ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES

AA

African Affairs

Af HS

African Historical Studies

AHR

American Historical Review

AHS

Australian Historical Studies

BDEEP

British Documents on the End of Empire Project

BIHR

Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research

CBH

Contemporary British History

CHA

The Cambridge History of Africa 8 vols. (Cambridge, 1975–86), edited by J. D. Fage and R. Oliver

CHBE

The Cambridge History of the British Empire 8 vols. (Cambridge, 1925–59), edited by J. Holland Rose, A. P. Newton and E. A. Benians

CHI

The Cambridge History of India 6 vols. (Cambridge, 1922–32), edited by E. J. Rapson et al.

CHJ

Ceylon Historical Journal

CJHSS

Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Studies

CQ

China Quarterly

CSJ

Commonwealth Society Journal

CSSH

Comparative Studies in Society and History

DNB

Dictionary of National Biography

EAH

East Asian History

EconHR

Economic History Review

EEH

Explorations in Economic History

EHR

English Historical Review

HJ

Historical Journal

HMC

Historical Manuscripts Commission

HRNSW

Historical Records of New South Wales

HSANZ

Historical Studies Australia and New Zealand

HT

History Today

IA

International Affairs

IndHR

Indian Historical Review

IJAHS

International Journal of African Historical Studies IHS Irish Historical Studies

JAH

Journal of African History

JBS

Journal of British Studies

JCH

Journal of Contemporary History

JEH

Journal of Economic History

JHSN

Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria

JICH

Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History

JMAS

Journal of Modern African Studies

JMH

Journal of Modern History

JPS

Journal of Palestine Studies

JRAS

Journal of the Royal African Society

JSeAS

Journal of Southeast Asian Studies

JSAS

Journal of Southern African Studies

LRB

London Review of Books

MAS

Modern Asian Studies

MES

Middle Eastern Studies

NZJH

The New Zealand Journal of History

ODNB

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

OHBE

The Oxford History of the British Empire 5 vols. (Oxford 1998–9), edited by W. R. Louis

PA

Pacific Affairs

PP

Past and Present

SA

South Asia

SAHJ

South African Historical Journal

SWJN

Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru 15 vols. (Delhi, 1972–82), edited by S. Gopal

TOPI

The Transfer of Power 1942–7 12 vols. (1970–83), edited by N. Mansergh et al.

NOTES

Introduction

The place of publication is London unless otherwise stated.

1. J. W. Burrow, Gibbon (Oxford, 1985), 3.

2. G. A. Bonnard (ed.), Edward Gibbon: Memoirs of My Life (1960), 3.

3. F. M. Turner, Contrasting Cultural History (1993), 248.

4. E. Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, III, ed. D. Womersley (Harmondsworth, 1994 edn), 139. I cite this edition throughout because of its excellence and availability.

5. L. S. Amery, The Forward View (1935), 434.

6. S. Freud, “Civilisation and Its Discontents,” in J. Strachey (ed.), The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, XXI (1981 edn), 70.

7. C. Edwards, Roman Presences: Receptions of Rome in European Cultures, 1789–1945 (Cambridge, 1999), 224.

8. A. Quiller-Couch, On the Art of Writing (Fowey, 1995 edn), 25. Appointed Professor of English at Cambridge University in 1912, “Q” made this assertion in his inaugural lecture.

9. J. A. Froude, Caesar (1879), 1.

10. J. Bryce, The Ancient Roman Empire and the British Empire in India (1914), 54.

11. C. Lucas, Greater Rome and Greater Britain (1912), 154.

12. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 186.

13. Lord Cromer, Ancient and Modern Imperialism (1910), 74.

14. R. Symonds, Oxford and Empire (1986), 33.

15. Edinburgh Review, 135 (1872), 307.

16. J. West, History of Tasmania, II (1852), 347.

17. A. Sampson, Macmillan: A Study in Ambiguity (1967), 137.

18. ODNB.

19. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 652.

