the Pamunkey,” WMQ, 2d ser., XXIII (Oct. 1943), 512–513.

510 more than 2,200 acres: William Armstrong Crozier, ed., Spotsylvania County Records, 1721–1800 (Baltimore, 1955), 356–358.

511 His will directed: Spotsylvania County Will Book E, Part I, 434–436, Vi.

512 talked with John Lewis: George Washington to John Lewis, April 17, 1782, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXIV, 129–131; George Washington to Thomas Walker, April 10, 1784, Thomas Walker to George Washington, Jan. 24, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., I, 281–282, 77.

513 the Comte de Rochambeau: Entry of Sept. 5, 1781, [Baron de Cromot du Bourg], “Diary of a French Officer, 1781,” Magazine of American History, IV (May 1880), 383–384; entry of Sept. 5, 1781, Journal of von Closen, ed. Acomb, 121–123; Count William de Deux-Ponts, My Campaigns in America, ed. Samuel Abbott Green (Boston, 1868), 126–127; Armand Louis de Gontaut Biron, Duc de Lauzun, Memoirs of the Duc de Lauzun, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff (New York, 1928), 204; entry of Sept. 5, 1781, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Minutes and Occurrences, Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, 1st ser., XIV (1876), 332.

514 the Comte de Grasse: Thomas Graves to P. Stephens, Sept. 14, 1781, Letters Written by Sir Samuel Hood in 1781–2–3, ed. David Hannay (London, 1895), 40–44; captain’s log, HMS London, Sept. 6, 1781, British Naval Documents, 1204–1960, ed. John B. Hattendorf et al. (Aldershot, 1993), 403–405; entries of Sept. 1–5, 1781, [Charles] L’Ainé, Ce cahier appartient à L’Ainé, pp. 63–70, HM 551, CSmH; Dull, French Navy, 240–248; John A. Tilley, The British Navy and the American Revolution (Columbia, 1987), chap. II.

515 “When … tell”: Henry Clinton to Charles Stuart, Oct. 12, 1781, in New Records of the American Revolution (London, 1927), 113; Willcox, Portrait of a General, 409–412, 423; N. A. M. Rodger, “Sea-Power and Empire, 1688–1793,” in P. J. Marshall, ed., The Oxford History of the British Empire, Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1998), 181; Daniel A. Baugh, “Why did Britain lose command of the sea during the war for America?” in Jeremy Black and Philip Woodfine, eds., The British Navy and the Use of Naval Power in the Eighteenth Century (Atlantic Highlands, 1989), 149–169.

516 British tobacco vessels: Claude C. Robin, New Travels through North-America, trans. Philip Freneau (Philadelphia, 1783), 53; Constance D. Sherman, trans. and ed., “Journal of the 1781, 1782, and 1783 Campaigns on the Royal Ship Hercule,” New-York Historical Society Quarterly, LXI (1977), 39; Richard Oswald, Memorandum, Aug. 17, 1781, W. Stitt Robinson, Jr., ed., Richard Oswald’s Memorandum (Charlottesville, 1953), 20–21; Egerton, ed., Royal Commission, 207, 257. Compare John O. Sands, Yorktown’s Captive Fleet (Charlottesville, 1983), 181–223.

517 Secretary Nelson: David Ross to William Hay, Oct. 13, 1781, Commercial Agent, General Correspondence, 1780–1782, Revolutionary Government, Vi; entry of Oct. 10, 1781, “Captain James Duncan’s Diary of the Siege of Yorktown,” Magazine of History, II (Nov. 1905), 413; Chastellux, Travels in North America, ed. Rice, II, 385; entry of July 30, 1787, Journal of Samuel Vaughan, DLC.

518 York Town: Entry of Oct. 19, 1781, Journal of von Closen, ed. Acomb, 155; Robin, New Travels, trans. Freneau, 65; entry of Nov. 4, 1781, Journal of Enos Reeves, NcD; Graham, Memoir of Graham, ed. Graham, 60.

519 HMS Charon: James Thacher, Military Journal of the American Revolution (Hartford, 1862), 283; Shomette, Shipwrecks, 65–71; Sands, Yorktown’s Captive Fleet, 187–189.

520 “ ’Tis … France”: Samuel Pechell to Warren Hastings, Nov. 27, 1781, G. R. Gleig, Memoirs of the Life of the Right Hon. Warren Hastings (London, 1841), II, 350.

521 “Dr. Franklin … fools”: Fitzmaurice, Life of Shelburne, II, 359–360.

522 would change his ministers: Sainsbury, Disaffected Patriots, 160–161; Universal Magazine, LXX (March 1782), 140; Richard Watson, Anecdotes of the Life of Richard Watson, Bishop of Landaff, 2d ed. (London, 1818), I, 144–145.

523 “He was … engulphed”: Wraxall, Historical and Posthumous Memoirs, ed. Wheatley, V, 53; John Sinclair, The Correspondence of the Right Honourable Sir John Sinclair, Bart. (London, 1831), I, 74.

524 Edward Chamberlayne: Hannah More to sister, April 7, 1782, William Roberts, Memoirs of the Life and Correspondence of Mrs. Hannah More, 2d ed. (London, 1834), I, 245–247; Gentleman’s Magazine, LII (April 1782), 206; William Cole to Horace Walpole, April 12, 1782, The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole’s Correspondence, ed. W. S. Lewis et al. (New Haven, 1937–83), II, 310–311; Alan Valentine, Lord North (Norman, 1967), II, chap.45.

525 Francis Homfray: Evans, Labyrinth of Flames, 18.

526 Bacon’s name: Laprade, ed., Parliamentary Papers of Robinson, 45; Norris, Shelburne and Reform, 226–227. See also Ian R. Christie, Wilkes, Wyvill and Reform (London, 1962), chap. 4 and appendix B.

527 Bacon votes: Namier and Brooke, History of Parliament, II, 36.

528 and memorials: Merchants to Earl of Shelburne, Aug. 2, 1782, Merchants to Thomas Townshend, Aug. 22, Oct. 3, Nov. 28, 1782, Merchants to Charles James Fox, May 16, 1783, Davies, ed., Documents of the American Revolution, XIX, 315, 325, 333, 354, 395; Merchants to Earl of Shelburne, April 18, 1782, Shelburne Papers, Box 87, Item 177, MiU-C.

529 “the propriety … money”: James Mercer to John F. Mercer, May 1, 1784, Mercer Family Papers, ViRHi.

530 “was … Virginia”: William Jones to Daniel L. Hylton & Co., May 31, 1783, Jones, svg ptr. v. Hylton & Co. et al., 1794, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

531 “The old … one”: Brian Connell, ed., Portrait of a Golden Age: Intimate Papers of the Second Viscount Palmerston (Boston, 1958), 133. See also Sarah Napier to Susan O’Brien, July 9, 1782, Mary Fox-Strangways, Countess of Ilchester, and Giles Fox-Strangways (Lord Stavordale), eds., The Life and Letters of Lady Sarah Lennox (London, 1902), II, 19–20.

532 “some … Union”: Andrew Allen to Earl of Shelburne, Oct. 17, 1782, Silas Deane to Andrew Allen, Dec. 25, 1782, Shelburne Papers, Box 87, Items 119, 249, MiU-C.

533 Lord Dunmore proposed: Earl of Dunmore to Thomas Townshend, Aug. 24, 1782, Sydney Papers, MiU-C. See also J. Leitch Wright, Jr., “Lord Dunmore’s Loyalist Asylum in the Floridas,” Florida Historical Quarterly, XLIX (April 1971), 370–379. On the treaty, see Richard B. Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence (New York, 1965); Norris, Shelburne and Reform, 256–270; John Cannon, The Fox-North Coalition: Crisis of the Constitution, 1782–1784 (Cambridge, 1969), chap. 2; C. R. Ritcheson, “The Earl of Shelburne and Peace with America, 1782–1783: Vision and Reality,” International History Review, V (Aug. 1983), 322–345; Esmond Wright, “The British Objectives, 1780–1783: ‘If Not Dominion Then Trade,’ ” and Charles R. Ritcheson, “Britain’s Peacemakers, 1782–1783: ‘To an Astonishing Degree Unfit for the Task’?” in Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds., Peace and the Peacemakers: The Treaty of 1783 (Charlottesville, 1986), 3–29, 70–100.

534 an epidemic of influenza: John Marsh, Autobiography, III, 179, CSmH; Carl Philip Moritz, Journeys of a German in England in 1782, 2d ed., trans. Reginald Nettel (New York, 1965), 34; Henry Mackenzie to Adam Smith, June 7, 1782, The Correspondence of Adam Smith, ed. Ernest Campbell Mossner and Ian Simpson Ross, 2d ed. (Oxford, 1987), 258.

535 Gist and Anderson: William Anderson to Samuel Gist, Feb. 1, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

536 “little … Collected”: James Taylor to Samuel Gist, Oct. 1, 1783, Samuel Gist v. Taylor & Co., 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

537 A new law: Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, X, 66–71.

538 Mary Anderson: Petition of William Anderson and Mary Anderson, June 7, 1782, Legislative Petitions, Hanover County, Vi; Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, XI, 54–55.

539 Lyons, Andersons, Gist: Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, Dec. 1, 1783, “A list of negroes Stock &c,” Nov. 12, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; William Anderson, Evidence on the Memorial of Samuel and George Martin, June 8, 1786, AO 12/56, pp. 100–102, PRO; William Anderson to Thomas Massie, May 28,1783, Massie Family Papers, ViRHi; deposition of Benjamin Toler, May 7, 1807, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi; C. G. Chamberlayne, ed., The Vestry Book of St. Paul’s Parish, Hanover County, Virginia, 1707–1786 (Richmond, 1940), 535, 551, 557; Heads of Families-Virginia, 1782, in Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States (Baltimore, 1966), 28.

540 William Dolman: William Lee to Edward Browne, Dec. 31, 1783, William Lee to Samuel Thorp, Sept. 8, 1785, William Lee Letterbook, 1783–1787, ViRHi; Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Oct. 6, 1785, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC; William Armstrong Crozier, ed., Virginia County Record Publications, New Series, I: Westmoreland County (Baltimore, 1962 [orig. publ. 1913]), 78.

541 condition of the Dismal Swamp Company: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 7, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; Nansemond County Land Book, 1782, 1783, Nansemond County Land Tax Lists, Vi; Jacob Collee to David Jameson, Dec. 12, 1782, Account with David Jameson, Account with David Meade, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

542 “by Death” … “thereon”: Samuel Gist to Joseph Jones & Company, Oct. 8, 1783, Joseph Jones Family Papers, NcD.

543 “very elegant” … “Horses”: Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, Dec. 1, 1783, May 10, 1784, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; William Anderson, Advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, March 12, 1785.

544 “I … girl”: William Anderson to Thomas Massie, May 28, 1783, Massie Family Papers, ViRHi.

545 Anderson and Gist: William Anderson to Samuel Gist, Oct. 15, 1783, Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, May 10, 1784, Peter Lyons, Note on Act of 1784, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

546 “She … happy”: Elizabeth Farley to Thomas Taylor Byrd, June 25, 1783, Byrd Letterbook, Byrd Family Papers, ViRHi.

547 “exceed all description”: Charles Stedman, The History of the Origin, Progress, and Termination of the American War (London, 1794), II, 346; St. George Tucker to Frances Tucker, March 2, 18, 1781, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Buchanan, The Road to Guilford Courthouse: The American Revolution in the Carolinas (New York, 1997), chap. 24.

548 “A Letter from the Devil”: Robert Munford, A Collection of Plays and Poems by the Late Col. Robert Munford (Petersburg, 1798), 195. See also Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill, 1998), 392–396; Philip J. Schwarz, Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705–1865 (Baton Rouge, 1988), chap. 6, esp. pp. 137–138.

549 a hard drinker: Baine, Robert Munford, 54–55.

550 “the estate’s … creditors”: Otway Byrd to St. George Tucker, 1786, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

551 “the embarrassment … circumstances”: William Munford to St. George Tucker, June 19, 1794, Dec. 22, 1805, ibid.

552 “So … sins”: Munford, “The Patriots,” in Philbrick, ed., Trumpets Sounding, 316; Peter A. Davis, “The Plays and Playwrights,” in Don B. Wilmeth and Christopher Bigsby, eds., The Cambridge History of the American Theatre: Volume I (Cambridge, 1998), 241; Jared Brown, The Theatre in America During the Revolution (Cambridge, 1995), 19–21; Gary A. Richardson, American Drama from the Colonial Period Through World War I: A Critical History (New York, 1993), 43–45.

553 wrote a preface: Preface, Munford, Collection of Plays and Poems, vi.

VI: THIS ELDORADO

    1 “this … employments”: George Washington to Thomas Walker, April 10, 1784, The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983–), I, 281.

    2 “sunken … Country”: George Washington to Patrick Henry, June 24, 1785, ibid., III,80.

    3 to protect the company’s title: David Jameson to Thomas Walker, June 22, 1783, Thomas Walker to David Jameson, June 23, 26, 1783, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

    4 cutting a canal: Journal of the House of Delegates of Virginia [Richmond, 1783], 48.

    5 “the Company … property”: Thomas Walker to George Washington, Jan. 24, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., I, 76.

    6 “unreservedly”: Entry of Sept. 30, 1785, The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (Charlottesville, 1976–79), IV, 199; John Lowry to George Washington, Aug. 2, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 170.

    7 an act of the General Assembly: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 7, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; David Jameson to Thomas Walker, Oct. 31, 1783, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

    8 40,000 acres: Survey, Sept. 20, 1783, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD. See also plat accompanying George Washington to John Jameson, Feb. 15, 1795, Gilder Lehrman Collection, NNPM.

    9 to press a claim: David Jameson to David Meade, April 1784, David Jameson to Thomas Walker, July 15, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Thomas Walker to George Washington, Jan. 24, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., I, 76–77.

  10 “I … quantity”: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Dec. 23, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

  11 “Lawyers … founded”: Thomas Walker to David Jameson, June 23, 1783, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  12 The Supreme Court of Appeals: Journal of the Delegates 1783, 58–59; Archibald Henderson, “Dr. Thomas Walker and the Loyal Company of Virginia,” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, new series, XLI (1931), 115.

  13 “secret Surveys”: Richard Henderson to John Williams, Sept. 13, 1779, John Williams Papers, NcD.

  14 “a considerable” … “cultivation”: George Washington to Patrick Henry, June 24, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 80.

  15 “no money”: David Jameson to Thomas Nelson, Nov. 26, 1783, David Jameson to David Meade, April 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; David Jameson to Francis Walker, Nov. 2, 1791, Thomas Walker Papers, William Cabell Rives Papers, Box 162, DLC.

  16 “in a … Bankruptcy”: David Jameson to David Meade, April 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  17 John Page: Advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser (Richmond), Sept. 21, 1782.

  18 Thomas Newton, Jr.: David Jameson to Thomas Walker, June 22, 1783, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, April 5, 1783.

  19 Fielding Lewis, Jr.: Fielding Lewis, Jr., to George Washington, Feb. 22, 1784, George Washington to Fielding Lewis, Jr., Feb. 27, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., I, 145–146, 161–162.

  20 for 4,800 acres: Willard Rouse Jillson, Old Kentucky Entries and Deeds (Louisville, 1926), 224.

  21 “in … taste”: Entry of April 9, 1773, Josiah Quincy, “Journal,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, 3d ser., XLIX (1915–16), 465; Marcus Whiffen, The Eighteenth-Century Houses of Williamsburg, rev. ed. (Williamsburg, 1984), 190–194; Mary A. Stephenson, “Peyton Randolph House Historical Report,” rev. Jane Carson, ViWC.

  22 Hornsby did not respond: Robert Andrews to David Jameson, Dec. 27, 1783, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  23 William Nelson, Jr.: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, March 26, 1785, Feb. 20, 1786, William Short Papers, DLC; Thomas Jefferson to Samuel Henley, Nov. 27, 1785, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Julian P. Boyd et al. (Princeton, 1950–), IX, 66; Wilmer L. Hall et al., eds., Journals of the Council of the State of Virginia, 2d ed. (Richmond, 1969–82), III, 145.

  24 “great … down”: New-Lloyd’s List, April 30, 1784; Robert Beverley to Samuel Gist, April 14, 1784, Robert Beverley Letterbook, DLC; Hugh James to Tench Coxe, April 20, 1784, Tench Coxe Papers, PHi.

  25 Tom and Lewis: Jacob Collee to David Jameson, Dec. 26, 1784, David Jameson to Jacob Collee, Dec. 30, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  26 “surveyors” … “directions”: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Dec. 23, 1783, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

  27 Jameson put the question: David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Dec. 23, 1783, Nov. 3, 1784, ibid.; David Jameson to Thomas Walker, July 15, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  28 “hiring” … “chance”: David Jameson to William Nelson, Jr., Jan. 4, 1785, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  29 House of Delegates: Peter Lyons, Note on Act of October 1784, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

  30 “Ship” … “confidence”: Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, Sept. 11,1784.

  31 Gist testified: Testimony of Samuel Gist, June 14, 1784, Claim of Thomas Macknight, photocopy in English Records, Box ER-8, folder 20, Nc-Ar.

  32 Patrick Henry wrote: Patrick Henry to Adam Stephen, June 10, 1779, in Mary Selden Kennedy, Seldens of Virginia and Allied Families (New York, 1911), 26–27; Patrick Henry to William Nelson, Jr., July 4, 1784, William Nelson Letters, ViU; William Nelson, Jr., to Patrick Henry, July 14, 1784, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC; Patrick Henry to [?], May 22, 1784, in Charles Hamilton, American Autographs (Norman, 1983), I, 325; [John Nicholas, Jr.], “Decius,” Nos. V, XII, Virginia Independent Chronicle (Richmond), Jan. 28, Mar. 11, 1789; Patrick Henry to George Washington, June 10, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 48–49; Jackson T. Main, “The One Hundred,” WMQ, 3d ser., XI (July 1954), 377; Norman K. Risjord, Chesapeake Politics: 1781–1800 (New York, 1978), 245–247.

  33 “a low” … “Canal”: Andrew Kidd to William Vaughan, March 3, 1805, John Harvie to Thomas Jefferson, May 15, 1798, William Short Papers, DLC; Patrick Henry, advertisement, Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (Richmond), Jan. 12, 1791.

  34 to meet in Richmond: Thomas Walker, advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, Oct. 2, 1784; David Jameson to Samuel Gist, Nov. 3, 1784, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

  35 “to make … assembly)”: David Jameson to William Nelson, Jr., Jan. 4, 1785, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  36 “the Lebanon … higher”: Patrick Henry to George Washington, June 10, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 48.

  37 Hugh Williamson studied: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Ruston, Nov. 2, 1784, March 2, 1785, Hugh Williamson to Thomas Jefferson, Dec. 11, 1784, Hugh Williamson to George Washington, March 24, 1784, Paul H. Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates to Congress: 1774–1789 (Washington, 1976–98), XXII, 7–8, 240, 63–64, XXI, 455–457; George Washington to Hugh Williamson, March 31, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., I, 244–247. See also Louis W. Potts, “Hugh Williamson: The Poor Man’s Franklin and the National Domain,” NCHR, LXIV (Oct. 1987), 371–393.

  38 “declining” … “ruin”: George Washington to William Crawford, June 9, 1781, The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, 1931–40), XXII,194.

  39 showed that two-thirds: Willard F. Bliss, “The Rise of Tenancy in Virginia,” VMHB, LVIII (Oct. 1950), 433; George Washington to Battaile Muse, Nov. 3, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 117.

  40 the Seceders: Entries of Sept. 8–Oct. 2, 1784, Diaries of Washington, ed. Jackson and Twohig, IV, 14–56; Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 338–356; Burton Alva Konkle, The Life and Times of Thomas Smith, 1745–1809 (Philadelphia, 1904), 173–186; Rick Willard Sturdevant, “Quest for Eden: George Washington’s Frontier Land Interests” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1982), 150–170.

  41 “to take … Speculators”: Entry of Oct. 4, 1784, Diaries of Washington, ed. Jackson and Twohig, IV, 57–58.

  42 “The more” … “Markets”: Ibid., 58–68. See also Samuel Holten to Aaron Wood, Sept. 11, 1783, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XX, 650.

  43 “much … flow”: Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, Feb. 20, 1784, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VI, 548.

  44 “draw” … “Scheme”: George Washington to Jacob Read, Nov. 3, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 121–122.

  45 “The General … surmount”: Entry of Nov. 16, 1785, Quebec to Carolina in 1785–1786:Being the Travel Diary and Observations of Robert Hunter, Jr., A Young Merchant of London, ed. Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling (San Marino, 1943), 193.

  46 “Lurking” … “Villain”: George Johnston to George Washington, Jan. 8, 1760, George Washington to Jonathan Boucher, May 5, 1772, Papers of Washington: Colonial, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 382–383, IX, 40–41.

  47 great canals of Europe: Robert Carter Nicholas to John Norton, April 7, 1772, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

  48 “Plans” … “Rivers”: Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), May 27,1773.

  49 Gist and Ballendine: Samuel Gist to John Tabb, April 12–May 4, 1774, Tabb’s Admr. v. Gist et al., 1829, USCCVD(EC), Vi; List of Debts in London, No. 1, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims AO 13/30, PRO; Purdie and Dixon’s Virginia Gazette, July 7, 1774; [Fairfax Harrison], Landmarks of Old Prince William: A Study of Origins in Northern Virginia (Richmond, 1924), II, 540.

  50 “fully … river”: Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia), Sept. 14, 1774; Pamela C. Copeland and Richard K. MacMaster, The Five George Masons: Patriots and Planters of Virginia and Maryland (Charlottesville, 1975), 120–121.

  51 James River canal: Pinkney’s Virginia Gazette, Oct. 26, 1775; Kathleen Bruce, Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era (New York, 1931), 42–50; [Harrison], Landmarks, II, 435–436; Copeland and MacMaster, Five George Masons, 202–203.

  52 Rumsey in Richmond: James Rumsey to George Washington, March 10, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 427; Hugh Williamson to Thomas Jefferson, Dec. 11, 1784, James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, Jan. 9, 1785, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VII, 569, 592–593; James Rumsey, A Short Treatise on the Application of Steam (Philadelphia, 1788), 4–5.

  53 “next … impracticable”: Entry of Sept. 6, 1784, Diaries of Washington, ed. Jackson and Twohig, IV, 9–10; George Washington to Hugh Williamson, March 15, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 439–440.

  54 “no doubt” … “navigation”: Certificate, Sept. 4, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 69.

  55 “I … Unbelievers”: James Rumsey to George Washington, Oct. 19, 1784, ibid., 101; Alexander Fitzroy, The Discovery, Purchase, and Settlement of the Country of Kentuckie, in North America (London, 1786), 14–15, reprinted in Willard Rouse Jillson, The Kentuckie Country (Washington, 1931), 42–43.

  56 “to … perfection”: James Rumsey to George Washington, March 10, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 427–428.

  57 “the pelting” … “reputation”: Rumsey, Short Treatise, 5–6; Ella May Turner, James Rumsey: Pioneer in Steam Navigation (Scottdale, 1930), chap. 2; Frank D. Prager, Introduction, The Autobiography of John Fitch (Philadelphia, 1976), 7–11; George Washington to Thomas Johnson, Nov. 22, 1787, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., V, 448–449.

  58 “Opening … here”: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Jan. 11, 1785, William Short Papers, DLC.

  59 A visitor: Elkanah Watson, Men and Times of the Revolution; or, Memoirs of Elkanah Watson, ed. Winslow C. Watson (New York, 1856), 243–244.

  60 “proper Credentials”: Entry of July 1, 1785, Diaries of Washington, ed. Jackson and Twohig, IV, 157–158.

  61 “I … circumstances”: George Washington to James Rumsey, July 2, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 99.

  62 “upwards … Rocks &c.”: Archibald Stuart to Thomas Jefferson, Oct. 17, 1785, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VIII, 644; Turner, James Rumsey, chap. 3.

