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Abbreviations Used


Allen Macy Dulles Jr.


Arthur M. Schlesinger


Allen W. Dulles

AWD calendars

Allen W. Dulles calendars, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

AWD correspondence

Allen W. Dulles correspondence, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

AWD interview, JFD OH

Allen W. Dulles interview, John Foster Dulles oral history project, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

AWD OH, JFK Library

Allen W. Dulles oral history, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston

AWD OH, Mudd Library

Allen W. Dulles oral history, John Foster Dulles collection, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

AWD papers, Mudd Library

Allen W. Dulles papers, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University


Director of Central Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency


Eleanor Lansing Dulles

ELD interview, JFD OH

Eleanor Lansing Dulles interview, John Foster Dulles oral history project, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

ELD memoir

Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime: A Memoir (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980)


Eleanor Lansing Dulles oral history, John Foster Dulles Collection, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

Fraleigh OH

William Fraleigh oral history, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston


John Foster Dulles oral history project, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

JFK Library

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston


Mary Bancroft

MB journal

Mary Bancroft journal, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

MB papers

Mary Bancroft papers, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

MCD dream journal

Martha Clover Dulles dream journal, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

MCD journal

Martha Clover Dulles journal, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

MCD papers

Martha Clover Dulles papers, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

McKittrick interview

Thomas McKittrick interview, July 30, 1964, John Foster Dulles oral history project, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University

Mudd Library

Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University


National Archives and Records Administration


New York Public Library


Oral history

Pell OH

The reminiscences of Herbert C. Pell, Columbia University oral history collection

Pell papers

Herbert Clairborne Pell papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library


Robert Francis Kennedy

Schlesinger Library

Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University


1“That little Kennedy”: Willie Morris, New York Days (Boston: Back Bay Books, 1993), 36.

2“the blackest day of my life”: James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1999), 532.

2“the secretary of state for unfriendly countries”: David Atlee Phillips, Secret Wars Diary: My Adventures in Combat, Espionage Operations and Covert Action (Bethesda, MD: Stone Tail Press, 1989), 125.

4chess master of the free world: Townsend Hoopes, The Devil and John Foster Dulles (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 143.

4“Do not comply”: Nancy Lisagor and Frank Lipsius, A Law Unto Itself: The Untold Story of the Law Firm Sullivan & Cromwell (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988), 115.

5“a legacy of ashes”: Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (New York: Anchor Books, 2008), 194.

6“My Answer to the Bay of Pigs”: AWD papers, Mudd Library.

6“The ‘Confessions’ of Allen Dulles”: Lucien S. Vandenbroucke, “The ‘Confessions’ of Allen Dulles: New Evidence on the Bay of Pigs,” Diplomatic History 8, no. 4 (October 1984): 365–76,

7“a very tragic man”: Stephen Ambrose, Ike’s Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999), 318.

7He soon began meeting with a surprising range of CIA officers: AWD calendars 1962–63, digital files series.

7He met with a controversial Cuban exile leader: Declassified CIA document, Mary Ferrell Foundation,; G. Robert Blakey and Richard N. Billings, Fatal Hour: The Assassination of President Kennedy by Organized Crime (New York: Berkley Books, 1992), 194–99.

8the Kennedy presidency suffered from a “yearning to be loved”: From Oct. 21, 1963, draft of speech, “The Art of Persuasion: America’s Role in the Ideological Struggle,” AWD papers, Mudd Library.

8And on the weekend of the assassination: AWD calendars.

9“Our faults did not often give us a sense of guilt”: ELD memoir, 10.

10Democracy . . . was “cowed in mind”: I. F. Stone, The Trial of Socrates (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988), 143.

10“It seems we just went wild”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

Chapter 1: The Double Agent

15He later told the story of his border crossing with pulse-racing, dramatic flair: Allen Dulles, The Secret Surrender (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), 16–17.

16One of his affairs . . . had a brutal ending: James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1999), 81.

17“the personal representative of President Roosevelt”: Dulles, Secret Surrender, 18.

17“Too much secrecy can be self-defeating.” Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 154.

17Donovan . . . wanted to station Dulles in London: Dulles, Secret Surrender, 14.

18He thought he could do a better job than Donovan: Douglas Waller, Wild Bill Donovan: The Spymaster Who Created the OSS and Modern American Espionage (New York: Free Press, 2011), 146.

18Switzerland was a financial haven for the Nazi war machine: See Adam LeBor, Tower of Basel: The Shadowy History of the Secret Bank That Runs the World (New York: Public Affairs, 2013).

18Sullivan and Cromwell, the Dulles brothers’ Wall Street law firm, was at the center: See Nancy Lisagor and Frank Lipsius, A Law Unto Itself: The Untold Story of the Law Firm Sullivan & Cromwell (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988); and Christopher Simpson, The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law, and Genocide in the Twentieth Century (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

19he broke down in tears: Lisagor and Lipsius, A Law Unto Itself, 134.

19Foster still could not bring himself: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 134.

19he had the gall to throw a gala party: Reinhard R. Dorries, Hitler’s Intelligence Chief: Walter Schellenberg (New York: Enigma Books, 2009), 92.

20“who from humble beginnings”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 125.

20“Germany’s position is morally superior”: Ibid., 133.

20“rather impressed” with Joseph Goebbels’s . . . “sincerity and frankness”: Ibid., 116.

20“Juden” scrawled crudely on the door: Harold Bartlett Whiteman Jr., “Norman H. Davis and the Search for International Peace and Security” (unpublished dissertation, Sterling Library, Yale University, 1958).

20“those mad people in control in Germany”: Lisagor and Lipsius, A Law Unto Itself, 138.

21“somewhat similar views”: Charles Lindbergh, The Wartime Journals of Charles A. Lindbergh (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 283.

21Monitoring Dulles proved an easy task: Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies, 200–201.

22Stephenson was also willing to do the dirty work of espionage: See H. Montgomery Hyde, Room 3603: The Incredible True Story of Secret Intelligence Operations During World War II (New York: The Lyons Press, 1962).

22Stephenson was even authorized to kill: John Loftus, America’s Nazi Secret (Walterville, OR: Trine Day, 2010), 5; and author interview with Loftus.

22they sought advice from a British colleague named Peter Wright: Peter Wright, Spycatcher: The Candid Autobiography of a Senior Intelligence Officer (New York: Dell, 1988), 204.

23Douglas’s hatred for the “unctuous and self-righteous” senior Dulles: William O. Douglas, Go East Young Man: The Early Years (New York: Random House, 1974), 259.

24“I turned and gave him a quarter tip”: Ibid., 146.

24Roosevelt grew so fond of Douglas: Doris Kearns Goodwin, No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt—The Home Front in World War II (New York: Touchstone, 1995), 526.

24“You stood me on my head”: Ibid., 257.

25resulted in at least two abortive coups: See David Talbot, Devil Dog: The Amazing True Story of the Man Who Saved America (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010).

25Vanderbilt . . . tipped off Eleanor Roosevelt: Cornelius Vanderbilt Jr., Man of the World: My Life on Five Continents (New York: Crown Publishers, 1959), 264.

25“He was a dangle”: Author interview with John Loftus.

26The secretive BIS became a crucial financial partner: See LeBor, Tower of Basel, 78–85; and first chapter of Charles Higham, Trading with the Enemy: The Nazi-American Money Plot, 1933–1949 (New York: Authors Guild Backprint Edition, 2007).

26“Somebody grabbed me from behind”: McKittrick interview.

27“an American [bank] president doing business with the Germans”: LeBor, Tower of Basel, 122.

27the “nasty crew in the Treasury”: McKittrick interview.

27Project Safehaven that sought to track down: Martin Lorenz-Meyer, Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2007), 178; and Donald P. Steury, “The OSS and Project Safehaven,” CIA online

28lacked “adequate personnel”: Neal H. Petersen, ed., From Hitler’s Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996), 420.

28“The Treasury [Department] kept sending sleuth hounds”: McKittrick interview.

28By playing an intricate corporate shell game: See Lisagor and Lipsius, A Law Unto Itself, 136–37 and 146–52.

28“Shredding of captured Nazi records”: Loftus, America’s Nazi Secret, 10.

30“In our uncompromising policy”: President Franklin D. Roosevelt radio address, Feb. 12, 1943, the public papers of FDR, vol. 12, p. 71,

30“merely a piece of paper”: Hal Vaughan, Sleeping with the Enemy: Coco Chanel’s Secret War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011), 178.

31Perhaps the most bizarre was Stephanie von Hohenlohe: See Martha Schad, Hitler’s Princess: The Extraordinary Life of Stephanie von Hohenlohe (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2004).

31“If news of such a meeting became public”: Martin Allen, Himmler’s Secret War: The Covert Peace Negotiations of Heinrich Himmler (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2005), 131.

32a “flagrant” liar: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 157.

32Royall Tyler . . . was cut from similar cloth: See “Royall Tyler” entry, Dictionary of Art Historians,; and “Royall Tyler” entry in Dictionary of American Biography, 1977. See also Grose, Gentleman Spy; and Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies.

33Dulles broke the ice: Charles Higham, American Swastika: The Shocking Story of Nazi Collaborators in Our Midst (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1985), 190.

33Hovering over the tête-à-tête: See Allen and the Himmler profile in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,

35Himmler even recruited fashion designer Coco Chanel: Vaughan, Sleeping with the Enemy, 188–89.

35he never lost faith in Dulles: Allen, Himmler’s Secret War, 275.

Chapter 2: Human Smoke

37The boys would rise early: AWD interview, JFD OH.

38the children would put small candles in paper balloons: ELD interview, JFD OH.

38“I never feared hell”: ELD memoir, 19.

38Once Allen flew into a rage: Ibid., 15.

38One summer incident: Ibid., 16; and Leonard Mosley, Dulles (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 27.

40The minister was a compassionate man: ELD memoir, 25.

40Edith Foster Dulles was “a doer”: ELD interview, JFD OH; and ELD memoir, 8–9.

40Foster’s callousness came into stark relief: ELD interview, JFD OH.

41“a very sensitive mouth”: ELD memoir, 104.

41Her brother’s letter stunned and infuriated Eleanor: Ibid., 138.

41“We can’t have too many Jews”: ELD interview, JFD OH.

41the fragile Blondheim . . . killed himself: Mosley, Dulles, 122.

43The doomed voyage of the St. Louis, see Gordon Thomas, Voyage of the Damned Minneapolis: Motorbooks International Publishers, 1994). See also the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Web site,; and the Jewish Virtual Library Web site,

43Morgenthau was so integral: Herbert Levy, Henry Morgenthau, Jr.: The Remarkable Life of FDR’s Secretary of the Treasury (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2010), 320.

43Roosevelt . . . was the first presidential candidate to campaign against anti-Semitism: Richard Breitman and Allan J. Lichtman, FDR and the Jews (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013), 42.

44“He never let anybody around him”: Levy, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., 203.

44Roosevelt began discussing a plan to rescue millions of German Jews: See Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg, eds., Refugees and Rescue: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1935–1945 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009).

45In June 1940, he circulated a memo: The Long memo can be found on the PBS American Experience Web site, in the archives for its “America and the Holocaust” program,

45One Morgenthau aide later called the Long cabal: Ibid.

45“Breck, we might be a little frank”: Levy, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., 357.

45Long was convinced that he was being persecuted: American Experience.

45he fell for the most notorious anti-Jewish fabrication: Robert Dunn, World Alive: A Personal Story (New York: Crown Publishers, 1956), 421.

47Heinrich Himmler’s luxurious private train: Walter Laqueur and Richard Breitman, Breaking the Silence: The German Who Exposed the Final Solution (Hanover, NH, and London: Brandeis University Press, 1994), 13–14.

49Heydrich, who called himself “the chief garbage collector”: Robert Gerwarth, Hitler’s Hangman: The Life of Heydrich (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 2011), 196.

50“These are lies!”: Christopher Simpson, The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law, and Genocide in the Twentieth Century (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995), 81.

50Schulte was not one of those men: Laqueur and Breitman, Breaking the Silence, 115.

51Leland Harrison . . . took a decidedly skeptical view: Ibid., 148–49.

52“Germany no longer persecutes the Jews”: Breitman and Lichtman, FDR and the Jews, 197.

53The OSS agent sized him up as “somewhat naïve”: Lucas Delattre, A Spy at the Heart of the Third Reich (New York: Grove Press, 2005), 111.

54One German cable reported that 120,000 Jews: Ibid., 194.

55“Why did Dulles choose not to emphasize”: Neal H. Petersen, ed., From Hitler’s Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996), 570.

55Rudolf Vrba . . . escaped from the camp: For Vrba’s and Wetzler’s miraculous escape and report on Auschwitz, see Rudolf Vrba, I Escaped from Auschwitz (Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 2002); and the PBS program Secrets of the Dead, “Escape from Auschwitz” episode,

56“He was profoundly shocked”: Walter Laqueur, The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth About Hitler’s Final Solution (New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Transaction Publishers, 2012), 98–99.

Chapter 3: Ghosts of Nuremberg

58she was forced to hold her breath: Rebecca West, A Train of Powder: Six Reports on the Problem of Guilt and Punishment in Our Time (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2000), 10.

59“I can’t imagine that!”: Richard Overy, Interrogations: The Nazi Elite in Allied Hands, 1945 (New York: Penguin Books, 2002), 499.

60“I have no conscience”: Ibid., 500.

60His first hours in captivity surely encouraged his optimism: Brigadier General Robert I. Stack’s OH: “Capture of Goering,” 36th Infantry Division Association Web site.

60“you will say I have robbed you of your sleep”: Michael Salter, Nazi War Crimes, U.S. Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg (Abingdon, UK: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007), 266.

61“This was a woman”: U.S. War Department documentary, Death Mills (1945).

61“The hilarity in the dock suddenly stopped”: Gerald M. Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary (New York: Signet, 1947), 45.

61“These were crocodile tears”: Salter, Nazi War Crimes, 272.

61“It was such a good afternoon”: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, 46.

62Churchill estimated the number: Overy, Interrogations, 6.

62“U[ncle]. J[oe]. took an . . . ultra-respectable line”: Ibid., 8.

62George Kennan . . . was one of those: Christopher Simpson, The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law, and Genocide in the Twentieth Century (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995), 151–52.

63“piglike rush for immediate profits”: Ibid., 134.

63“I am almost the last capitalist”: Letter from Pell to President Roosevelt, Feb. 17, 1936, Pell papers.

63“Your administration has made possible”: Letter from Pell to President Roosevelt, Sept. 18, 1937, Pell papers.

64“Hackworth was well named”: Pell OH.

64“to make clear to every last German in the world”: Quoted in Simpson, The Splendid Blond Beast, 140.

65Pell arrived in a frigidly cold, war-torn London: Leonard Baker, Brahmin in Revolt: A Biography of Herbert C. Pell (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1972), 265.