20. N. Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience (1969), 158.

21. The Times, 21 November 1942.

22. S. Walpole, A History of England, V (1886), 146.

23. P. Craddock (ed.), Gibbon’s English Essays (Oxford, 1972), 507.

24. R. Porter, Gibbon Making History (1995 edn), 124. Jacob Burckhardt also described a philosophy of history as a centaur.

25. R. McKitterick and R. Quinault (eds), Edward Gibbon and Empire (Cambridge, 1997), 296.

26. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 666.

27. J. Morris, The Spectacle of Empire (1982), 95.

1. The World Turned Upside Down

1. H. P. Johnston, The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781 (1881), 167.

2. D. Jackson (ed.), The Diaries of George Washington, III (Charlottesville, VA, 1978), 432.

3. J. Bowle, The Imperial Achievement (1974 edn), 158.

4. E. Wright (ed.), The Fire of Liberty (1984), 236.

5. D. S. Freeman, George Washington, V (1952), 388. The story is suspiciously apt but it does seem likely that this popular contemporary tune was among those played.

6. J. C. Fitzpatrick (ed.), The Writings of George Washington, 6 (Washington, DC, 1931–44), 111.

7. B. Mitchell, The Price of Independence (New York, 1974), 118.

8. R. Harvey, A Few Bloody Noses (2001), 306.

9. R. W. Clark, Benjamin Franklin (1983), 270. The phrase was Emerson’s.

10. Harvey, Bloody Noses, 156.

11. CHBE, I, 704.

12. PRO 30/11/68/11-13, Cornwallis Papers, Clinton to Cornwallis, 2 March 1781.

13. P. Toynbee (ed.), The Letters of Horace Walpole, XII (Oxford, 1904), 176.

14. Wright (ed.), Fire of Liberty, 178.

15. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Writings of George Washington, 21, 439.

16. T. J. Fleming, Beat the Last Drum (New York, 1963), 138.

17. M. Cunliffe, George Washington (1959), 99.

18. H. S. Commager and R. B. Morris (eds), The Spirit of ’Seventy-Six (1967 edn), 1219.

19. Johnston, Yorktown Campaign, 95.

20. J. C. Dann (ed.), The Revolution Remembered (Chicago, 1980), 240.

21. PRO 30/11/68/11-13, Clinton to Cornwallis, 30 September 1781.

22. N. A. M. Rodger, The Insatiable Earl (1993), 164. Rodger’s scholarly defence of Sandwich is not altogether convincing.

23. CHBE, I, 742.

24. Toynbee (ed.), Letters of Walpole, X, 240.

25. N. W. Wraxall, Historical Memoirs of My Own Time (1904 edn), 398.

26. P. J. Marshall, “Burke and Empire,” in S. Taylor et al. (eds), Hanoverian Britain and Empire (Woodbridge, 1998), 290.

27. V. T. Harlow, The Founding of the Second British Empire 1763–1793, I (1952), 227.

28. Lord Fitzmaurice, Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, II (1912), 83.

29. A. Calder, Revolutionary Empire: The Rise of the English-Speaking Empire from the Fifteenth Century to the 1780s (1981), 172.

30. Harlow, Second British Empire, I, 158.

31. J. C. Miller, Origins of the American Revolution (Boston, 1943), 33.

32. CHBE, I, 625.

33. R. Hofstadter, Great Issues in American History (New York, 1959), 61.

34. L. H. Gipson, The British Empire Before the American Revolution, XIII (New York, 1967), 204.

35. CHBE, I, 763.

36. R. R. Palmer, The Age of Democratic Revolution, I (Princeton, NJ, 1959), 190.

37. A. Pagden, “The Struggle for Legitimacy and the Image of the Empire in the Atlantic to c. 1700,” in OHBE, I, 54.

38. P. Burke, “Tradition and Experience: The Idea of Decline from Bruno to Gibbon,” in G. W. Bowerstock, J. Clive and S. R. Grauberd (eds), Edward Gibbon and the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1977), 95.