  63 Canal companies: Corra Bacon-Foster, Early Chapters in the Development of the Potomac Route to the West (Washington, 1912); Wayland Fuller Dunaway, History of the James River and Kanawha Company (New York, 1922).

  64 “the nation … execution”: Thomas Twining, Travels in America 100 Years Ago (New York, 1893), 77.

  65 “this Eldorado”: David Meade to Mary Grymes Randolph Meade, Oct. 20, 1796, William Bolling Papers, NcD.

  66 “the Richest … World”: Lawrence Butler to Anna F. Cradock, Nov. 29, 1786, “Letters from Lawrence Butler,” VMHB, XL (Oct. 1932), 362.

  67 even more migrants: Malcolm J. Rohrbough, The Trans-Appalachian Frontier: People, Societies, and Institutions, 1775–1850 (New York, 1978), 39; John D. Barnhart, Valley of Democracy: The Frontier versus the Plantation in the Ohio Valley, 1775–1818 (Bloomington, 1953), 35–41.

  68 “they … provinces”: Johann David Schoepf, Travels in the Confederation, trans. Alfred J. Morrison (New York, 1968 [orig. publ. Philadelphia, 1911]), II, 43.

  69 “scarcely … found”: John Filson, The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke (New York, 1962 [orig. publ. Wilmington, 1784]), 16.

  70 “these … patronise”: John Filson to George Washington, Nov. 30, 1784, Papers of George Washington, DLC; John Filson to George Washington, Dec. 4, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 168–169; Daniel Blake Smith, “ ‘This Idea in Heaven’: Image and Reality on the Kentucky Frontier,” in Craig Thompson Friend, ed., The Buzzel About Kentuck: Settling the Promised Land (Lexington, 1999), 77–98; Lester H. Cohen, “Eden’s Constitution: The Paradisiacal Dream and Enlightenment Values in Late Eighteenth-Century Literature of the American Frontier,” Prospects, III (1977), 90–91; Robert Lawson-Peebles, Landscape and Written Expression in Revolutionary America: The World Turned Upside Down (Cambridge, 1988), 50–51.

  71 “Ask … land”: Moses Austin, “A Memorandum of M. Austin’s Journey,” AHR, V (April 1900), 525; Hazel Dicken-Garcia, To Western Woods: The Breckinridge Family Moves to Kentucky in 1793 (Rutherford, 1991), chap. 1.

  72 “a new … Spontaneously”: John Joyce to Robert Dickson, March 24, 1785, VMHB, XXIII (Oct. 1915), 413.

  73 open to suspicion: Lowell H. Harrison, Kentucky’s Road to Statehood (Lexington, 1992), 10–12; Patricia Watlington, The Partisan Spirit: Kentucky Politics, 1779–1792 (Chapel Hill, 1973), 16–18; François Dupont to Etienne Clavière, Jan. 10, 1789, “A Letter from Petersburg, Virginia,” ed. Charles T. Nall, VMHB, LXXXII (April 1974), 147.

  74 “Here … reputation”: Caleb Wallace to James Madison, July 12, 1785, The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson and William M. E. Rachal et al. (Chicago and Charlottesville, 1962–), VIII, 321.

  75 Adam Smith: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 5th ed. (Edinburgh, 1811 [orig. publ. 1776]), I, 124–127, II, 199. Compare Etienne Clavière, Letter V, May 22, 1788, in J. P. Brissot de Warville, New Travels in the United States of America, 1788, trans. Mara Soceanu Vamos and Durand Echeverria (Cambridge, 1964), 47.

  76 “opinion … credit”: James Mercer, advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, May 14, 1785.

  77 “abused” … Promise’ ”: Thomas Ashe, Travels in America, Performed in the Year 1806 (London, 1809), 152.

  78 “busied … Lands”: Stevens Thomson Mason to Leven Powell, Nov. 30, 1783, Leven Powell Papers, ViW.

  79 Congress accepted the cession: Merrill Jensen, The New Nation: A History of the United States During the Confederation, 1781–1789 (New York, 1965 [orig. publ. 1950]), 350–352; Peter S. Onuf, The Origins of the Federal Republic: Jurisdictional Controversies in the United States, 1775–1787 (Philadelphia, 1983), chap. 4; John E. Selby, The Revolution in Virginia, 1775–1783 (Williamsburg, 1988), 231–232.

  80 it appointed commissioners: William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia (Richmond, Philadelphia, and New York, 1809–23), VIII, 570.

  81 known as “Czar”: Katherine Fontaine Syer, “The County of Princess Anne, 1691–1957,” in Rogers Dey Whichard, The History of Lower Tidewater Virginia (New York, 1959), II, 79–80.

  82 committee report: John Pendleton Kennedy, ed., Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1773–1776 (Richmond, 1905), 246,270.

  83 a bill: Journal of the Delegates 1783, 48, 104, 106.

  84 “equal … troublesome”: Hugh Williamson to George Washington, March 24, 1784, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XXI, 455.

  85 feasible and desirable: George Washington to Hugh Williamson, March 31, 1784, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., I, 244–247.

  86 “but … in it”: David Jameson to Thomas Walker, July 15, 1784, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  87 declined to serve: Hall et al., eds., Journals of the Council, III, 409, 415, 464, 515.

  88 “that” … “commands”: David Meade to Patrick Henry, Aug. 1785, Executive Papers, Gov. Patrick Henry, Vi.

  89 “very cheerfully”: Robert Andrews to Patrick Henry, March 9, 178[5], Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC. See also William P. Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 1875–93), IV, 15.

  90 through the swamp: Patrick Henry to George Washington, June 10, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 49.

  91 “a most … gale”: Annual Register, XXVIII (1786), Chronicle, 195; Donald G. Shomette, Shipwrecks on the Chesapeake (Centreville, 1982), 76.

  92 “could … Ground”: Patrick Henry to George Washington, Nov. 11, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 353.

  93 “the great … Difficulties”: Robert Andrews and David Meade to Benjamin Harrison, Oct. 15, 1785, ibid., 354n.2.

  94 deferred legislation: Journal of the House of Delegates of Virginia, [1785, October Session] [Richmond, 1786], 38, 147–148.

  95 “laid” … “trade”: Petition of Walter Hopkins et al., June 12, 1783, Legislative Petitions, Norfolk County, Vi.

  96 “the canal … lands”: William Ronald et al., advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, April 16, 1785; William Ronald to Patrick Henry, June 10, 1785, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, IV, 33.

  97 “I” … “operations”: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Jefferson, Dec. 11, 1784, Thomas Jefferson to Hugh Williamson, Feb. 6, 1785, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VII, 569, 642.

  98 “better” … “Scheme?”: George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, Feb. 25, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 380.

  99 “the conveniences … therefrom”: George Washington to James Madison, Nov. 30, 1785, ibid., III, 420.

100 more than two feet: George Washington to Hugh Williamson, March 31, 1784, ibid., I, 246.

101 surface of peat: Robert Q. Oaks, Jr., and Donald R. Whitehead, “Geologic Setting and Origin of the Dismal Swamp,” in Paul W. Kirk, ed., The Great Dismal Swamp (Charlottesville, 1979), 4–7.

102 only one lock: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Jefferson, Dec. 11, 1784, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VII, 569; entry of Dec. 28, 1774, Jefferson’s Memorandum Books, ed. James A. Bear, Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton (Princeton, 1997), I, 367.

103 “inconsiderable”: Hugh Williamson to George Washington, March 24, 1784, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XXI, 457.

104 one lock at each end: Patrick Henry to George Washington, Nov. 11, 1785, George Washington to Patrick Henry, Nov. 30, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 353–354, 417–418, 419n.2.

105 eight locks: H. M. Robinson to William Short, May 15, 1811, William Short Papers, DLC; Alexander Crosby Brown, “The Dismal Swamp Canal,” AN, V (1945), 207, 213.

106 “So little … Morass”: Report by Luke Wheeler et al., [ca. 1816], Dismal Swamp Canal Company, Canal Companies, Internal Improvement Companies, Board of Public Works, Vi.

107 riders brought: George Weedon to John F. Mercer, March 18, 1783, Gaillard Hunt, ed., Fragments of Revolutionary History (Brooklyn, 1892), 123; David Buchanan to Buchanan & Hunter, March 19, 1784, Stirling v. Hunter & Buchanan, C 114/117, PRO.

108 Prices were high: Coxe & Frazier to Herries & Co., Oct. 26, 1784, Coxe & Frazier Letter Book, Tench Coxe Papers, PHi; Leighton Wood to Benjamin Harrison, May 26, 1784, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, III, 589.

109 “every” … “coast”: Reports from the Committee on Illicit Practices, Dec. 24, 1783, Reports from Committees of the House of Commons … Not Inserted in the Journals ([London], 1803–20), XI, 228–229, 265; entry of Nov. 10, 1783, “Extracts from the Old Books of the Custom-House of Irvine,” in Topographical Account of the District of Cunningham, Ayrshire (Glasgow, 1858), appendix, p. 234; William Gilpin, Memoirs of Josias Rogers, Esq. (London, 1808), 61–62; Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Oct. 27, 1786, Joshua Johnson Letter-book, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC; Robert Burns to James Burness, June 21, 1783, Robert Burns to John Moore, Aug. 2, 1787, The Letters of Robert Burns, ed. J. De-Lancey Ferguson and G. Ross Roy, 2d ed. (Oxford, 1985), I, 19, 140. Reports on smuggling in 1782 and 1783 are in the Shelburne Papers, MiU-C; some of these are printed in Arthur Lyon Cross, ed., Eighteenth Century Documents Relating to the Royal Forests, the Sheriffs and Smuggling (New York, 1928), 237–244, 264–267, 289–321.

110 “Strangers”: Margaret Parker to James Parker, July 27, 1783, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library; entries of June 1–2, 1785, Diary, The Autobiographies of Noah Webster, ed. Richard M. Rollins (Columbia, 1989), 213, 346–347.

111 “modern … shed”: James Buchanan to Neil Jamieson, Aug. 20, 1783, Neil Jamieson Papers, DLC.

112 “Verry” … “America”: Hugh Wallace to Nicholas Low, Feb. 2, 1783, Nicholas Low Papers, DLC.

113 Watson, Ewer, Hake: Great Britain, Board of Trade, Committee of Council Appointed for the Consideration of All Matters Relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, Vol. I, ff. 72–73, 136–137, DLC; Daniel Hailes to Marquess of Carmarthen, Jan. 20, 1785, Oscar Browning, ed., Despatches from Paris, Camden Society, 3d ser., XVI, XIX (1909–10), I, 38–39; P. K. O’Brien and S. L. Engerman, “Exports and the Growth of the British Economy from the Glorious Revolution to the Peace of Amiens,” in Barbara L. Solow, ed., Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System (Cambridge, 1991), 177–209; Peter P. Hill, French Perceptions of the Early American Republic, 1783–1792 (Philadelphia, 1988), chap. 3; T. M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and Their Trading Activities, c. 1740–90 (Edinburgh, 1975), 163–165; W. A. Low, “Merchant and Planter Relations in Post-Revolutionary Virginia, 1783–1789,” VMHB, LXI (July 1953), 308–318. See also Chevalier de la Luzerne to Marquis de Castries, Jan. 25, 1781, Report on Canadian Archives: 1913 (Ottawa, 1914), 173–174.

114 Virginians’ specie: Risjord, Chesapeake Politics, 160–176; Louis Maganzin, “Economic Depression in Maryland and Virginia, 1783–1787” (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1967), 27–36; Myra L. Rich, “Speculations on the Significance of Debt: Virginia, 1781–1789,” VMHB, LXXVI (July 1968), 301–317; Albert Feavearyear, The Pound Sterling: A History of English Money, 2d ed., rev. E. Victor Morgan (Oxford, 1963), 177; Silas Deane to Thomas Munford, Jan. 15–Feb. 1784, Silas Deane Papers, DLC; James Monroe to Benjamin Harrison, March 26, 1784, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XXI, 460–461; Chevalier de la Luzerne to Comte de Vergennes, Nov. 25, 1781, Report on Canadian Archives: 1913, 217.

115 marked up goods: James Taylor to Samuel Gist, Oct. 1, 1783, Samuel Gist v. Taylor & Co., 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Francis Eppes to Thomas Jefferson, Dec. 22, 1783, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VI, 416.

116 “more … come”: Duncan Hunter to Archibald Mackean, July 2, 1784, Stirling v. Hunter & Buchanan, C 114/117, PRO; Phineas Bond to Duke of Leeds, Aug. 15, 1789, “Letters of Phineas Bond,” ed. J. Franklin Jameson, Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1896 (Washington, 1897), I, 608–614.

117 Macaulay in New York: Joseph Taylor to Samuel Rogers, Jan. 10, 1778, Joseph Taylor Letterbook, Lovering-Taylor Family Papers, DLC; Samuel Rogers to William Taylor, Feb. 24, Mar. 16–18, 1778, Family Correspondence, ibid.

118 volume of imports: Clarence L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris: Revolutionary Financier (Philadelphia, 1954), 50–51, 53; Richard Buel, Jr., Dear Liberty: Connecticut’s Mobilization for the Revolutionary War (Middletown, 1980), 260–262, 267–272; Barrent Hardwick to William Livingston, June 13, 1782, in Richard J. Koke, ed., “War, Profit, and Privateers Along the New Jersey Coast,” New-York Historical Society Quarterly, XLI (July 1957),331.

119 to get “home”: Entry of March 3, 1783, “Journal of Alexander Macaulay,” WMQ, 1st ser., XI (Jan. 1903), 189–190.

120 “may … Juncture”: Alexander Macaulay to Benjamin Harrison, March 24, 1783, Executive Papers, Gov. Benjamin Harrison, Vi.

121 “I … Philosopher”: Alexander Macaulay to Stephen Collins, Sept. 27, 1783, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC.

122 settling at York Town: Alexander Macaulay to Francis Jerdone, Nov. 24, 1784, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW.

123 “a plain … well”: Alexander Donald to Francis Jerdone, Dec. 6, 1784, Samuel Gist to Francis Jerdone, Aug. 17, 1784, ibid.; William Anderson to Thomas Massie, Nov. 20, 1784, Massie Family Papers, ViRHi.

124 “a proper” … “Tinsell”: Patrick Parker to James Parker, Aug. 16, 1791, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

125 “Feathers … &c.”: Charles Yates to James Hunter, July 13, 1786, Hunter-Garnett Collection, ViU; Maganzin, “Economic Depression,” 19–25, 35–38, 93; Jensen, New Nation, 187.

126 “British … deceptions”: Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, Nov. 1, 1783; Cathy D. Matson and Peter S. Onuf, A Union of Interests: Political and Economic Thought in Revolutionary America (Lawrence, 1990), 39.

127 “Extravagance … Europe”: Archibald Stuart to Thomas Jefferson, Oct. 17, 1785, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VIII, 645; John Thurman, Jr., to William Smith, Sept. 8, 1785, “Extracts from the Letter Books of John Thurman, Junior,” Historical Magazine, 2d ser., IV (Dec. 1868), 294–295; Charles R. Ritcheson, Aftermath of Revolution: British Policy Toward the United States, 1783–1795 (Dallas, 1969), chap. 2.

128 “squanders … living”: William Glassell to John Glassell, Dec. 24, 1786, John George Campbell, Duke of Argyll, ed., Intimate Society Letters of the Eighteenth Century(London, [1910]), II, 485.

129 London warehouses: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Oct. 17, 1785, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC.

130 price of tobacco: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Feb. 14, 1786, ibid.; Collector of Customs to Board of Commissioners, July 10, 1784, Customs Letter-books of the Port of Liverpool, 1711–1813, ed. Rupert C. Jarvis (Manchester, 1954), 118; Maganzin, “Economic Depression,” 75.

131 flow of goods, peace: Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English Business, 1700–1800 (Cambridge, 1987), 98–99; Jonathan Jackson to Thompson & Gordon, Dec. 30, 1784, in Kenneth Wiggins Porter, The Jacksons and the Lees: Two Generations of Massachusetts Merchants, 1765–1844 (Cambridge, 1937), I, 370.

132 Robert Morris: Alan Schaffer, “Virginia’s Critical Period,” in Darrett B. Rutman, ed., The Old Dominion: Essays for Thomas Perkins Abernethy (Charlottesville, 1964), 158–168; Jensen, New Nation, 202–203; Rich, “Speculations,” VMHB, LXXVI (July 1968), 308–309.

133 “I … Friend”: Joshua Johnson to Thomas Johnson, June 5, 1787, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC; Joseph Fenwick to Ignatius Fenwick, May 31, 1787, “The Tobacco Trade with France: Letters of Joseph Fenwick,” ed. Richard K. MacMaster, MHM, LX (1965), 34.

134 “very … follow”: Harrison, Ansley & Co. to Stephen Collins, July 9–Aug. 9, 1784, Stephen Collins & Son Papers, DLC.

135 “tumbling … day”: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Sept. 25, 1785, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC; Hamilton Andrews Hill, “The Trade, Commerce, and Navigation of Boston, 1780–1800,” in Justin Winsor, ed., The Memorial History of Boston (Boston, 1880–81), IV, 200; Johan Alstroemer to Joseph Banks, May 28, 1786, The Banks Letters, ed. Warren R. Dawson (London, 1958),17.

136 James Dunlop: Hoppit, Risk and Failure, 99; Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Nov. 14, 1785, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC.

137 “What … him”: Philip L. Grymes to Edmund Randolph, April 10, 1785, BR Box 6(11), CSmH.

138 auctioned his property: Advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, March 12, 1785.

139 “interfering” … “clamour”: Peter Lyons to Samuel Gist, March 4, 1786, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

140 Severn Eyre, Jr.: Entry of Aug. 15, 1785, Journal of Severn Eyre, ViRHi. On Nelson, see also Arthur Lee to James Monroe, Aug. 23, 1783, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XX, 581; Thomas Nelson, Jr., to Horatio Gates, Feb. 19, 1786, William Nelson, Jr., to [?], Jan. 7, 1790, Emmet Collection, NN.

141 “Every … Money”: Entry of Dec. 25, 1784, The Diary and Selected Papers of Chief Justice William Smith, 1784–1793, ed. L. F. S. Upton (Toronto, 1963–65), I, 175. On expense and perils, see [John] Trusler, The London Adviser and Guide (London, 1786); George Crabbe to Edmund Burke, June 26, 1781, Selected Letters and Journals of George Crabbe, ed. Thomas C. Faulkner (Oxford, 1985), 8–17.

142 play Douglas: Paul Ranger, “Terror and Pity reign in every Breast”: Gothic Drama in the London Patent Theatres, 1750–1820 (London, 1991), 112–115.

143 “saw … die”: Entries of Sept. 25, Oct. 9, 1785, Journal of Severn Eyre, ViRHi; Sarah Siddons to Thomas Sedgwick Whalley, Sept. 28, 1785, Journals and Correspondence of Thomas Sedgwick Whalley, ed. Hill Wickham (London, 1863), I, 445.

144 “soul-harrowing”: Anne Seward to [?], [ca. Oct. 9, 1785], quoted in Percy Fitzgerald, The Kembles (London, [1871]), I, 121. See also Jonathan Bate, “The Romantic Stage,” in Jonathan Bate and Russell Jackson, eds., Shakespeare: An Illustrated Stage History (Oxford, 1996), 94–95.

145 “the Empress of Tragedy”: William Mason to Earl Harcourt, June 2, 1786, The Harcourt Papers, ed. Edward William Harcourt (Oxford, [1880–1905]), VII, 118; Sarah Napier to Susan O’Brien, March 25, 1783, Mary Fox-Strangways, Countess of Ilchester, and Giles Fox-Strangways (Lord Stavordale), eds., The Life and Letters of Lady Sarah Lennox (London, 1902), II, 35.

146 The king told her: Sarah Siddons, The Reminiscences of Sarah Kemble Siddons, 1773–1785, ed. William Van Lennep (Cambridge, 1942), 13.

147 “les grands … Clairon”: Pierre Nicolas Chantreau, Voyage dans les trois royaumes d’Angleterre, d’Écosse et d’Irlande, fait en 1788 et 1789 (Paris, 1792), II, 76; François, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Innocent Espionage: The La Rochefoucauld Brothers’ Tour of England in 1785, trans. Norman Scarfe (Woodbridge, 1995), 205.

148 Richard Cumberland: Richard Cumberland to Lord George Germain, Dec. 3, 1784, The Letters of Richard Cumberland, ed. Richard J. Dircks (New York, 1988), 240; Richard Cumberland, Memoirs of Richard Cumberland, ed. Henry Flanders (Philadelphia, 1856 [orig. publ. London, 1807]), 312; [John Genest], Some Account of the English Stage from the Restoration in 1660 to 1830 (Bath, 1832), VI, 333–334.

149 “It … itself”: Entry of Dec. 4, 1784, Diary of William Smith, ed. Upton, I, 170; entry of Dec. 11, 1784, Marc de Bombelles, Journal de voyage en Grande Bretagne et en Irlande, 1784, ed. Jacques Gury (Oxford, 1989), 303–304.

150 “a wretched” … “pleasure”: Edward Gibbon to Dorothea Gibbon, Nov. 7, 1782, The Letters of Edward Gibbon, ed. J. E. Norton (New York, 1956), II, 315; Thomas Southerne, Isabella; or, the Fatal Marriage, adapted by David Garrick, in The Plays of David Garrick, ed. Harry William Pedicord and Frederick Louis Bergmann (Carbondale, 1980–82), VII, 1–50.

151 Her mad scene: Quoted in John Alexander Kelly, German Visitors to English Theaters in the Eighteenth Century (Princeton, 1936), 95. See also Frederic Reynolds, The Life and Times of Frederic Reynolds (Philadelphia, 1826 [orig. publ. London, 1826]), I, 179; Observations on Mrs. Siddons (Dublin, 1784), 16–23; Linda Kelly, The Kemble Era: John Philip Kemble, Sarah Siddons and the London Stage (New York, 1980), 18–23; [Genest], Some Account of the English Stage, VI, 251–252; Paul Ranger, “I Was Present at the Representation,” Theatre Notebook, XXXIX (1985), 18–25; Christopher Reid, “Burke’s Tragic Muse: Sarah Siddons and the ‘Feminization’ of the Reflections,” in Steven Blackmore, ed., Burke and the French Revolution: Bicentennial Essays (Athens, 1992), 1–27; Gillian Russell, “Burke’s Dagger: Theatricality, Politics and Print Culture in the 1790s,” British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, XX (1997), 1–16.

152 “Five … stand it”: Martha McTier to William Drennan, [ca. June 1785], The Drennan Letters, ed. D. A. Chart (Belfast, 1931), 31; entry of Oct. 21, 1782, The Diary of Sylas Neville, 1767–1788, ed. Basil Cozens-Hardy (London, 1950), 299; Stephen Jones, Biographia Dramatica; or, a Companion to the Playhouse (London, 1812), II, 334–335.

153 “Physicians … Isabella”: Laetitia-Matilda Hawkins, Memoirs, Anecdotes, Facts, and Opinions (London, 1824), I, 136–137; Countess Spencer to Earl Harcourt, May 17, 1783, Harcourt Papers, ed. Harcourt, VIII, 84.

154 George Romney: Humphry Ward and W. Roberts, Romney: A Biographical and Critical Essay (London, 1904), I, 100–101, II, 142–143; William Hayley to Eliza Hayley, Jan. 1783, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of William Hayley, Esq., ed. John Johnson (London, 1823), I, 288.

155 “Ascend … Muse”: Siddons, Reminiscences, ed. Van Lennep, 17. Compare Robert R. Wark, Sir Joshua Reynolds’ Portrait of Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse (San Marino, 1965), esp. 9–13; Richard Wendorf, Sir Joshua Reynolds: The Painter in Society (Cambridge, 1996), 153–156; Shearer West, The Image of the Actor: Verbal and Visual Representation in the Age of Garrick and Kemble (New York, 1991), 106–122. Edgar Wind, Hume and the Heroic Portrait: Studies in Eighteenth-Century Imagery, ed. Jaynie Anderson (Oxford, 1986), 42–46.