66his political enemies were determined to never let him return: Pell OH, 588–93. See also Baker, Brahmin in Revolt, 302–3.

66“His hands shook so”: John Morton Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries: Years of War 1941–45 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967), 416–18.

66There are two reasons he was targeted: Letter from Pell to David Drucker, Sept. 28, 1945, Pell papers.

67Dulles’s offer of assistance . . . was a “God send”: Salter, Nazi War Crimes, 348.

67he had fallen into an OSS “trap”: Ibid., 374.

68Jackson stunned the OSS chief: Telford Taylor, The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1992), 184–85.

69Taylor . . . later called Donovan’s actions “ill conceived”: Ibid., 186.

70“Most men of the caliber required”: Allen W. Dulles, “That Was Then: Allen W. Dulles on the Occupation of Germany,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 6 (November–December 2003): 2–8.

70the beneficiaries of politically motivated interventions: Salter, Nazi War Crimes, 7–8.

70“The only motive which guided me was my ardent love”: Taylor, Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials, 535.

71“Who in the world is responsible”: Ibid., 535–56.

71it was likely . . . Wheelis, who smuggled the poison capsule: Ibid., 623–24.

71For the badly conducted Nuremberg hangings, see “The Execution of Nazi War Criminals” by reporter Kingsbury Smith of International News Service, See also: “Night Without Dawn,” Time, Oct. 28, 1946; “Hangman’s End,” Time, Aug. 7, 1950; and Taylor, Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials, 611.

72For more on Murderers Among Us, see the DEFA Film Library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, See also: “German Rubble Film 1946–49,”–1946–49; and “Rotation 1949: Seeing Through Prison Walls,” German Cinema, 1946–49, University of Cambridge Web site,

Chapter 4: Sunrise

75“To my great and . . . joyful surprise”: Jochen von Lang, Top Nazi: SS General Karl Wolff—The Man Between Hitler and Himmler (New York: Enigma Books, 2005), 138.

75“Don’t worry”: Christopher Hibbert, Mussolini: The Rise and Fall of Il Duce (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 312.

75“I am crucified”: Ibid., 287.

76“My hands were tied”: Ibid., 312.

76“there was a great danger”: Allen Dulles, The Secret Surrender (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), 177.

77Dulles identified himself as “special representative”: From a 1945 interrogation of Wolff by Allied officers, released by CIA under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act; Names file: Karl Wolff, NARA.

78“I told Gaevernitz that under the strict orders”: Dulles, Secret Surrender, 177.

79“I will never forget what you have done”: Ibid., 182.

80“It would have made a lovely headline”: “Diary Notes by G.G. on the Rescue of General Wolff,” AWD papers, Mudd Library.

80some historians would identify as the first icy fissures of the Cold War: See, for instance, Bradley Smith and Elena Agarossi, Operation Sunrise: The Secret Surrender (New York: Basic Books, 1979), 186–88.

80some German divisions . . . were told not to lay down their arms: Kerstin von Lingen, “Conspiracy of Silence: How the ‘Old Boys’ of American Intelligence Shielded SS General Karl Wolff from Prosecution,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 22, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 74–109.

80Truman later wrote in his memoir: Harry S. Truman, 1945: Year of Decisions (New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1995), 201.

81“one of the most stunning triumphs”: Time, Oct. 21, 1966.

81one of the “dandy officers of the SS”: Lang, Top Nazi, 119.

82“Himmler was no businessman”: Ibid., 52.

82For Dulles and Italian Superpower Corp., see Richard Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency (Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2005), 107. See also: “Italian Super-Power,” Time, Jan. 30, 1928; and William J. Hausman, Peter Hertner, and Mira Wilkins, Global Electrification: Multinational Enterprise and International Finance in the History of Light and Power (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

83he was a “moderate”: March 9, 1945, Dulles dispatch from Bern, declassified by CIA under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, NARA.

83“The conclusions . . . must be left to history”: Dulles, Secret Surrender, 238.

83“one of the unknown giants”: Lang, Top Nazi, viii.

84a highly incriminating letter written by Wolff: Michael Salter, Nazi War Crimes, U.S. Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg (Abingdon, UK: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007), 51.

84Wolff also played a key administrative role: Michael Salter and Suzanne Ost, “War Crimes and Legal Immunities: The Complicities of Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff in Nazi Medical Experiments,” Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion 4, no. 1 (2004): 1–69,

85Wolff relaxed on the villa’s terrace: Eugen Dollmann, Call Me Coward (London: William Kimber, 1956), 11–17.

86had promised him “honorable treatment”: For the Dulles team’s promises to Wolff, see Salter, Nazi War Crimes, 118–21.

87enjoyed a pleasant summer idyll on the lake: Lingen, “Conspiracy of Silence.”

88Dulles went so far as to bury incriminating evidence: Ibid.

88it was a way “to prevent me [from] talking”: Ibid.

89he began to have his conversations secretly taped: Salter, Nazi War Crimes, 119.

89Wolff’s letters to President Truman and Major General Lemnitzer, and Wolff-related correspondence between Dulles and Lemnitzer: AWD papers, Mudd Library.

89Wolff insisted that Dulles must come to his aid: Norbert George Barr papers, 1942–1953, Columbia University Rare Books Library.

91“It seemed like old times”: Gaevernitz letter to Dulles, June 18, 1949, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

91“KW doesn’t realize what a lucky man”: AWD letter to Waibel, June 12, 1950, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

92Hitler . . . “completely approved” of his Operation Sunrise machinations: Lang, Top Nazi, 339.

93Wolff had developed a side business: Christopher Simpson, Blowback (New York: Collier Books, 1989), 236.

93Wolff . . . “was most polite”: Wolff file, NARA. All of Names files released under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act courtesy of Freedom of Information Act attorney James Lesar.

Chapter 5: Ratlines

95“At least in Dachau they had wooden huts”: Eugen Dollmann, Call Me Coward (London: William Kimber, 1956), 46.

95“a delicate alabaster statue”: Ibid., 58.

96His wife, Cicely, would rhapsodize about his “El Greco face”: Tom Mangold, Cold Warrior: James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s Master Spy Hunter (New York: Touchstone, 1991), 37.

97In Rome, the two men conferred: Burton Hersh, The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA (St. Petersburg, FL: Tree Farm Books, 2002), 166.

97“He was talking like a young university lecturer”: Dollmann, Call Me Coward, 85.

97“a leather-faced Puritan archangel”: Ibid., 30.

98“We were all afraid you had been killed”: Ibid., 93.

99In Naples, he was invited: Eugen Dollmann, The Interpreter (London: Hutchinson, 1967), 37–41.

100Dollmann later tried to make sense: Ibid., 76–78.

101“She loved crocodile in every shape and form”: Ibid., 117.

101by reading selections from Hitler’s thick police dossier: Robert Katz, “The Talented Doktor Dollmann,” The,’s_talent.htm.

102Heydrich demanded that Dollmann take him: Dollmann, The Interpreter, 94–95.

102“a self-serving opportunist”: Michael Salter, Nazi War Crimes, U.S. Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg (Abingdon, UK: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007), 73.

103“one of my most disagreeable acquaintances”: Dollmann, Call Me Coward, 48.

103For more on Rauff’s mobile crematoria, see Ernst Klee, ed., “The Good Old Days”: The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders (Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky and Konecky, 1991), 68–74; “Walter Rauff: Letters to the Gas Van Expert,” Holocaust Education and Archive Research Team,; and “The Development of the Gas-Van in the Murdering of the Jews,” Jewish Virtual Library,

104Dollmann felt a firm hand: Dollmann, Call Me Coward, 108.

105“Please call this number”: Author interview with William Gowen.

105“a devious and arrogant son of a bitch”: Ibid.

106Rauff would cap his bloody career in Chile: Names file: Rauff, NARA; “Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff Was West German Spy,” BBC News, Sept. 27, 2011.

107“When I got to Rome”: Author interview with William Gowen.

112U.S. surveillance of Dollmann began getting interesting: Names file: Dollmann, NARA.

114Siragusa had proved very useful to Angleton: Douglas Valentine, The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America’s War on Drugs (London: Verso, 2004), 109 and 227.

116“From the little English I know”: Katz, “The Talented Doktor Dollmann.”

Chapter 6: Useful People

119But, still, the imposing figure struck her as “arrogant”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

120“I want you to know I can see how much you and Allen care for each other”: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 224.

120“the most complex and overwhelming”: MB journal, Feb. 23, 1978, MB papers.

120“those cold, blue eyes of his”: Ibid.

120“that rather peculiar, mirthless laugh”: Mary Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy (New York: Morrow, 1983), 133.

120“in the presence of superior possibilities”: William McGuire and R. F. C. Hull, eds., C. G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987), 258.

121“like a robot, or a mask of a robot”: Ibid., 127.

121“quite a tough nut”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 140.

122“was constantly on his lips”: Ibid., 134.

122“I married Allen”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 75.

123“some poor convicts”: Ibid., 74.

123Her mother would make “fairy circles”: “Parents Journal,” MCD papers.

123“We simply weren’t ready for Latin yet”: Ibid.

124“To me it was a terrible strain”: Ibid.

125“I suppose I did kill [Paul]”: MCD journal, Feb. 17, 1947.

125“his life was somewhere else”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

126“As for Allen, . . . when anyone was in trouble”: MB journal, Feb. 23, 1978.

127“Dad asked for news”: Clover Dulles letter to Joan Talley, Feb. 18, 1945, MCD papers.

127“My husband doesn’t converse with me”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 246.

128“My wife is an angel”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 241.

128Clover drew herself as a crying, forlorn donkey: Ibid., 246.

128“nothing short of a miracle”: “Freudian Analysis, Jungian Analysis,” May 7, 1947, MCD papers.

129“My whole stomach had collapsed”: MCD dream journal, Nov. 25, 1945.

130“no solution but for you and me to be killer whales”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 244.

131“at the height of my sexual prowess”: Deirdre Bair, Jung: A Biography (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 2003), 488.

132“He actually shimmered with it”: MB journal, Feb. 23, 1978.

132“I longed for a life of adventure”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 7.

132“One of my [OSS] colleagues was frantic”: MB, Columbia University oral history project, Schlesinger Library.

133“What do those people actually do?”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 132.

133he gave the psychologist an OSS number—Agent 488: Bair, Jung: A Biography, 492.

133“Quick!” he barked: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 152.

134“Why the hell didn’t you go?” Ibid., 191.

134“saturated with Nazi ideology”: Bair, Jung: A Biography, 494.

134“Power was my natural element”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 112.

135by Mary’s standards, he was by no means sexually reckless: MB journal, Feb. 23, 1978.

135“In order to engage in intelligence work”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 89.

135“I like to watch the little mice”: MB journal, Feb. 23, 1978.

136“just like music”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

137the spymaster kept asking the young man to “prove himself”: See Fritz Molden, Exploding Star: A Young Austrian Against Hitler (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1979), 203.

137Joan found Fritz a “very erratic character”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

138“would have gone on trying endlessly”: Letter to AWD, July 3, 1959, MCD papers.

139The opposite of love is not hate: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, 95.

Chapter 7: Little Mice

142she christened her “house of horrors”: Erica Wallach, Light at Midnight (New York: Doubleday, 1967), 4.

142“This business of nothing to look at”: Philadelphia Inquirer, March 29, 1987.

143“Horror, fear, mental torture”: Wallach, Light at Midnight, 6.

143“A person living a normal life”: Hermann Field and Kate Field, Trapped in the Cold War: The Ordeal of an American Family (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999), 101.

144“I must admit that these days I find it hard to concentrate”: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 257.

145“Our war is over”: Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA (Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001), 44.

146“The difference between us”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 267.

146“that bastard”: Leonard Mosley, Dulles (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 251.

147The CIA . . . “has the duty to act”: The Central Intelligence Agency: A Report to the National Security Council, Allen Dulles, chairman, January 1949,

147Dulles scrutinized the election tallies from Rome: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 285.

148At least $2 million of the money: Christopher Simpson, Blowback (New York: Collier Books, 1989), 126.

151“I want to work for world peace”: Mosley, Dulles, 49.

151dedicate his life to becoming a “saint”: Tony Sharp, Stalin’s American Spy: Noel Field, Allen Dulles and the East European Show Trials (London: Hurst & Company, 2013), 16.

151“by far the most practical field”: Ibid., 20.

152“a stupid child in the woods”: Ibid., 29.

153Schlesinger took a strong disliking to Field: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., A Life in the Twentieth Century (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002), 334. See also Schlesinger’s review of Red Pawn: The Story of Noel Field by Flora Lewis in The New York Review of Books, Feb. 11, 1965.

154Hermann was taken from his cell for another round of grilling: Field and Field, Trapped in the Cold War, 155–70.

155Operation Splinter Factor succeeded beyond the OPC’s wildest dreams: See Stewart Steven, Operation Splinter Factor: The Untold Story of the West’s Most Secret Cold War Intelligence Operation (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1974).

155“The comrades are merrily sticking knives”: Mosley, Dulles, 277.

155“Dulles wished to leave Eastern Europe devoid of hope”: Steven, Operation Splinter Factor, 146.

156“He would never talk to me about his years in prison”: Schlesinger, Life in the Twentieth Century, 502.

157“I was continuously interrogated”: Philadelphia Inquirer, March 29, 1987.

157“From a European point of view”: Wallach, Light at Midnight, 396.

157“Allen Dulles’s motives are easy to imagine”: From Erica Wallach interview with James Srodes, Feb. 10, 1993, courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation Library.

Chapter 8: Scoundrel Time

159“one of the greatest thrills of my life”: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 280.

159“the hangover philosophies of the New Deal”: Roger Morris, Richard Milhous Nixon: The Rise of an American Politician (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1990), 363.

160“This will be no junket”: Ibid.

161he spent a frigid Christmas week: Ibid., 179–80.

162“we have worked together”: AWD letter to Nixon, Feb. 20, 1961, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

162“Allen Dulles . . . told him to keep quiet”: John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994), 221; and author interview with John Loftus.

163by demanding a congressional investigation of the controversial Bank for International Settlements: Charles Higham, Trading with the Enemy: The Nazi-American Money Plot, 1933–1949 (New York: Authors Guild Backprint Edition, 2007), 11.

164by calling for the nationalization: See Jerry Voorhis, Beyond Victory (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1944).

164“typical representatives of the Southern California middle class”: Anthony Summers, The Arrogance of Power: The Secret World of Richard Nixon (London: Victor Gollancz, 2000), 46.

164“young man fresh out of the Navy”: Ibid., 47.

166“This is a friend of yours”: Stephen E. Ambrose, Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 1913–1962 (New York: Touchstone, 1988), 138.

166“Of course I knew”: Ibid., 140.