39. F. Bacon, “Of Plantations,” in Essays (1903 edn), 139. T. Hobbes, Leviathan (Oxford, 1960 edn), 161.

40. A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop (eds), The Works of George Berkeley Bishop of Cloyne, VI (1955), 373. Cf. R. Koebner, Empire (Cambridge, 1961), 96, where Berkeley’s line is said to be utopian rather than predictive, and a counter to Matthew Prior’s complacent view that Britannia was fulfilling the prophecy that “Arts and Empire learn to travel West.” Whatever Berkeley’s intention, he seemed to validate the classic pattern of empire’s occidental movement.

41. R. Dixon, The Course of Empire (Melbourne, 1986), 104.

42. L. Baritz, “The Idea of the West,” AHR 66 (April 1961), 640.

43. B. Bailyn, Voyagers to the West (New York, 1987), 41.

44. Toynbee (ed.), Letters of Walpole, IX, 100–101.

45. Gibbon justified Sixtus V’s use of the stones of the Septizonium in “the glorious edifice of St. Peter’s,” though what he thought of the Pope’s crowning Trajan’s Column with a statue of the saint is not recorded. (P. B. Craddock, “Edward Gibbon and the ‘Ruins of the Capitol,’” in A. Patterson [ed.], Roman Images [Baltimore, 1984], passim.)

46. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 1063. This is the phrase of the Renaissance scholar Poggio but on his Grand Tour in 1765 Boswell was shocked to find that parts of the Colosseum were “full of dung,” though so inspired by the grandeur of the Roman remains that he “began to speak in Latin.” (F. Brady and F. A. Pottle, Boswell on Grand Tour: Italy, Corsica, France, 1765–1766 [1955], 61–2.)

47. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 1073.

48. A. J. Toynbee, A Study in History, IX (1954), 426. Toynbee’s animus doubtless stemmed from the fact that he perceived rhythms in history whereas, as Gibbon showed, human beings and all their works were subject to “the vicissitudes of fortune.” (Decline and Fall, III, 1062.)

49. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 512.

50. Ibid., 356.

51. E. H. Gould, “American Independence and Britain’s Counter-Revolution,” PP, 154 (February 1997), 114.

52. Toynbee (ed.), Letters of Walpole, XII, 73.

53. P. B. Craddock, Edward Gibbon, Luminous Historian 1772–1794 (1989), 97.

54. Koebner, Empire, 111.

55. Wraxall, Memoirs, 388.

56. J. Fortescue (ed.), The Correspondence of King George the Third, IV (1928), 351.

57. B. W. Tuchman, The March of Folly (1984), 219.

58. R. Coupland, The American Revolution and the British Empire (1930), 149.

59. T. Pocock, Horatio Nelson (1987), 72.

60. H. T. Manning, British Colonial Government After the American Revolution 1782–1820 (1933), 290. Fox seems to say that the phrase was “emphatically stiled” by Henry Dundas (Parliamentary History, XXII, col. 1285). William Cowper applied the same image to the thirteen colonies and William Beckford applied it to Jamaica.

61. C. C. O’Brien, The Great Melody: A Thematic Biography and Commented Anthology of Edmund Burke (1992), 329.

62. R. E. Prothero (ed.), Private Letters of Edward Gibbon, II (1896), 251.

63. Edinburgh Review, II (1803), 32–3.

64. Bonnard (ed.), Gibbon: Memoirs, 192.

65. A. Smith, An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Chicago, 1952 edn), 256, 266 and 270.

66. J. Ross (ed.), Contemporary Responses to Adam Smith (Bristol, 1998), xiii.

67. DNB. Cf. C. Hobhouse, Fox (1964 edn), 227 and 168, where it is said that Fox did read Smith but despised political economy as “abracadabra.”

68. J. Bowring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham, IV (1843), 417. Bentham wrote these words in 1793, urging the French to make “the declaration of rights your guide.” He added a curious postscript in 1829, saying that as a British citizen he stuck by his opinions but that as a citizen of the British Empire he had reversed them. In part this seems to have been because he expected that the Australian settlements would emancipate themselves from the Crown before the end of the century and become “a representative democracy.”