156 “most … pleasant”: Sarah Siddons to Thomas Sedgwick Whalley, March 13, 1785, Journals of Whalley, ed. Wickham, I, 425; Donald J. Olsen, Town Planning in London: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, 2d ed. (New Haven, 1982), chap. 4.

157 “forced” … “here”: Siddons, Reminiscences, ed. Van Lennep, 20–21. See also Tate Wilkinson, The Wandering Patentee; or, a History of the Yorkshire Theatres (York, 1795), I, 253–256, III, 5–7; Sandra Richards, The Rise of the English Actress (New York, 1993), chap. 4; Michael R. Booth, “Sarah Siddons,” in Michael R. Booth et al., Three Tragic Actresses: Siddons, Rachel, Ristori (Cambridge, 1996), 10–65; John Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1997), 346–348; Amanda Vickery, The Gentleman’s Daughter: Women’s Lives in Georgian England (New Haven, 1998), 231, 234; Judith Pascoe, Romantic Theatricality: Gender, Poetry, and Spectatorship (Ithaca, 1997), chap. 1; Pat Rogers, “ ‘Towering Beyond Her Sex’: Stature and Sublimity in the Achievement of Sarah Siddons,” in Mary Anne Schofield and Cecilia Macheski, eds., Curtain Calls: British and American Women and the Theatre, 1660–1820 (Athens, 1991), 48–67; Leo Hughes, The Drama’s Patrons: A Study of the Eighteenth-Century London Audience (Austin, 1971), 137–138.

158 “the beau” … “turn”: Entry of March 17, 1785, “The MS Journal of Captain E. Thompson, R.N.,” Cornbill Magazine, XVII (1867), 611. For a letter mentioning the Learned Pig and Sarah Siddons in the same paragraph, see James Thomas Flexner, States Dyckman: American Loyalist (Boston, 1980), 80.

159 arranged cards: Entry of March 10, 1785, Diary of William Smith, ed. Upton, I, 204–205; Peter Oliver to Elisha Hutchinson, Dec. 6, 1784, The Diary and Letters of His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, ed. Peter Orlando Hutchinson (London, 1886), II,416.

160 was a star: Abigail Adams [2d] to John Quincy Adams, July 4–11, 1785, Adams Family Correspondence, ed. L. H. Butterfield et al. (Cambridge, 1963–), VI, 220; Reginald Heber to Elizabeth Heber, April 9, 1785, The Heber Letters, 1783–1832, ed. R. H. Cholmondeley (London, 1950), 33; New Review, VII (April 1785), 289–290; Gentleman’s Magazine, LV, Part 1 (June 1785), 413–414; Ricky Jay, Learned Pigs and Fireproof Women (New York, 1986), 9–13; Dennis Arundell, The Story of Sadler’s Wells (New York, 1965), 37–38; Frederick Cameron Sillar and Ruth Mary Meyler, The Symbolic Pig: An Anthology of Pigs in Literature and Art (Edinburgh, 1961), 61–65; Joseph Strutt, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, ed. J. Charles Cox (London, [1903; orig. publ. 1801]), 183, 200, 235.

161 “really … prevented”: John Tabb to Samuel Gist, Nov. 10, 1784, Samuel Gist v. John Tabb, surviving partner of Richard Booker & Co., 1795, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

162 “our … trade”: William Anderson & Co. to St. George Tucker, March 15, 1786, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; William Anderson & Co. to John Cropper, March 15, 1786, John Cropper Papers, ViRHi; advertisements in Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, March 22, 1786, Virginia Independent Chronicle, Oct. 11, 1786.

163 Severn Eyre, Jr.: Entries of Jan. 8–Feb. 5, 1786, Journal of Eyre, ViRHi.

164 Venice Preserv’d: Entry of Feb. 11, 1786, ibid.; Act V, scene iv, ll. 27–29, Thomas Otway, Venice Preserved, ed. Malcolm Kelsall (Lincoln, 1969), 96; William Van Lennep et al., eds., The London Stage, 1660–1800 (Carbondale, 1965–68), V, Part II, 865–866; entry of Oct. 3, 1786, Sophie in London, 1786: Being the Diary of Sophie v. la Roche, trans. Clare Williams (London, 1933), 266; Observations on Mrs. Siddons, 1–8; Robert Bisset, The History of the Negro Slave Trade (London, 1805), I, 163–164; entry of Nov. 1782, Diary of John Crosier in A. F. J. Brown, Essex People 1750–1900 (Chelmsford, 1972), 24; Thomas Davies, Dramatic Miscellanies, 2d ed. (London, 1785), III, 263–264; [Genest], Some Account of the English Stage, VI, 255–256; Aline Mackenzie Taylor, Next to Shakespeare: Otway’s Venice Preserv’d and The Orphan and Their History on the London Stage (Durham, 1950), 187–200.

165 Cleone: Act III, scene ii, ll. 305–306, Robert Dodsley, Cleone, in Bell’s British Theatre (London, 1791–97), V, 43; Van Lennep et al., eds., London Stage, V, Part II, 933; James Trevenen to Elizabeth Trevenen, Dec. 4, 1786, in Christopher Lloyd and R. C. Anderson, eds., A Memoir of James Trevenen (London, 1959), 89; [Genest], Some Account of the English Stage, VI, 425; Davies, Dramatic Miscellanies, 2d ed., III, 264–265. See also Ranger, Terror and Pity, 95–98.

166 “going” … “hand”: Joshua Johnson to Francis Charlton, Aug. 7, 1786, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC.

167 “old” … “up”: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, June 7, 1786, ibid.

168 “lost … money”: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, June 16, 1788, ibid.

169 “a spruce” … “particular”: Entry of Sept. 29, 1787, Diary of Carter Braxton, Jr., duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia.

170 Shoolbred, Hennessy, and Saule: L. M. Cullen, The Brandy Trade Under the Ancien Régime: Regional Specialisation in the Charente (Cambridge, 1998), 255.

171 Lewis Littlepage: Lewis Littlepage to Elizabeth Lewis Littlepage, Dec. 29, 1787, in Nell Holladay Boand, Lewis Littlepage (Richmond, 1970), 109; Stanislas II Poniatowski to John Sinclair, Jan. 19, 1788, The Correspondence of the Right Honourable Sir John Sinclair, Bart. (London, 1831), I, 23.

172 younger Carter Braxton: Entries of Oct. 2, Nov. 6, 1787, Diary of Braxton, duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia; Anthony Amberg, “The Gamester: A Century of Performances,” Theatre Research International, XV (1990), 105–125; Thomas Somerville, My Own Life and Times, 1741–1814 (Edinburgh, 1861), 213; John Doran, “Their Majesties’ Servants,” or Annals of the English Stage, 2d ed. (London, 1865), 352; Van Lennep et al., eds., London Stage, V, Part II, 1016; Jones, Biographia Dramatica, II, 256–257. See also [Edward Moore], The Gamester. A Tragedy (London, 1753), reproduced in J. Paul Hunter, ed., The Plays of Edward Moore (New York, 1983).

173 a newspaper advertisement: Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, April 2, 1785; George Washington to Bushrod Washington, April 3, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 474–475.

174 Dismal Plantation reports: John Driver to David Jameson, Aug. 26, 1786, Sept. 24, 1789, David Jameson to John Driver, Jan. 25, 1787, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

175 assembled in the Senate: Entries of May 2–3, 1785, Diaries of Washington, ed. Jackson and Twohig, IV, 132–134; minutes of Dismal Swamp Company meeting, May 2–3, 1785, enclosed in David Jameson to Samuel Gist, May 7, 1785, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO; Resolutions of the Dismal Swamp Company, May 2, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., II, 530–531. For “get quit of Negroes,” see George Washington to Lund Washington, Aug. 15, 1778, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XII, 328; Fritz Hirschfeld, George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal(Columbia, 1997), 27–29.

176 “reclaiming,” “invaluable”: George Washington to Jean de Neufville, Sept. 8, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 238–239.

177 “able labourers”: George Washington to Robert Townsend Hooe, Feb. 21, 1786, George Washington to John Page, Oct. 3, 1785, ibid., 567–568, 293–294.

178 owed more than £7,600: Wakelin Welch to James MacDonald, March 27, 1809, T 79/3, ff. 388–394, PRO; David Meade to John Driver, Aug. 9, Sept. 7, 1782, March 15, 1783, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

179 “a good garden”: John Driver, advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, April 10, 1784.

180 being “punctuall”: George Sparling to John Sparling, Aug. 20, 1783, Claim of John Sparling, William Bolden & Co., American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/33, ff. 75–76, PRO.

181 Suffolk: Petition of Inhabitants of Suffolk, Nov. 7, 1785, Legislative Petitions, Nansemond County, Vi; Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, XII, 211–212.

182 “pirates” … “store”: Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, July 30, 1785.

183 “look … Canals”: John Page to George Washington, Sept. 9, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III, 241.

184 fortune by land speculation: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Ruston, Nov. 2, 1784, March 2, 1785, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XXII, 7–11, 240–241; Charles Dilly to Benjamin Rush, Feb. 1, 1786, L. H. Butterfield, “The American Interests of the Firm of E. and C. Dilly, with Their Letters to Benjamin Rush, 1770–1795,” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, XLV (1951), 322.

185 saw Sarah Siddons: Entry of May 18, 1785, Journal of Thomas Ruston, Tench Coxe Papers, Vol. 165, PHi; Van Lennep et al., eds., London Stage, V, Part II, 793, 798; entry of May 18, 1785, The Diary of the Right Hon. William Windham, 1784 to 1810, ed. Cecilia Anne Baring (London, 1866), 53.

186 George and Sarah Fairfax: George William Fairfax and Sarah Cary Fairfax to George Washington, July 2, 1785, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., III,97.

187 gave Samuel Gist: Entry of June 17, 1785, Journal of Ruston, Tench Coxe Papers, PHi. shingles at Dismal Plantation: : David Jameson to John Driver, Jan. 25, 1787, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

188 a “beautiful bay”: Advertisement, Virginia Independent Chronicle, March 21, 1787.

189 “fine … Horse”: Advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, April 16, 1785.

190 “Duns and Sheriffs”: John Page to Thomas Jefferson, April 28, 1785, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., VIII, 117.

191 “several young Negroes”: Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, April 16,1785.

192 take over the law practice: William Nelson, Jr., to Henry Tazewell, March 19, 1784, Tazewell Family Papers, Vi; William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, March 26, 1785, William Short Papers, DLC; advertisements, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, July 9, Aug. 27, 1785.

193 Nelson’s clients: B. Dickson to William Nelson, Jr., April 13, 1786, Miscellaneous Letters, 516/2, NcU; Otway Byrd to St. George Tucker, Oct. 16, 1786, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

194 Polly Nelson died: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Oct. 16, 1785, Feb. 20–28, June 14, 1786, William Short Papers, DLC.

195 wrote his will: A copy is in the Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

196 “seem’d … Live”: Henry Tucker to St. George Tucker, April 19, June 15, 1786, Henry Tucker, Jr., to St. George Tucker, July 8, 1786, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

197 Page and Lee: William Lee to John Page, May 2, June 4, July 25, Aug. 13, Nov. 4, 11, Dec. 27, 1786, Feb. 20, 1787, William Lee to Samuel Thorp, Aug. 5, 19, 1786, William Lee Letterbook, 1783–1787, ViRHi; John Page to [?], May 15, 1786, Emmet Collection, NN.

198 “Every … standing”: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, May 4–5, 1787, William Short Papers, DLC.

199 “a very … woman”: Entry of Feb. 27, 1786, Quebec to Carolina: Diary of Hunter, ed. Wright and Tinling, 235.

200 “I am … it”: Elizabeth Farley to Thomas Taylor Byrd, June 25, 1783, Byrd Letterbook, Byrd Family Papers, ViRHi.

201 John Dunbar: Entry of Feb. 27, 1786, Quebec to Carolina: Diary of Hunter, ed. Wright and Tinling, 234–235; Joseph Hadfield, An Englishman in America, 1785: Being the Diary of Joseph Hadfield, ed. Douglas S. Robertson (Toronto, 1933), 2.

202 Dunbar as administrator: James Taylor to St. George Tucker, June 9, 1786, John Dunbar to St. George Tucker, Oct. 17, 1786, Aug. 19, Sept. 12, Oct. 16, 1787, draft of a bill, [ca. 1787], in St. George Tucker, Miscellaneous Legal Materials, Box 74, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia (Richmond, 1828), [1787, October Session], 36; advertisement, Virginia Independent Chronicle, Aug. 16, 1786; List of Slaves sold, March 19, 1790, Account of Slaves, Oct. 15, 1790, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi. Compare 1790 lists with 1773 lists, Richard Corbin Papers, ViWC.

203 “there … thereon”: John Page to Robert Carter, Aug. 29, 1786, Joseph Rubinfine Autographs—Historical Americana List 44, Item 74.

204 Carter replied: Robert Carter to John Page, Sept. 21, 1786, Letterbook VI, Robert Carter Papers, NcD.

205 “equal … State”: Advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, Aug. 16, 30, Oct. 11, 1786.

206 “I … land”: Patrick Henry to [?], May 22, 1784, in Hamilton, American Autographs, I, 325.

207 “as I … cash”: Mary Willing Byrd to Patrick Henry, Nov. 22, 1786, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC.

208 “encircled with Difficulties”: Elizabeth Willing Powel to Martha Washington, Nov. 3[0], 1787, “Worthy Partner”: The Papers of Martha Washington, ed. Joseph E. Fields (Westport, 1994), 198.

209 “overswelling … swamps”: John Anstey to John Forster, Feb. 22, 1787, AO 12/113, ff. 62–65, PRO.

210 Frances Burwell Page: John Page to St. George Tucker, June 12, 1787, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Page to Thomas Jefferson, March 7, 1788, Anna Blair Banister to Thomas Jefferson, Feb. 19, 1787, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XII, 650, XI,167.

211 advertised an auction: Virginia Independent Chronicle, March 21, 1787.

212 “I … Expectation”: John Page to St. George Tucker, May 23, 1787, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

213 he advertised the property: Virginia Independent Chronicle, June 20, 1787.

214 Jolly Tar: John Page to Thomas Jefferson, March 7, 1788, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XII, 652; Joshua Johnson to Francis Charlton, July 8, 1787, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC.

215 Mount Vernon: George Washington to Lund Washington, May 7, 1787, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., V, 173.

216 “exceedingly anxious”: George Washington to John Francis Mercer, Nov. 6, 1786, ibid., IV, 336–337.

217 were too high: George Washington to Bushrod Washington, Dec. 3, 1787, ibid., V, 473–475.

218 To a Frenchman: George Washington to Henry L. Charton, May 20, 1786, ibid., IV, 63–66.

219 Pennsylvania tracts: George Washington to Thomas Smith, July 28, 1786, and advertisement, ibid., 173–174, 258–259n.7.

220 Henry Emanuel Lutterloh: Henry Emanuel Lutterloh to George Washington, Jan. 3, June 13, 1787, George Washington to Henry Emanuel Lutterloh, April 8, 1787, ibid., IV, 498–499, V, 228–229, 129–130.

221 “The Members … Part”: John Page to George Washington, March 9, 1787, ibid., V, 76–77.

222 “the good” … “fatal”: Edmund Pendleton to James Madison, April 7, 1787, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., XVII, 516.

223 “intollerable” … “death”: John Russell Spence to James Hunter, July 2, 1787, Hunter-Garnett Collection, ViU.

224 “an almost … loss”: George Washington to Charles Lee, April 4, 1788, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 197–198; entry of July 31, 1787, Diary of Thomas Bolling, BR 734, CSmH.

225 At Dismal Plantation: John Driver to David Jameson, Oct. 1, 1787, June 2, 1788, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Edmund Pendleton to James Madison, Aug. 12, 1787, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., XVII, 519.

226 “have … money”: George Washington to Charles Lee, April 4, 1788, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., VI, 198.

227 totaling 660 acres: Nicholas Long, advertisement, Virginia Gazette, or, the American Advertiser, July 9, 1785; Alan D. Watson, “Society and Economy in Colonial Edgecombe County,” NCHR, L (July 1973), 239n.42.

228 showed more debts: List of Debts, Feb. 5, 1791, Chatham Papers, PRO 30/8/343, ff. 168–169, PRO.

229 Gilbert Francklyn: Sheila Lambert, ed., House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century (Wilmington, 1975), LXXI, 80–98.

230 “handsome” new houses: John Lloyd, The Early History of the Old South Wales Iron Works (London, 1906), 74; Kent’s Directory for the Year 1785 (London, 1785), 11; John Noorthouck, A New History of London (London, 1773), 647–648; [Edward Pugh], London; Being an Accurate History and Description (London, 1805–13), IV, 87; [Edward Pugh], Walks Through London (London, 1817), I, 151–152; John Heneage Jesse, London and Its Celebrities (Boston, n.d.), II, 118.

231 signing his will: Printed in Lloyd, Early History of Iron Works, 52–55. On Rachel Harwood and Mary Passapae, see Oswald Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 1661–1861 (Baltimore, 1915), II, 490.

232 “Go … district”: Bristol Gazette, Feb. 2, 1786, quoted in John P. Addis, The Crawshay Dynasty: A Study in Industrial Organisation and Development, 1765–1867 (Cardiff, 1957), 15n.76.

233 his estate was left: Chris Evans, “The Labyrinth of Flames”: Work and Social Conflict in Early Industrial Merthyr Tydfil (Cardiff, 1993), 17–18; Addis, Crawshay Dynasty, 10; G. G. L. Hayes, Introduction, The Letterbook of Richard Crawshay, 1788–1797, ed. Chris Evans (Cardiff, 1990), 151.

234 “our young Landlords”: Richard Crawshay to James Cockshutt, Aug. 3, 1791, Letterbook of Crawshay, ed. Evans, 112.

235 payment of £5,000: Richard Crawshay to Winter & Kaye, Dec. 2, 1795, Letterbook of Crawshay, ed. Evans, 152; Addis, Crawshay Dynasty, 12.

236 “that … world”: Entry of Aug, 8, 1797, [J. H. Manners, Duke of Rutland], Journal of a Tour Through North and South Wales, the Isle of Man, &c. &c. (London, 1805), 61–72; entry of May 23, 1803, M. W. Thompson, ed., The Journeys of Sir Richard Colt Hoare (Gloucester, 1983), 235; Charles Blagden to Joseph Banks, Aug. 24, 1791, Aug. 29, 30, Sept. 2, 1804, Banks Letters, ed. Dawson, 77, 95; Herbert M. Vaughan, “A Synopsis of Two Tours Made in Wales in 1775 and in 1811,” Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, XXXVIII (1927), 76–78; Frank Llewellyn-Jones, “Two Centuries of Innovation in Welsh Industry,” ibid., new series, III (1997), 91–92; Samuel Smiles, Industrial Biography: Iron Workers and Tool Makers (London, 1876), 130–131.

237 it had seventeen: Evans, Labyrinth of Flames, 20, 24–25, 28; Gwyn A. Williams, “The Merthyr of Dic Penderyn,” in Glanmor Williams, ed., Merthyr Politics: The Making of a Working-Class Tradition (Cardiff, 1966), 9; Rick Szostak, The Role of Transportation in the Industrial Revolution: A Comparison of England and France (Montreal, 1991), 275n.53.

238 James Bacon: John Driver to David Jameson, Feb. 15, May 19, 1791, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

239 “generally” … “figure”: Entry of Feb. 18, 1782, The Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig von Closen, 1780–1783, ed. Evelyn M. Acomb (Chapel Hill, 1958), 180–181; entry of April 10–11, 1782, François-Jean, Marquis de Chastellux, Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781 and 1782, ed. Howard C. Rice, Jr. (Chapel Hill, 1963), II, 383–386.

240 “very anxious”: Entry of Feb. 21, 1788, Diary of William Heth, DLC.

241 “I … Government”: Alexander Donald to Thomas Jefferson, Nov. 12, 1787, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XII, 345.

242 “their” … “war”: David Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson, Nov. 29, 1788, ibid., XIV, 300–301.

243 “it is … Sovereign”: George Washington to John Jay, March 10, 1787, Papers of Washington: Confederation, ed. Abbot et al., V, 80.

244 “impending ruin”: George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, Aug. 31, 1788, ibid., VI,493.

245 Page and the Constitution: Archibald Stuart to James Madison, Oct. 21, 1787, Jan. 14, 1788, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., X, 202, 374; James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, April 22, 1788, John Page to Thomas Jefferson, March 7, 1788, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XIII, 98–99, XII, 650–652.

246 south of the James River: Richard R. Beeman, The Old Dominion and the New Nation, 1788–1801 (Lexington, 1972), 50–51, 57; Risjord, Chesapeake Politics, 115, 325, 329–330.

247 “a long … scene”: Entry of June 10, 1786, Quebec to Carolina: Diary of Hunter, ed. Wright and Tinling, 268.

248 “with … grace”: Schoepf, Travels, trans. Morrison, II, 95–96.

249 “The whole … us”: Archibald Stuart to John Breckinridge, June 19, 1788, Breckinridge Family Papers, DLC; Risjord, Chesapeake Politics, 114–116.

250 persisted in evasion: Rich, “Speculations,” VMHB, LXXVI (July 1968), 314–317; Isaac Samuel Harrell, Loyalism in Virginia: Chapters in the Economic History of the Revolution (Durham, 1926), 140–144.

251 “foreigners … them”: Merrill Jensen et al., eds., The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution (Madison, 1976–), X, 1469.

252 “benign … men”: William Lee to Samuel Thorp, Nov. 29, 1792, William Lee Letter-book, 1792–1793, Lee Family Papers, ViRHi.

253 “indolent … tricksters”: François Dupont to Etienne Clavière, Jan. 10, 1789, “Letter from Petersburg,” ed. Nall, VMHB, LXXXII (April 1974), 146.

254 “I … State”: Joshua Johnson to Wallace & Muir, Nov. 12, 1787, Joshua Johnson Letterbook, Peter Force Collection, Series 8D, DLC.

255 Virginians’ refusal: Risjord, Chesapeake Politics, 116.

256 “The new … us”: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Aug. 12, 1788, William Short Papers, DLC.

257 in place of Dr. Thomas Walker: John Redd, “Reminiscences of Western Virginia, 1770–1790,” VMHB, VII (July 1899), 8; Franklin Minor, “Memoranda of Inquiries about Dr. Thomas Walker,” Franklin Minor Letters, Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi; Thomas Lewis to John Preston, Dec. 13, 1787, Preston Family Papers, ViRHi; Thomas Jefferson to John Nicholas, Sr., Jan. 20, 1790, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XVI, 115.

258 the Loyal Company: Thomas Walker to John Preston, Aug. 22, 1785, Preston Papers, Vol. 5, f. 20, Draper Collection, Series QQ, WHi; Francis Walker to John Preston, April 12, 1786, Preston Family Papers, ViRHi; Thomas Walker to John Breckinridge, June 27, Aug. 22, 1785, Breckinridge Family Papers, DLC; Francis Walker to Francis Preston, June 25, 1789, Sept. 2, 1790, Feb. 24, 1791, Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, DLC; Bill of Complaint of Successors to the Loyal Company, TQHGM, IV (1922), 87–95.

259 Landon Cabell: Entry of Dec. 17, 1785, Diary of William Cabell, in Alexander Brown, The Cabells and Their Kin (Richmond, 1939), 231.

260 “My son … it”: Minor, “Memoranda of Inquiries,” Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi.

261 “liable to intoxication”: [Francis Preston], [Draft of an answer], Preston Family Papers—Gray Collection, Folder 8, KyLoF.

262 “had … old”: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, April 9, 1806, William Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

263 “good” … “enjoyed”: Francis Walker to Daniel Smith, Dec. 22, 1791, Virginia MSS, Vol. 7, f. 33, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi.

264 wrote his will: Thomas Walker, Will, May 13, 1788, copies in Speed Family Papers, KyLoF, and Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

265 “closely … accounts”: Francis Walker to Francis Preston, Feb. 24, 1791, Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, DLC.