167“We’ve been had!”: Richard Nixon, Six Crises (New York: Touchstone, 1990), 10.

168Chambers was “short and pudgy”: Ibid., 2.

168“I am a graduate of Harvard Law School”: Summers, Arrogance of Power, 67.

168“It absolutely ripped Nixon apart”: Ibid.

169“One of the most trying experiences”: Nixon, Six Crises, 19.

170“an orgy in unconscious self-revelation”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Journals: 1952–2000 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 153.

170Nixon was a “sick” man: Ibid., 154.

170“It was clear he did not want to proceed”: Ambrose, Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 178.

171Some of this confidential information about Hiss: Summers, Arrogance of Power, 78.

171The HUAC investigation could have been “acutely embarrassing”: Nixon, Six Crises, 21.

172“He was no more concerned about whether Hiss”: Summers, Arrogance of Power, 67.

173“We built [the typewriter]”: John Dean, Blind Ambition: The White House Years (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976), 57.

173“unparalleled venom”: Nixon, Six Crises, 67.

174“not a revolution by violence”: Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001), 472.

174“it was a call to arms”: Interview with Hiss conducted by Judah Graubart and Alice V. Graubart for their book, Decade of Destiny (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1978). Available on “The Alger Hiss Story” Web site,

176“We looked at each other”: Chambers, Witness, 73.

176“his attitude to me”: Summers, Arrogance of Power, 69.

176“The true story of the Hiss case”: Ibid., 68.

177“the most important U.S. government economist”: James M. Boughton, “The Case Against Harry Dexter White: Still Not Proven” (working paper, International Monetary Fund, 2000).

177a “New Deal for a new world”: R. Bruce Craig, Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 144–45.

179“Allen Dulles’s mouthpiece in Congress”: Loftus and Aarons, Secret War Against the Jews, 222.

179Bentley, however, proved a highly problematic witness: See Craig, Treasonable Doubt; also Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

180“I cannot say he was a Communist”: Chambers, Witness, 431.

180even . . . Clyde Tolson: Craig, Treasonable Doubt, 73.

180“the American creed”: Harry Dexter White testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee, Aug. 13, 1948, courtesy of Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University.

185Drew Pearson . . . dropped a bombshell: Drew Pearson, Washington Merry-Go-Round, Sept. 29, 1952; see also Mark Feldstein, Poisoning the Press: Richard Nixon, Jack Anderson, and the Rise of Washington’s Scandal Culture (New York: Picador, 2010), 46–47.

186He sent a photostatic copy: Summers, Arrogance of Power, 133.

186“We’d better see Allen Dulles”: Ibid.

187Wisner had even urged that Malaxa . . . be deported: Declassified March 14, 1951, CIA memo, Names file: Malaxa, NARA.

187The Malaxa money trail: Ibid.

188“mutilated them in a vicious parody”: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Romania exhibit,

189“perhaps the most concise appraisal”: Names file: Malaxa, NARA.

190Walter Winchell exposed the notorious collaborator: Winchell’s syndicated column, “A Balkanazi on Broadway,” May 21, 1948.

190“strategically and economically important”: Summers, Arrogance of Power, 132.

191“Smith was a man who could cuss”: Ibid., 133.

192Malaxa reached out the hand of friendship: Declassified CIA memo, Jan. 16, 1953, Names file: Malaxa, NARA.

Chapter 9: The Power Elite

193“a goddamned anarchist”: Kathryn Mills, ed., C. Wright Mills: Letters and Autobiographical Writings (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 218.

194“not adequate even as an approximate model”: C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 300.

194“the fraternity of the successful”: Ibid., 281.

195America’s “invisible elite”: Ibid., 289.

196“I look forward to the time”: Quoted in John H. Summers, “The Deciders,” New York Times, May 14, 2006.

196“I am a politician without a party”: Kathryn Mills, C. Wright Mills, 303.

196the CIA continued to identify him: Summers, “The Deciders.”

196“The men of the higher circles”: C. Wright Mills, Power Elite, 361.

197“most of these politicians”: Lisagor and Lipsius, 127.

197“There can be no question”: Richard Helms, A Look over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency (New York: Ballantine Books, 2003), 63.

197“The real truth”: Peter Dale Scott, The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire and the Future of America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 1.

197“but it did create within the political arena”: C. Wright Mills, Power Elite, 272.

198“For the first time in American history”: Ibid., 184.

198“Such men as these”: John H. Summers, ed., The Politics of Truth: Selected Writings of C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 134.

199“It would be unfair to say”: C. Wright Mills, Power Elite, 235.

200“What reason have you to think I have ever been a Democrat?”: Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier and President (New York: Touchstone, 1991), 259.

200“save this country from going to Hades”: Ibid., 247.

200The two men did not immediately hit it off: Townsend Hoopes, The Devil and John Foster Dulles (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 137.

200“Dull, Duller, Dulles”: Jim Newton, Eisenhower: The White House Years (New York: Doubleday, 2011), 86.

201“We should be dynamic”: John Foster Dulles, “A Policy of Boldness,” Life, May 19, 1952.

201he frantically paced the room: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, 129.

202a “solid tree trunk of a man”: Ibid., 3.

202a “tough-fibered individual”: Ibid., 140.

203soon had Eisenhower “in his palm”: Ibid., 138.

203“The general was in fine form this morning”: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 325.

203Dulles proved his loyalty to the Eisenhower-Nixon campaign: Howard Kohn, “The Hughes-Nixon-Lansky Connection: The Secret Alliances of the CIA from World War II to Watergate,” Rolling Stone, May 20, 1976.

203“Smith lacked confidence in Dulles’s self-restraint”: Ludwell Lee Montague, General Walter Bedell Smith as Director of Central Intelligence (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992), 264.

204he found himself outmaneuvered by the Dulles brothers: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, 145.

205“America’s most covert president”: Blanche Wiesen Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower (New York: Penguin Books, 1984), xv.

205“The national security complex became”: David Halberstam, The Fifties (New York: Ballantine Books, 1994), 371.

205Senator Joseph McCarthy married his office aide: Washington Post, Sept. 30, 1953.

206there was a “conspiracy” to sabotage Eisenhower’s presidency: Curt Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1991), 436.

208a troubled Truman wrote to Eleanor Roosevelt: Ted Morgan, Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Random House, 2003), 321.

208“I’m going to say that I disagree with you”: Ibid., 421.

208“would continue the suicidal Kremlin-shaped policies”: Ibid., 423.

209“The thing that has puzzled me a great deal”: ELD OH.

210“I felt it in Allen”: Ibid.

210“Every once in a while we were teased”: AWD OH, Mudd Library.

211instructed his brother to arrange a secret CIA payment: David Atlee Phillips, Secret Wars Diary: My Adventures in Combat, Espionage Operations and Covert Action (Bethesda, MD: Stone Tail Press, 1988), 126.

211s speech he planned to deliver on the Soviet Union was “rotten”: Ibid.

212“just how cozy the Dulles brothers’ arrangement”: Joseph B. Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior (New York: Putnam, 1976), 102.

212McLeod was “anti-intellectual”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, 153.

214“I went over to New York”: ELD OH.

215“McCarthy with a white collar”: Stephen E. Ambrose, Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 1913–1962 (New York: Touchstone, 1988), 312.

216“one obsession: to remain secretary of state”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, 160.

216“My brother was never a witch hunter”: AWD OH, Mudd Library.

217“Schine was Cohn’s dumb blonde”: Morgan, Reds, 429.

218“a book burning”: Ibid., 441.

218found other ways to embarrass their country: Ibid., 443.

219suspected Dulles of “secret communist leanings”: Mark Riebling, Wedge: How the Secret War Between the FBI and CIA Has Endangered National Security (New York: Touchstone, 2002), 120.

219“Penetration begins at home”: Quoted in James DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, eds., The Assassinations (Port Townsend, WA: Feral House, 2003), 141.

219rumored to occasionally show off photographic evidence of Hoover’s intimate relationship: See Anthony Summers, Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover (New York: Putnam, 1993).

219“that Virgin Mary in pants”: Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, 418.

220“Joe McCarthy is a bachelor of 43 years”: Ibid., 433.

220The senator was as surprised as many others: See George Washington University Historical Encyclopedia entry on Jean Fraser Kerr:,_Jean_Fraser.

220McCarthy’s habit of drunkenly groping young girls’ breasts: Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, 434.

221“Roy was furious”: Walter Pforzheimer interview, CIA Web site:

221“blatant attempt to thwart the authority of the Senate”: New York Times, July 10, 1953.

221“I’d kick them out”: Washington Post, Aug. 8, 1954.

222“McCarthy has just suffered his first total . . . defeat”: New York Herald-Tribune, July 17, 1953.

222“‘John Foster Dulles’s tougher, younger brother’”: Buffalo Evening News, July 15, 1953.

222Not all of the press reaction . . . was so enthusiastic: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 346.

223“I emerged from my [FBI] ordeal”: Cord Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1980), 80.

223“It may be necessary to liquidate Senator McCarthy”: Morgan, Reds, 475.

224“take a firm stand, like Allen Dulles”: Ambrose, Nixon, 316.

224“We’ll wreck the Army”: Morgan, Reds, 468.

Chapter 10: The Dulles Imperium

227the Iranian royals looked “worn, gloomy and anxious”: Stephen Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008), 177.

227“We do not have much money”: Abbas Milani, The Shah (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 189.

228“Who is going to play tennis with me”: “Iran: The People Take Over,” Time, Aug. 31, 1953.

228“I took her on the staircase”: Scott Eyman, John Wayne: The Life and Legend (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014), 483.

229Frank Wisner insisted the simultaneous arrival: Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (New York: Anchor Books, 2008), 102–3.

229“By the end of the 1980s, most countries in the Middle East”: Ervand Abrahamian, The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations (New York: The New Press, 2013), 82.

230“This would be the largest overseas development project”: Stephen Kinzer, The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War (New York: Times Books/Henry Holt & Co., 2013), 120.

231“break the back of future generations”: Ibid., 123.

231“delightfully childlike way”: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 364.

231Mossadegh, who sent the president-elect a heartfelt note: The Mossadegh-Eisenhower Cables,

232suggesting that . . . Mossadegh’s government: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, 96.

232“a maturing revolutionary set-up”: Ibid.

232the global crisis over Iran was not a Cold War conflict: Abrahamian, The Coup, 4.

233“I dubbed [Roosevelt] ‘the quiet American’”: Leonard Mosley, Dulles (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 354.

234“This was a grave decision”: Kermit Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979), 18.

234The general’s mangled corpse: Abrahamian, The Coup, 179.

235Mossadegh “lost his nerve”: Ibid., 190.

236He was “a wimp”: Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 109.

236the shah and Queen Soraya were photographed on a shopping: “Iran: The People Take Over,” Time, Aug. 31, 1953.

236the anything goes “new morality” toward sex: Peter Schweizer and Wynton C. Hall, eds., Landmark Speeches of the American Conservative Movement (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2007), 55.

236While Dulles was dallying with Luce’s wife: Kinzer, The Brothers, 202.

237His “jaw dropped”: Time, Aug. 31, 1953.

237“Four times a night”: Mosley, Dulles, 355.

238“The shah is living in a dream world”: Abrahamian, The Coup, 198–99.

238“Allen would give his left”: Miles Copeland, The Game Player: Confessions of the CIA’s Original Political Operative (London: Aurum Press, 1989), 127.

238“no one paid any attention to him”: “Will Iran Be Another Korea?” Newsweek, Aug. 31, 1953.

238he convinced them to share his exuberance: See William A. Dorman and Mansour Farhang, The U.S. Press and Iran: Foreign Policy and the Journalism of Deference (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 31–62.

231“basically a hollow man”: New York Times, Jan. 7, 1979.

239Kim Roosevelt was among those who cashed in: William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2004), 71.

239“It was a day that should never have ended”: New York Times, April 16, 2000. For more about internal CIA reports on Iran coup, see the National Security Archive,

240more like listening to a rousing “dime novel”: David Atlee Phillips, Secret Wars Diary: My Adventures in Combat, Espionage Operations and Covert Action (Bethesda, MD: Stone Tail Press, 1988), 131.

240“purring like a giant cat”: Thomas, Very Best Men, 110.

240the shah unleashed his secret police: Ervand Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Pubic Recantations in Modern Iran (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 88–101.

241Even in death, Mossadegh was taunted by the U.S. press: See “Mossadegh Gets Quiet Iran Burial,” The Mossadegh Project,–6–1967/.

242“He was as nervous as I had ever seen him”: Evan Thomas, Ike’s Bluff: President Eisenhower’s Secret Battle to Save the World (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2012), 7.

243“I’ll just confuse them”: Ibid., 160–61.

244the United States must overcome the “taboo” against nuclear weapons: Ibid., 71.

245“a curious juncture in the history of human insanity”: C. Wright Mills, The Causes of World War III (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1958), 113.

245he offered to give two “A-bombs” to French foreign minister: John Prados, Operation Vulture (New York: iBooks/Simon & Schuster, 2004), 208.

245Foster was surprised to learn: Thomas, Ike’s Bluff, 158.

246“doctrinaire and murderous rigidity”: Mills, The Causes of WW III, 112.

246“I watched Dulles making notes”: Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), 397.

246Foster sent out a long cable: Townsend Hoopes, The Devil and John Foster Dulles (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 302.

248“Allen, can’t you find an assassin?”: Richard Harris Smith, “Allen Dulles and the Politics of Assassination,” Washington Post, Dec. 2, 1975.

248The secretary of state assured the oilmen: Mills, The Causes of WW III, 65–66.

249“takes a strange kind of genius to run it”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, 156.

250Bush “was the day-to-day contact man for the CIA”: Joseph J. Trento, Prelude to Terror: The Rogue CIA and the Legacy of America’s Private Intelligence Network (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2005), 8–9.

250“Walter, you tell Mr. Dulles that he had his hearing”: James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1999), 486.

250“The things we did were ‘covert’”: Jim Newton, Eisenhower: The White House Years (New York: Doubleday, 2011), 108.

250“Dad could be fooled”: Thomas, Ike’s Bluff, 142.

251“scared the hell out of us”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 446.

251“ardent disciples of Allen Dulles”: L. Fletcher Prouty, The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the United States and the World (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2008), 368.

251Arbenz was showered with abuse: “Guatemala: Battle of the Backyard,” Time, Sept. 20, 1954.

252Hunt claimed that he had spread the word: Ann Louise Bardach, “Scavenger Hunt,” Slate, Oct. 6, 2004.

252“They were trying to break him down”: Author interview with Erick Arbenz.

253The agency’s disinformation campaign began immediately: See Roberto Garcia Ferreira, “The CIA and Jacobo Arbenz: History of a Disinformation Campaign,” Journal of Third World Studies 25, no. 2 (Fall 2008): 59–81.