69. H. M. Scott, British Foreign Policy in the Age of the American Revolution (Oxford, 1990), 339.

70. D. B. Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution 1770–1823 (1975), 175.

71. B. Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 1971), 240.

72. Smith, Wealth of Nations, 254.

73. Harvey, Bloody Noses, 184.

74. T. Clarkson, The History…of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade, I (1968 edn), 95.

75. Gould in Past and Present (February 1997), 137.

76. Koebner, Empire, 225.

77. W. E. H. Lecky, A History of England in the Eighteenth Century, VII (1892), 362.

78. S. Mintz, Sweetness and Power (1985), 120, quoting E. Ayrton, The Cookery of England (1974), 429–30.

79. G. F. Dow, Slave Ships and Slaving (New York, 1970 edn), 92.

80. M. Daunton, “Britain’s Imperial Economy,” JEH, 61, no. 2 (June 2001), 479.

81. J. Newton, Thoughts upon the African Slave Trade (1788), 1.

82. Mortality rates on the Middle Passage fell to about 10 per cent during the eighteenth century, similar to those of convict ships, which improved their own record dramatically (to under 1 per cent) by the 1820s. For a recent statistical analysis see H. S. Klein, The African Slave Trade (Cambridge, 1999), 136ff.

83. J. H. Parry, P. M. Sherlock and A. P. Maingot, A Short History of the West Indies (1987), 88.

84. Baron Dupin, The Commercial Power of Great Britain, II (1825), 271.

85. J. W. Krutch, Samuel Johnson (New York, 1963 edn), 243.

86. Klein, Slave Trade, 214.

87. R. Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810 (1975), 31. Anstey says that contemporaries accepted the necessity of what would “certainly now be, and possibly then was, regarded as brutal.” But while guarding against anachronistic judgements about the ethics of the slave trade, he surely discounts the moral sensibilities of what was an age of faith as well as an age of reason.

88. Dow, Slave Ships, 156.

89. J. Conrad, Heart of Darkness (1995 edn), 69.

90. M. Park, Travels in the Interior of Africa (1984 edn), xv.

91. R. Law, “Human Sacrifice in Pre-Colonial West Africa,” AA, 84 (January 1985), 55, 67 and passim.

92. R. Law, “‘My Head belongs to the King’: On the Political and Ritual Significance of Decapitation in Pre-Colonial Dahomey,” JAH, 30 (1989), 406. Contemplating the blood shed to propitiate the gods of Egypt, Rome and Carthage, Gibbon wrote: “The life of a man is the most precious oblation to deprecate a public calamity.” (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 169.)

93. A. W. Lawrence, Fortified Trade-Posts (1963), 166.

94. H. Thomas, The Slave Trade (1998 edn), 354.

95. M. Perham, Lugard: The Years of Adventure 1858–1898 (1956), 497.

96. J. Matthews, A Voyage to the River Sierra-Leone (1791), 4.

97. Dow, Slave Ships, 251.

98. Abstract of Evidence delivered before a select committee of the House of Commons…for the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1791), 52.

99. F. Cundall (ed.), Lady Nugent’s Journal (1934), 132.

100. Edwards, West Indies, IV, 312.

101. E. Long, The History of Jamaica, II (1970 edn), 354, 352 and 365. The identification of Africans with orang-utans, proposed by Jefferson among others, was refuted in The European Magazine & London Review, XIII (1788), 75ff.