266 “drank … Death”: Patrick Parker to James Parker, June 18, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

267 Elizabeth Farley Banister: Francis Walker to Francis Preston, June 25, 1789, Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, DLC; Maria Page to Elizabeth Farley, Dec. 26, 1787, Shippen Family Papers, DLC; Patrick Parker to James Parker, Jan. 4, 1790, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

268 his son, John: John Walker to Francis Walker, Oct. 24, 1801, John Walker Papers, ViRHi.

269 “an exact match”: Margaret Davenport to Elizabeth Pelham, May 20, 1792, “Letters Addressed to Miss Elizabeth Pelham, William Blagrove and William Pelham,” WMQ, 2d ser., IX (Oct. 1929), 271.

270 “offered love”: Elizabeth Walker apparently told her husband in May 1788, when John Walker wrote a letter which Jefferson did not receive. See Thomas Jefferson to John Walker, April 13, 1803, Vi. For “offered love” and a discussion of the subject, see Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time (Boston, 1948–81), I, appendix III. See also Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XVI, 157n.

271 Thomas Walker: Minor, “Memoranda of Inquiries” and Franklin Minor to L. C. Draper, Jan. 30, 1853, Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi; “Inventory of the Personal Estate of Doctr. Thomas Walker,” Page-Walker Manuscripts, ViU.

272 the Bank of England: Hoppit, Risk and Failure, 135–138; Julian Hoppit, “The Use and Abuse of Credit in Eighteenth-Century England,” in Neil McKendrick and R. B. Outhwaite, eds., Business Life and Public Policy (Cambridge, 1986), 67–71.

273 the South Sea Bubble: Letter from London, Virginia Gazette and Weekly Advertiser (Richmond), Oct. 9, 1788.

274 James Russell: Jacob M. Price, “One Family’s Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain, and India, 1707–1857,” MHM, LXXII (1977), 207. See also John Thurman, Jr., to Sargent, Chambers & Co., June 14, 1788, “Letter Books of Thurman,” Historical Magazine, 2d ser., IV (Dec. 1868), 297.

275 Parker’s son, Patrick: Patrick Parker to James Parker, July 15, 1787, Aug. 26, Sept. 20, 1789, Sept. 6, Nov. 12, 1790, June 1, 1791, Parker Family Papers, Liverpool Public Library; Riddel, Colquhoun & Co. v. John L. Fulwell et al., 1791, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

276 “Their … saw”: Thomas Jefferson to John Page, May 4, 1786, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., IX, 445; Olsen, Town Planning, chap. 4; Andrew Byrne, Bedford Square: An Architectural Study (London, 1990).

277 New neighbors: The Universal British Directory of Trade, Commerce and Manufacture (London, [1798]), V; entry of Oct. 13, 1800, The Diaries and Correspondence of the Right Hon. George Rose, ed. Leveson Vernon Harcourt (London, 1860), I, 285; R. G. Thorne, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1790–1820 (London, 1986), V, 104–105; William Morice to Samuel Peters, March 24, 1790, The Papers of Loyalist Samuel Peters, ed. Kenneth Walter Cameron (Hartford, 1978), 76; Sarah Harriet Burney to Martha Young, June 28, 1793, The Letters of Sarah Harriet Burney, ed. Lorna J. Clark (Athens, 1997), 7; Horace Twiss, The Public and Private Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon, 2d ed. (London, 1844), I, 354; George H. Cunningham, London (London, 1927), 34, 268; Laurence Gomme and Philip Norman, eds., London County Council Survey of London. Volume V: The Parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields (London, 1914), Part II, 150–151, 155, 185; Hubert F. Barclay and Alice Wilson-Fox, A History of the Barclay Family (London, 1934), III, 251–252; Gentleman’s Magazine, LIX (Aug. 1789), 762, LX (Aug. 1790), 770; Dawson, ed., Banks Letters, 66–75; J. A. Fuller Maitland, ed., Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Philadelphia, 1926), V, 563.

278 “much in style”: Entry of May 26, 1799, Diary of Littleton Dennis Teackle, DLC. For Gist’s possessions, see his will in C 117/335, PRO. See also Dan Cruickshank and Neil Burton, Life in the Georgian City (London, 1990).

279 “The streets … it”: Entry of Jan. 10, 1789, Diary of Carter Braxton, Jr., ViRHi; Thomas Barker to Joseph Banks, March 28, 1789, Banks Letters, ed. Dawson,32.

280 Jerome Bernard Weuves: Gentleman’s Magazine, LXV (June 1789), 573; testimony of Jerome Bernard Weuves, Report of the Lords of the Committee of Council … Concerning the Present State of the Trade to Africa (London, 1789), Part I.

281 go above £6: Samuel Davidson to Donald & Burton, June 30, 1789, Dunlop Family Papers, DLC.

282 more than £14: Rowles, Grymes & Co. to Philip L. Grymes, Feb. 3, 1790, BR Box 260(47), CSmH.

283 Walker’s tobacco: William Anderson to Thomas Walker, Feb. 27, 1790, Thomas Walker Papers, William Cabell Rives Papers, Box 162, DLC.

284 “unhappy family differences”: Meriwether Lewis to Lucy Marks, Oct. 16, 1791, Lewis Family Papers, Vi.

285 “that he … since”: [William Jones] to Richard Hanson, Aug. 19, 1789, in W. E. Minchinton, The Trade of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century (Bristol, 1957), 174–175.

286 owed £34,000 … £80,000: List of Debts, Feb. 5, 1791, Chatham Papers, PRO 30/8/343, ff. 168–169, PRO; Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1993), 164.

287 “strong … persons”: John Eardley-Wilmot, Historical View of the Commission for Enquiring into the Losses, Services, and Claims of the American Loyalists (Boston, 1972 [orig. publ. London, 1815]), 89–90; 29 Geo. III 1789, chap. 62, The Statutes at Large (Cambridge, 1762–1865), XXXVI, 687–691.

288 In his memorial: Memorials, July 21, Sept. 30, 1789, Claim of Samuel Gist, American Loyalist Claims, AO 13/30, PRO.

289 in a remittance: Deposition of Benjamin Toler, May 7, 1807, Anderson’s Heirs &c v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

290 “In the … cold”: Russell Jackson, ed., “Johanna Schopenhauer’s Journal: A German View of the London Theatre Scene, 1803–5,” Theatre Notebook, LII (1998), 151.

291 “convinced … fortnight”: Sarah Siddons to Bedina Wynn, June 3, 1789, in Roger Manvell, Sarah Siddons: Portrait of an Actress (New York, 1971), 362.

292 her “nice house”: Sarah Siddons to Thomas Sedgwick Whalley, Oct. 1, 1786, Journals and Correspondence of Whalley, ed. Wickham, I, 487.

293 moved in 1790: Kalman A. Burnin, ed., “The Letters of Sarah and William Siddons to Hester Lynch Piozzi in the John Rylands Library,” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, LII (1969), 59n.3.

294 Irish law student: Entry of July 8, 1804, Joseph Farington, The Farington Diary, ed. James Greig (London, 1923–28), II, 265; Leonard Chappelow to Hester Piozzi, June 13, 1804, The Piozzi Letters, ed. Edward A. Bloom and Lillian D. Bloom (Newark, 1989–93), III, 471n.2. For another episode see John Taylor, Records of My Life (New York, 1833), 287.

295 “He” … “England”: Entry of Feb. 13, 1788, The American Journals of Lt. John Enys, ed. Elizabeth Cometti (Syracuse, 1976), 245, 249; Dennis J. Pogue, “Mount Vernon: Transformation of an Eighteenth-Century Plantation System,” in Paul A. Shackel and Barbara J. Little, eds., Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake (Washington, 1994), 108–110; Dennis J. Pogue, “Giant in the Earth: George Washington, Landscape Designer,” in Rebecca Yamin and Karen Bescherer Metheny, eds., Landscape Archaeology: Reading and Interpreting the American Historical Landscape (Knoxville, 1996), 52–69; Robert F. Dalzell, Jr., and Lee Baldwin Dalzell, George Washington’s Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America (New York, 1998), 116–119.

296 the stallion Magnolio: Entry of Feb. 13, 1788, Journals of Enys, ed. Cometti, 249; George Washington to Henry Lee, Nov. 30, 1788, Papers of Washington: Presidential, ed. Abbot et al., I, 139 and 139–140n; entry of Dec. 9, 1788, Diaries of Washington, ed. Jackson and Twohig, V, 432.

297 the tracts purchased jointly: Henry Lee to George Washington, Feb. 6, 1789, Papers of Washington: Presidential, ed. Abbot et al., I, 282.

298 Byrd’s de scription: Compare “A Description of the Dismal Swamp, in Virginia,” Columbian Magazine, III (April 1789), 234, and [William Byrd], “To the Kings most Excellent Majty,” [1729], BR Box 256(29), CSmH.

299 “did not … again”: John Jameson to George Washington, Jan. 30, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

300 William Nelson, Jr.: David Stuart to George Washington, Dec. 3, 1789, Papers of Washington: Presidential, ed. Abbot et al., IV, 358–359; William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Dec. 8, 1791, William Short Papers, DLC.

301 John Driver’s reports: John Driver to David Jameson, June 10, 17, Sept. 5, 24, 1789, Joseph Hornsby to David Jameson, Jan. 20, 1790, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

302 Major John Simon Farley: Robert Taylor to St. George Tucker, Jan. 6, 1790, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Simon Farley and Elizabeth Morson v. Thomas Lee Shippen and Elizabeth Carter Shippen et al., March 1794, in Decisions of Cases in Virginia by the High Court of Chancery … by George Wythe (Charlottesville, 1903), 253–260.

303 gave a dinner: Entry of March 4, 1790, The Diary of William Maclay, ed. Kenneth R. Bowling and Helen E. Veit (Baltimore, 1988), 212; Samuel Johnston to James Iredell, March 4, 1790, James Iredell Papers, NcD.

304 “having … them”: George Washington to Warner Lewis, March 5, 1790, Papers of Washington: Presidential, ed. Abbot et al., V, 201.

305 “impracticable … vain”: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Ruston, Nov. 2, 1784, Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates, XXII, 8.

306 for 75¢: Hugh Williamson to Thomas Ruston, March 2, 1785, ibid., 240.

307 William Short: William Short to Peyton Short, July 28, 1800, William and Peyton Short Papers, ViW; Benjamin Harrison, Jr., to Thomas Jefferson, July 18, 1798, William Short Papers, DLC; William Short to Thomas Jefferson, Oct. 7, 1793, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XXVII, 202–204; George Green Shackelford, Jefferson’s Adoptive Son: The Life of William Short, 1759–1848 (Lexington, 1993), 15.

308 “Immense” … “Worth”: John Harvie to Thomas Jefferson, May 15, 1798, Thomas Jefferson to William Short, April 13, 1800, William Short Papers, DLC; entry of Nov. 21, 1799, Jefferson’s Memorandum Books, ed. Bear and Stanton, II, 1008.

309 “lost” … “jail”: Benjamin Rush, The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush, ed. George W. Corner (Princeton, 1948), 314.

310 John Driver collected: John Driver to Thomas Ruston, Nov. 18, 1791 [filed as 1790], Thomas Ruston to John Driver, June 1, Nov. 2, 1794, Nov. 16, 1795, William Nivison to Thomas Ruston, Jan. 7, 1789 [1790], Ruston Papers, Tench Coxe Papers, Series II, PHi; Memorandum Book, “Virginia Suffolk Estate,” Memorandum, Aug. 1, 1793, Thomas Ruston Letterbook, Coxe Papers, Vols. 179, 166, PHi; Nansemond County Land Book, 1795, Nansemond County Land Tax Lists, Vi.

311 “every … city”: Rush, Autobiography, ed. Corner, 314.

312 opened his court: Edmund Randolph to George Washington, Dec. 15, 1789, Papers of Washington: Presidential, ed. Abbot et al., IV, 415.

313 “extreme” … “citizens”: G. Brown Goode, Virginia Cousins: A Study of the Ancestry and Posterity of John Goode of Whitby (Richmond, 1887), 56–57. See also Norma Lois Peterson, Littleton Waller Tazewell (Charlottesville, 1983), 3.

314 “the Disposition … Persecution”: John Wickham, Jr., to Edmund Fanning, April 12, 1783, Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi. See also Dwight Holbrook, The Wickham Claim (Riverhead, 1986).

315 to study law: John Wickham, Jr., to John Wickham, Sr., March 1, 1786, Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi.

316 a library of law books: John Coalter to William Coalter, Feb. 30 [sic], 1789, Brown-Coalter-Tucker Papers, ViW.

317 “a young … cleaverness”: John Marshall to Percival Butler, Aug. 16, 1789, The Papers of John Marshall, ed. Herbert A. Johnson et al. (Chapel Hill, 1974–), II, 36.

318 leader of the Richmond bar: Duke de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels Through the United States of America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, trans. H. Neuman (London, 1799), III, 75–76; Charles F. Hobson, The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Rule of Law (Lawrence, 1996), 29–33.

319 Richmond: Entry of Feb. 28, 1786, Quebec to Carolina: Diary of Hunter, ed. Wright and Tinling, 236–237; John W. Reps, Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland (Williamsburg, 1972), 273–275; Isaac Weld, Travels Through the States of North America, and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, During the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, 3d ed. (London, 1800), I, 189–191; Schoepf, Travels, trans. Morrison, II, 49–57.

320 “he … cleaver”: Charles Grymes to John Hatley Norton, Dec. 1, 1790, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

321 British clients: William Wirt to Dabney Carr, March 25, 1803, William Wirt Letters, Vi.

322 “gild … subjects”: [William Wirt], The Letters of the British Spy (Richmond, 1803), 30–31.

323 “the most … bar”: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Sept. 30, 1806, William Short Papers, DLC.

324 “I … measures”: John Wickham to Henry Lee, Dec. 28, 1799, Henry Lee v. Hanbury’s Exors, 1804, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

325 William Anderson: Anderson & Co. v. Austin & Co., 1794, ibid.

326 commission of 5 percent: Dan Call to William Short, Jan. 15, 1807, William Short Papers, DLC.

327 charged 10 percent: John Wickham to Samuel Gist, June 16, 1803, T 79/115, pp. 308–313, PRO.

328 “much … before”: John Wickham, Jr., to John Wickham, Sr., Jan. 20, 1792, Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi.

329 “the famous lawyer”: William Munford to John Coalter, Dec. 14, 1791, “Glimpses of Old College Life,” WMQ, 1st ser., VIII (Jan. 1900), 155.

330 “to grow … profitable”: John Wickham, Jr., to John Wickham, Sr., Dec. 11, 1799, Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi; John J. Reardon, Edmund Randolph: A Biography (New York, 1974), 349.

331 large brick houses: Peterson, Tazewell, 11; Charles E. Brownell, “Laying the Groundwork,” in Charles E. Brownell et al., The Making of Virginia Architecture (Richmond, 1992), 58–59, 244–245.

332 “I” … “talents”: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Dec. 8, 1791, William Short Papers, DLC. See also Robert Douthat Meade, Patrick Henry: Practical Revolutionary (Philadelphia, 1969), 403–412.

333 “thought … recovery”: Edmund Pendleton to James Madison, Dec. 9, 1791, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., XVII, 552.

334 “to harangue … paying”: John Mason to Fulwar Skipwith, May 24, 1792, Fulwar Skipwith Papers, Causten-Pickett Papers, DLC.

335 “Mr. Henry … question”: [?] to [James Ritchie], June 10, 1792, in James Ritchie to William Molleson, Aug. 2–4, 1792, Melville Papers, MiU-C.

336 Ware v. Hylton: Charles F. Hobson, “The Recovery of British Debts in the Federal Circuit Court of Virginia, 1790–1797,” VMHB, XCII (April 1984), 176–200; Emory G. Evans, “Private Indebtedness and the Revolution in Virginia, 1776 to 1796,” WMQ, 3d ser., XXVIII (July 1971), 349–374; Herbert E. Sloan, Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (New York, 1995), chap. 1. Charles F. Hobson has edited the documents of Jones v. Walker and Ware v. Hylton in Papers of Marshall, ed. Johnson et al., V, 259–329. For a summary of the arguments in Jones v. Walker, see Edmund Pendleton to James Madison, Dec. 9, 1791, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., XVII, 552–559. For William Wirt’s version of a stenographic report of Patrick Henry’s argument, see William Wirt, Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1817), 312–369.

337 for Samuel Gist: Gist’s cases may be found under his name in USCCVD(EC), Vi.

338 “large sums”: Examination of Samuel Gist, May 9, 1808, T 79/31, PRO.

339 Venice Preserv’d: Entry of Oct. 3, 1786, Sophie in London, trans. Williams, 266; Thomas Lee Shippen to Anne Home Livingston, Oct. 4, 1786, in Ethel Armes, ed., Nancy Shippen Her Journal Book (New York, 1968 [orig. publ. 1935]), 245–246; Van Lennep et al., eds., London Stage, V, Part II, 925.

340 “I … grandfather”: Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, Sept. 24, 1790, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

341 “We … least”: Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, March 3–5, 1791, ibid.

342 “the happiest” … “women”: Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, March 11, 1791, ibid.

343 “than … Country”: M[ary Willing Byrd] to [Anne Home Livingston], n.d. [ca. 1791], ibid.

344 more than £430: Accounts of Mercers Creek Estate and Henry B. Lightfoot to [John Dunbar?], Nov. 15, 1792, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, Oct. 10, 1792, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

345 for three shares: Additional Subscriptions, April 10, 1792, Dismal Swamp Canal Company Subscription Papers, Business Records, Acc. No. 22867, Vi. On Thomas Lee Shippen see also Paul C. Nagel, The Lees of Virginia: Seven Generations of an American Family (New York, 1990), 144–152; Randolph Shipley Klein, Portrait of an Early American Family: The Shippens of Pennsylvania Across Five Generations (Philadelphia, 1975), 214–219.

346 the Dismal Swamp canal: Walter Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina (Winston and Goldsboro, 1895–1905), XXV, 83–93; Hening, ed., Statutes at Large, XIII, 145–146.

347 “the Emporium” … “it”: Edward Jones et al., Protest, Dec. 15, 1790, General Assembly, Session Records, Nov.–Dec. 1790, Box 4, Nc-Ar.

348 “The … lands”: Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, Jan. 12,1791.

349 the roadside tract: George Washington to John Lewis, July 20, 1792, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXII, 88–89; John Lewis, Deed to John Cowper, May 17, 1791, transcribed in Fillmore Norfleet Papers, Box 13, Vi; George Augustine Washington to George Washington, Dec. 7, 1790, Papers of Washington: Presidential, ed. Abbot et al., VII, 43, 44–45n.7.

350 about 140 shares: Robert Andrews to David Jameson, Sept. 3, 1791, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

351 invested $12,500: Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia [1791, October Session] (Richmond, 1791), 62–63.

352 Few North Carolinians: Jesse Forbes Pugh, Three Hundred Years Along the Pasquotank: A Biographical History of Camden County (Old Trap, 1957), 112–113.

353 “very … children”: Quoted in “Brief Life of Joseph Hornsby,” KyLoF. See also William Munford to John Coalter, June 13, 1790, Brown-Coalter-Tucker Papers, ViW. “prevented … leave”: Thomas Newton, Jr., to David Jameson, Aug. 22, 1791, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

354 “I … business”: Robert Andrews to David Jameson, Aug. 13, 1791, ibid.

355 “many … incroachments”: John Driver to David Jameson, Feb. 15, 1791, Thomas Newton, Jr., to David Jameson, Aug. 22, 1791, Account with David Jameson, ibid.

356 “I … speedily”: David Jameson to Francis Walker, Nov. 2, 1791, Thomas Walker Papers, William Cabell Rives Papers, Box 162, DLC.

357 paid about half: John Jameson to George Washington, Jan. 30, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

358 about $80,000: Report by President and Directors, [ca. 1816], Dismal Swamp Canal Company, Canal Companies, Internal Improvement Companies, Board of Public Works, Vi. “in considerable forwardness”: John Jones Spooner, “A Topographical Description of the County of Prince George, in Virginia, 1793,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 1st ser., III (1794), 86.

359 “small … appearance”: la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III,30.

360 Laboring on the canal trench: Weld, Travels, I, 180–181; la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III, 13–14; Darwin H. Stapleton, ed., The Engineering Drawings of Benjamin Henry Latrobe (New Haven, 1980), 137–138; Brown, “Dismal Swamp Canal,” AN, V (1945), 209; Clifford Reginald Hinshaw, Jr., “North Carolina Canals before 1860,” NCHR, XXV (Jan. 1948), 21; Thomas C. Parramore, Peter C. Stewart, and Tommy L. Bogger, Norfolk: The First Four Centuries (Charlottesville, 1994),147.

361 John Sparling and William Bolden: John Sparling and William Bolden to John Lawrence, Feb. 14, 1793, Letter Book of James Sparling and William Bolden, Liverpool Public Library.

362 “form … it”: Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, April 10, 1793.

363 for £1,000: Fielding Lewis Estate Account, Sol Feinstone Collection of the American Revolution, No. 1978, PPAmP; List of transfers, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

364 The meeting’s only resolution: David Jameson, Jr., to George Washington, May 23, 1793, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

365 “I … place”: Thomas Newton, Jr., to David Jameson, Jr., May 24, 1793, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

366 The canal advanced: Petition of the President and Directors of the Dismal Swamp Canal Company, Dec. 6, 1809, Legislative Petitions, Norfolk County, Vi; la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III, 14.

367 four assessments: George Kelly to Jacquelin Ambler, Nov. 16, 1793, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, VI, 640. See also J. R. Ward, The Finance of Canal Building in Eighteenth-Century England (Oxford, 1974), chap. 2.

368 sold for $100: Elizabeth Shippen to William Shippen, April 9, 1799, Shippen Family Papers, DLC; Thomas Jefferson to William Short, April 13, 1800, William Short Papers, DLC.

369 Margaret Lowther: John Page to Mann Page, March 12, 1790, Hunt, ed., Fragments, 184; entry of Aug. 26, 1789, Diary of Robert Lewis, Lewis Family Papers, ViRHi; John Page to St. George Tucker, April 18, 1790, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Thomas Jefferson to William Short, April 6, 1790, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XVI, 319.

370 Page’s re-election: John Dawson to James Madison, Aug. 1, 1790, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., XIII, 291; John Rutledge, Jr., to William Short, Aug. 26, 1790, William Short Papers, DLC; John Page to St. George Tucker, July 4, 1790, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW. See also Walter Jones to Robert Carter, [Jan. 12, 1789?], Emmet Collection, NN. On Quakers, see Thomas E. Drake, Quakers and Slavery in America (New Haven, 1950), 102–106; Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill, 1968), 325–327.

371 “a Democratical Member”: John Page to William Blackburn, May 29, 1797, John Page Papers, NcD.

372 “moving” … “Aristocrats”: John Page to St. George Tucker, June 3, 1793, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Noble E. Cunningham, Jr., ed., Circular Letters of Congressmen to Their Constituents, 1789–1829 (Chapel Hill, 1978), I, 27–29.

373 Wakelin Welch: Benjamin Waller to Wakelin Welch, Oct. 1790, Jan. 1791, in Wakelin Welch to James MacDonald, March 27, 1809, T 79/3, ff. 388–394, and List of Debts, T 79/38, PRO.

374 “unreasonable impatient creditors”: John Page to Mann Page, March 12, 1790, Hunt, ed., Fragments, 184; entry of Sept. 1, 1795, John Page Commonplace Book, ViRHi; John Page to Thomas Jefferson, Jan. 11, 1792, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XXIII, 36–37.

375 “about … owe”: John Page to St. George Tucker, June 28, 1792, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Page to James Brown, April 26, 1792, HM 22877, CSmH; John Page to Thomas Jefferson, Jan. 11, 1792, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XXIII, 36–37.

376 at 20 percent interest: John Page to [?], May 2, 1792, Paul C. Richards Collection, ViU.