254The tragedy was “trapped in his head”: Ibid.

254Hunt . . . continued to track closely the man: Ann Louise Bardach, “Scavenger Hunt.”

255Arbenz’s beloved daughter, Arabella: Rich Cohen, The Fish That Ate the Whale: The Life and Times of America’s Banana King (New York: Macmillan, 2012), 206.

256But Maria Arbenz always believed that her husband had been assassinated: Author interview with Erick and Claudia Arbenz.

257Jacobo and Maria Arbenz were the Kennedys of Guatemala’s fledgling democracy: Piero Gleijeses, Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, 1944–54 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), 134–47.

259The powerful influence of the United Fruit Company: Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Story of the American Coup in Guatemala (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), 102–7.

260Foster made a discreet tour of Central America: Peter Chapman, Bananas: How the United Fruit Company Shaped the World (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2007), 84–85.

260a “Communist-type reign of terror”: New York Times, June 16, 1954.

261Dulles assembled his Guatemala task force in the White House: David Atlee Phillips, The Night Watch (New York: Atheneum, 1977), 49–51.

262an “opéra bouffe”: New York Times, June 22, 1954.

262Arthur Hays Sulzberger was extremely accommodating: New York Times, June 7, 1997.

263the CIA had no qualms about compiling a “disposal list”: Kate Doyle and Peter Kornbluh, eds., “CIA and Assassinations: The Guatemala 1954 Documents,” National Security Archive,

264the CIA began pressuring him to purge Guatemala: Stephen M. Streeter, Managing the Counterrevolution: The United States and Guatemala, 1954–1961 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000), 37–57.

265The worst massacre . . . took place in Tiquisate: Cindy Forster, The Time of Freedom: Campesino Workers in Guatemala’s October Revolution (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001), 219.

265“turn the country into a cemetery”: New York Times, Aug. 9, 1981.

Chapter 11: Strange Love

267“It was a dream come true”: Mary Kay Linge, Willie Mays: A Biography (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 42.

267“He quit because he wasn’t Joe DiMaggio anymore”: Mark Zwonitzer, prod., Joe DiMaggio: A Hero’s Life, PBS, American Experience, 2000.

268His skin was so pale: James H. Critchfield, Partners at the Creation: The Men Behind Postwar Germany’s Defense and Intelligence Establishments (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003), 82.

268Most of the intelligence gathered by Gehlen’s men: Christopher Simpson, Blowback (New York: Collier Books, 1989), 44.

268Herre, who was the rabid baseball fan: Critchfield, Partners at the Creation, 96.

269The German spymaster then leveraged his expertise: See Mary Ellen Reese, General Reinhard Gehlen: The CIA Connection (Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1990); and E. H. Cookridge, Gehlen: Spy of the Century (New York: Random House, 1971).

269after a heated internal debate, the CIA decided to take over: See Kevin C. Ruffner, ed., Forging an Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND1945–49: A Documentary History (CIA History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1999).

270some of the most notorious figures of the Nazi regime, such as Dr. Franz Six: Simpson, Blowback, 48.

270Hillenkoetter . . . strongly urged President Truman to “liquidate”: Ruffner, Forging an Intelligence Partnership, xxii.

270calling it an old boy’s network of ex-Nazi officers: Ibid., xxiii.

271“reasonably clean slates”: Critchfield, Partners at the Creation, 86.

272watched in “shocked silence”: Ibid., 6.

272“impressed us as being unusually intelligent”: Ibid., 93.

272a three-hour “harangue”: Memo from Pullach base to CIA special operations, Dec. 30, 1950, Names file: Gehlen, NARA.

272“He had a high standard of morality”: Critchfield, Partners at the Creation, 109.

273“There’s no doubt that the CIA got carried away”: Washington Post, April 24, 2003.

273at least 13 percent of the Gehlen Organization: Memo to CIA East European station from unnamed official, 1954, NARA.

273“I’ve lived with this for [nearly] 50 years”: Washington Post, March 18, 2001.

274“a runt”: Memo from chief of CIA Foreign Division M to chief of station, Karlsruhe, Oct. 30, 1950, NARA.

274“a variety of political embarrassments”: Memo for CIA deputy director of plans from assistant director, special operations, June 28, 1951, NARA.

274“Gehlen will be somewhat difficult to control”: Memo from Critchfield to unnamed CIA official, undated, NARA.

274“we were greeted by a famous member of the Mafia”: Critchfield, Partners at the Creation, 159.

274“We looked out on the Rockies”: Ibid.

275“the Americans had sold their souls”: Memo from chief of CIA Eastern European division to CIA director Dulles, Aug. 8, 1955, NARA.

275“I don’t know if he’s a rascal”: Simpson, Blowback, 260.

275a small wooden statuette . . . that the German spymaster described as “sinister”: Reinhard Gehlen, The Service: The Memoirs of General Reinhard Gehlen (New York: Popular Library, 1972), 196.

276“a symbol of our work against bolshevism”: Letter from Gehlen to AWD, Nov. 12, 1956, NARA.

276Radcliffe . . . made it clear: Memo from chief of CIA Eastern European division to chief of base, Pullach (Critchfield), Feb. 13, 1955, NARA.

276“below a layer of soiled feminine niceties”: Memo from Munich representative of commander, U.S. Naval Forces, Germany to director of Naval Intelligence, Oct. 12, 1955, NARA.

276a gift from Dulles that was worth as much as 250,000 DM: Moscow New Times, May 1972.

276“I had no personal disputes with Dulles”: Gehlen, The Service, 196.

277“UTILITY was blunt in his criticism”: Notes for “letter from the field” by unnamed CIA officer, Aug. 5, 1955, NARA.

277“one will see the cloven hoof of the devil”: Memo from CIA Munich station to Bonn station chief, Nov. 17, 1966, NARA.

277“Allen Dulles had a soft spot”: Thomas L. Hughes OH, Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project, interviewed July 7, 1999,,%20Thomas%20L.toc.pdf.

278“in an age in which war is a paramount activity”: Gehlen, The Service, 17.

278“that spooky Nazi outfit”: Simpson, Blowback, 260.

279“John is the more moral of the two”: Memo by unnamed CIA official, Feb. 20, 1952, NARA.

279only if it was done in a grassroots, democratic way: Otto John, Twice Through the Lines (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 226.

279“My whole impression of John”: Memo by AWD, Dec. 6, 1954, NARA.

280“Once a traitor”: Hugh Trevor-Roper, “Why Otto John Defected Thrice,” The Spectator, April 12, 1997.

281“a matter of some importance”: Memo from James Critchfield to AWD, March 15, 1956, NARA.

282investigators revealed that the CIA-backed group had compiled a blacklist: Jonathan Kwitny, “The CIA’s Secret Armies in Europe,” The Nation, April 6, 1992.

282Code-named Operation Gladio: See Daniele Ganser, NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe (London: Frank Cass, 2005).

283implemented wide-ranging surveillance of West German officials and citizens: Heinz Hohne and Hermann Zolling, The General Was a Spy (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1972), 166–83.

283Gehlen . . . “has let himself be used”: CIA dispatch from Bonn, July 9, 1953, NARA.

283Globke paid a visit to Gehlen’s Pullach headquarters: Memo by unnamed CIA official, December 1974, Names file: Globke, NARA.

284Adenauer asked Dulles point-blank what he thought of Gehlen: Memo from chief of CIA Bonn station to chief of Munich liaison base, June 6, 1963, Names file: Gehlen, NARA.

285Gehlen “is and always was stupid”: Memo from CIA Bonn station to CIA director John McCone, July 12, 1963, NARA.

285“more in sorrow than anger”: Internal CIA memo, Nov. 22, 1963, NARA.

285thanking Helms for including him in the Gehlen dinner: Letter from AWD to Richard Helms, Sept. 11, 1968, NARA.

286“I can only be grateful to fate”: Copenhagen Politiken, July 7, 1974.

Chapter 12: Brain Warfare

287Dulles delivered an alarming speech: Allen W. Dulles, “Brain Warfare: Russia’s Secret Weapon,” U.S. News & World Report, May 8, 1953.

288“reluctant to enter into signed agreements”: Alfred McCoy, A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2006), 28.

289“modernized the idea of demonic possession”: Timothy Melley, “Brain Warfare: The Covert Sphere, Terrorism and the Legacy of the Cold War,” Grey Room 45 (Fall 2011): 18–39.

289a “living puppet”: Ibid.

289largely debunked the brainwash panic: Robert A. Fein, “Prologue: U.S. Experience and Research in Educing Information: A Brief History,” in Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art—Foundations for the Future (Washington, DC: National Defense Intelligence College, 2006).

291“augmenting the usual interrogation methods”: AWD memo to Frank Wisner, Feb. 12, 1951, NARA.

291a stockade for notorious Nazi POWs: Arnold M. Silver, “Questions, Question, Questions: Memories of Oberursel,” Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 2 (April 1993): 81–90.

291the camp was operating as an extreme interrogation center: Annie Jacobsen, Operation Paperclip (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2014), 317–21.

292Beecher even began drawing on the work done by Nazi doctors: Alfred McCoy, Torture and Impunity: The U.S. Doctrine of Coercive Interrogation (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012), 75–80.

293“I never gave a thought to legality”: John Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1991), 49.

293“He had a tough time”: Jacobsen, Operation Paperclip, 367.

294Olson was suffering a “moral crisis”: Family Statement on the Murder of Frank Olson, Aug. 8, 2002, Statement2002.html.

294“fear of a security violation”: Ibid.

295dosed with acid for seventy-seven straight days: Marks, Search for the Manchurian Candidate, 67.

295“We were in a World War II mode”: Sidney Gottlieb obituary, New York Times, March 10, 1999.

295“Well, he’s gone”: H. P. Albarelli Jr., A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War Experiments (Walterville, OR: Trine Day, 2009), 24.

296“I am exceedingly skeptical”: Los Angeles Times, Nov. 29, 1994.

297Dulles invited an old friend and protégé: William Corson, Susan Trento, and Joseph Trento, Widows (New York: Crown Publishing, 1989), 19–30.

300“Allen probably had a special potion”: Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA (Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001), 89.

300“Both my sister and I would have liked my father”: Interview with Joan Talley by Mark DePue, Nov. 28, 2007, Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum oral history program.

300“I would imagine”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

301“there could have been all kinds of experimentation”: Ibid.

301filled with a new assertiveness: AMD letters to AWD, Mudd Library.

301which he signed “Affectionately”: Letters to AMD, Jan. 8, 1952, and Sept. 13, 1952, from AWD, Mudd Library.

302“He didn’t have to do any of that”: James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1999), 448.

302“How do you feel, son?”: New York Times, Feb. 1, 1953.

303Dulles wrote an apologetic letter: Letter to Richard P. Butrick, Aug. 3, 1953, AWD correspondence.

303“My son was very severely wounded”: Letter to United Services Automobile Assoc., May 23, 1954, AWD correspondence.

303“a lovely, old brownstone”: DePue interview with Joan Talley.

303“He couldn’t really think”: Ibid.

304The family’s finances were soon stretched: Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies, 449.

304Sonny would stare at his father: Leonard Mosley, Dulles (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 374.

304his father as a Hitler-lover: Author interview with Joan Talley.

304“I don’t know what we’re going to do with him”: Mosley, Dulles, 374.

305“relentless drive for accomplishment”: Donald J. Dalessio and Stephen Silberstein, eds., Wolff’s Headache and Other Pain (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 3.

305a “mixture of greatness and narrowness”: J. N. Blau, “Harold G. Wolff: The Man and His Migraine,” Cephalagia 24, no. 3 (March 2004): 215–22.

305“But who would test me?”: Dalessio and Silberstein, Wolff’s Headache and Other Pain, 4.

306“potentially useful secret drugs”: McCoy, A Question of Torture, 45–46.

306Joan has disturbing memories: Author interview with Joan Talley.

307“I have just understood the nature”: AMD letter to father, AWD correspondence.

308Cameron saw himself as an iconoclastic innovator: Rebecca Lemov, “Brainwashing’s Avatar: The Curious Career of Dr. Ewen Cameron,” Grey Room 45 (Fall 2011): 61–87.

308“shock and awe warfare on the mind”: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), 31.

308“he was a genius at destroying people”: Ibid., 47.

309“like prisoners of the Communists”: Ibid., 37.

309Kastner would come to think of the doctor: Ibid., 26.

309Orlikow could not remember her husband: The Scotsman (Edinburgh), Jan. 6, 2006.

310“a terrible mistake”: Klein, Shock Doctrine, 42.

310the work of Cameron . . . lives on at the agency: Ibid., 39.

310“He thought my brother could do better”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

310“I wish I could help him”: Penfield letter, Feb. 22, 1959, AWD correspondence, Princeton.

310She felt “joy”: Letter to MB, Nov. 1, 1961, Clover Dulles papers, Schlesinger Library.

311“endlessly patient in general”: DePue interview with Joan Talley.

311“the hands of a person who thinks”: Clover Dulles journals, Schlesinger Library.

312Dulles arranged for his niece: Author interview with Joan Talley.

312“walking on the bottom of the sea”: Letter to MB, Clover Dulles correspondence, Schlesinger Library.

312recommended that she see Dr. Cameron: Gordon Thomas, Journey into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse (New York: Bantam Books, 1990), 91–92.

313“It is a difficult case”: Letter to Heinrich Fierz, March 15, 1962, AWD correspondence.

313“beautiful, great, old estate”: DePue interview with Joan Talley.

314Willeford later recalled that he made a “connection” with Sonny: Karen Croft interview with William Willeford.

314“Whether the son comes to experience his father”: William Willeford, Feeling, Imagination and the Self (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1987), 94.

314“Never!” he shouted: Mosley, Dulles, 517.

314arranged to take him out of the sanitarium: Author interview with Joan Talley.

Chapter 13: Dangerous Ideas

316“left Franco’s frying pan”: Stuart A. McKeever, The Galindez Case (Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2013), 15.

317their bodies displayed in macabre festivals: Lauren Derby, The Dictator’s Seduction: Politics and the Popular Imagination in the Era of Trujillo (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009), 2–3.

317“a method of [execution] that was slower”: Mario Vargas Llosa, The Feast of the Goat (New York: Picador USA, 2001), 90.

317“sensation that Trujillo was always watching”: Derby, Dictator’s Seduction, 2.

317At his 1929 wedding: Ibid., 193.

318a strutting style of masculinity known as tigueraje: Ibid., 186.

318“one of the hemisphere’s foremost spokesmen against the Communist movement”: Stephen G. Rabe, “Eisenhower and the Overthrow of Rafael Trujillo,” Journal of Conflict Studies 6, no. 1 (Winter 1986): 34–44.

318“Spaniards had many talents”: Ibid.