102. Dow, Slave Ships, 61.

103. A. Benezet, Some Historical Account of Guinea (1788), 9 and 101.

104. Matthews, Sierra-Leone, 152.

105. Edwards, West Indies, II, 150.

106. P. D. Curtin, Africa Remembered (1967), 92.

107. Abstract…of the Slave Trade, 35.

108. A. Falconbridge, An Account of the Slave Trade (1788), 29 and 46.

109. Newton, Slave Trade, 11 and 20.

110. Dow, Slave Ships, 241.

111. R. Gray (ed.), CHA, IV, 606.

112. Falconbridge, Slave Trade, 23.

113. Abstract…of the Slave Trade, 41.

114. O. Cugoano, Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery (1787), 29.

115. Falconbridge, Slave Trade, 32.

116. Edwards, West Indies, I, 27.

117. J. M. Cohen (ed.), The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1969 edn), 171.

118. W. Beckford, A Descriptive Account of…Jamaica, I (1790), 32.

119. T. Roughley, The Jamaica’s Planter’s Guide (1823), 220.

120. M. Scott, Tom Cringle’s Log (1895), 50.

121. Long, Jamaica, II, 286.

122. Scott, Cringle’s Log, 44.

123. T. Clarkson, An Essay on the Impolicy of the Slave Trade (1788), 57.

124. J. Walvin, Black Ivory (1993 edn), 69.

125. Long, Jamaica, I, 363.

126. L. G. Ragatz, The Fall of the Planter Class in the British Caribbean 1763–1833 (1928), 71ff.

127. R. B. Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves (Cambridge, 1985), 164.

128. Cundall (ed.), Nugent’s Journal, 108.

129. D. Hall, In Miserable Slavery: Thomas Thistlewood in Jamaica, 1750–86 (1989), 309.

130. Long, Jamaica, II, 328 and 288–9.

131. N. A. M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean (2004), 493–4. Rodger says that surgeons would usually stop such punishments “after a hundred lashes or so.”

132. Anstey, Slave Trade, 289.

133. Hall, Miserable Slavery, 72–3.

134. Edwards, West Indies, II, 74.

135. T. F. Buxton, The African Slave Trade and Its Remedy (1967 edn), 189.

136. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 68.

137. Supplement to Mr. Cooper’s Letters on the Slave Trade (Warrington, 1788), 24.

138. Hall, Miserable Slavery, 204.

139. Anstey, Slave Trade, 36–7 and 310.

140. B. Edwards, The History…of the West Indies, III (1819 edn), 340.

141. J. R. Ward, British West Indian Slavery, 1750–1834 (Oxford, 1988), 2.

142. Edwards, West Indies, II, 168.

143. Beckford, Jamaica, II, 281.

144. B. Martin and M. Spurrell (eds), The Journal of a Slave Trader (1962), xii.

145. Newton, Slave Trade, 1.

146. Edinburgh Review, XI (1808), 342.

147. G. Smith, History of Wesleyan Methodism, I (1862 edn), 683.

148. Clarkson, Abolition of the African Slave Trade, I, 54.

149. W. Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution (Oxford, 1989), 412.

150. R. Reilly, Josiah Wedgwood 1730–1795 (1992), 286.

151. Cup in the author’s possession.

152. A. Bell, Sydney Smith (Oxford, 1980), 72.

153. I. Bradley, The Call to Seriousness (1976), 136.

154. T. Paulin, The Day-Star of Liberty (1998), 246.

155. F. K. Brown, Fathers of the Victorians (Cambridge, 1961), 3.

156. C. Lawson, The Private Life of Warren Hastings (1905), 121.

157. W. S. Hathaway (ed.), The Speeches of…William Pitt, II (1806), 70 and 51.

158. J. Ehrman, The Younger Pitt, I (1984 edn), 400.

159. Hathaway (ed.), Speeches of…Pitt, II, 80 and 82–3.

160. B. Spiller (ed.), Cowper: Poetry and Prose (1968), 987.

161. C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins (1963 edn), 55.

162. Davis, Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 194.

163. J. Keane, Tom Paine (1995), 341.

164. R. I. and S. Wilberforce, The Life of William Wilberforce, I (1838), 344.

165. R. Coupland, Wilberforce (1945), 144.

166. R. I. and S. Wilberforce, Wilberforce, I, 343.

167. R. Hyam, “The Primacy of Geopolitics: The Dynamics of British Imperial Policy, 1763–1963,” JICH, XXVII (May 1999), 31.