377 “unhappy and ashamed”: John Page to Thomas Jefferson, Nov. 19, 1792, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XXIV, 638–639; entry of Nov. 19, 1792, Jefferson’s Memorandum Books, ed. Bear and Stanton, II, 883.

378 “justly … confess”: John Page to [James Brown?], Sept. 8, 1792, Emmet Collection, NN.

379 Robert Andrews pressed: Robert Andrews to David Jameson, Aug. 13, 1791, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

380 would be “confused”: Augustine Smith to Alice Page, [ca. Oct. 5, 1792], Augustine Smith Papers, ViW.

381 “I” … “Daughter”: Augustine Smith to John Page, [Oct. 9, 1792], ibid.

382 wedding apparel: John Page to [James Brown?], Sept. 8, 1792, Emmet Collection, NN.

383 in secret verse: “Miss A. Page,” July 1790, Augustine Smith Papers, ViWC.

384 “I … soul”: Augustine Smith to William Bennet, Oct. 17, 1790, ibid.

385 “Connections … indigence”: Augustine Smith to Alice Page, July 2, 1791, Augustine Smith Papers, ViW.

386 “Gratitude” … “mad”: Augustine Smith to Alice Page, Aug. 29, [1791], ibid.

387 “Go Nymphs!” “To Miss A. Page on her birthday 15 Sepr 1791,” Augustine Smith Papers, ViWC.

388 “committed … him”: Augustine Smith to Alice Page, [ca. Oct. 5, 1792], Augustine Smith Papers, ViW.

389 “my” … “Sacrifice”: John Page to Augustine Smith, Oct. 10, 1792, ibid.

390 “the most … thereon”: John Page to [?], May 2, 1792, Paul C. Richards Collection, ViU.

391 and in entertaining: Thomas Jefferson Page, [Autobiography], “A revolutionary family,” pp. 15–18, NcD; P. Lowther to Hannah Iredell, July 11, 1800, Iredell Papers, NcD.

392 The Smiths settled: For possessions, see Inventory, Estate of Augustine Smith, York County Wills and Inventories, No. 23, pp. 693–697, Vi; “Smith of Gloucester, York, &c.,” VMHB, XXIII (Jan. 1915), 89. See also Jan Lewis, The Pursuit of Happiness: Family and Values in Jefferson’s Virginia (Cambridge, 1983), chap. 5.

393 one of his quarter-shares: List of transfers, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; John Page to Robert Carter, March 12, 1795, John Page Papers, NcD; John Page to George Washington, Oct. 14, 1795, Gratz Collection, PHi.

394 advertised other land: John Page to St. George Tucker, June 27, 1793, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, April 10, July 24, Aug. 21, 1793.

395 “extreme … health”: Charles Grymes to John Hatley Norton, Oct. 19, 1793, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC.

396 slaves and livestock: Gloucester County Personal Property Taxes, Vi; Estimate of Assets, John Page Commonplace Book, ViRHi.

397 “Slippery” … “Sweated”: Patrick Parker to James Parker, Jan. 4, 1790, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

398 ship Powhatan: Nathaniel Anderson, advertisement, Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, Nov. 9, 1791, March 14, 1792.

399 Naval Office clerks: William Graves to Edmund Randolph, May 8, 1787, Josiah Parker to Beverley Randolph, June 20, 1787, entry of Sept. 4, 1787, Journal of Bolling Stark, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, IV, 282, 298, 384; Médéric-Louis-Elie Moreau de Saint-Méry, Moreau de Saint Méry’s American Journey, trans. Kenneth Roberts and Anna M. Roberts (Garden City, 1947), 51.

400 wheat and flour speculators: Patrick Parker to James Parker, Jan. 4, 1790, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

401 for about $8,000: la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III,25.

402 borough of Norfolk: Entry of Feb. 28, 1788, Journals of Enys, ed. Cometti, 265–266; [George Tucker], Letters from Virginia (Baltimore, 1816), 19; Charles William Janson, The Stranger in America, 1793–1806, ed. Carl S. Driver (New York, 1935), 333; Thomas Fairfax, Journey from Virginia to Salem, Massachusetts, 1799 (London, 1936), 4–5; Harry Toulmin, The Western Country in 1793: Reports on Kentucky and Virginia, ed. Marion Tinling and Godfrey Davies (San Marino, 1948), 14, 24–26; John Joyce to Robert Dickson, March 24, 1785, VMHB, XXIII (Oct. 1915), 407–408; Moreau de Saint-Méry, American Journey, trans. Roberts and Roberts, 46–47; la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III, 7–12; Weld, Travels, I, 174; Francis Baily, Journal of a Tour in Unsettled Parts of North America in 1796 & 1797, ed. Jack D. L. Holmes (Carbondale, 1969), 21–22.

403 “There … market”: James Fisher to Israel Whelen, Nov. 4, 1792, Israel Whelen Papers, MiU-C.

404 “this place … advantages”: Thomas Newton, Jr., to George Washington, June 9, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

405 rumors of insurrections: See letters to and from Henry Lee, May 1792, in Executive Letterbooks, Nos. 9–10, Vi, and in Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, V, 540–542, 547, 551–552, 555; Virginia Herald and Fredericksburg Advertiser, May 24, 1792; Henry Lee to [?], May 17, 1792, PHi; Philip J. Schwarz, Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705–1865 (Baton Rouge, 1988), 323; Jordan, White Over Black, 391–392.

406 “Liberty” … “Blood”: George Weare Braikenridge to Francis Jerdone, Aug. 13, 1792, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW. See also Judith Jennings, The Business of Abolishing the British Slave Trade, 1783–1807 (London, 1997), chap. 5; Gretchen Gerzina, Black London: Life before Emancipation (New Brunswick, 1995), chap. 6; James Walvin, England, Slaves and Freedom, 1776–1838 (Jackson, 1986), chap. 5.

407 passed new laws: Tommy L. Bogger, “Slave Resistance in Virginia During the Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804,” HIJES, V (April 1978), 87.

408 from Cap Français: Carolyn E. Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below (Knoxville, 1990), 158–159; John D. Garrigus, “ ‘Sons of the Same Father’: Gender, Race, and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue, 1760–1792,” in Christine Adams et al., eds., Visions and Revisions of Eighteenth-Century France (University Park, 1997), 137–153; Frances Sergeant Childs, French Refugee Life in the United States, 1790–1800 (Baltimore, 1940), 12–16; Althéa de Puech Parham, trans., My Odyssey: Experiences of a Young Refugee from Two Revolutions (Baton Rouge, 1959), 89–96. See also Sara Shannon, “The Horrible Combats” ([Minneapolis], 1992).

409 “too many negroes”: Thomas Newton, Jr., to Henry Lee, July 9, 1793, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, VI, 443.

410 Those who had brought slaves: Bogger, “Slave Resistance,” HIJES, V (April 1978), 89; Parramore et al., Norfolk, 102–105, 113; Moreau de Saint-Méry, American Journey, trans. Roberts and Roberts, 50–51, 61. See also Christopher Phillips, Freedom’s Port: The African American Community of Baltimore, 1790–1860 (Urbana, 1997), 70–73.

411 reports of plots: Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, VI, 453, 470, 475, 488, 490, 494, 504, 523–524, 547, 571–572; Bogger, “Slave Resistance,” HIJES, V (April 1978), 90–91.

412 “a design … Domingo”: Henry Lee to Speaker, Oct. 21, 1793, Executive Letterbooks, Vi.

413 the Norfolk militia: Moreau de Saint-Méry, American Journey, trans. Roberts and Roberts, 57–58.

414 “French” … “other”: Thomas Newton, Jr., to James Wood, April 28, 1795, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, VII, 475.

415 “with” … “important”: Virginia Herald and Fredericksburg Advertiser, Nov. 3, 1795; Thomas Jefferson to William Moultrie, Dec. 23, 1793, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XXVII,614. See also James Sidbury, “Saint Domingue in Virginia: Ideology, Local Meanings, and Resistance to Slavery, 1790–1800,” JSH, LXIII (Aug. 1997), 531–552; James Sidbury, Ploughshares into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel’s Virginia, 1730–1810 (Cambridge, 1997), 39–48.

416 “had … disposal”: [Wilson Cary Nicholas], “Lee vs Nicholas,” Wilson Cary Nicholas Papers, Box 3, DLC; Paul Demund Evans, The Holland Land Company (Buffalo, 1924), 13–33; William Chazanof, Joseph Ellicott and the Holland Land Company (Syracuse, 1970), chap. 1. On Cazenove, see also Lucy S. Sutherland and John A. Woods, “The East India Speculations of William Burke,” Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Proceedings, XI (Jan. 1966), 200–201.

417 “in fertility” … “worth”: Memorandum for Governor Henry Lee, Feb. 18, 1793, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXII, 349–351.

418 seemed “timid”: George Washington to Robert Morris, May 26, 1794, ibid.,381.

419 his “manufacturing town”: Henry Lee to Bryan Fairfax, March 6, 1793, Henry Lee Papers, ViRHi.

420 “the best … affliction”: Henry Lee to George Washington, April 23, 1793, Papers of George Washington, DLC; Arthur Campbell to Isaac Shelby, July 27, 1792, Shelby Family Papers, DLC.

421 “I will … you”: Henry Lee to Armistead Burwell, April 20, 1793, Burwell Family Papers, Subseries 1:1, Box 1, NcU.

422 Maria Farley: [Samuel] Storrow to sister, Sept. 6–10, 1821, Lee Family Papers, duPont Library, Stratford, Virginia. Storrow was the husband of Maria Farley’s oldest daughter. See also Ethel Armes, Stratford Hall: The Great House of the Lees (Richmond, 1936), 274–275; Anna Mary Wells, Dear Preceptor: The Life and Times of Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Boston, 1963), 24–43.

423 “I … possible”: Henry Lee to Alexander Hamilton, May 6, 1793, The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, ed. Harold C. Syrett et al. (New York, 1961–87), XIV, 416.

424 “we … Wife”: Charles Carter to Henry Lee, May 20, 1793, Henry Lee Papers, Vi.

425 Washington turned: George Washington to Robert Morris, May 26, 1794, Land Memorandum, May 25, 1794, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIII, 381, 377–380.

426 “can … hope”: Henry Lee to [Robert Morris?], 1794, Goodspeed’s Autographs, Catalogue 496 (1961), Item 373. See also Robert Morris to Henry Lee, Dec. 30, 1794, Robert Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

427 bought Belvidere: Edward L. Ryan, “Note on ‘Belvidere,’ ” VMHB, XXXIX (April 1931), 142–143.

428 “there are … sum”: Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, Feb. 4, 1795, HM 19957, CSmH.

429 in Crosby Square: W. Lowndes, The London Directory for the Year 1790 [London, 1790], 15; W. Lowndes, The London Directory for the Year 1791 [London, 1791], 13; Lucy Paradise to Thomas Jefferson, March 1, 1791, Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al., XIX, 354; George Walter Thornbury, Old and New London (London, [1873–85?]), II, 155–158; J. Saunders, “Crosby Place,” in Charles Knight, ed., London (London, 1841–44), I, 317–322; K. I. Garrett, “Maria Hackett, Crosby Hall and Gresham College,” Guildhall Studies in London History, III (Oct. 1977), 42–43.

430 he had representatives: Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, Nov. 9, 1791, Jan. 9, 1793.

431 “The premiums … free of”: Turnbull Forbes & Company to Nicholas Low, Sept. 7, 1792, Nicholas Low Papers, DLC.

432 War suddenly brought: Nathaniel Cutting to Thomas Lee Shippen, June 8, 1793, Shippen Family Papers, DLC; The Annual Biography and Obituary, VII (London, 1824), 277; George Gairdner to Francis Jerdone, May 8, 1793, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW; S. R. Cope, “Bird, Savage & Bird of London: Merchants and Bankers, 1782 to 1803,” Guildhall Studies in London History, IV (April 1981), 202–204; John Bruce to Viscount Melville, Oct. 15, 1794, Maggs Bros. Bibliotheca Americana, Part VII, No. 502 (1928), Item 5945; William Robertson to John Askin, April 10, 1793, June 24, 1794, The John Askin Papers, ed. Milo M. Quaife (Detroit, 1928–31), I, 471, 507–508.

433 A crisis of credit: Henry B. Lightfoot to Thomas Lee Shippen, June 15, 1793, Nathaniel Cutting to Thomas Lee Shippen, June 8, 1793, Shippen Family Papers, DLC; Hoppit, Risk and Failure, 122–127; John Ehrman, The Younger Pitt: The Reluctant Transition (Stanford, 1988), 385–387; Lucyle Werkmeister, A Newspaper History of England, 1792–1793 (Lincoln, 1967), 391–392; Feavearyear, Pound Sterling, rev. Morgan, 177–178.

434 “the great … Underwriters”: Report from Select Committee Appointed to Consider … the State and Means of Effecting Marine Insurance in Great Britain, 1810 (226) IV. 247, p.69.

435 in Exchequer bills: Ehrman, Younger Pitt: Reluctant Transition, 385–387; Hoppit, Risk and Failure, 138–139.

436 the New Concern: Complaint and Answer, and Accounts of Henry S. Shore, Gist et al., Exors of Anderson v. Henry S. Shore, 1817, USCCVD(EC), Vi; deposition of Thomas Noyes, Oct. 24, 1823, C 117/335, XC1244, PRO.

437 wrote his will: William Anderson, Will, July 20, 1793, Anderson’s Heirs &c v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi. See also VMHB, XXXVII (Jan. 1929), 39–41.

438 “to run … &ca”: Benjamin Day to John Hatley Norton, Jan. 24, 1794, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC. On the Powhatan, see advertisement, Virginia Herald and Fredericksburg Advertiser, Nov. 21, 1793.

439 “the monied” … “by”: Nathaniel Cutting to Thomas Lee Shippen, June 8, 1793, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

440 “they … Lands”: Enoch Edwards to Tench Coxe, Aug. 17, 1793, Tench Coxe Papers, Series II, PHi. See also L. S. Pressnell, “The Rate of Interest in the Eighteenth Century,” in L. S. Pressnell, ed., Studies in the Industrial Revolution (London, 1960), 178–214.

441 worth £80,000,000: Entry of Feb. 1, 1795, Farington Diary, ed. Greig, I,90.

442 cautious chartered companies: A. H. John, “The London Assurance Company and the Marine Insurance Market of the Eighteenth Century,” Economica, XXV (May 1958), 130; Barry Supple, The Royal Exchange Assurance: A History of British Insurance, 1720–1970 (Cambridge, 1970), 53, 61–62; Frederick Martin, The History of Lloyd’s and of Marine Insurance in Great Britain (New York, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1876]), 229.

443 “Lloyd’s … itself”: Public Characters of 1803–1804 (London, 1804),389.

444 Joseph Jones: Samuel Gist to Joseph Jones, March 31, 1794, Joseph Jones to Thomas Shore, Dec. 30, 1798, Joseph Jones Family Papers, NcD; Samuel Gist v. Jones & Atkinson, surviving partners, 1798, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

445 “The Piece … Audience”: Entry of Feb. 4, 1792, Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport (Boston, 1939), II, 361; Kelly, German Visitors, 125.

446 warned Robert Morris: Barbara Ann Chernow, Robert Morris: Land Speculator, 1790–1801 (New York, 1978), 87.

447 “that the … day”: Entry of March 21, 1786, Frederick Haldimand, “Private Diary of Gen. Haldimand,” Report on Canadian Archives: 1889 (Ottawa, 1890),157.

448 proceedings for divorce: A. C. E. Greenleaf to Sylvanus Bourne, March 24, 1797, North American Land Company Papers, ViU. See also James Greenleaf to Noah Webster, Jan. 19, 1788, Aug. 18, 1789, in Emily Ellsworth Fowler Ford, Notes on the Life of Noah Webster, ed. Emily Ellsworth Ford Skeel (New York, 1912), I, 188, 205; P. J. Van Winter, Het aandeel van den Amsterdamschen handel aan den opbouw van het Amerikaansche Gemeenebest (The Hague, 1927), I, 209n.2.

449 “tempted” him: Robert Morris to George Washington, Sept. 21, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

450 “Washington … come!”: Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Sept. 2, 1793, quoted in Robert D. Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot: The Entrepreneurial John Nicholson, 1757–1800 (University Park, 1975), 115.

451 “with uncommon difficulty”: John Steele to Joseph Winston, July 20, 1790, Ernest Haywood Papers, NcU.

452 “the Grand” … “pounds”: Samuel Davidson to Thomas Shore, April 12, 1791, Letterbook, Samuel Davidson Papers, DLC.

453 “the pleasure … world”: Christopher Gore to Tobias Lear, Dec. 28, 1791, Tobias Lear Papers, DLC.

454 “in a stagnant state”: George Washington to Daniel Carroll, Jan. 7, 1795, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIV, 80.

455 “promise” … “acquisition”: George Washington to Commissioners, Aug. 20, 1793, ibid., XXXIII, 57–58.

456 Morris and Lee: Robert Morris to James Marshall, Sept. 17, 1796, Robert Morris to Henry Lee, Sept. 30, 1796, Robert Morris Letterbooks, DLC; Henry Lee to George Washington, Sept. 28, 1798, Feb. 28, 1799, Papers of George Washington, DLC; la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III, 624–625; entry of Oct. 5, 1796, Baily, Journal, ed. Holmes, 40.

457 the Federal City: Entry of Oct. 5, 1796, Baily, Journal, ed. Holmes, 38–39; Weld, Travels, I, 86–87; entry of April 27, 1796, Twining, Travels, 100–103; entry of April 3, 1797, Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, Diary of My Travels in America, trans. Stephen Becker (New York, 1977), 21–27.

458 “The value … sterling”: David John Jeremy, ed., Henry Wansey and His American Journal (Philadelphia, 1970), 135.

459 “were … States”: Entry of Oct. 5, 1796, Baily, Journal, ed. Holmes, 39.

460 “in case  … blanche”: James Greenleaf to Sylvanus Bourne, June 25, 1794, Sylvanus Bourne Papers, DLC. Compare Tobias Lear to James Greenleaf, May 10, 1794, Emmet Collection, NN.

461 William Duer: Robert F. Jones, “The King of the Alley”: William Duer, Politician, Entrepreneur, and Speculator, 1768–1799 (Philadelphia, 1992), 201, 206.

462 “commercial Speculation”: Turnbull Forbes & Co. to Nicholas Low, June 25, 1794, Nicholas Low Papers, DLC.

463 “immense profit”: George Washington to Daniel Carroll, Jan. 7, 1795, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIV, 79–80.

464 Daniel Carroll: Daniel Carroll to George Washington, Jan. 13, 1794 [1795], Papers of George Washington, DLC. See also Nathaniel W. Appleton to Noah Webster, Nov. 23, 1793, July 26, 1794, in Ford, Notes on the Life of Webster, ed. Skeel, I, 376, 384–385.

465 “a man … understanding”: David Stuart to George Washington, Feb. 25, 1796, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

466 “Betsey … Husband”: Ibid.

467 “I … myself”: Robert Morris to Thomas Law, Dec. 11, 1796, Morris Letterbooks, DLC. “he … speculation”: la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III, 661–662; Duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt to Thomas Law, Aug. 26, 1797, Emmet Collection, NN; “An Account of the City of Washington. Drawn Up by a Foreigner, in 1803,” reprinted in Eugene L. Schwaab, ed., Travels in the Old South (Lexington, 1973), I, 47; entry of July 10, 1820, William Faux, “Memorable Days in America: Being a Journal of a Tour to the United States,” in Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Early Western Travels, 1748–1846 (Cleveland, 1904–07), XII, 112–113. On the founding and early years of the District of Columbia, see Kenneth R. Bowling, The Creation of Washington, D.C.: The Idea and Location of the American Capital (Fairfax, 1991); Bob Arnebeck, Through a Fiery Trial: Building Washington, 1790–1800 (Lanham, 1991); Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (New York, 1993), chap. 4; Sloan, Principle and Interest, chap. 4; Allen C. Clark, Greenleaf and Law in the Federal City (Washington, 1901); Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot, chap. 8; Chernow, Robert Morris; George Alfred Townsend, “Thomas Law, Washington’s First Rich Man,” Columbia Historical Society of Washington, D.C., Records, IV (1901), 222–245.

468 Charles William Janson: Janson, Stranger, ed. Driver, xxiv, 333–335, 210, 270, 269. See also Charles Albert, Chevalier de Pontgibaud, Comte de Moré, A French Volunteer of the War of Independence, trans. Robert B. Douglas, 2d ed. (Paris, 1898), 129–132.

469 George Washington had lost: George Washington to Tobias Lear, May 6, 1794, George Washington to Edmund Randolph, April 12, 1795, George Washington to Alexander Spotswood, Nov. 23, 1794, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIII, 358, XXXIV, 174, 47–48.

470 “perfectly … spirits”: David Humphreys to Tobias Lear, March 9, 1795, Tobias Lear Papers, DLC.

471 “get” … “Company”: John Jameson to George Washington, Jan. 30, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

472 “Having … advance”: George Washington to John Jameson, Feb. 15, 1795, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIV, 112–114.

473 United States Circuit Court: Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, April 22, 1795, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC.

474 “I … dry”: Hugh Williamson to James Wilson, June 29, 1795, Gratz Collection, PHi.

475 in the Green Sea: Charles Page Smith, James Wilson, Founding Father: 1742–1798 (Chapel Hill, 1956), 374–378; Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, April 22, 1795, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC; Patrick Henry to James Wilson, Sept. 18, 1795, Emmet Collection, NN.

476 the Belvidere estate: Ryan, “Belvidere,” VMHB, XXXIX (April 1931), 143.

477 the “highest price”: George Washington to Thomas Newton, Jr., Sept. 23, 1795, George Washington to John Page, Sept. 23, 1795, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIV, 313–314.

478 more than £1,000: Thomas Newton, Jr., to George Washington, Sept. 30, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC; John Page to George Washington, Oct. 14, 1795, Gratz Collection, PHi.

479 “the land” … “activity”: Isaac Sexton to Thomas Newton, Jr., Sept. 30, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

480 “wished” … “quantity”: John Driver to David Jameson, July 11, 1791, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

481 “that … Swamp”: Deposition of Peter Culpeper, Nov. 15, 1809, Etting & wife v. Wilson et al. and Mordecai v. Wilson et al., BR Box 211, Deposition of Peter Culpeper, Oct. 17, 1810, Virginia Courts—County Courts—Norfolk County, BR Box 222(21), CSmH.

482 John Cowper surveyed: William Nelson, Jr., to John Brown, Oct. 8, 1800, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

483 “that … Sexton”: Thomas Shepherd to Thomas Swepson, June 30, 1800, ibid.

484 “the injury” … “interests”: Entry of July 19, 1796, The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795–1798, ed. Edward C. Carter II et al. (New Haven, 1977), I, 167.

485 “rather … productive”: George Washington to John Page, Sept. 23, 1795, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIV, 314.

486 sale to Lee: Entry of July 19, 1796, Journals of Latrobe, ed. Carter et al., I, 167; Henry Lee to George Washington, Nov. 7, 1795, Papers of George Washington, DLC; Henry Lee, Schedule of Assets, quoted in John James Chew to William Selden, Aug. 8, 1835, BR Box 5, CSmH; George Washington to Members of the Dismal Swamp Company, Nov. 16, 1795, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXIV, 363.

487 Weston Alcock: Minor, “Memorandum of Inquiries,” Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi; Goode, Virginia Ancestors, 215; Parole of Officers, Dec. 13, 1777, E. B. O’Callaghan, ed., Orderly Book of Lieut. Gen. John Burgoyne (Albany, 1860), 178.

488 he was “right”: James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, April 12, 1793, Papers of Madison, ed. Hutchinson and Rachal et al., XV, 7.

489 Francis Walker drunk: “Bonds returned to Francis Walker by Francis Preston, Nov. 8, 1793,” Campbell-Preston-Floyd Papers, Vol. 3, DLC; [Francis Preston], [Draft of an answer], Preston Family Papers—Gray Collection, KyLoF.

490 “extensive” … “palate”: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, April 9, 1806, Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

491 “was … Roanoke”: Brown, Cabells, 204.