318The leading symbol of Dominican masculinity: Derby, Dictator’s Seduction, 175–84.

319delivering suitcases stuffed with cash: McKeever, Galindez Case, 102–3.

320His own people’s doomed crusade: Josu Legarreta, “Jesús de Galíndez: Martyr for Freedom,” Current Events, issue 72 (2006): 23.

321Galíndez was “an invaluable informant”: McKeever, Galindez Case, 111.

321the Basque exile was strongly critical of U.S. foreign policy: Ibid., 114–16.

321“may involve informant in personal difficulties”: Ibid., 116.

322Trujillo . . . confronted the traitor: Bernard Diederich, Trujillo: The Death of the Goat (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978), 8–9.

323Joy felt “horrified”: Columbia Daily Spectator, May 3, 1956.

323the case worked its way into President Eisenhower’s press conference: McKeever, Galindez Case, 101–2.

323Dulles himself communicated the importance of the Galíndez case: Ibid., 92–93.

324Frank . . . was not part of the CIA’s Georgetown inner circle: Jim Hougan, Spooks (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1978), 312–25.

325The CIA used Maheu and Associates as a front: See Hougan, Spooks, and Robert Maheu, Next to Hughes (New York: Harper Paperbacks, 1992).

325“Call it my personal Rosebud”: Ibid, 19.

325“I always resented the fact”: Author interview with Maheu.

326Grayson Kirk . . . a trustee of several foundations: “Who Rules Columbia?” original 1968 student strike edition,

326Galíndez was “suffering from a persecution complex”: Columbia Daily Spectator, May 3, 1956.

327the CIA disseminated other disinformation about Galíndez: McKeever, Galindez Case, 145–47 and 159–60. See also: Drew Pearson, Washington Merry-Go-Round, June 9, 1960.

327Murphy’s life took a fateful turn: See Hougan, Spooks; McKeever, Galindez Case; and Diederich, Trujillo.

328even Stuyvesant Wainright . . . waded into the growing controversy: Wainright letter to Dulles, March 6, 1957; Dulles reply, March 15,

328Life magazine ran a dramatic version: Life, Feb. 25, 1957.

329“the information given to you by the CIA is vague”: McKeever, Galindez Case, 212.

329“like hitting a man with a feather”: Ibid., 214.

330“The production of souls”: Nick Romeo, “Is Literature ‘the Most Important Weapon of Propaganda’?” The, June 17, 2014.

330“a kind of cultural NATO”: James Petras, “The CIA and the Cultural Cold War Revisited,” Monthly Review 51, no. 6 (Nov. 1, 1999): 47–56.

331“These stylish and expensive excursions”: Salon, April 16, 2000.

331Many leading artists and intellectuals fell into the ranks: See Francis Stonor Saunders, The Cultural Cold War (New York: New Press, 2001); and Hugh Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).

331“Wright is fortunate in his enemies”: Norman Birnbaum, “The Half-Forgotten Prophet: C. Wright Mills,” The Nation, March 11, 2009.

332Macdonald . . . broke out of the Cold War thought bubble: Saunders, Cultural Cold War, 266.

332“obviously published under American auspices”: Wilford, Mighty Wurlitzer, 115.

332“What did you think of the dominance of poetics by the CIA?”: Ibid.

333“I remember Jim as one of the most complex men”: Richard Helms, A Look over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency (New York: Ballantine Books, 2003), 276.

333Angleton would report to Dulles on the results of his “fishing expeditions”: Michael Howard Holzman, James Jesus Angleton: The CIA and the Craft of Counterintelligence (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008), 131.

333“You know how I got to be in charge”: Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA (Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001), 478.

334“They’d start chasing each other”: Author interview with Siri Hari Angleton.

335the exposure of Kim Philby was lodged in the deepest recesses: Helms, A Look over My Shoulder, 278.

335If he were the sort of chap who murdered people: Tom Mangold, Cold Warrior: James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s Master Spy Hunter (New York: Touchstone, 1991), 68–69.

335“I couldn’t find that we ever caught a spy”: Ibid., 313.

335“‘I’m not a genius’”: Author interview with Siri Hari Angleton.

335“Jim . . . is the apple of my eye”: Ibid.

335“Angleton was fascinating”: Author interview with Joan Talley.

336Clover suspected that the aesthetic spy was “in his cups”: Clover Dulles letter to Joan Talley, May 8, 1961, MCD papers.

336“It is inconceivable that a secret intelligence arm”: Robin W. Winks, Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939–1961 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996), 327.

337He summoned two Jewish CIA officers: Author interview with confidential source.

338“I am not Christ”: Jon Lee Anderson, Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life (New York: Grove Press, 1997), 199.

339“This is like prison”: New York Times, April 25, 1959.

339“Castro is not only not a Communist”: Tad Szulc, Fidel: A Critical Portrait (New York: Perennial, 2002), 490.

339a “pathological hatred for Castro”: Anthony R. Carrozza, William D. Pawley: The Extraordinary Life of the Adventurer, Entrepreneur and Diplomat (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2012), 224.

342“We Negro people have enough problems”: New York Times, Sept. 26, 1960.

342“We don’t discriminate against anybody”: New York Times, Sept. 21, 1960.

342The gangster was not “a communist”: Rosemari Mealy, Fidel and Malcolm X: Memories of a Meeting (Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 2013), 36.

342Wilcox saw a “spiritual connection”: Ibid., 37.

343“told white America to go to hell”: Ibid., 48.

344“Colonies do not speak”: Fidel Castro speech to the UN General Assembly, Sept. 26, 1960,

344I. F. Stone pronounced Castro’s oration: D. D. Guttenplan, American Radical: The Life and Times of I. F. Stone (New York: Macmillan, 2009), 351.

345Robert Taber . . . stirred liberal circles: Bill Simpich “Fair Play for Cuba and the Cuban Revolution,” CounterPunch, July 24, 2009,

345“addicted to the habit of conversation”: Introductory essay by Gabriel García Márquez, “A Personal Portrait of Fidel,” in Fidel Castro, My Early Years, ed. Deborah Shnookal and Pedro Álvarez Tabío (Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1998), 13.

346“the people in Harlem are not so addicted to the propaganda”: New York Citizen-Call, Sept. 24, 1960.

346“The only white person that I have really liked was Fidel”: Mealy, Fidel and Malcolm X, 57.

347“usually when one sees a man”: Confidential FBI memo, Nov. 17, 1960, file # 105–8999,

347Maheu recounted a long night of soul-searching: Author interview with Robert Maheu.

347Maheu realized that he would “have blood on [his] hands”: Maheu, 138.

348“What do you want us to do?”: Fidel Castro press conference, YouTube,

349“Fidel Castro is part of the legacy of Bolivar”: John F. Kennedy, Strategy of Peace (New York: HarperCollins, 1960), 167.

349“betrayed the ideals of the Cuban revolution”: JFK campaign speech, Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 6, 1960, JFK Library.

350“I am happy to come to this hotel”: JFK campaign speech, Hotel Theresa, New York City, Oct. 12, 1960, JFK Library.

Chapter 14: The Torch Is Passed

352“Democracy works only”: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 127.

353“broad social aims”: New York Times, Sept. 16, 1938.

353“selling out” his country: New York Times, Sept. 20, 1938.

353“I’m not a political type”: Ted Widmer, ed., Listening In: The Secret White House Recordings of John F. Kennedy (New York: Hyperion, 2012), 30.

354“I knew just about everybody”: Newsweek, April 23, 1962.

354“aggressively shy”: Dave Powers interview, Clay Blair Jr. collection, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

355“It was great”: Ibid.

356“I just don’t think you have to have that type of personality”: Widmer, Listening In, 39.

356“All war is stupid”: Thurston Clarke, Ask Not: The Inauguration of John F. Kennedy (New York: Henry Holt, 2004), 109.

356“He was very close to my brother”: Author interview with Edward M. Kennedy.

356Dulles first met Kennedy: Dulles OH, JFK Library.

357“At least one half of the days”: Pierre Salinger and Sander Vanocur, A Tribute to John F. Kennedy (New York: Encylopaedia Britannica, 1964), 156.

357Kennedy recited his favorite poem: Arthur M. Schlesinger, A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (New York: Mariner Books, 2002), 98.

357Wrightsman was a globe-trotting oil millionaire: Francesca Stanfill, “Jayne’s World,” Vanity Fair, January 2003.

358“Jayne and I are leaving Paris”: Wrightsman letter to Dulles, July 31, 1953, AWD correspondence, Mudd Library.

358“The mere mention of the Wrightsmans”: MB journal.

359“He was suffering a good deal of pain”: Dulles OH, JFK Library.

360“At Antibes, we did the usual thing”: Clover Dulles letter to Allen Dulles Jr., Sept. 1, 1955, MCD correspondence, Schlesinger Library.

361Kennedy met with an astute American embassy officer: Seymour Topping, On the Front Lines of the Cold War (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2010), 152.

361“to pour money, materiel and men into the jungle”: Remarks of Sen. John F. Kennedy before Senate, April 6, 1954, JFK Library.

362“The most powerful single force”: Remarks of Sen. John F. Kennedy before Senate, July 2, 1957, JFK Library.

363“That’s fine—everybody likes independence”: William B. Ewald OH, JFK Library.

363“that little bastard”: AS journals, June 20, 1973, NYPL archives.

363“He is a terribly cold man”: Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 18.

363While Kennedy’s denunciation of French colonialism: Richard D. Mahoney, JFK: Ordeal in Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 20–21.

364“Some of the peoples of Africa have been out of trees”: Philip E. Muehlenbeck, Betting on the Africans: John F. Kennedy’s Courting of African Nationalist Leaders (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 6.

364“those niggers”: Ibid., 5.

364“I could see that my brother was in great pain”: AWD OH, Mudd Library.

365“formidable and ruthless challenge”: Ibid.

365“Foster had only days”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, 461.

366one of the most “soul-searching questions”: White House memorandum for the record, written by A. J. Goodpaster, Feb. 8, 1960, U-2 spy plane files, Eisenhower Library.

366“a most unusual event”: L. Fletcher Prouty, The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the United States and the World (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2008), 422.

366“yelling at the top of his voice”: Evan Thomas, Ike’s Bluff: President Eisenhower’s Secret Battle to Save the World (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2012), 380.

366never wanted to set eyes on Dulles again: Ibid.

367“I cannot change Allen Dulles”: Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (New York: Anchor Books, 2008), 193.

367“a body floating in thin air”: Ibid., 194.

367a “legacy of ashes”: Ibid.

368Bancroft wrote Kennedy a gushing letter: Bancroft letter to JFK, July 14, 1959, MB papers, Schlesinger Library.

368add his late brother’s name: AWD letter to JFK, June 21, 1959, JFK Library.

368It was Jackie Kennedy who tipped off Dulles: AWD OH, JFK Library.

369Nixon accused Kennedy: Richard Nixon, Six Crises (New York: Touchstone, 1990), 353.

369“Nixon indicated he thought he’d been double-crossed”: AWD OH, JFK Library.

369Robert Kennedy . . . phoned Dulles at home: AWD memorandum for the record, Sept. 21, 1960, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

370“As I mentioned to you”: AWD memorandum for Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster, Sept. 25, 1960, Mudd Library.

371The first thing he should do: Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 125.

371“He used to be a liberal”: AS journals, Aug. 31, 1962, NYPL.

372“but they shouldn’t worry”: Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 143.

372“I’m your basic man-eating shark”: Thomas, Ike’s Bluff, 405.

373“There must be someone you really trust”: Ibid.

373maintaining a warm correspondence: See AWD papers, Mudd Library.

373he used his post to identify future prospects: David Atlee Phillips, Secret Wars Diary: My Adventures in Combat, Espionage Operations and Covert Action (Bethesda, MD: Stone Tail Press, 1988), 149.

373“the Pentagon’s secretary of state”: Time, Nov. 15, 1963.

374secretary, Letitita Baldridge, had worked for the CIA: New York Times, Nov. 2, 2012.

374“After dinner, the men sat around”: William Walton OH, JFK Library.

375“the vilest scramble for loot”: Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998), 4.

376“much too painful to be forgotten”: Lumumba’s Independence Day speech, June 30, 1960,

376“marred the ceremonies”: New York Times, July 1, 1960.

377“mortgage the national sovereignty”: New York Times, Oct. 3, 1960.

377“[Father] seemed uncomfortable”: Adam Hochschild, Half the Way Home: A Memoir of Father and Son (Boston: Mariner Books, 2005), 155.

378stuffed full of the imbecilities: See Wendy Burden, Dead End Gene Pool: A Memoir (New York: Gotham Books, 2010).

378Everything was “marvelous”: Ibid., 54.

378“Dear Allan”: Cable from Burden to Dulles, Nov. 27, 1959,

379“We want no part”: New York Times, Aug. 4, 1960.

379“a Castro or worse”: Muehlenbeck, Betting on the Africans, 22.

379“would fall into a river of crocodiles”: Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba (London: Verso, 2001), xiii.

379“There was a stunned silence”: London Guardian, Aug. 9, 2000; see also the Church Committee Report, Assassination Planning and the Plots: Congo, 55–56.

379“would remain a grave danger”: Church Committee Report, Assassination Planning and the Plots: Congo, 52–53.

380“give [sic] every possible”: Ibid., 62.

380“He had this tremendous”: Ibid., 63.

380“unsavory”: Ibid., 46.

381“Our program is clear”: Lev Volodin, Patrice Lumumba: Fighter for Africa’s Freedom (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1961), 104–10.

381“the life of the whole nation is at stake”: Andrée Blouin, My Country, Africa: Autobiography of the Black Pasionaria (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1983), 272.

381“When one struggles”: Madeleine G. Kalb, The Congo Cables: The Cold War in Africa (New York: Macmillan, 1982), 162.

382“On Lumumba’s dazed face”: Blouin, My Country, Africa, 273.

383a Democratic fact-finding delegation: New York Times, Dec. 24, 1960.

383he became closely associated with Jim Angleton: Author interview with William Gowen.

384“inexperienced and irresponsible”: New York Times, Aug. 19, 1960.

384“virtual dictator”: New York Times, May 18, 1960.

384“the weirdest character”: New York Times, Oct. 16, 1960.

384“three houseboys at his service”: New York Times, Dec. 11, 1960.

385“The CIA was not the innocent bystander”: Stephen R. Weissman, “An Extraordinary Rendition,” Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 2 (April 2010): 198–222.

385“his goose was cooked”: Church Report, Assassination Planning, 50.

385Devlin sealed Lumumba’s fate: See Weissman, “What Really Happened in the Congo,” Foreign Affairs 93, no. 4 (July–August 2014): 14–24; see also: Kalb, Congo Cables, 189–96.

386even Tshombe and his ministers: De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, 105–6.

386“Eventually he was killed”: Mahoney, JFK: Ordeal in Africa, 71.