168. S. Schama, Citizens (1989), 173.

169. L. Colley, Britons (1994 edn), 169–70.

170. The Poetical Works of William Cowper (Edinburgh, 1864), 400.

171. L. Colley, Captives: Britain, Empire and the World 1600–1850 (2002), 10.

172. G. F. Leckie, An Historical Survey of the Foreign Affairs of Great Britain (1808), 143.

173. H. Brogan, Longman History of the United States of America (1985), 201.

174. J. T. Flexner, George Washington, III (1970), 149.

175. L. Hönninghausen and A. Falke, Washington, D.C. (Tübingen, 1993), 196. The phrase was attributed to Jefferson.

176. J. W. Reps, Monumental Washington (Princeton, NJ, 1967), 9.

177. G. R. Mellor, British Imperial Trusteeship 1783–1850 (1951), 22.

178. R. A. Austin and W. D. Smith, “Images of Africa and British Slave-Trade Abolition: The Transition of an Imperialist Ideology, 1787–1807,” AfHS, II (1969), 83.

2. An English Barrack in the Oriental Seas

1. Calcutta Gazette, 26 April 1792.

2. Bryce, Ancient Roman Empire, 12.

3. S. Wolpert, A New History of India (New York, 1977), 134.

4. Lord Macaulay’s Essays (1886), 502.

5. CHI, V, 151.

6. P. J. Marshall, East Indian Fortunes (Oxford, 1976), 15.

7. J. W. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I (1889), 94.

8. P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion 1688–1914 (1993), 92.

9. Macaulay’s Essays, 527.

10. B. Russell, Freedom and Organisation 1814–1914 (1934), 415.

11. P. J. Marshall, Problems of Empire: Britain and India 1757–1813 (1968), 30–31.

12. R. K. Ray, “Colonial Penetration and the Initial Resistance: The Mughal Ruling Class, the English East India Company and the Struggle for Bengal 1756–1800,” IndHR, XII (1986), 2.

13. P. Spear, Master of Bengal (1975), 34.

14. Marshall, East Indian Fortunes, 206.

15. Pemberton Papers, 7/5/1–6, 31 October 1770.

16. K. Feiling, Warren Hastings (1954), 236.

17. J. L. Brockington, “Warren Hastings and Orientalism,” in G. Carnall and C. Nicholson (eds), The Impeachment of Warren Hastings (Edinburgh, 1989), 97.

18. G. R. Gleig, Memoirs of the Life of the Right Hon. Warren Hastings, II (1844), 149–50.

19. Feiling, Hastings, 248–9.

20. E. Fay, Original Letters from India (1927), 196.

21. A. Spencer (ed.), Memoirs of William Hickey, III (1918), 359.

22. S. C. Grier (ed.), The Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife (1905), 32.

23. P. J. Marshall, “The Personal Fortune of Warren Hastings, EconHR, XVII (1964), 285.

24. Prothero (ed.), Letters of Edward Gibbon, II, 172. The story that Sheridan really said “voluminous” is apocryphal, for Gibbon “much admired” the compliment.

25. Lawson, Hastings (1905), 108, 110 and 115.

26. Calcutta Gazette, 9 August 1792.

27. Spencer (ed.), Hickey, III, 155.

28. CHI, V, 195.

29. T. R. Metcalf, The New Cambridge History of India, III. 4 (Cambridge, 1995), 13. With rather more justice, Sir William Jones aspired to the title. Cf. DNB.

30. G. Cannon (ed.), The Letters of Sir William Jones, II (Oxford, 1970), 712–13.

31. P. Marshall, The New Cambridge History of India, II. 2 (1987), 134.

32. Calcutta Gazette, 4 October 1792.

33. F. and M. Wickwire, Cornwallis: The Imperial Years (Chapel Hill, NC, 1980), 72.

34. PRO 30/11/172, Cornwallis to Charles Stuart, 2 December 1791.

35. C. Ross (ed.), Correspondence of Charles, First Marquess of Cornwallis, I (1859), 280, 383 and 233.

36. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I, 128.