492 “the speculating” … “liberty”: Cunningham, ed., Circular Letters, I, 39–43.

493 “lacked” … “descendants”: Franklin Minor to L. C. Draper, Jan. 30, 1853, Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi.

494 “indefatigable” … “grog”: Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, Feb. 5, Mar. 5, 1795, The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826, ed. James Morton Smith (New York, 1995), II, 871, 875. See also Daniel P. Jordan, Political Leadership in Jefferson’s Virginia (Charlottesville, 1983), chaps. 5–7.

495 “great … care”: John Cook Wyllie, ed., “New Documentary Light on Tarleton’s Raid: Letters of Newman Brockenbrough and Peter Lyons,” VMHB, LXXIV (Oct. 1966), 461n; Minor, “Memoranda of Inquiries,” Virginia MSS, Vol. 13, Draper Collection, Series ZZ, WHi.

496 to be £1,000: Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, Oct. 10, 1792, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

497 litigation: John Simon Farley and Elizabeth Morson v. Thomas Lee Shippen and Elizabeth Carter Shippen et al., March 1794, Decisions in Chancery by Wythe, 253–260.

498 Williamsburg: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Oct. 16, 1785, William Short Papers, DLC; entry of July 28, 1787, Journal of Samuel Vaughan, DLC; entry of Feb. 26, 1786, Quebec to Carolina: Diary of Hunter, ed. Wright and Tinling, 233; [Tucker], Letters from Virginia, 121–123; la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, trans. Neuman, III, 46–52; entry of April 5, 1796, Journals of Latrobe, ed. Carter et al., I, 87; [St. George Tucker], A Letter, to the Rev. Jedediah Morse, A.M. (Richmond, 1795), 13–15n; J. Prentis to Benjamin Harrison, Dec. 1782, Executive Papers, Gov. Benjamin Harrison, Vi; Weld, Travels, I, 61, 167–169; William Winterbotham, An Historical, Geographical, Commercial, and Philosophical View of the American United States, 2d ed. (London, 1799), III, 100; [William Wirt], Memoirs of Patrick Henry, Patrick Henry and Family Papers, DLC; Schoepf, Travels, trans. Morrison, II, 78–81; Jedediah Morse to Ezra Stiles, Dec. 30, 1786–Jan. 1, 1787, Letters and Papers of Ezra Stiles, ed. Isabel M. Calder (New Haven, 1933),69.

499 John Dunbar: George Izard to John Wickham, Jan. 12, 1807, Amount of Annual Expences for Mercer’s Creek Estate, Payments Made to John Dunbar, Nov. 15, 1795, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Answer of George Tucker to a Bill of Complaints, April 16, 1823, Davidson County—Estates Records, Henry, Patrick and Francis and Simon Farley, 1803–1822, Nc-Ar; Richard Corbin to Thomas Lee Shippen, July 20, 1795, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

500 His decision awarded: John Simon Farley and Elizabeth Morson v. Thomas Lee Shippen and Elizabeth Carter Shippen et al., March 1794, Decisions in Chancery by Wythe, 253–260.

501 “a Hermitess” … “Letter”: Maria Corbin to Richard Corbin, Nov. 3, Dec. 3, 1794, n.d. [Nov. 1794], Corbin Family Papers, Vi.

502 at Laneville plantation: Malcolm Hart Harris, Old New Kent County (West Point, 1977), I, 340–341.

503 he wrote his will: Thomas Lee Shippen, Will, March 4, 1795, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

504 “what … present”: Richard Corbin to Thomas Lee Shippen, June 26, 1795, ibid.

505 “be … friends”: Elizabeth Dunbar to Thomas Lee Shippen and Elizabeth Shippen, Sept. 26, 1796, ibid.

506 “finely situated”: Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Under Their Vine and Fig Tree: Travels Through America in 1797–1799, 1805, trans. Metchie J. E. Budka (Elizabeth, 1965), 289–290; George Tucker to St. George Tucker, Aug. 12, 1797, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

507 compromised: Answer of George Tucker, April 26, 1823, Davidson County—Estates Records, Henry, Patrick and Francis and Simon Farley, 1803–1822, Nc-Ar.

508 $2 per acre: William Armstrong Crozier, ed., Spotsylvania County Records, 1721–1800 (Baltimore, 1955), 485–486. For “Sama” read “Saura.”

509 “more … tranquillity”: William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Dec. 8, 1791, William Short Papers, DLC; Charles T. Cullen, “St. George Tucker and Law in Virginia, 1772–1804” (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1971), 113–117,122.

510 a deed of trust: Charles Grymes to John Hatley Norton, Oct. 19, 1793, John Norton & Son Papers, ViWC; John Page Commonplace Book, ViRHi. See also Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill, 1998), 512–515.

511 500 acres around it: John Page to Robert Carter, March 12, 1795, John Page Papers, NcD.

512 He resigned: John Page to Robert Brooke, July 3, 1795, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, VIII, 271.

513 promised a creditor: John Page to St. George Tucker, Dec. 3, 1795, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

514 Abby Nelson: [Memorandum of] A[nn] W[illing] Byrd, May 5, 1796, Byrd Family Papers, ViRHi.

515 A “feeling letter”: William Nelson, Jr., to St. George Tucker, Jan. 5, 1796, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

516 John Tabb: Gist’s suits, 1795, are in USCCVD(EC), Vi. For “derangement,” see Papers of Marshall, ed. Johnson et al., VI, 129.

517 gold watch for $60: John Page Commonplace Book, ViRHi.

518 “John … out”: John Page, Memoir, Virginia Historical Register, III (July 1850), 150.

519 “No … Canal”: John Page to George Washington, Oct. 14, 1795, Gratz Collection, PHi.

520 the way to succeed: Advertisement, Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, Sept. 28, 1796.

521 “by which … purpose”: David Meade to John Driver, Oct. 28, 1794, Webb-Prentis Papers, Box 38, ViU.

522 “there … care”: David Meade to Anne Randolph, Oct. 20, 1796, William Bolling Papers, NcD.

523 1,000 acres in Frederick County: Ferdinand-M. Bayard, Travels of a Frenchman in Maryland and Virginia, trans. Ben C. McCary (Ann Arbor, 1950), 68–70, 81–82; David Lynn Holmes, Jr., “William Meade and the Church of Virginia, 1789–1829” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1971), 48–50.

524 ate rice: Account of David Meade, June 2, 1795, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

525 Meade and Waller: David Meade to Wakelin Welch, Dec. 9, 1797, List of Debts, Affidavit of Benjamin Waller, Sept. 12, 1810, T 79/3, ff. 344–345, 346, 407–425, PRO; Joseph Prentis to St. George Tucker, June 23, 1809, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

526 Benjamin Grymes: Richard Kidder Meade to St. George Tucker, Jan. 16, 1796, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; “Grymes of Brandon,” VMHB, XXVIII (April 1920), 187–188, (July 1920), 284; Crozier, ed., Spotsylvania Records, 211.

527 Justice James Wilson: George Keith Taylor to James Wilson, Jan. 30, 1796, quoted in Smith, James Wilson, 377–378, where “Taylor” is erroneously spelled “Saylor”; George Keith Taylor to Henry Lee, [1798], Ethel Armes Collection of Lee Family Papers, DLC; Thomas Swepson and Richard W. Byrd, Indenture, May 18, 1802, Kilby Family Papers, Box 1, Vi; David Meade to Joseph Prentis, June 13, 1797, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

528 “in … China”: David Meade to John Driver, Aug. 14, 1796, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

529 “purchase … capitals”: Smith, Wealth of Nations, 5th ed., II, 199. See also Peter McNamara, Political Economy and Statemanship: Smith, Hamilton, and the Foundation of the Commercial Republic (DeKalb, 1998), 129–133.

530 “a genteel” … “best”: Thomas Blount to John Gray Blount, Jan. 11, 1794, The John Gray Blount Papers, ed. Alice Barnwell Keith et al. (Raleigh, 1952–82), II, 342–343.

531 “I wish” … “Secret”: John Hall to John Gray Blount, June 5, 26, 1794, ibid., 402, 412.

532 “good” … “Carolina”: John Gray Blount to John Nicholson, Aug. 18, 1794, quoted in Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot, 181.

533 “you … Land”: John Hall to John Gray Blount, June 26, 1794, Blount Papers, ed. Keith et al., II, 412.

534 “that fully … Acre”: Thomas Blount to John Gray Blount, Feb. 19, 1795, ibid., 495–496; Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Nov. 27, 1798, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1194 (June 1917), Item 640.

535 an “amazing quantity”: Samuel Yorke to Hore Browse Trist, Oct. 25, 1796, Nicholas P. Trist Papers, NcU; William H. Masterson, William Blount (Baton Rouge, 1954), 299–301.

536 “positive” … “civil”: Entries of Aug. 6, 30, 1789, Morris, Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Davenport, I, 179, 201.

537 intercepted his mail: Interceptions, Vol. 35, Shelburne Papers, MiU-C; Edmund Burke to James Bourdieu, Dec. 2, 1781, The Correspondence of Edmund Burke, ed. Thomas W. Copeland et al. (Cambridge and Chicago, 1958–78), IV, 383.

538 “he seems … Canaan”: Bourdieu, Chollet & Bourdieu to Nicholas Low, Jan. 5, 1785, Nicholas Low Papers, DLC.

539 “the Name … Community”: Entry of Aug. 6, 1789, Morris, Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Davenport, I, 179–180.

540 “While … place it”: Bourdieu, Chollet & Bourdieu to Duc de Talleyrand-Périgord, Aug. 6, 1794, Talleyrand in America as a Financial Promoter, 1794–96: Unpublished Letters and Memoirs, trans. Hans Huth and Wilma J. Pugh (Washington, 1942), 66–68.

541 “at a” … “gambler”: Thomas Law to James Greenleaf, Jan. 8, 1795, in Clark, Greenleaf and Law, 101; Robert Morris to James Greenleaf, Jan. 6, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

542 “a very … home”: Rebecca Aitchison to James Parker, March 10, 1789, Parker Papers, Liverpool Public Library.

543 “a purchaser … there”: Thomas Cooper, Some Information Respecting America (London, 1794), 25. See also “Some Particulars Relative to … Kentucky,” reprinted in Schwaab, ed., Travels in the Old South, I, 58.

544 to scrutinize closely: Robert Morris to Charles W. Byrd, Feb. 10, Nov. 11, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

545 “hundreds” … “Honey”: Austin, “Memorandum,” AHR, V (April 1900), 525–526.

546 “two” … “Land”: Elijah Poage to Archibald Woods, June 23, 1790, Archibald Woods Papers, ViW.

547 “the speculating” … “doubtful”: John Breckinridge to James Greenleaf, Aug. 1, 1805, North American Land Company Papers, ViU.

548 the North American Land Company: Robert Morris to Bird, Savage & Bird, March 20, 1795, Robert Morris to William Temple Franklin, April 22, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC; Plan of Association of the North American Land Company (Philadelphia, 1795); Norman B. Wilkinson, Land Policy and Speculation in Pennsylvania, 1779–1800 (New York, 1979), 185–207; Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot, chap. 10.

549 archvillain: Durand Echeverria, Mirage in the West: A History of the French Image of American Society to 1815 (Princeton, 1957), 209–210; Jean Antoine Joseph Fauchet to Committee on Public Safety, May 4, 1795, Frederick Jackson Turner, ed., Correspondence of the French Ministers to the United States, 1791–1797 (Washington, 1904), 679–680.

550 “TIM. BROADBACK”: Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, April 15, 1795; Weld, Travels, I, 403–404.

551 “the best … America”: Robert Morris to Bird, Savage & Bird, March 20, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

552 “the uncultivated … world”: Robert Morris to Amyand & Osborne, May 7, 1795, ibid. a pamphlet: (London, 1796), 34–37.

553 “daily falling due”: Robert Morris to Benjamin Harrison, Jr., July 1, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

554 Morris and Lee: Henry Lee, Schedule, quoted in John James Chew to William Selden, Aug. 8, 1835, BR Box 5, CSmH; Henry Lee to George Washington, Feb. 28, 1799, Papers of George Washington, DLC. See also Barbara A. Chernow, “Robert Morris: Genesee Land Speculator,” NYH, LVIII (April 1977), 202–219.

555 “The Lands … certain”: Robert Morris to William Temple Franklin, Nov. 14, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

556 a packet of papers: Robert Morris and John Nicholson to James Marshall, Oct. 16, 1795, Robert Morris Collection, CSmH; Robert Morris to James Marshall, Oct. 17, 1795, Morris Letterbooks, DLC. On Morris’s operations, see also Chernow, Robert Morris, chap. 5.

557 “Let … land”: Harry Toulmin to James Leigh, May 19, 1794, in Toulmin, Western Country, ed. Tinling and Davies, 136.

VII: TERRAPHOBIA

    1 large bills of exchange: See the suits against Macaulay, 1795–1799, USCCVD(EC), Vi. “suffered greatly”: Alexander Macaulay to Francis Jerdone, May 23, 1795, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW.

    2 “his own use”: Dismal Swamp Company’s Pleading in Chancery, Legal Papers of Dismal Swamp Company, Jerdone Family Papers, Box 12, ViW.

    3 “Self… $8040.34”: Dismal Swamp Land Company v. Alexander Macaulay, Anderson-Macaulay Legal Papers, BR Box 50(1d), CSmH.

    4 Macaulay’s troubles: Alexander Macaulay to Francis Jerdone, May 23, 1795, William Douglass to Francis Jerdone, Jan. 4, 1796, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW; Virginia Herald and Fredericksburg Advertiser, Aug. 21, 1795.

    5 “an intelligent … gentleman”: Entry of June 12, 1797, The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795–1798, ed. Edward C. Carter II et al. (New Haven, 1977), I, 238.

    6 the company and Shepherd: “Agreement dated 1 Jan ’96,” Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

    7 “hold possession”: Thomas Shepherd to John Jameson, Nov. 28, 1798, Swamp Account for 1795 & 1796, Dec. 31, 1796, ibid.

    8 and about forty slaves: David Meade to Anne Randolph, June 6–7, 1796, William Bolling Papers, NcD.

    9 to Lexington: Entry of Dec. 17, 1795, Thomas Chapman, “Journal of a Journey Through the United States, 1795–6,” Historical Magazine, 2d ser., V (June 1869), 363; Bernard Mayo, “Lexington: Frontier Metropolis,” in Eric F. Goldman, ed., Historiography and Urbanization: Essays in American History in Honor of W. Still Holt (Baltimore, 1941), 21–42; Lee Shai Weissbach, “The Peopling of Lexington: Growth and Mobility in a Frontier Town,” KHSR, LXXXI (1983), 115–133.

  10 fixed there for life: Robert Morris to Charles W. Byrd, Aug. 29, 1796, Robert Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  11 “Mr. West … acquaintance”: David Meade to John Driver, Aug. 14, 1796, Webb-Prentis Papers, Box 38, ViU.

  12 Chaumière des Prairies: Horace Holley to Mary Holley, May 27, 1818, Horace Holley Papers, MiU-C; Charles Caldwell, A Discourse on the Genius and Character of the Rev. Horace Holley (Boston, 1828), 153–154; Mayo, “Lexington,” in Goldman, ed., Historiography and Urbanization, 23–24; [Mary Virginia Terhune], More Colonial Homesteads and Their Stories (New York, 1899), chap. 3; Mary Cronan Oppel, “Paradise Lost: The Story of Chaumiere des Prairies,” FCHQ, LVI (April 1982), 201–210; James D. Kornwolf, “David Meade II: Pioneer of ‘Le jardin anglais’ in the United States, 1774–1829,” Journal of Garden History, XVI (1996), 254–274. See also Craig Thompson Friend, “ ‘Work & Be Rich’: Economy and Culture on the Bluegrass Farms,” in Craig Thompson Friend, ed., The Buzzel about Kentuck: Settling the Promised Land (Lexington, 1999), 125–151.

  13 “adds … family”: David Meade to Anne Randolph, June 1797, William Bolling Papers, NcD.

  14 Richard Hanson: Jones’s Exors v. David Meade, Nov. 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi; extracts of Richard Hanson’s letters, Dec. 15, 1797, T 79/9, PRO; entries of July 13–14, 1798, Rough Minutes, No. 2, Records of Commissioners on the Sixth Article of British Treaty, CSmH.

  15 “extreamly” … “persecution”: David Meade to Wakelin Welch, Dec. 9, 1797, T 79/3, ff. 344–345, PRO.

  16 “the fabled … revived”: David Meade to Anne Randolph, Sept. 1, 1796, William Bolling Papers, NcD.

  17 “I … Virginia”: David Meade to Thomas Swepson, Sept. 13, 1797, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

  18 Hornsby’s property: See James City County Tax Lists, Vi, and WMQ, 1st ser., XXIII (Oct. 1914), 136. See also Dixon and Hunter’s Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), April 24,1778.

  19 Byrd’s old debt: Hornsby’s Exors et al. v. Byrd’s Exors et al., Nov. 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi. his slave James: Advertisement, Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (Richmond), June 26, 1798.

  20 irritated David Meade: David Meade to Joseph Prentis, June 13, July 29, 1797, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

  21 the Reverend John Bracken: “Original Partners in Dl. Swamp Co.,” Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  22 “Mr. Hornsby … Negroes”: David Meade to Joseph Prentis, Nov. 25, 1797, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

  23 Hornsby’s routine: See his Diary, KyLoF, and his Will, March 6, 1799, Shelby County, Will Book B, 1804–1811, pp. 199–203, microfilm at KyU.

  24 He found few buyers: Robert Morris to Thomas Morris, July 12, 1796, Robert Morris Collection, CSmH.

  25 “compleatly … securities &c.”: John Johnston to Nicholas Low, July 12, 1798, Nicholas Low Papers, DLC. See also Robert Ernst, “Nicholas Low: Merchant and Speculator in Post-Revolutionary New York,” NYH, LXXV (Oct. 1994), 357–372.

  26 “that … terra-phobia”: “A Farmer” to Wilkes-Barré Gazette, Oct. 25, 1796, quoted in Isaac Weld, Jr., Travels Through the States of North America, and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, During the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, 3d ed. (London, 1800), II, 337.

  27 “that … money”: Samuel A. Law to Ephraim Kirby, June 23, 1795, Kirby Papers, NcD. See also William Beckford to James Wadsworth, Sept. 7, 1798, in [Lewis Saul Benjamin], The Life and Letters of William Beckford of Fonthill (London, 1910), 252–255.

  28 “The North … in”: Robert Morris to James Marshall, March 25, 1796, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  29 obtaining Dutch loans: Robert Morris to Sylvanus Bourne, Jan. 5, 1796, Sylvanus Bourne Papers, DLC.

  30 “the real … Land”: Advertisement, Feb. 1, 1796, The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, 1931–40), XXXIV, 441.

  31 “land … disgrace”: George Washington to Joseph Fay, Feb. 19, 1797, ibid., XXXV,393.

  32 away from Mount Vernon: Weld, Travels, I, 94; entry of July 19, 1796, Journals of Latrobe, ed. Carter et al., I, 163; Horace Holley to Mary Holley, April 15, 1818, Holley Papers, MiU-C.

  33 “Agricultural” … “ruin”: George Washington to Oliver Wolcott, May 15, 1797, George Washington to George Washington Parke Custis, April 3, 1797, The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. (Charlottesville, 1983–), I, 142, 70.

  34 “could … cash”: George Washington to Henry Lee, Sept. 8, 1797, ibid., 341–342.

  35 Franklin, the Directory: William Temple Franklin to James Monroe, Sept. 12, 1796, HM 22855, CSmH. See also Claude-Anne Lopez and Eugenia W. Herbert, The Private Franklin: The Man and His Family(New York, 1975), 308–309.

  36 Charles Willing Byrd: Robert Morris to Charles W. Byrd, May 9, 19, Aug. 29, Dec. 6, 1796, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  37 on James Marshall: Robert Morris to James Marshall, Sept. 16, 1796, ibid.

  38 a valuation of 17¢: Bob Arnebeck, Through a Fiery Trial: Building Washington, 1790–1800 (Lanham, 1991), 392; Samuel Yorke to Hore Browse Trist, Oct. 25, 1796, Nicholas P. Trist Papers, NcU.

  39 sold forty shares: Robert Morris to James Marshall, Feb. 10, 1797, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  40 “Blanks” … “amphitheatre”: Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Nov. 22, 1796, ibid.

  41 “I … end”: Samuel Myers to Moses Myers, Dec. 22, 1796, Samuel Myers Letterbook, BR 122, CSmH.

  42 Ruston and Wilson: Benjamin Rush, The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush, ed. George W. Corner (Princeton, 1948), 236–237; Benjamin Rush to Samuel Bayard, Sept. 22, 1796, Letters of Benjamin Rush, ed. L. H. Butterfield (Princeton, 1951), II, 781; Edward Burd to Jasper Yeates, Aug. 4, 1796, The Burd Papers, ed. Lewis Burd Walker (n.p., 1899), 191–192; W. Barry Grove to Henry W. Harrington, Feb. 26, 1797, Henry William Harrington Papers, NcU.

  43 “no … Speculating”: Entry of Nov. 22, 1796, Diary of Thomas Bolling, CSmH.

  44 traded for 12¢: Rush, Autobiography, ed. Corner, 236–237.

  45 “I consider … them”: Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Jan. 18, 1797, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  46 “The money … dissolved”: Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Jan. 6, Feb. 1, 1797, Robert Morris Collection, CSmH.

  47 notes at 10¢: Robert D. Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot: The Entrepreneurial John Nicholson, 1757–1800 (University Park, 1975), 191.

  48 sell the land back to Lee: Robert Morris to James Greenleaf, Feb. 16, Mar. 8, 1797, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  49 “take  … destruction”: James Greenleaf to Henry Pratt et al., April 13, 1797, North American Land Company Papers, ViU.

  50 “My … means”: Robert Morris to Reed & Forde, Aug. 3, 1797, Morris Letterbooks, DLC; Thomas Peter to George Washington, March 29, 1797, Papers of George Washington, DLC; Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Dec. 18, 1797, Magazine of American History, XXVI (July 1891), 71–72; Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Jan. 18, 1798, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1189 (April 1917), Item 37.

  51 Morris and Lee: Robert Morris to Henry Lee, July 28, Sept. 18, 1797, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  52 The Wheel of Fortune: Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

  53 the Chestnut Street Theatre: Arthur Hobson Quinn, “The Theatre and the Drama in Old Philadelphia,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, XLIII, Part 1 (1953), 313–317; Gresdna Ann Doty, The Career of Mrs. Anne Brunton Merry in the American Theatre (Baton Rouge, 1971); John Bernard, Retrospections of America, 1797–1811, ed. Mrs. William Bayle Bernard (New York, 1887), 69, 261; Frances Norton Mason, My Dearest Polly: Letters of Chief Justice John Marshall to His Wife (Richmond, 1961), 77–78; Glenn Hughes, A History of the American Theatre, 1700–1950 (New York, 1951), 80; Arthur Hornblow, A History of the Theatre in America(Philadelphia, 1919), I, 221; Simon Williams, “The Actors,” and Mary C. Anderson, “Scenography, Stagecraft, and Architecture in the American Theatre,” in Don B. Wilmeth and Christopher Bigsby, eds., The Cambridge History of the American Theatre: Volume I (Cambridge, 1998), 306, 392–393.

  54 “suffering” … “Stage”: John Page to St. George Tucker, July 18, 1797, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

  55 “Scene … Friar”: [Robert Merry], “The Tuscan Tournament,” Act I, scene ii, Robert Merry Papers, DLC; entry of Nov. 10, 1797, Diary of William Dunlap, New-York Historical Society, Collections, LXII–LXIV (1929–31), I, 169; Thomas Clark Pollock, The Philadelphia Theatre in the Eighteenth Century (Philadelphia, 1933), 331; M. Ray Adams, “Robert Merry and the American Theatre,” Theatre Survey, VI (May 1965), 1–11.