386Stockwell fell into conversation: John Stockwell, In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story (New York: Norton, 1978), 105.

386The old Congo hands were alarmed: Larry Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo (New York: Public Affairs, 2007), 133–50.

387“stick around”: Jacques Lowe Web site,

387“I was alone with the president”: Jacques Lowe, Kennedy: A Time Remembered (Northampton, MA: Interlink Publishing, 1983).

388Time magazine snickered: “Congo: Death of Lumumba—and After,” Time, Feb. 24, 1961.

388The New York Times continued to demean: New York Times Magazine, Oct. 29, 1961.

388“Our strong leader is gone”: New York Times, Feb. 15, 1961.

388his final letter to his wife: “The Last Letter of Patrice Lumumba,” http://ziomania .com/lumumba.

389“I think we overrated”: Weissman, “What Really Happened in the Congo.”

Chapter 15: Contempt

394“I’m Dick Drain”: Peter Wyden, Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979), 265.

396“I knew I could get back”: AWD OH, JFK Library.

396“inexcusable”: Jack B. Pfeiffer, Official CIA History of the Bay of Pigs Operation, vol. 4,

396Drain vented: Ibid., vol. 3, 128.

397staffed largely by the agency’s losers: Lyman B. Kirkpatrick, Inspector General’s Survey of the Cuban Operation, October 1961, 41–43.

397“a bunch of guys”: Ralph E. Weber, ed., Spymasters: Ten CIA Officers in Their Own Words (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1999), 173.

398“When the project became blown to every newspaper reader”: Kirkpatrick, Inspector General’s Survey of the Cuban Operation, 62.

398“status of puppets”: Ibid., 143.

398“badly organized”: Ibid., 144.

398“so wrapped up in the military operation”: Ibid., 143.

398“doomed” from the start: Ibid., 34.

398“now seen to be unachievable”: Quoted in Miami Herald, Aug. 11, 2005.

399“Kennedy’s election has given rise”: AS journals, Feb. 2, 1961, NYPL archives.

399“a grenade with the pin pulled”: Jim Rasenberger, The Brilliant Disaster: JFK, Castro and America’s Doomed Invasion of Cuba’s Bay of Pigs (New York: Scribner, 2011), 114.

399“invading Cuba without actually invading it”: Ibid., 140.

400“I was prepared to run it”: Ibid., 216.

401“a little bit trapped”: Weber, Spymasters, 175.

401Admiral Burke was especially gruff: Wyden, Bay of Pigs, 270.

402“They were sure I’d give in”: Kenneth P. O’Donnell and David F. Powers, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye” (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), 274.

402“Nobody is going to force me”: Paul B. Fay Jr., The Pleasure of His Company (New York: Popular Library, 1977), 161.

403“great emotional stress”: Wyden, Bay of Pigs, 294.

403“One ought never to sell”: AWD OH, JFK Library.

403“I stood right here”: Theodore C. Sorensen, Kennedy (New York: Bantam Books, 1966), 332.

403Dulles “didn’t really feel comfortable”: Weber, Spymasters, 158.

403“Mr. Houston says [Yarmolinksy]”: Declassified CIA memo to Dulles, Feb. 21, 1961,

404Kennedy “was not very impressed”: John Helgerson, “Getting to Know the President: Intelligence Briefings of Presidential Candidates, 1952–2004,” Center for the Study of Intelligence/CIA monograph, May 2012.

404“There was never any recrimination”: AWD OH, JFK Library.

405Dulles convened a private meeting of CEOs: Declassified CIA document, April 18, 1961,

405“I have the greatest admiration”: Letter from Charles D. Hilles Jr. to AWD, May 4, 1961, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

405“This would be mere child’s play”: Letter from Watson Washburn to AWD, June 6, 1961, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

405“implied that had events taken their planned course”: Ralph W. McGehee, Deadly Deceits: My 25 Years in the CIA (Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1999), 54.

406when a Harvard Business School student named L. Paul Bremer III: Letter from AWD to Paul Bremer, April 28, 1965, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

406“you have honored me”: Letter from Charles Murphy to AWD, July 9, 1960, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

407“I probably made a mistake”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Journals: 1952–2000 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 112.

407“splinter the CIA”: “CIA: Maker of Policy, or Tool?” New York Times, April 25, 1966.

407“We not only look like imperialists”: Schlesinger, Journals, 120.

407“there would be serious difficulties”: AS journals, May 23, 1961, NYPL archives.

407Dulles “actually had more misgivings”: Schlesinger, Journals, 113.

408Taylor’s “strongest tilts”: Pfeiffer, Official CIA History of the Bay of Pigs Operation, vol. 4, 8.

408“crossed all lines”: Ibid., 4.

409“a chain reaction of success”: Letter from AWD and Arleigh Burke to Gen. Maxwell Taylor, June 9, 1961,

409“were headed for the elephants’ burial ground”: Pfeiffer, Official CIA History of the Bay of Pigs Operation, vol. 4, 8.

410he demonstrated integrity as IG: Kirkpatrick obituary, New York Times, March 6, 1995.

410opposing the assassination of Lumumba: Ibid.

410arranged for one finally to be hung: Kirkpatrick OH, JFK Library.

410a “hatchet job”: Weber, Spymasters, 137.

410“basically Kirk’s vendetta”: Miami Herald, Feb. 28, 1998.

410“When you speak honestly”: Author interview with Lyman Kirkpatrick Jr.

411a “stuttering rage”: Joseph B. Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior (New York: Putnam, 1976), 327.

411“It seemed [to us] that the RIF program was aimed more at the CIA”: McGehee, Deadly Deceits, 54.

411“Pulling out the rug”: Harris Wofford, Of Kennedys and Kings (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992), 350.

411“Mr. Kennedy . . . was a very bad president”: Arleigh Burke OH, U.S. Naval Institute.

412“He thought Lemnitzer was a dope”: Author interview with AS.

412“Johnson was a great admirer of the military”: Jack Bell OH, JFK Library.

413two units of paratroopers: Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962 (New York: New York Review Book, 2006), 454.

413“government of capitulation”: Ibid., 450.

413De Gaulle quickly concluded: London Observer, May 2, 1961. See also Vincent Jauvert, L’Amérique contre de Gaulle: Historie secrète (1961–1969) (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2000), 198–99.

414had a luncheon meeting with Richard Bissell: New York Times, May 4, 1961.

414De Gaulle’s foreign ministry was the source: Jauvert, L’Amérique contre de Gaulle, 192–93.

414“because he was convinced he had unqualified American support”: Washington Post, April 30, 1961.

414Dulles was forced to issue a strong denial: New York Times, May 2, 1961.

415“To set the record straight”: New York Times, May 1, 1961.

415“Young Cy Sulzberger had some uses”: Carl Bernstein, “The CIA and the Media,” Rolling Stone, Oct. 20, 1977.

415“involved in an embarrassing liaison”: New York Times, April 29, 1961.

415a long history of acrimony: See Robert Belot and Gilbert Karpman, L’affaire suisse: La Résistance a-t-elle trahi de Gaulle? (Paris: Armand Colin, 2009).

415de Gaulle accused Dulles: Charles de Gaulle, The Complete War Memoirs (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1998), 630.

416the spymaster would set himself up at a suite: Frédéric Charpier, La CIA en France: 60 ans d’ingérence dans les affaires françaises (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2008), 102–5.

416determined to shut down the secret “stay-behind army”: Jonathan Kwitny, “The CIA’s Secret Armies in Europe,” The Nation, April 6, 1992.

416Dulles flew to Paris for a face-to-face meeting: Charpier, La CIA en France, 219–28.

417At a National Security Council meeting: Jauvert, L’Amérique contre de Gaulle, 190–91.

417“A pre-revolutionary atmosphere”: Ibid.

418“the CIA is such a vast”: Ibid., 197–98.

418to offer the French leader “any help”: Le Monde, May 10, 1961.

419a “reactionary state-within-a-state”: New York Times, May 4, 1961.

419“He thought that harmonious relations”: Hervé Alphand OH, JFK Library.

419“In this grave hour”: Washington Post, April 25, 1961.

420“I am surprised that you are still alive”: Anne and Pierre Rouanet, L’Inquietude outré-mort du General de Gaulle (Paris: Éditions Grasset, 1985), 219.

420“there was not much to stop them”: Horne, A Savage War of Peace, 455.

420“by men whose duty”: Ibid.

420Over ten million people: New York Times, April 25, 1961.

421handing out helmets and uniforms: Horne, A Savage War of Peace, 456.

421Police swooped down: Washington Post, April 29, 1961.

421“carrying his own suitcase”: Time, May 5, 1961.

422de Gaulle launched a new purge: Charpier, La CIA en France, 224–25.

422“liquidations [were] an almost daily routine”: Philippe Thyraud de Vosjoli, Lamia (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1970), 261.

422“I can testify”: Constantin Melnik, Politiquement incorrect (Paris: Éditions Plon, 1999), 84.

422offered to hire him for a new private intelligence agency: Charpier, La CIA en France, 226.

423recruited their own secret assassins: De Vosjoli, Lamia, 266–69.

424“Why wake up old demons”: Jauvert, L’Amérique contre de Gaulle, 202.

424“Kennedy will not begin to be President”: AS journals, March 23, 1961, NYPL archives.

424The president was “disgusted” by Wrightsman’s disloyalty: Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jacqueline Kennedy: Historic Conversations on Life with John F. Kennedy (New York: Hyperion, 2011), 188.

425“scapegoats to expiate administration guilt”: E. Howard Hunt, Give Us This Day (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1973), 215.

426“We tried to make a pleasant evening of it”: Senator Prescott Bush letter to Clover Dulles, undated, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

426“The Allen Dulles Memorial Mausoleum”: David Atlee Phillips, Secret Wars Diary: My Adventures in Combat, Espionage Operations and Covert Action (Bethesda, MD: Stone Tail Press, 1988), 162.

426“I regard Allen Dulles as an almost unique”: Remarks upon presenting National Security Award to AWD, Nov. 28, 1961, JFK Library.

427who’s who list of Fortune 500 executives: CIA memo, Nov. 28, 1961, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

427“It is almost unbelievable”: J. Peter Grace letter to Dulles, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

427“Clover, I’ll be home later”: Phillips, Secret Wars Diary, 165.

427“His morale . . . was pretty low”: Ibid.

427“I don’t want any more of the Dulles family”: Leonard Mosley, Dulles (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 510.

427“It was silly”: Ibid.

428“He had a very difficult time”: Angleton testimony, Church Committee, Feb. 6, 1976.

428“As you know”: Jan. 16, 1962, AWD letter to colleague whose name was deleted by CIA upon release of document, Mudd Library.

Chapter 16: Rome on the Potomac

429The astronaut succeeded in staying dry, but: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Journals: 1952–2000 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 158.

430“a huge, dripping mass”: Ibid., 122.

430“Southern congressmen were especially interested”: Drew Pearson, Washington Merry-Go-Round, June 24, 1962.

430the president shared some of his own . . . movie opinions: Schlesinger, Journals, 137.

431Time magazine, which poked fun: “The Administration: Big Splash at Hickory Hill,” Time, June 29, 1962.

431“I scent a manhunt”: AS journals, July 1, 1962, NYPL archives.

431“Don’t worry about it”: Ibid.

432Schlesinger endorsed a crude effort: Michael Wreszin, “Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Scholar Activist in Cold War America: 1946–1956,” Salmagundi, nos. 63–64 (Spring–Summer 1984): 255–85.

433“like the brightest student in the class”: New York Times, March 1, 2007.

433the Soviet Union was a “messianic state”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., “Origins of the Cold War,” Foreign Affairs 46 (October 1967): 22–32, 34–35, 42–50, 52.

433“the notion of American spooks”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., A Life in the Twentieth Century (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002), 350.

433“The Dulles brothers . . . were self-righteous”: Author interview with Marian Schlesinger.

434Schlesinger made an effort to maintain cordial relations: AS-AWD correspondence, AS papers, JFK Library.

435Kennedy was nervous about meeting the formidable New York intellectual: AS journals, July 28, 1961, NYPL.

435JFK was at his dazzling best: Ibid., Aug. 1, 1961.

435“And I still believe”: Ibid., April 8, 1962.

436“Now Arthur, cut it out”: “The Historian as Participant,” Time, Dec. 17, 1965.

436“You can be damn sure”: Ibid.

436C. Wright Mills denouncing “Kennedy and company”: Arthur M. Schlesinger, A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (New York: Mariner Books, 2002), 286.

437“That’s a great idea, Arthur”: Kenneth P. O’Donnell and David F. Powers, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye” (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), 282.

437“I have the feeling that the president”: Schlesinger, Journals, 166.

438“Dulles stooges”: AS journals, July 9, 1961, NYPL archives.

438“a man of limited interests and imagination”: Ibid., July 15, 1961.

439“I served in the OSS”: AS memo for the president, April 21, 1961, AS White House files, JFK Library.

439“The Central Intelligence Agency is sick”: Confidential memo, author unidentified, AS White House files.

439“implies a fairly drastic rearrangement”: AS memo for the president, June 30, 1961, AS White House files.

440Taylor argued forcefully against the Schlesinger plan: AS journals, July 9, 1961, NYPL archives.

440Schlesinger gave the choice his blessing: Ibid., July 15, 1961.

441“The possibly consoling thought”: Ibid., Oct. 8, 1961.

441“He was very critical of Dulles”: Ibid., Oct. 17, 1961.

442“systematically sabotaged by the military and the CIA”: Ibid., May 14, 1962.

442“McCone has no business”: Ibid., March 21, 1963.

442a “sick elephant”: Syndicated column by Henry Taylor, New York World-Telegram, Jan. 17, 1964.

443“a direct attack on me”: AWD letter to Henry Taylor, Jan. 21, 1964, declassified by CIA,

443“there is no such thing as the New Frontier”: AS journals, Nov. 12, 1961, NYPL archives.

443“Eisenhower-Dulles continuities”: Schlesinger, Journals, 164.

444“Every time steel prices jump”: Kansas City Times, March 9, 1959.

445“the most painfully embarrassing”: O’Donnell and Powers, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye,” 406.

445“We were going to go for broke”: Edwin O. Guthman and Jeffrey Shulman, eds., Robert Kennedy in His Own Words (New York: Bantam Books, 1988), 333.

445“I told him that his men could keep their horses”: Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 637.

446“a display of naked political power”: Ibid., 638.

446“I understand better every day why Roosevelt”: Schlesinger, Journals, 157.

446“ass-kissing posture”: AS journals, June 17, 1962, NYPL archives.

446“I have rarely seen a man”: Ibid., July 1, 1962.

446he “only wished there were no Cold War”: Schlesinger, Journals, 137.

447“I was their man of the year”: O’Donnell and Power, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye,” 407.