37. Calcutta Gazette, 21 August 1788.

38. W. S. Seton-Karr, Cornwallis (Oxford, 1890), 102.

39. G. Forrest, Lord Cornwallis (1926), 27.

40. A. Embree, Charles Grant and British Rule in India (1962), 52, 274 and 78.

41. H. E. Busteed, Echoes from Old Calcutta (1908), 177.

42. P. Quennell (ed.), Memoirs of William Hickey (1975 edn), 272.

43. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I, 79 and 87.

44. Spencer (ed.), Hickey, II, 322.

45. PRO, 30/11/172, Cornwallis to Charles Stuart, 17 April 1792.

46. PRO 30/11/182, Cornwallis to Robert Adair, 10 August 1789.

47. Ross (ed.), Cornwallis, I, 401 and 292.

48. PRO 30/11/151, Cornwallis to Dundas, 9 August 1790.

49. Pemberton Papers, 7/5/76, 22 May 1792.

50. K. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex and Class under the Raj (1980), 2.

51. Ross, Cornwallis, II, 20 and 87.

52. G. Forrest (ed.), Selections of the State Papers of the Governors-General of India: Lord Cornwallis, I (1926), 178.

53. 1 PRO 30/11/172, Cornwallis to Charles Stuart, 11 June 1792.

54. Calcutta Gazette, 5 July 1792.

55. A. Dirom, A Narrative of the Campaign in India… (1793), 229.

56. D. Forrest, Tiger of Mysore (1970), 187.

57. PRO 30/11/152, Cornwallis to Grenville, 4 March 1792.

58. P. J. Marshall, “‘Cornwallis Triumphant’: War in India and the British Public in the Late Eighteenth Century,” in Marshall, Trade and Conquest (Aldershot, 1993), XIV, 71.

59. R. Holmes, Shelley the Pursuit (1974), 346.

60. OIOCH/436, John Taylor Papers, 132.

61. I. Butler, The Eldest Brother: The Marquess Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington’s Eldest Brother (1973), 352.

62. Embree, Grant, 226.

63. K. Brittlebank, Tipu Sultan’s Search for Legitimacy (Delhi, 1997), 27.

64. PRO 30/11/208/2, Abstract of the State of political Affairs in India…

65. M. Martin (ed.), The Despatches…of the Marquess Wellesley, I (1836), 460.

66. A. Chatterjee, Representations of India 1740–1840 (1998), 177 and 179.

67. M. Wilks, Historical Sketches of South India, III (1810), 269.

68. OIOC, H/436, 134.

69. OIOC, MSS Eur C10, Munshi Qasim, “Tippoo Sooltan’s Court,” 204.

70. A. Beatson, A View of the Origins and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultan (1800), 153–4.

71. OIOC, MSS Eur F206, Macnabb Papers, James Munro Macnabb to his grandmother, 30 July 1800.

72. OIOC, H/436, 141 and 144.

73. OIOC, MSS Eur C10, 205 and 204.

74. PRO 30/11/209, Narrative of operations during the siege and capture of Seringapatam…by Lord Mornington, 7 June 1799.

75. Dirom, Narrative, 188.

76. Brittlebank, Tipu, 136.

77. Wilks, Sketches of South India, III, 20.

78. Martin (ed.), Despatches, I, 369; IV, 155.

79. PRO 30/11/209, Narrative…by Lord Mornington, 7 June 1799.

80. W. Trousdale (ed.), War in Afghanistan 1878–9: The Personal Diary of Major-General Sir Charles Metcalfe MacGregor (Detroit, 1985), 156.