  56 “property … confidence”: Robert Morris to Henry Lee, Dec. 14, 1797, Morris Letterbooks, DLC.

  57 Justice James Wilson: Charles Page Smith, James Wilson, Founding Father: 1742–1798 (Chapel Hill, 1956), 384–386; George Keith Taylor to Henry Lee, [1798], Ethel Armes Collection of Lee Family Papers, DLC.

  58 “a negotiable note”: Henry Lee to George Washington, Aug. 27, 1797, Papers of Washington: Retirement, ed. Abbot et al., I, 320.

  59 “Let … accustomed”: George Washington to Henry Lee, Jan. 25, 1798, ibid., II,46.

  60 Simms’s notes: George Washington to Jesse Simms, April 22, 1799, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXVII, 186.

  61 the Saura Town property: William Armstrong Crozier, ed., Spotsylvania County Records, 1721–1800 (Baltimore, 1955), 485–486; Account of William Sisson, Corbin Family Ledger, Vi; George Tucker to St. George Tucker, Sept. 30, 1803, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW. to Patrick Henry: Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, Jan. 30, 1798, Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC; Patrick Henry, Will, Codicil, Feb. 12, 1799, in George Morgan, The True Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1907), 457–459.

  62 “The Punishment … tormentingly”: Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Feb. 8, 1798, Ferdinand J. Dreer, ed., A Catalogue of the Collection of Autographs Formed by Ferdinand Julius Dreer (Philadelphia, 1890), I, 455; Robert Morris to John Nicholson, Feb. 5, 1798, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 924 (Jan. 1905), Item 81.

  63 “a remarkable” … “spiritless”: Abigail Adams to Mary Cranch, Feb. 21, 1798, New Letters of Abigail Adams, 1788–1801, ed. Stewart Mitchell (Westport, 1973 [orig. publ. Boston, 1947]), 134–135.

  64 the Prune Street prison: William B. Wood, Personal Recollections of the Stage (Philadelphia, 1855), 38–39; Samuel Breck, Recollections of Samuel Breck, ed. H. E. Scudder (Philadelphia, 1877), 204. On Morris, see Barbara Ann Chernow, Robert Morris: Land Speculator, 1790–1801 (New York, 1978); Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot, chaps. 10–11; Norman B. Wilkinson, Land Policy and Speculation in Pennsylvania, 1779–1800 (New York, 1979); Arnebeck, Through a Fiery Trial.

  65 “I confess … here”: Robert Morris to John Nicholson, April 22, 1799, Historical Manuscripts in the Public Library of the City of Boston, Number Four (Boston, 1903), 171.

  66 James Wilson: Smith, James Wilson, 386–388.

  67 “I” … “demand”: Henry Lee to George Washington, Aug. 26, Sept. 28, 1798, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

  68 “You” … “solution”: George Washington to Henry Lee, Sept. 29, 1798, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXVI, 472–473.

  69 Bushrod Washington: George Washington to Bushrod Washington, Dec. 31, 1798, ibid., XXXVII, 81.

  70 left Patrick Henry: John Minor to Henry Lee, March 17, 1811, John Minor Letterbook, ViRHi; Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, [Feb. 1, 1799], Patrick Henry and Family Collection, DLC; Patrick Henry, Will, Codicil, Feb. 12, 1799, in Morgan, True Patrick Henry, 457–459; Lindley S. Butler, “Sauratown Plantation,” Journal of Rockingham County History and Genealogy, VIII (Dec. 1983), 85.

  71 “all” … “tranquility”: Henry Lee to George Washington, May 22, 1799, Papers of George Washington, DLC.

  72 “Gist … furnished”: “List of Creditors of Genl Thos Nelson,” BR Box II (Ic), CSmH. his ship Ceres: Advertisement, Virginia Herald and Fredericksburg Advertiser, Aug. 21, 1795.

  73 “Crusty & harsh”: Nathaniel Anderson to Thomas Massie, Feb. 27, 1795, Massie Family Papers, ViRHi.

  74 “in … Health”: William Anderson, Will, Codicil, Sept. 15, 1795, Anderson’s Heirs v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Gentleman’s Magazine, LXVI (Jan. 1796),83.

  75 Thomas R. Rootes: Pleading of Thomas R. Rootes, and William Anderson to Thomas Reade Rootes, Aug. 18, 1794, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  76 “the chief … acting”: Notes for defendant’s counsel, Gist’s Reprs v. Anderson et al., Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi.

  77 sent almost £1,500: George Syme to Thomas Macdonald, Oct. 16, 1807, T 79/31, PRO; Ralph Wormeley to George Syme, Oct. 10, 1796, Ralph Wormeley to Samuel Gist, July 18, 1797, Ralph Wormeley Letterbook, ViU; Nathaniel Anderson to Thomas Massie, Nov. 1, 1797, Massie Family Papers, ViRHi; Power of Attorney, Feb. 21, 1798, Thomas Callis v. Gist, Fowke et al., 1805, Pleading and Answer, Gist et al., Exors of Anderson v. Henry S. Shore, 1817, USCCVD(EC), Vi; Power of Attorney, calendared in VMHB, XLII (Oct. 1934), 357; Deposition of Thomas Noyes, Oct. 4, 1823, Josiah Gist et al. v. William Fowke et al., C 117/335, XC 1244, PRO.

  78 John Lyons: John Lyons to Edward Hill and John O’Mealy, Nov. 12, 1797, Samuel Gist v. Hill & O’Mealy, 1797, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

  79 “though … fortune”: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 5th ed. (Edinburgh, 1811), I, 147.

  80 in northern Gloucestershire: The first account of George Hillhouse, Josiah Gist et al. v. William Fowke et al., C 117/335, XC 1244, PRO; Benjamin Pitts Capper, A Topographical Dictionary of the United Kingdom (London, 1808), “Wormington”; Stephen R. Glynne, Gloucestershire Church Notes, ed. W. P. W. Phillimore and J. Melland Hall (London, 1902), 112–113; David Verey, The Buildings of England: Gloucestershire, Volume II: The Vale and the Forest of Dean, 2d ed. (London, 1976), 412–413; John Bateman, The Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland, 4th ed. (Leicester, 1971 [orig. publ. London, 1883]), 184; C. R. Elrington and Kathleen Morgan, “Alderton with Dixton,” in C. R. Elrington, ed., A History of the County of Gloucester (London, 1965), VI, 189–192. On merchants’ becoming landed gentlemen, see David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785 (Cambridge, 1995), Part III; James Raven, Judging New Wealth: Popular Publishing and Response to Commerce in England, 1750–1800 (Oxford, 1992), chap. 10.

  81 “Sacred … Years”: Ralph Bigland, Historical, Monumental and Genealogical Collections Relative to the County of Gloucester, ed. Brian Frith (Bristol, 1989–95), IV, 1517.

  82 “retain … made”: Deposition of Thomas Noyes, Oct. 4, 1823, deposition of Timothy Chisman, July 21, 1820, Josiah Gist et al. v. William Fowke et al., C 117/335/1245 and XC1244, PRO.

  83 Anderson’s brothers and sisters: Notes for defendant’s counsel, Gist’s Reprs v. Anderson et al., Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi.

  84 a list of 545 debts: Records of Commissioners on the Sixth Article of British Treaty, Register, Vol. 2, p. 140, CSmH; List of the Agents and Collectors of S. Gist in Virginia, List of Debts No. 1, T 79/31, List of Claims, T 79/123, pp. 141–142, PRO.

  85 Teackle: Entry of May 26, 1799, Diary of Littleton Dennis Teackle, DLC.

  86 Hardwick in Oxfordshire: For these transactions, see the documents in C 117/335, PRO.

  87 See also Janet Cooper, “Banbury Hundred,” in Alan Crossley, ed., A History of the County of Oxford (Oxford, 1972), X, 44–57.

  88 a “full meeting”: Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, Sept. 28, 1796.

  89 only the managers: Extracts from Minutes, Nov. 18, 1796, Anderson-Macaulay Legal Papers, BR Box 50 (1b), CSmH.

  90 more than $8,000: Dismal Swamp Land Company v. Alexander Macaulay, BR Box 50 (1d), CSmH.

  91 Latrobe and the Dismal Swamp: Journals of Latrobe, ed. Carter et al., I, 167–169, 229–235, 239, II, 341, 364; B. Henry Latrobe to Thomas Swepson, June 21, 1797, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  92 “Doghole” … “wrongly”: B. Henry Latrobe to Henry Banks, Nov. 28, 1797, The Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ed. John C. Van Horne and Lee W. Formwalt et al. (New Haven, 1984–88), I, 64.

  93 Macaulay had other things: Alexander Macaulay, Deed of Trust, Nov. 15, 1797, and Pleading, Dismal Swamp Land Company v. Alexander Macaulay, Legal Papers of Dismal Swamp Company, Jerdone Family Papers, Box 12, ViW.

  94 An Apology: Talbot Hamlin, Benjamin Henry Latrobe (New York, 1955), 87–89; Journals of Latrobe, ed. Carter et al., I, 274, II, 333–346, 350–356, 373–374; Forrest McDonald, Alexander Hamilton: A Biography (New York, 1979), 334–336.

  95 company’s title not good: Thomas Shepherd to John Jameson, Sept. 14, Nov. 23, 1798, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

  96 “bid” … “life”: Thomas Shepherd to William Nelson and John Jameson, Aug. 17, 1798, Thomas Shepherd to John Jameson, Sept. 14, 1798, ibid.

  97 “Every … Earth”: Thomas Shepherd to Alexander Macaulay, May 15, 1798, ibid.

  98 long had been ill: George Braikenridge to Francis Jerdone, March 15, 1799, Jerdone Family Papers, ViW.

  99 His trustees: Corbin Griffin to Francis Jerdone, Aug. 23, 1798, ibid.

100 the estate auction: Elizabeth Macaulay to Francis Jerdone, May 6, 1799, ibid.

101 his two quarter-shares: Extracts from Minutes, Dec. 22, 1798, Anderson-Macaulay Legal Papers, BR Box 50 (1b), CSmH; Charles Young to Thomas Swepson, Sept. 5, 1799, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

102 “excellent pine”: Thomas Swepson to John Brown, Aug. 31, 1798, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; Extracts from Minutes, Jan. 18, 1809, BR Box 50 (1b), CSmH; Nansemond County Land Book, 1799, Nansemond County Land Tax Lists, Vi.

103 “a very” … “incendiaries”: Thomas Shepherd to John Brown, Jan. 13, April 11, Aug. 17, 1799, John Brown to Thomas Swepson, May 6, 1799, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD; B. Henry Latrobe to Luke Wheeler, Dec. 16, 1803, Correspondence of Latrobe, ed. Van Horne and Formwalt et al., I, 394.

104 from Edward Rushton: Edward Rushton, Expostulatory Letter to George Washington, of Mount Vernon, in Virginia, on His Continuing to Be a Proprietor of Slaves (Liverpool, 1797), 9–11, 13–14, 23–24, 3; Fritz Hirschfeld, George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal (Columbia, 1997), 192.

105 “To sell” … “afloat”: George Washington to Robert Lewis, Aug. 18, 1799, Writings of Washington, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXVII, 338–339.

106 “A mind … composure”: George Washington to Jonathan Trumbull, Aug. 30, 1799, ibid., 349–350.

107 wrote a new will: Ibid., 275–303; Eugene E. Prussing, The Estate of George Washington, Deceased (Boston, 1927); Brenda E. Stevenson, Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South (New York, 1996), 209–212; Robert F. Dalzell, Jr., and Lee Baldwin Dalzell, George Washington’s Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America (New York, 1998), 129–149, 212–217.

108 “5$ is … land”: “Estimate of Property belonging to the Estate of Genl. Geo. Washington unsold by the Executors,” Washington Family Letters, ViU.

109 Walter Jones: Walter Jones to Thomas Jefferson, Nov. 25, 1813, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

110 “He” … “projects”: Thomas Jefferson to Walter Jones, Jan. 2, 1814, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul Leicester Ford (New York, 1892–99), IX, 448–449.

111 emancipation remained rare: Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill, 1968), 347, 353; Tommy L. Bogger, “Slave Resistance in Virginia during the Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804,” HIJES, V (April 1978), 86.

112 “endeavour” … “unavoidable”: St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap, June 29, 1795, The Belknap Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 5th ser., II–III (1877), II,406.

113 his proposal: St. George Tucker, A Dissertation on Slavery; with a Proposal for the Gradual Abolition of It in the State of Virginia (Philadelphia, 1796); St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap, Nov. 27, 1795, Belknap Papers, II, 418–422; Jordan, White Over Black, 558–560; Douglas Egerton, Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802 (Chapel Hill, 1993), 13–15.

114 “The calamities … stand”: St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap, June 29, 1795, Belknap Papers, II, 406.

115 “the smallest … argument”: St. George Tucker to Jeremy Belknap, Aug. 13, 1797, ibid., 427–428; Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia; 1796 (Richmond, 1796), 52; Ludwell Lee to St. George Tucker, Dec. 5, 1796, Virginia Silhouettes: Contemporary Letters Concerning Negro Slavery in the State of Virginia, comp. Mary Haldane Coleman (Richmond, 1934), 4–5; Thomas Jefferson to St. George Tucker, Aug. 28, 1797, Writings of Jefferson, ed. Ford, VII, 167–168.

116 A petition: Remonstrance and Petition of the Free Inhabitants of Mecklenburg County, Legislative Petitions, Mecklenburg County, Vi.

117 Prosser’s slave Gabriel: James Sidbury, Ploughshares into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel’s Virginia (Cambridge, 1997); Egerton, Gabriel’s Rebellion; Tommy L. Bogger, Free Blacks in Norfolk, Virginia: 1790–1860 (Charlottesville, 1997), 26–27; Philip J. Schwarz, “The Transportation of Slaves from Virginia, 1801–1865,” SA, VII (Dec. 1986), 220–223; Jordan, White Over Black, 393–394.

118 “we … property”: Gervas Storrs and Joseph Selden, Communications made … by Solomon, Sept. 15, 1800, William P. Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 1875–93), IX, 147.

119 “The conspiracy … thoughts”: Letter from Richmond, Sept. 20, 1800, Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, Nov. 29, 1800.

120 “Is … people?”: Chapman Johnson to David Watson, Jan. 24, 1802, VMHB, XXIX (July 1921), 280. See also Alexander McCaine to Robert Roberts, Sept. 29, 1802, Calendar of the Ezekiel Cooper Collection of Early American Methodist Manuscripts, Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois (Chicago, 1941), 27–28; entry of Jan. 13, 1805, “Diary of Hon. Jonathan Mason,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, 2d ser., II (March 1885), 19.

121 “for his” … “other”: William Wirt to Dabney Carr, Dec. 30, 1827, William Wirt Letters, Vi; Joseph C. Robert, “William Wirt, Virginian,” VMHB, LXXX (Oct. 1972),398.

122 Bushrod Washington: B. Henry Latrobe to Thomas Jefferson, Sept. 22, 1798, Correspondence of Latrobe, ed. Van Horne and Formwalt et al., I, 96.

123 John Page: John Page to Henry Tazewell, [1798], Tazewell Family Papers, Vi; Henry Tazewell to John Page, June 28, 1798, ViRHi; John Page to St. George Tucker, Feb. 25, 1801, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; John Page to Thomas Jefferson, June 21, 1798, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC; James Roger Sharp, American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (New Haven, 1993), 192–193. See also John Marshall, An Autobiographical Sketch by John Marshall, ed. John Stokes Adams (Ann Arbor, 1937), 14–27.

124 the Buchanan Spring Barbecue Club: George Wythe Munford, The Two Parsons (Richmond, 1884), 327–328.

125 William Nelson, Jr.: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, Oct. 13, 1804, and Obituary for William Nelson, Jr., in Unpublished Literary Works, William Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

126 “The Americans … drink”: “A Journal of the Cruise of the Fleet of His Most Christian Majesty, under the Command of the Count De Grasse-Tilly, in 1781 and 1782,” in [John Dawson Gilmary Shea], ed., The Operations of the French Fleet under the Count De Grasse in 1781–2 (New York, 1864), 87.

127 “The Republican … Governments”: John Page to Thomas Jefferson, April 19, 1802, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

128 in the governor’s house: John Page to St. George Tucker, May 21, 1804, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

129 “for … discarded”: William Wirt to Ninian Edwards, Dec. 16, 1802, in Ninian W. Edwards, History of Illinois, from 1778 to 1833; and Life and Times of Ninian Edwards (Springfield, 1870), 407.

130 “a hearty … fellow”: William Wirt to Peachy Gilmer, Aug. 9, 1802, Letterbook, Wirt Papers, MdBHi; Robert, “William Wirt,” VMHB, LXXX (Oct. 1972), 402–403.

131 “gay and extravagant”: Chapman Johnson to David Watson, Dec. 19, 1799, VMHB, XXIX (July 1921), 266; William T. Barry to brother, Jan. 30, 1804, “Letters of William Barry,” WMQ, 1st ser., XIII (Oct. 1904), 109–110.

132 “Williamsburg … days”: [St. George Tucker], A Letter, to the Rev. Jedediah Morse, A. M. (Richmond, 1795), 15n.

133 Statue of Lord Botetourt: Henry St. George Tucker to St. George Tucker, Aug. 8, 1801, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Virginia (Charleston, 1856), 326; [George Tucker], Letters from Virginia (Baltimore, 1816), 124–125.

134 “Goddess of Dullness”: [Tucker], Letters from Virginia, 122. See also Weld, Travels, I, 61, 166–169; William Hodgson to Samuel Thorp, Oct. 4, 1803, William Hodgson Letterbook, Vi; William Prentis to Joseph Prentis, July 26, 1801, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU.

135 “Williams[bur]g … Rouge”: Evelina Skipwith to St. George Tucker, May 15, 1811, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

136 moving to Kentucky: William Wirt to Dabney Carr, March 28, June 6, 1803, Wirt Papers, MdBHi; William Wirt to Dabney Carr, Jan. 16, 1804, Wirt Letters, Vi; William Wirt to Ninian Edwards, March 2, 1803, Sept. 17, 1805, William Wirt to Benjamin Edwards, March 17, 1805, Jan. 10, 1806, in Edwards, History of Illinois, 409–410, 413, 420, 457, 465.

137 “through … Norfolk”: William Wirt to Benjamin Edwards, March 17, 1805, Jan. 10, 1806, in Edwards, History of Illinois, 456, 417–418; William Wirt to Dabney Carr, June 6, 1803, Wirt Papers, MdBHi; Norma Lois Peterson, Littleton Waller Tazewell (Charlottesville, 1983), 27.

138 “on Law … general”: William Nelson, Jr., to St. George Tucker, Sept. 11, 1804, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; William Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Aug. 16, 1804, William Short Papers, DLC.

139 “that many” … “damages”: Agreement, July 22, 1803, Kilby Family Papers, Vi.

140 a British spy: A modern edition is William Wirt, The Letters of the British Spy (Chapel Hill, 1970).

141 “was exceedingly angry”: William Wirt to Dabney Carr, Dec. 30, 1827, Wirt Letters, Vi.

142 “lives” … “cash”: William Wirt to Ninian Edwards, Sept. 17, 1805, in Edwards, History of Illinois, 415. On Wirt’s book, see also Richard Beale Davis, Francis Walker Gilmer: Life and Learning in Jefferson’s Virginia (Richmond, 1939), 270–271, and Davis’s introduction to the 1970 edition of The Letters of the British Spy, vii–xxii.

143 “every … cases”: William Wirt to Benjamin Edwards, Jan. 10, 1806, in Edwards, History of Illinois, 417.

144 a fee of $100: Martha Turberville to Gawin Corbin Turberville, Feb. 27, 1806, Papers of Cazenove G. Lee, Jr., DeWint-M.

145 “a most … library”: William Wirt to Benjamin Edwards, Jan. 10, 1806, in Edwards, History of Illinois, 417.

146 “All … dainties”: George Tucker to St. George Tucker, Jan. 19, 1806, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

147 the plantation Tuckahoe: Horace Holley to Mary Holley, April 17, 1818, Holley Papers, MiU-C.

148 “manners … societies”: Thomas Moore, Epistles, Odes, and Other Poems (London, 1806), 151n.

149 wrote periodically to Gist: A file of copies of these letters is among the papers of Anderson’s Heirs &c v. Gist’s Exors et al., 1824, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

150 more than $7,500: John Wickham to Samuel Gist, June 16, 1803, T 79/115, pp. 308–313, Samuel Gist to Thomas Macdonald, Henry Pye Rich, and John Guillemard, Oct. 5, 1803, T 79/31, PRO; Samuel Gist v. Samuel Shepard and Philip N. Nicholas, May 31, 1803, Escheated Estates, Records, Proceedings, Entry 658, Auditor of Public Accounts, Vi.

151 filed a memorial: T 79/31, PRO.

152 “assiduity and intelligence”: The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time (London, 1812–20), XXVI, 1211.

153 rejected almost 80 percent: Bradford Perkins, The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795–1805 (Philadelphia, 1955), 138–143; American Loyalists’ Petition, Jan. 22, 1812, Parliamentary Debates, XXI, 281–286.

154 William Waller Hening: Reports, Aug. 22, 1801, T 79/73, f. 306, Reports on the claims of Samuel Gist, T 79/90, pp. 153–154, T 79/92, pp. 83–84, T 79/94, pp. 64–65, PRO.

155 “very” … “were”: Mary Pearkes to Thomas Massie, June 17, 1805, Massie Family Papers, ViRHi.

156 Leighton Wood, Jr.: Samuel Gist to Thomas Macdonald et al., June 18, 1806, T 79/31, PRO. On Wood’s earlier services, see Leighton Wood to St. George Tucker, Sept. 7, 1787, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

157 “time” … “come”: Samuel Gist to Thomas Macdonald et al., Dec. 31, 1806, April 23, 1808, T 79/31, PRO.

158 to testify: T 79/31, PRO.

159 Gist and the commissioners: Samuel Gist to Thomas Macdonald et al., May 16, July 6, 18, 21, 1808, ibid.

160 a report from their agent: Report, Oct. 21, 1808, T 79/39, ff. 245–247, PRO.

161 “it would … you”: Samuel Gist to Thomas Macdonald and John Guillemard, July 31, 1810, T 79/31, PRO. Henry Pye Rich died on July 18, 1809. See John Preston Neale and John Le Keux, Views of the Most Interesting Collegiate and Parochial Churches in Great Britain (London, 1824), I, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, 8.

162 the commission awarded: Katharine A. Kellock, “London Merchants and the Pre-1776 American Debts,” Guildhall Studies in London History, I (Oct. 1974),125.

163 Mary Byrd Farley: Robert Colin McLean, George Tucker: Moral Philosopher and Man of Letters (Chapel Hill, 1961), 9; George Tucker to St. George Tucker, May 8, 1797, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW; Thomas Lee Shippen to Alice Lee Shippen, April 20, 1797, Shippen Family Papers, DLC.

164 had begun a suit: Salisbury District Superior Court, Equity Minute Docket, 1788–1798, p. 177, DSCR.207.314.3, Nc-Ar. See also James Taylor, Affidavit, Sept. 28, 1797, and Summons to George Tucker and Mary Tucker, Sept. 19, 1796, in Rowan County, Estates Records—Farley, Francis, 1796, Nc-Ar.

165 supervise a division: A copy of the report on division of the Saura Town tract, Feb. 2, 1798, is in the Richard Corbin Papers, ViWC.

166 The Corbins: Accounts of William Shermer and William Sisson, Corbin Family Ledger, Vi.

167 a deed of trust: March 27, 1799, in Davidson County, Estates Records—Henry, Patrick, and Francis and Simon Farley, 1803–1822, Nc-Ar.

168 Henry Benskin Lightfoot: Henry Benskin Lightfoot to George Tucker, July 21–24, Nov. 27, 1799, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

169 “I … ever”: George Tucker to St. George Tucker, Oct. 23, 1799, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

170 for £20,000: John Browne Cutting to Richard Corbin, Oct. 25, 1800, Corbin Papers, ViWC; Account of Henry B. Lightfoot, Corbin Family Ledger, Vi.