447“I do feel an immense relief”: Clover Dulles letter to MB, Jan. 3, 1962, Schlesinger Library.

448“It was a memorable moment in my life”: Henry Luce OH, JFK Library.

449“I wrote this book as an antidote”: E. Howard Hunt letter to AWD, Aug. 28, 1962,

449“I have always thought well of Hunt”: AWD letter to Richard Helms, July 27, 1962,

450Shef Edwards . . . even stepped in: AWD letter to Sheffield Edwards, Jan. 31, 1963,

450Rumsfeld arranged for Dulles to speak: Correspondence between Donald Rumsfeld and AWD in February–March 1963, Mudd Library.

451“The President believed he was President”: Robert F. Kennedy, Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1969), 72.

451“At the climax of the events around Cuba”: Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 690.

451“He didn’t let himself become frightened”: Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970), 500.

452his Georgetown neighbors poured into the street: AS journals, July 21, 1963, NYPL archives.

452“I am almost a ‘peace-at-any-price’ president”: Ibid., Sept. 5, 1961.

453“There was virtually a coup atmosphere”: Author interview with Daniel Ellsberg.

453LeMay and his top Air Force generals: Strategic Air Warfare: An Interview with Generals Curtis LeMay, Leon Johnson, David Burchinal and Jack Catton (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force, 1988).

454“He said to get out of that boat business”: Anthony R. Carrozza, William D. Pawley: The Extraordinary Life of the Adventurer, Entrepreneur and Diplomat (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2012), 255.

454Pawley wrote a long letter: Ibid.

456“He’s a real bastard”: Ted Widmer, ed., Listening In: The Secret White House Recordings of John F. Kennedy (New York: Hyperion, 2012), 77.

456he “doubted” he would ever be willing to work: Newsday, June 22, 1963.

457the conversation . . . soon grew heated: Peter Dale Scott letter to author.

458Sierra arranged to meet with Dulles: Internal CIA document,

458Dulles and Clay were unusual company for a man who: For Sierra biographical background, see House Select Committee on Assassinations Report; see also Robert Blakey and Richard N. Billings, Fatal Hour: The Assassination of President Kennedy by Organized Crime (New York: Berkley Books, 1992), 194–99.

460local Secret Service officials foiled: See Lamar Waldron, The Hidden History of the JFK Assassination (Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint Press, 2013), 301–9; and Abraham Bolden, The Echo from Dealey Plaza (New York: Broadway Books, 2009).

461“Father’s patriotism . . . made him go a little overboard”: Author interview with Paul Sierra.

Chapter 17: The Parting Glass

463Segni paid tribute: Fraleigh OH.

463“war is not inevitable”: Remarks of the President at Dinner Hosted by President Antonio Segni, July 1, 1963, JFK Library.

464Even L’Unità . . . appreciatively noted: L’Unità, July 2, 1963.

465“My impression is that [Nenni] has honestly broken”: AS memo to President Kennedy, March 5, 1962, AS papers, JFK Library.

465former ambassador Luce lobbied frantically: Spencer M. Di Scala, Renewing Italian Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 131.

466“Lest you think”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr. lecture, “The Kennedy Administration and the Center Left,” delivered at JFK Library, March 18, 1993.

466he arranged for United Auto Workers leaders: Leopoldo Nuti, “Missiles or Socialists: The Italian Policy of the Kennedy Administration,” in John F. Kennedy and Europe, ed. Douglas Brinkley and Richard T. Griffiths (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999), 133–34.

466When an Italian news photographer: Fraleigh OH.

466“They have spent hundreds of millions of dollars”: Pietro Nenni, “Where the Italian Socialists Stand,” Foreign Affairs 40, no. 2 (January 1962): 213–23.

467Nenni was “absolutely enraptured”: Fraleigh OH.

467The president, too, thought his trip to Rome was a “considerable success”: AS journals, July 5, 1963, NYPL.

468The secret meeting between Pionzio and Freato: Author interview with Carlo Mastelloni, a former investigating magistrate in Venice and a leading expert on the secrets of the First Italian Republic

469Guy Burgess . . . drew a lewd . . . caricature: David C. Martin, Wilderness of Mirrors (Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2003), 48.

469“the poet and the cop”: Ibid., 11.

470a “very esteemed [and] really reliable friend”: Reinhard Gehlen letter to CG Harvey, Jan. 4, 1977, Bayard Stockton papers, University of California, Santa Barbara Library, Special Collections.

470“one of the most daring”: Bayard Stockton, Flawed Patriot: The Rise and Fall of CIA Legend Bill Harvey (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2006), 92.

470One of CG Harvey’s secret assignments: Indianapolis Star, Oct. 3, 2000.

471Harvey made a trip to Europe: Stockton, Flawed Patriot, 114.

471Harvey was put in charge of the top secret operation: Ibid., 123.

471Rosselli was a man of “integrity”: William Harvey testimony before the Church Committee, June 25 and July 11, 1975.

471“I loved Rosselli”: Interview with CG Harvey,, Nov. 6, 2014.

472Harvey kept much of the operation . . . a secret from President Kennedy: William Harvey testimony, Church Committee.

472and let loose a fart: Martin, Wilderness of Mirrors, 137.

472“that fucker”: Ibid., 136.

473Giving him Rome was Angleton’s idea: Ibid., 183.

473Helms and Angleton did not tell McCone: Ibid., 186.

473“goddam wops”: Ibid., 182.

473“I just don’t understand”: Author interview with Susan Wyatt.

473would throw rats over the wall: Stockton, Flawed Patriot, 237.

475The CIA station chief urged Colonel Renzo Rocca: Philip Willan, Puppetmasters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy (San Jose, CA: Authors Choice Press, 2002), 38.

475stunned to hear his boss propose recruiting Mafia hit men: Author interview with Alan Wyatt.

475Harvey pulled a gun on Wyatt: Author interview with Susan Wyatt.

475General Giovanni de Lorenzo . . . threatened to: Di Scala, Renewing Italian Socialism, 152–54; Daniele Ganser, NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe (London: Frank Cass, 2005), 71–72; see also: “Twenty-Six Years Later, Details of Planned Rightist Coup Emerge,” Associated Press, Jan. 5, 1991.

476to give the old man the “chilling” truth: Di Scala, Renewing Italian Socialism, 143.

476Wyatt found Harvey collapsed in bed: Stockton, Flawed Patriot, 208–9.

476“My dad would sometimes talk about Harvey”: Author interview with Tom Wyatt.

477“‘I always wondered what Bill Harvey was doing in Dallas in November 1963’”: Author interview with Fabrizio Calvi. Susan Wyatt believes that Calvi must have misunderstood her father, whom she doubts took a flight to Dallas in November 1963. She thinks that her father’s suspicions about Harvey were based on remarks that the Rome station chief made to Wyatt after Kennedy’s assassination.

478“It would be a waste of time”: Kenneth P. O’Donnell and David F. Powers, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye” (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), 358.

479he looked “very tired”: Thomas Maier, The Kennedys: America’s Emerald Kings (New York: Basic Books, 2003), 432.

479“From the time he stepped off that plane”: President Kennedy in the Island of Dreams documentary,

479“Here he was”: Ibid.

479“When my great-grandfather left here”: Ibid.

480“There is an impression”: Maier, Kennedys: America’s Emerald Kings, 437.

480“He never would have been President”: Ryan Tubridy, JFK in Ireland: Four Days That Changed a President (London: Collins, 2010), frontispiece.

481“But there were many times when the key”: O’Donnell and Powers, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye,” 368.

481The indomitable people of Ireland: President Kennedy’s address before the Irish Parliament, June 28, 1963, JFK Library.

482“JFK accomplished an Americanization”: AS papers, JFK Library.

482Kennedy had come under the spell: Maier, Kennedys: America’s Emerald Kings, 431.

483“The trip meant more to him”: Tubridy, JFK in Ireland.

Chapter 18: The Big Event

484“a little tepid”: AS journals, Oct. 2, 1963, NYPL archives.

484The Soviet spy “has been fully indoctrinated”: Allen W. Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 91.

485“our desire to be ‘loved’”: Ibid., 165.

485“massive recruitment” of Nazi war criminals: Ibid., 106.

485he sat for a remarkable interview: NBC News special, The Science of Spying, Internet archive,

486“We’d kill him”: Bridgeport (CT) Telegram, Jan. 14, 1975.

486“I shall have to persuade myself”: AWD letter to Cass Canfield, Oct. 15, 1961,

487“use your potent association”: Sherman Kent letter to AWD, Nov. 15, 1962, AWD papers, Mudd Library.

487“brilliantly selective candor”: New York Times, Oct. 15, 1963.

487“the best news I have read in a long time”: Julius Ochs Adler letter to AWD, Jan. 26, 1953, Mudd Library.

488“We can annihilate Russia”: Fred Cook, The Warfare State (New York: Macmillan, 1962), 29.

489“He had promised to protect them”: Robert Caro, The Passage of Power (New York: Vintage, 2013), 269.

490“Come clean, Lyndon”: Sylvia Jukes Morris, The Price of Fame: The Honorable Clare Boothe Luce (New York: Random House, 2014), 519.

490“Lyndon had been very dark”: AS journals, March 21, 1963, NYPL archives.

491“Poor Lyndon”: Ibid., Jan. 6, 1963.

491“like being a cut dog”: Caro, Passage of Power, 205.

491“who believes as I do”: Evelyn Lincoln, Kennedy and Johnson (New York: Holt Rinehart Winston, 1968), 204.

492Johnson had become a “political liability”: Dallas Morning News, Nov. 22, 1963.

492“This guy looks like a bandit”: Caro, Passage of Power, 298.

493Johnson made a strange power grab: Ibid., 170.

494“I need you to do exactly as I say”: Saint John Hunt, Bond of Secrecy (Walterville, OR: Trine Day, 2012), 10.

496“open up that whole Bay of Pigs thing”: H. R. Haldeman, The Ends of Power (New York: Times Books, 1978), 66.

496“I liked all those men”: Miami Herald, June 5, 2005.

497“I can tell you that’s the biggest load of crap”: Erik Hedegaard, “The Last Confession of E. Howard Hunt,” Rolling Stone, April 2, 2007.

498Saint John Hunt flew to Florida . . . to hear his [father’s] final testament: Saint John Hunt, Bond of Secrecy; also author interview with Saint John Hunt.

500“Dave Morales did dirty work”: Author interview with Wayne Smith.

500“We all admired the hell out of the guy”: Morales entry,

500“When some asshole needed to be killed”: Author interview with Ruben Carbajal.

500“He did whatever he was told”: Author interview with David Morales’s daughter.

500“off-the-board” operation: Saint John Hunt, Bond of Secrecy, 43.

501Harvey and Morales . . . “could have been manufactured”: E. Howard Hunt, American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate and Beyond (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007), 141.

501“that no good son of a bitch”: Gaeton Fonzi, The Last Investigation (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2013), 389.

501“You’re somebody we all look up to”: Saint John Hunt, Bond of Secrecy, 45.

502“We tried to get Harvey’s travel vouchers”: Author interview with Dan Hardway.

505“[Hunt’s] luck has run out”: The Spotlight, August 1978.

506“This is a thing in my mind”: Author interview with Victor Marchetti.

507They “threw him under the bus”: Author interview with Sally Harvey.

507“Bill always had very good opportunities”: CG Harvey letter to Bayard Stockton, Stockton papers, University of California–Santa Barbara Special Collections.

507“It is difficult to prepare a fitness report”: William Harvey fitness report, October 1962,

Chapter 19: The Fingerprints of Intelligence

510witness scenes of sexual exploitation: Anthony Summers, “The Secret Life of Lee Harvey Oswald,” Esquire (British edition), December 1993.

511he made the thirteen-year-old the subject: Dick Russell, On the Trail of the JFK Assassins (New York: Skyhorse, 2008), 252.

511Hartogs went on to work with Dr. Sidney Malitz: Ibid., 254.

513“ought to be shot”: FBI interview with David Ferrie, Nov. 27, 1963,

513A CIA memo titled “‘Truth Drugs’”:

513he was one of the young marines: Martin Lee, Robert Ranftel, and Jeff Cohen, “Did Lee Harvey Oswald Drop Acid?” Rolling Stone, March 1983.

514he had taken a “hop”: Author interview with JFK assassination researcher Mary LaFontaine.

514There was a magical element to Oswald’s journey: Anthony Summers, Not in Your Lifetime (New York: Open Road, 1998), 111.

515he never could hit anything: Daniel Schorr, “From the KGB’s Oswald Files,” Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 24, 2001.

515“an empty person”: Ibid.

515a revealing memoir: Ernst Titovets, Oswald Russian Episode (Moscow: MonLitera, 2010).

518“Everywhere you look”: David Talbot, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years (New York: Free Press, 2007), 379.

519“I wondered why”: Newark Star-Ledger, Nov. 17, 2013.

520“[Lee] did not know”: Russell, On the Trail of the JFK Assassins, 205.

520“a shack near Sears Roebuck”: De Mohrenschildt’s Warren Commission testimony, April 22, 1964,

520“not particularly pretty”: Ibid.

523he manhandled her: Joan Mellen, Our Man in Haiti: George de Mohrenschildt and the CIA in the Nightmare Republic (Walterville, OR: Trine Day, 2102), 28.

524put Byrd’s wife on the board: Russ Baker, Family of Secrets (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009), 111.

525a “very nice fellow”: George de Mohrenschildt, I Am a Patsy!, 208,

528“[He] was there as a distant threat”: Ibid., 215.

529they were invited by Janet Auchincloss: Ibid., 225.

531“not jealous of [the] Kennedys’ wealth”: Ibid., 89.

532“Under dictatorship”: Ibid., 121.

532“My wife and I spent”: Ibid., 270.

532“Our phone [is] bugged”: De Mohrenschildt letter to George W. Bush, Sept. 5, 1976,

533Gaeton Fonzi rolled up: Gaeton Fonzi, The Last Investigation (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2013), 189.

535“In spite of my faulty Russian”: Ruth Paine article, Warren Commission exhibit 460,

535collaborated with author: Thomas Mallon, Mrs. Paine’s Garage (Orlando: Harcourt, 2002).

536“My parents had a name for that”: Author interview with Ruth Paine.

536“as if she were a sister”: Warren Commission exhibit 460.

537Hyde was considered “for a covert use”: CIA memo, May 9, 1967,

537Ruth’s sister, Sylvia, later went to work: See Barbara LaMonica et al., “The Paines,” as well as other Sylvia Hyde Hoke documents on

538Among those invited to Naushon Island: Author interview with Ruth Paine.

538“I was always fascinated”: MB letter to AWD, March 17, 1964, Mudd Library.

538“I would only like to point out”: MB letter to AWD, Dec. 1, 1963, Mudd Library.

539The conspiracy-minded would have a field day: George Michael Evica, A Certain Arrogance (Bloomington, IN: XLibris, 2006), 230.

539the millionaire took the odd step: Wall Street Journal, Feb. 21, 2009.

540He also belonged to the Suite 8F Group:

540LeMay bestowed a glowing: Scroll of appreciation presented to D. H. Byrd, May 24, 1963,

540the target of such heavy FBI and CIA pressure: Bill Simpich, “Fair Play for Cuba and the Cuban Revolution,” CounterPunch, July 24, 2009,

541“to create an incident”: Jefferson Morley, Our Man in Mexico (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008), 172.

541Oswald and Phillips were observed talking together: Author interview with Veciana. See also: Fonzi, Last Investigation, 141.

541“I was trained by the CIA”: “Antonio Veciana Comes Clean,” Oct. 26, 2014,

542“a keen operational interest”: John Newman, Oswald and the CIA (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2008), 392.

543had a “maturing effect”: CIA memo from DCI to Mexico City station, Oct. 10, 1963, For discussion of memo, see Jefferson Morley, “Did the CIA Track Oswald Before JFK Was Killed?” Feb. 4, 2014,

543“I had never thought of him as a violent man”: Ruth Paine’s Warren Commission testimony, March 19, 1964,

543“I never did discover”: Michael Paine’s Warren Commission testimony, March 18, 1964,

545“I thought of going over”: Author interview with Michael Paine.

547“The Farm was basically”: Author interview with Dan Hardway.

547“Oh, I rated him high”: AWD OH, JFK Library.

Chapter 20: For the Good of the Country

549penciled in an interesting appointment: AWD calendars. Dulles placed a question mark next to Dillon’s name, perhaps indicating that the meeting—or its scheduled time—was not definite.

550“When I appeared before them”: NBC News, The Science of Spying.

552ran his own private intelligence network: See Gerard Colby, Thy Will Be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon—Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil (New York: HarperCollins, 1995); and Richard Norton Smith, On His Own Terms: A Life of Nelson Rockefeller (New York: Random House, 2014).

552David Rockefeller served with a special Army intelligence unit: David Rockefeller, Memoirs (New York: Random House, 2002), 112–21.

553David took him to lunch in Manhattan: Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London: Granta Books, 1999), 141.

553“I often briefed David”: Ibid., 145.

554“I can’t begin to tell you”: Nelson Rockefeller letter to AWD, Dec. 21, 1955, Mudd Library.

554“To say that I appreciate”: AWD reply, Jan. 16, 1956, Mudd Library.

554asking him to pull strings: AWD letter to Laurance Rockefeller, Aug. 5, 1959, Mudd Library.

555he dismissed Kennedy as a lightweight: Kai Bird, The Chairman: John McCloy and the Making of the Establishment (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992), 496.

555“as a means of forcing you to come to terms with business”: Kennedy press conference, June 14, 1962, JFK Library video.

556“Who is this upstart president”: Nomi Prins, All the Presidents’ Bankers: The Hidden Alliances That Drive American Power (New York: Nation Books, 2014), 246.

556“an eloquent and logical articulator”: “What to Do About the Economy,” Life magazine, July 6, 1962.

557“even if Standard Oil and David Rockefeller objected”: Richard Goodwin, Remembering America (Boston: Little, Brown, 1998), 167.

557“Neither U.S. nor Latin American businessmen”: Ibid., 204.

557America’s reputation in Latin America as an imperial bully: David Talbot, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years (New York: Free Press, 2007), 62–64.

558“We Kennedys eat Rockefellers”: Goodwin, Remembering America, 439.

558“we moved in very different circles”: Rockefeller, Memoirs, 427.

558“ever since I was a kid”: New York Times, Nov. 4, 1970.

558“losing our property”: Colby, Thy Will Be Done, 313.

559Rockefeller lashed into the president: Dallas Morning News, Nov. 14 and 17, 1963.

559echoed in the pages of the business press: Donald Gibson, Battling Wall Street (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1994), 64–68.

559“in their luxury bunker”: Talbot, Brothers, 275.

560Dillon notified the president: C. Douglas Dillon memo to President Kennedy, Oct. 28, 1963, JFK Library.

561He was supposed to be killed: Author interview with G. Robert Blakey.

561“He was real calm”: William Weston, “The Interrogation of Oswald,” JFK/Deep Politics Quarterly 1, no. 2 (January 1996): 9–16.

561“I was amazed”: Summers, Not in Your Lifetime (New York: Open Road, 1998), 128.

by trying to make an intriguing phone call: Randolph Benson, “JFK, Oswald and the Raleigh Connection,” Indy Week [Raleigh, NC], Nov. 14, 2012.

562As Simpich has detailed: Bill Simpich, “How the Warren Commission Covered Up JFK’s Murder,” Op-Ed, Nov. 19, 2014.

563“I was interrogated”: Richmond Times-Dispatch, Nov. 17, 2013.

563As many as twenty-one law enforcement officers: JFK, Sept. 24, 2013.

564“The surgeons who labored”: See Charles Crenshaw, JFK: Conspiracy of Silence (New York: Signet, 1992); see also “Surgeon Who Treated JFK Remembers,” Philadelphia, Nov. 19, 2013.

564“The list [of names] was almost a duplicate”: Talbot, Brothers, 21.

565“What is this”: Ibid., 19.

565Eisenhower . . . had the same reaction: Ibid.

566The foreign press was filled with commentary: United Press International wire story, “European Press Doubts Entire Truth Revealed,” Nov. 27, 1963.

567“What happened to Kennedy”: Alain Peyrefitte, C’était de Gaulle (Paris: Fayard, 1997), 42–45.

568Khrushchev . . . broke down weeping: William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: Norton, 2003), 604.

568“This is bad news”: Jean Daniel, “When Castro Heard the News,” New Republic, Dec. 7, 1963.

569“a cloudy organism”: Washington Daily News, Jan. 3, 1964.

569“The CIA Is Getting Out of Hand”: Sen. Eugene McCarthy, Saturday Evening Post, Jan. 4, 1964.

570The CIA “was really HST’s baby”: AWD letter to Clark Clifford, Jan. 22, 1964, Mudd Library.

570“deeply disturbed”: AWD letter to Truman, Jan. 7, 1964, Mudd Library.

571“quite astounded”: AWD letter to Houston, April 21, 1964, Mudd Library.

571“I think it was a mistake”: Merle Miller, Plain Speaking: An Oral Biography of Harry S. Truman (New York: Berkley Publishing, 1986), 391.

571“I am happy as I can be”: Hayden Peake, “Harry S. Truman on CIA Covert Operations,” Studies in Intelligence 25, no. 1 (Spring 1981): 31–41.

572“The CIA was set up by me”: Ray McGovern, “Are Presidents Afraid of the CIA?”, Dec. 29, 2009.

572“the two men Bobby Kennedy asked me”: Lyndon Johnson, The Vantage Point (New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1971), 27.

573“lay the dust”: Warren Commission executive session, Dec. 5, 1963,

573“personally persuaded”: Michael Kurtz, The JFK Assassination Debates (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006), 173.

573“wanted to make sure”: Author interview with Michael Kurtz.

574“lobbied hard for the job”: Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA (Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001), 269.

574establishment allies like . . . Dean Rusk: Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994), 541.

574Alsop deftly maneuvered Johnson: LBJ audiotapes,

575“Whitewash”: Richard D. Mahoney, JFK: Ordeal in Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 235.

575“I don’t think Allen Dulles ever”: Earl Warren OH, LBJ Library.

576Dulles had “heartily” recommended: AWD letter to J. Lee Rankin, March 8, 1958, Mudd Library.

577“A great deal of the description”: AWD memo to J. Lee Rankin, July 27, 1964, Mudd Library.

578Rocca . . . met with Dulles: Memo from Raymond Rocca to Richard Helms, March 23, 1964,

578Marguerite Oswald declared that her son: Washington Post, Feb. 13, 1964.

579McCone . . . brought along Helms: Testimony of John McCone and Richard Helms, Warren Commission, May 14, 1964,

580“one of the most fluent and self-confident”: Howard Willens, History Will Prove Us Right (New York: Overlook Press, 2013), 112.

580“I came to like and trust”: Philip Shenon, A Cruel and Shocking Act (New York: Holt, 2013), 119.

581a disturbing phone call: Ibid., 537.

581“There have been many”: AWD letter to unidentified friend, May 26, 1964, Mudd Library.

581“By George”: U.S. News & World Report, Aug. 17, 1992.

582“I wish sometime”: AWD letter to Rebecca West, March 24, 1964, Mudd Library.

582Mary relayed a news report: MB letter to AWD, April 7, 1964, Mudd Library.

582was set to “unequivocally reject”: New York Times, June 1, 1964.

583a dinner table conversation: Leon Hubert Jr. and Burt Griffin memo to Howard Willens, Feb. 28, 1964, Mudd Library.

583Dillon was treated to a kid-gloves: C. Douglas Dillon testimony, Warren Commission, Sept. 2, 1964,

583Willens believed that “the Secret Service”: Willens, History Will Prove Us Right, 114.

584“Dillon was a very shrewd guy”: Author interview with Howard Willens.

585“Without exception”: John Jay Iselin letter to AWD, Sept. 28, 1964, Mudd Library.

585“I think he accepted the Warren Report”: Author interview with Carol Bundy.

Chapter 21: “I Can’t Look and Won’t Look”

587“a princely sum”: David Lifton, Best Evidence (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1988), 33.

588“For similar reasons”: Ibid., 4.

588warned Lifton not to “badger”: Lifton’s notes on his debate with Dulles, Dec. 7, 1965, courtesy of Vincent Salandria.

591in the presence of “evil”: Author interview with David Lifton.

592“happy to note”: AWD letter to Gerald Ford, Feb. 1, 1965, Mudd Library.

592how to convince: Clover Dulles letter to MB, Feb. 11, 1966, Schlesinger Library.

594“an old and close friend of mine”: AWD letter to J. Lee Rankin, Sept. 9, 1966, Mudd Library.

594“a matter of concern to the U.S. government”: “More Material on the Assassination of President Kennedy,” Propaganda Notes, CIA bulletin, May 15, 1967.

594a particularly “terrible nuisance”: AWD letter to MB, July 22, 1964, Mudd Library.

595“I have been told that his wife”: Letter from unidentified source to AWD, Jan. 7, 1964, Mudd Library.

595the CIA went beyond spreading ugly gossip: Author interview with Mark Lane.

596“After listening to him”: MB letter to AWD, July 25, 1964, Schlesinger Library.

596agree to disagree: AWD letter to MB, Nov. 9, 1966, Mudd Library.

596“At the beginning of the investigation”: Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1988), 175.

597Gordon Novel—phoned the spymaster: AWD calendars, 1968.

597“This is what happens to you”: Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins, 283.

597“I hope you had a chance”: William Small letter to AWD, July 5, 1967, Mudd Library.

598“a single communication from the [new] president”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Journals: 1952–2000 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 218.

598“absence of intellectual curiosity”: Ibid., 224.

599a harrowing account of “that ghastly afternoon”: Ibid., 227.

599“we did not control the Joint Chiefs”: Author interview with AS.

600a raucous Norman Mailer party: Earl Wilson column, New York Post, Feb. 1, 1967.

600“I can’t look and won’t look”: David Talbot, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years (New York: Free Press, 2007), 287.

600“disgraceful piece”: AS letter to AWD, Dec. 29, 1964, NYPL archives.

601“I was so irritated”: Andrew and Stephen Schlesinger, eds., The Letters of Arthur Schlesinger (New York: Random House, 2013), 323.

602“Turner obviously regards Angleton”: AS journals, 1978, NYPL archives.

602a “rather wary friendship”: Ibid., 1991.

602“feeling kind of weird”: Author interview with AS.

602“a terrible story of CIA recklessness”: AS journals, 1991, NYPL archives.

603“a charming, earnest man”: Ibid.

604“he wished he’d written a book”: Author interview with AS.

Chapter 22: End Game

605“He was sad most of the time”: Karen Croft interview with Angelina Cabrera.

605“The senator dearly loved”: Peter Edelman OH, JFK Library.

606“As I walked in”: Karen Croft interview with Angelina Cabrera.

607For RFK’s awkward balancing act on the Warren Report, see David Talbot, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years (New York: Free Press, 2007).

608“One of the things you learned”: Author interview with Adam Walinsky.

609“Something bad is going to come of this”: John Ehrlichman, Witness to Power (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982), 24.

609“Do you know what I think will happen”: Arthur Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy, 857.

609“if you believe that Johnson’s reelection”: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Journals: 1952–2000 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 274.

609“Living every day is like Russian roulette”: Jack Newfield, RFK: A Memoir (New York: Nation Books, 2009), 31.

610“You have been much in my thoughts”: AWD letter to RFK, Mudd Library.

611including one of the men who subdued Sirhan: Talbot, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years, 373.

611“Thus I have never said”: Thomas Noguchi, Coroner (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983), 108.

611He struck many observers . . . as a “Manchurian candidate”: See Shane O’Sullivan, Who Killed Bobby? (New York: Union Square Press, 2008); William Turner, The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy (New York: Thunders Mouth Press, 1993); Robert Blair Kaiser, RFK Must Die! (New York: Grove Press, 1970).

611“Gene Cesar is an innocent man”: E-mail communication from Dan Moldea.

612Meir claims he was introduced to Cesar: Author interview with John Meier.

612“Everything about [Meier] was a lie”: Author interview with Robert Maheu.

612“just more garbage”: E-mail from Dan Moldea.

612“a no-good, dishonest son of a bitch”: Michael Drosnin, Citizen Hughes (New York: Broadway Books, 2004), 424.

612Maheu had made sweetheart deals with mobsters and allowed the CIA: See ibid.; see also Larry DuBois and Laurence Gonazales, “Hughes, Nixon and the CIA,” Playboy, September 1976; and Gerald Bellett, Age of Secrets (Maitland, Ontario: Voyageur North America, 1995), 28.

612“As far as I’m concerned”: Robert Maheu testimony to Church Committee, Sept. 23, 1975.

613“Lest you worry”: AWD letter to Clover Dulles, June 25, 1968, Mudd Library.

614“Dear Ted”: Correspondence between AWD and Edward Kennedy, Mudd Library.

615“Uncle Allen would go off”: James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1999), 560.

616“the spy was generally thought of”: Allen W. Dulles, Great Spy Stories (Secaucus, NJ: Castle, 1969), xi.

616“This is a special occasion”: David Atlee Phillips, Secret Wars Diary: My Adventures in Combat, Espionage Operations and Covert Action (Bethesda, MD: Stone Tail Press, 1988), 172.


620“the founding fathers of U.S. intelligence were liars”: Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA (Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001), 478.

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