171 “fair” … “sobriety”: George Tucker to St. George Tucker, Feb. 24, 1801, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

172 for £500 currency: McLean, George Tucker, 15; Commissioner’s Report, Oct. 1804, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

173 “a numerous” … “resort”: Joshua Francis Fisher, Recollections of Joshua Francis Fisher, ed. Sophia Cadwalader (Boston, 1929), 271–273.

174 using “flirtations”: Entry of Oct. 2, 1815, The Diary of Harriet Manigault, 1813–1816, ed. Virginia Armentrout and James S. Armentrout, Jr. (Rockland, 1976), 118.

175 “fine … manners”: Fisher, Recollections, ed. Cadwalader, 271–273.

176 forcing Izard to choose: George Izard, “Memoirs of General George Izard, 1825,” ed. Charlton de Saussure, Jr., SCHM, LXXVIII (Jan. 1977), 47–50; entry of June 23, 1802, Philadelphia Merchant: The Diary of Thomas P. Cope, 1800–1851, ed. Eliza Cope Harrison (South Bend, 1978), 127.

177 “which … June”: Izard, “Memoirs,” ed. de Saussure, SCHM, LXXVIII (Jan. 1977), 54.

178 “that … husband”: Entry of Dec. 7, 1804, “Diary of Mason,” Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, 2d ser., II (March 1885), 13; Fisher, Recollections, ed. Cadwalader,271.

179 at Farley: Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Under Their Vine and Fig Tree: Travels Through America in 1797–1799, 1805, trans. Metchie J. E. Budka (Elizabeth, 1965), 289–290. See also Manigault, Diary, ed. Armentrout and Armentrout.

180 Henry in his will: Morgan, True Patrick Henry, 457–459.

181 “I think … law”: July 27, 1801, Note by Dorothea Henry on Henry Lee to Dorothea Henry, Oct. 16, [1800?], Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1021 (Dec. 1910), Item 377.

182 “concluded … him!”: Judge Spencer Roane’s Memorandum, in Morgan, True Patrick Henry, 452–453.

183 “The Question … Reimbursement?”: George Izard to John Wickham, Jan. 12, 1807, Dinwiddie, Crawford & Co. v. Henry Skipwith and Elizabeth Hill Skipwith et al., 1819, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

184 the Virginia Resolution: Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia [1799, December Session] (Richmond, 1799 [1800]), 72. For an earlier vote, see Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia [1798, December Session] (Richmond, 1798 [1799]), 33.

185 “the patrons … quarter”: James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, April 27, 1800, The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826, ed. James Morton Smith (New York, 1995), II, 1134.

186 “A … Walker”: John Brown’s marginal note on William Nelson, Jr., to John Brown, Oct. 9, 1800, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

187 a new board of managers: Minutes, Jan. 9, 1801, ibid.

188 “extensive … reflection”: [William Wirt], “Obituary of Mrs. Jane B. Walker,” Literary Papers, Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

189 “the affairs … loosely”: James Henderson to Benjamin Oliver, Jr., May 25, 1809, BR Box 52(14), CSmH.

190 the Dismal Swamp canal: Report of Presidents and Directors, in Thomas Newton, Jr., to John Page, Nov. 16, 1804, Executive Papers, Gov. John Page, Vi.

191 Francis Walker’s death: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, April 5, 9, 1806, Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

192 brought severe drought: Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, Aug. 25, 1805, Republic of Letters, ed. Smith, III, 1381.

193 “the great … 1806”: Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger, May 5, 1806; Charles William Janson, The Stranger in America, 1793–1806, ed. Carl S. Driver (New York, 1935), 339; William Wirt to Benjamin Edwards, May 6, 1806, Wirt Papers, MdBHi; Ebenezer Pettigrew to James Iredell, Jr., April 18, 1806, The Pettigrew Papers, ed. Sarah McCulloh Lemmon (Raleigh, 1971–), I, 384–385; Edmund Ruffn, “Observations Made during an Excursion to the Dismal Swamp,” Farmer’s Register, IV (Jan. 1, 1837), 519–520.

194 rain began to fall: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, May 15, 1806, Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

195 “I … Rosewell”: Mary Willing Byrd to Abigail De Hart Mayo, Jan. 5, 1806, ViRHi.

196 “Poor … support”: Lelia Tucker to Frances Coalter, [Jan. 1806], Brown-Coalter-Tucker Papers, ViW.

197 $500 in a year: Margaret Page to St. George Tucker, Oct. 16, 1809, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

198 a strong Christian faith: John Page to St. George Tucker, June 29, 1806, ibid. On Wythe, see Julian P. Boyd, The Murder of George Wythe (Philadelphia, 1949); Imogene E. Brown, American Aristides: A Biography of George Wythe (Rutherford, 1981), chap. 16; Munford, Two Parsons, chap. 28.

199 “Rosewell  … it!”: John Page to Thomas Jefferson, Sept. 13–17, 1808, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

200 “I” … “unhappy”: Ibid.; Margaret Page to St. George Tucker, May 30, 1808, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

201 Page’s memories: John Page, Memoir, Virginia Historical Register, III (July 1850), 142–151. On Sir Gregory Page, Bart., see George Edward Cokayne, ed., Complete Baronetage (Exeter, 1900–06), V, 24, 77–78. On John Page’s career, see T. B. McCord, Jr., “John Page of Rosewell: Reason, Religion, and Republican Government from the Perspective of a Virginia Planter, 1743–1808” (Ph.D. diss., American University, 1990).

202 “To clear … Object”: Margaret Page to St. George Tucker, Jan. 8, 1809, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

203 “I know … Future”: Margaret Page to St. George Tucker, March 22, 1817, ibid.

204 the big brick mansion: Bennie Brown, Jr., “Rosewell: An Architectural Study of an Eighteenth Century Virginia Plantation” (M.A. thesis, University of Georgia, 1973), 11–13.

205 “two” … “have”: Robert Morris to Henry Lee, Aug. 27, 1801, ViRHi.

206 “You … granted”: John Wickham to Henry Lee, Dec. 28, 1799, Henry Lee v. Hanbury’s Exor, 1804, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

207 “he … insolvent”: Jonas Clapham to John Lloyd, July 19, 1804, T 79/38, PRO.

208 “the situation … land”: Alexander Moore to Henry Lee, March 14, 1798, Charles Campbell Papers, ViW.

209 “as all … so”: Charles Blackburn to William A. Washington, April 30, 1805, Tracy W. McGregor Collection, ViU.

210 from William Hodgson: William Hodgson to Richard Bland Lee, May 7, 1805, Hodgson Letterbook, Vi.

211 “I … Fairfax”: Nathaniel Pendleton to George Deneale, July 18, 1805, George Deneale Papers, ViRHi.

212 “I … jail”: Henry Lee to James Breckinridge, March 4, 1809, James Breckinridge Papers, ibid.

213 was willing to return: Bushrod Washington and Lawrence Lewis to William A. Washington, May 13, 1809, Washington Family Collection, Box 3, DLC.

214 “right … interest”: Prussing, Estate of George Washington, 282.

215 “the Body … Lee”: Thomas Hicks, Receipt, May 13, 1809, N. Pendleton v. Henry Lee, 1811, USCCVD(EC), Vi.

216 “prison bounds”: Peter J. Coleman, Debtors and Creditors in America: Insolvency, Imprisonment for Debt, and Bankruptcy, 1607–1900 (Madison, 1974), 203–205.

217 “The fame … desolate”: George Washington Parke Custis, Recollections and Private Memoirs of Washington, ed. Benson J. Lossing (New York, 1860), 363.

218 a list of his holdings: Henry Lee’s Schedule quoted in John James Chew to William Selden, Aug. 8, 1835, BR Box 5, CSmH.

219 Thomas Newton, Jr.: Thomas Newton, Jr., to James Monroe, Sept. 27, 1802, Executive Papers, Gov. James Monroe, Vi; Thomas Newton, Jr., to John Page, Sept. 27, 1804, Palmer et al., eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, IX, 418. See also Report of the Dismal Swamp Canal Company, in Thomas Newton, Jr., to John Page, Nov. 16, 1804, Executive Papers, Gov. John Page, Vi.

220 Workers in the swamp: Ruffin, “Observations,” Farmer’s Register, IV (Jan. 1, 1837), 518; Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States (New York, 1856), 151–156; Jack Temple Kirby, Poquosin: A Study of Rural Landscape and Society (Chapel Hill, 1995), 154–161. Compare William Dusinberre, Them Dark Days: Slavery in the American Rice Swamps (New York, 1996).

221 “The Negroes … sold”: Summary of minutes, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

222 they made 1,285,900: James Henderson to Benjamin Oliver, Jr., May 25, 1809, BR Box 52(14), CSmH.

223 “it is” … “valuable”: A copy of Nelson’s will is in the Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

224 “should … refusal”: Charles C. Page to James Henderson, March 7, 1813, ibid.

225 Nelson, Jr., almost missed: St. George Tucker to Joseph C. Cabell, March 13, 1810, Bryan Family Papers, ViU; William Nelson, Jr., to St. George Tucker, April 12, 1810, Tucker-Coleman Papers, ViW.

226 “direct” … “indecision”: James Henderson to Benjamin Oliver, Jr., May 25, 1809, June 18, 1811, BR Box 52(14), CSmH.

227 paid steady dividends: Estate of George Washington, Executors’ Accounts, Washington Family Collection, DLC.

228 “The handsome … committed”: Bushrod Washington to James Henderson, Feb. 20, 1811, Bushrod Washington Papers, NcD. See also Minutes of Meeting, May 2, 1811, Anderson-Macaulay Legal Papers, BR Box 50, CSmH; Thomas Swepson to Benjamin Oliver, Jr., March 26, 1811, Benjamin Brand Papers, ViRHi.

229 “Among … Interest” and report: James Henderson to Benjamin Oliver, Jr., June 18, 1811, BR Box 52(14), CSmH.

230 “Our … getting”: Robert Douthat to Bushrod Washington, Aug. 13, 1824, Washington Family Letters, ViU.

231 death of Nelson: Lelia Tucker to William Short, April 13, 1813, William Short Papers, DLC; St. George Tucker to Joseph C. Cabell, Feb. 8, Mar. 13, 1813, Bryan Family Papers, ViU.

232 obituary: March 23, 1813.

233 Anne Byrd: Biographical Sketch of Mary Willing Byrd, BR Box 274(57), CSmH.

234 “the deepest dejection”: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, Nov. 4, 1813, Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

235 “poor … beggars!”: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, Nov. 18, 1813, ibid.

236 “if 100 … bubble”: William Wirt to Dabney Carr, Jan. 15, 1814, Wirt Letters, Vi.

237 the first vessel: Alexander Crosby Brown, “The Dismal Swamp Canal,” AN, V (1945), 212–215.

238 “chain-gangs” … “devil”: Louise E. Catlin, “A Day in the Great Dismal Swamp,” Magazine of History, II (Nov. 1905), 341, 343. See also Richard Blow to Samuel Proctor, Jan. 21, 1806, Richard Blow Letterbook, ViRHi; Fillmore Norfleet, Suffolk in Virginia (n.p., 1974), 117.

239 “brought … unsuspected”: Ruffin, “Observations,” Farmer’s Register, IV (Jan. 1, 1837), 517–518; Joseph Martin, A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer of Virginia, and the District of Columbia (Charlottesville, 1835), 41, 237–238.

240 Dismal Plantation lay unused: Lease, Oct. 11, 1813, Dismal Swamp Land Company Records, NcD.

241 for the Dismal Swamp Land Company: Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia (1814, October Session) (Richmond, [1814]), 104, 108, 120, 124,129.

242 an average annual dividend: Estate of George Washington, Executors’ Accounts, Washington Family Collection, DLC; Fielding Lewis Accounts, Douthat Family Papers, ViRHi.

243 Lake Drummond Hotel: Jesse F. Pugh and Frank T. Williams, The Hotel in the Great Dismal Swamp (Old Trap, 1964), 14–21.

244 the dividend in 1810: John Bracken to Thomas Jefferson, Aug. 13, 1811, in “Charles Bellini, First Professor of Modern Languages in an American College,” WMQ, 2d ser., V (Jan. 1925), 16.

245 “sought … property”: Gentleman’s Magazine, LXXXV, Part I (Feb. 1815), 182.

246 Josiah Sellick: William Matthews, Matthews’s New Bristol Directory, for the Year 1793–4 (Bristol, [1793]), 73.

247 Gist bequeathed: For Gist’s will and for the disposition of Gist’s estate, see the documents in C 117/335, PRO. For the codicils, see the copy of Gist’s will in Hanover County Legislative Petitions, 1815, Vi. On the East India Company, see also Huw V. Bowen, “The East India Company and Military Recruitment in Britain, 1763–1771,” reprinted in Pierre Emmer and Femme Gaastra, eds., The Organization of Interoceanic Expansion, 1450–1800 (Aldershot, 1996), chap. 16; P. J. Marshall, East Indian Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1976), chap. 1. For Josiah Sellick’s change of name, see W. P. W. Phillimore and Edward Alexander Fry, comps., An Index to Changes of Name Under Authority of Act of Parliament or Royal Licence (London, 1905), 128.

248 at Queen Elizabeth’s Hospital: John Latimer, The Annals of Bristol in the Nineteenth Century (Bristol, 1887), 61–62; F. H. Towill, “Bristol Charities, Past and Present,” in C. M. MacInnes and W. F. Whittand, eds., Bristol and Its Adjoining Counties (Bristol, 1955), 299.

249 received £500 per year: Petition by Martin Pearkes, Mary Pearkes, William Fowke, and Elizabeth Fowke, Hanover County Legislative Petitions, 1815, Vi.

250 after 1806 Virginia law: Benjamin Joseph Klebaner, “American Manumission Laws and the Responsibility for Supporting Slaves,” VMHB, LXIII (Oct. 1955), 448–449; Robert McColley, Slavery and Jeffersonian Virginia, 2d ed. (Urbana, 1973), chap. 7.

251 freeing slaves: Chap. CXXIX, Acts Passed at a General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia [1815–1816] (Richmond, 1816), 240–243.

252 These three quarter-shares: Account of William F. Wickham with the Estate of Samuel Gist, Wickham Family Papers, ViRHi.

253 more than $17,000: Anderson’s Heirs &c v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1824, Jos. Smith’s Admr. et al. v. Gist’s Exor et al., 1825, USCCVD(EC), Vi. For other documents on this litigation, see Wickham Family Papers and John Minor to Dabney Minor, March 6, 1811, John Minor Letterbook, ViRHi.

254 Gist’s freed former slaves: Michael Trotti, “Freedom and Enslaved Soil: A Case Study of Manumission, Migration, and Land,” VMHB, CIV (1996), 455–480. See also William Buckner McGroarty, “Exploration in Mass Emancipation,” WMQ, 2d ser., XXI (July 1941), 208–226.

255 visited the church: Glynne, Gloucestershire Church Notes, ed. Phillimore and Hall, 112–113; Verey, Buildings of England: Gloucestershire, II, 2d ed., 412–413.

256 “Sacred … Years”: Bigland, Historical Collections of Gloucester, ed. Frith, IV, 1517–1518.

257 arms of the House of Gist: F. Were, “Heraldry,” Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Transactions, XXV (1902), 208, XXVIII (1905), 264, 396–397. See also Return of Owners of Land, 1873 (London, 1875), I, Gloucester, 19, II, Oxford, 9; G. E. Mingay, English Landed Society in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1963); Nicholas Rogers, “Money, Land and Lineage: The Big Bourgeoisie of Hanoverian London,” Social History, IV (1979), 437–454; Roy Porter, English Society in the Eighteenth Century (Harmondsworth, 1982), 72–93; F. M. L. Thompson, “Life After Death: How Successful Nineteenth-Century Businessmen Disposed of Their Fortunes,” EcHR, 2d ser., XLIII (Feb. 1990), 40–61; Hancock, Citizens of the World.

258 “whose” … “Philadelphia”: David Meade to Anne Randolph, [1800], William Bolling Papers, NcD; Robert Morris to [?], July 20, 1798, Stan. V. Henkels Catalogue No. 1042 (Nov. 1911), Item 251; Charles Willing Byrd to Timothy Pickering, Mar. 30, 1800, Clarence Edwin Carter et al., eds., The Territorial Papers of the United States (Washington, 1934–75), III 81.

259 Arthur St. Clair: Charles Willing Byrd to Thomas Jefferson, May 27, Oct. 15, 1802, Carter et al., eds., Territorial Papers, III, 226–227, 251–253; Charles Willing Byrd to Nathaniel Massie, Sept. 24, Nov. 26, 1800, May 20, 1802, in David Meade Massie, Nathaniel Massie: A Pioneer of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1896), 163–165, 205–206; Jonathan J. Bean, “Marketing ‘the great American commodity’: Nathaniel Massie and Land Speculation on the Ohio Frontier, 1783–1813,” Ohio History, CIII (1994), 164–165; Donald J. Ratcliffe, Party Spirit in a Frontier Republic: Democratic Politics in Ohio, 1793–1821 (Columbus, 1998), 39–43.

260 Byrd and family: Stephen J. Stein, ed., Letters from a Young Shaker: William S. Byrd at Pleasant Hill (Lexington, 1985), 1–46; Nelson W. Evans, “Charles Willing Byrd,” Old Northwest Genealogical Quarterly, XI (Jan. 1908), 1–8; Nelson W. Evans and Emmons B. Stivers, A History of Adams County, Ohio (West Union, 1900), 526–532; W. H. Burtner, “Charles Willing Byrd,” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, XLI (1925), 237–240.

261 at Chaumière des Prairies: Henry J. Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, Containing Matters of Interest to the Descendants of David Meade (Chicago, 1883), 53–57; Horace Holley to Mary Holley, May 27, 1818, Holley Papers, MiU-C; [Terhune], More Colonial Homesteads, 77–78; Oppel, “Paradise Lost,” FCHQ, LVI (April 1982), 206; Kornwolf, “David Meade,” Journal of Garden History, XVI (1996), 254–274. Compare the description of Sturton Park in entry of April 20, 1779, Journal of Peter Van Schaack, in Henry C. Van Schaack, The Life of Peter Van Schaack (New York, 1842), 139–141.

262 “the son” … “County”: David Meade to Joseph Prentis, Jr., Sept. 26, 1826, Webb-Prentis Papers, ViU; Stephen J. Stein, “The Conversion of Charles Willing Byrd to Shakerism,” FCHQ, LVI (Oct. 1982), 395–414. See also Powel T. Byrd to Evelyn T. Byrd, June 14, 1830, R. Baylor Hickman Collection, KyLoF; Peet, ed., Chaumiere Papers, 79.

263 “my dismal … been”: William S. Byrd to Charles Willing Byrd, June 22, 1826, and William S. Byrd, Will, Nov. 4, 1828, Letters from a Young Shaker, ed. Stein, 51–52, 125–126. On Pleasant Hill, see also Earl Gregg Swem, ed., Letters on the Condition of Kentucky in 1825 (New York, 1916), 56–67; Clay Lancaster, Antebellum Architecture of Kentucky (Lexington, 1991), 88–99.

264 moved to Richmond: Anya Jabour, Marriage in the Early Republic: Elizabeth and William Wirt and the Companionate Ideal (Baltimore, 1998), chaps. 1–3.

265 “in 1762 … later”: Thomas Jefferson, Memorandum, in Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, April 12, 1812, Writings of Jefferson, ed. Ford, IX, 339; William Wirt, Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1817), xi–xii; William Wirt to Peachey Gilmer, n.d. [1806?], Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

266 “business … truth”: William Wirt to Dabney Carr, Aug. 20, 1815, Wirt Letters, Vi.

267 “these crude sketches”: Wirt, Henry, xiv.

268 “a discourse … morals”: William Wirt to Thomas Jefferson, Jan. 18, 1810, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

269 “you … etc.”: William Wirt to Ninian Edwards, Nov. 26, 1808, Edwards, History of Illinois, 436.

270 “Were … pigmies”: [William Wirt et al.], The Old Bachelor (Richmond, 1814), 138, 141–142.

271 In Williamsburg: Wirt, Henry, 39.

272 “in easy … colony”: Ibid., 1.

273 “It … proceeded”: William Wirt to Francis Gilmer, Letter I, n.d., William Wirt and Elizabeth Washington (Gamble) Wirt Papers, NcD.

274 was Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, Aug. 5, 1815, Writings of Jefferson, ed. Ford, IX, 473–474.

275 “the descendants … aristocracy”: William Wirt to Thomas Jefferson, Oct. 23, 1816, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

276 “the old … principles”: Jefferson, Memorandum, Writings of Jefferson, ed. Ford, IX, 340–341. See also Jack P. Greene, “Society, Ideology, and Politics: An Analysis of the Political Culture of Mid-Eighteenth-Century Virginia,” in Richard M. Jellison, ed., Society, Freedom, and Conscience: The American Revolution in Virginia, Massachusetts, and New York (New York, 1976), 14–76; Thad W. Tate, “The Coming of the Revolution in Virginia: Britain’s Challenge to Virginia’s Ruling Class, 1763–1776,” WMQ, 3d ser., XIX (July 1962), 323–343.

277 “the spirit” … “birth”: Thomas Jefferson to William Wirt, Aug. 14, 1814, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC.

278 “genuine” … “Aristocrat”: Francis Lightfoot Lee to Ludwell Lee, Nov. 23, 1796, The Rosenbach Company, The History of America in Documents: Part Two (Philadelphia, 1950), Item 227. For Jefferson on aristocracy, see Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, Oct. 28, 1813, Lester J. Cappon, ed., The Adams-Jefferson Letters (Chapel Hill, 1959), II, 387–392.

279 Spencer Roane: Roane, Memorandum, in Morgan, True Patrick Henry, 442, 450, 452–453. See also Spencer Roane to Philip Aylett, June 26, 1788, Emmet Collection, NN.

280 “aberrations” … “imitation”: William Wirt to Thomas Jefferson, Oct. 23, 1816, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, DLC. On Wirt’s book, see also Maxwell Bloomfield, American Lawyers in a Changing Society, 1776–1876 (Cambridge, 1976), 173–176; Robert P. Sutton, “Nostalgia, Pessimism, and Malaise: The Doomed Aristocrat in Late-Jeffersonian Virginia,” VMHB, LXXVI (Jan. 1968), 41–55; William R. Taylor, Cavalier and Yankee: The Old South and American National Character (New York, 1969 [orig. publ. 1961]), 78–89.

281 “it is … work”: Notes of Mr. Jefferson’s Conversation 1824 at Monticello, 1825, The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, ed. Charles M. Wiltse et al. (Hanover, 1974–86), I, 373.

282 “I have … fustian”: John Randolph of Roanoke to Francis Scott Key, Feb. 9, 1818, in Hugh A. Garland, The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke (New York, 1851), II,96.

283 Spencer Roane: Spencer Roane to William Wirt, 1816, Wirt Papers, NcU.

284 The public attention: John P. Kennedy, Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1856), II, chap. 2.

285 “Who” … “friend”: St. George Tucker to William Wirt, April 14, 1813, Wirt Papers, MdBHi.

286 Gothic novels: Ian Duncan, Modern Romance and Transformations of the Novel: The Gothic, Scott, Dickens (Cambridge, 1992), chap. 1; Paul Ranger, “Terror and Pity reign in every Breast”: Gothic Drama in the London Patent Theatres, 1750–1820 (London, 1991).

287 “on … grave”: William Byrd, Will, July 6, 1774, VMHB, IX (July 1901), 88.

288 “there … meditate”: Curtis Carroll Davis, The King’s Chevalier: A Biography of Lewis Littlepage (Indianapolis, 1961), 21. See also Constance Cary Harrison, “Colonel William Byrd of Westover, Virginia,” Century Magazine, XLII (June 1891), 171.

289 “I have … Spy”: William Wirt to Elizabeth Wirt, Nov. 8, 1803, Wirt Papers, MdBHi. See also [Samuel Jackson] Pratt, Gleanings in England (London, 1801), I, 251–255.

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