81. P. Magnus, Kitchener (1968 edn), 183.

82. PRO 30/11/209, Narrative…by Lord Mornington, 7 June 1799.

83. H. Dodwell, The Nabobs of Madras (1926), 65.

84. E. Longford, Wellington: The Years of the Sword (1969), 82.

85. Butler, Eldest Brother, 229, 225 and 193.

86. M. S. Renick, Lord Wellesley and the Indian States (Agra, 1987), 220.

87. Lord Valentia, Voyages and Travels, I (1809), 253.

88. J. W. Kaye, The Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir John Malcolm, I (1856), 305.

89. Martin (ed.), Despatches, V, 326; III, 382.

90. Spencer (ed.), Hickey, IV, 278.

91. Martin (ed.), Despatches, V, 156 and 154.

92. Edinburgh Review, XII (1805), 469–70.

93. E. Ingram (ed.), Two Views of British India (1970), 166.

94. Martin (ed.), Despatches, V, 314 and 317.

95. W. M. Torrens, Marquess Wellesley (1880), 218.

96. P. E. Roberts, India under Wellesley (1929), 299.

97. Embree, Grant, 209 and 216.

98. Spencer (ed.), Hickey, IV, 236.

99. Lord Curzon, British Government in India, II (1925), 8.

100. M. Graham, Journal of a Residence in India (1813), 137.

101. Curzon, India, I, 80.

102. Butler, Eldest Brother, 386 and 245.

103. Valentia, Voyages, 235–6.

104. H. Morris, The Life of Charles Grant (1904), 254.

105. Lord Lindsay, The Lives of the Lindsays, III (1849), 406.

106. Butler, Eldest Brother, 272.

107. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I, 551.

108. E. Roberts, Scenes and Characteristics of Hindostan, III (1835), 70.

109. OIOC, MSS Eur F206, 1 September 1806.

110. HMC, Report on the Manuscripts of J. B. Fortescue, Esq., preserved at Dropmore, IV (1905), 474 and 383.

111. C. C. Coffin, Our New Way Round the World (1883 edn), 222.

112. OIOC, MSS Eur C97, Sir Henry Thoby Prinsep, “Three Generations in India, 1771–1904,” 2–3.

113. Valentia, Voyages, 236.

114. Graham, Journal, 132.

115. J. P. Losty, Calcutta: City of Palaces (1990), 49.

116. M. Archer, Early Views of India (1980), 3.

117. T. Williamson, The East Indian Vade-Mecum, II (1810), 4.

118. Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, I (1897), 5.

119. M. Fowler, Below the Peacock Fan: First Ladies of the Raj (1987), 120 and 183.

120. Roberts, Hindostan, I, 3.

121. J. D. Collet, The Life and Letters of Raja Rammohun Roy (Calcutta, 1962 edn), 170–71.

122. OIOC, MSS Eur C97, 3.

123. Martin (ed.), Despatches, IV, 672.

124. C. A. Bayly, Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World 1780–1830 (1989), 148.

125. Spencer (ed.), Hickey, III, 213–14.

126. Roberts, Hindostan, III, 82.

127. OIOC, MSS Eur D1160, William Prinsep, “Memoir,” II (1870), 16.

128. OIOC, MSS Eur C97, 263.

129. CUL, SPCK Papers, Letter from Secretary of Mission at Tinnivally, 18 September 1818.

130. R. G. Collingwood, Roman Britain (1932), 8.

131. Valentia, Voyages, 241.

132. J. Malcolm, The Political History of India, II (New Delhi, 1970 edn), 143.

133. Roberts, Hindostan, III, 75.

134. V. Jacquemont, Voyage dans l’Inde… (Paris, 1841), 459.

135. M. A. Laird (ed.), Bishop Heber in Northern India: Selections from Heber’s Journal (Cambridge, 1971), 45.

136. BL, Add 29178, J. Palmer to Hastings, 10 October 1802.

137. Roberts, Hindostan, I, 187.

138. Spencer (ed.), Hickey, IV, 318.

139. Ross (ed.), Cornwallis, III, 542, 548 and 546.

140. OIOC, H/MISC/507, Vellore Mutiny Correspondence, 235.

141. M. Gupta, Lord William Bentinck in Madras and the Vellore Mutiny, 1803–7 (New Delhi, 1986), 192.

142. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I, 240.

143. OIOC, H/MISC/507, 238.

144. Ibid., 149, Cradock to Bentinck, 4 July 1806.

145. BL, Add 29181, S. Toone to Hastings, 20 January 1808.

146. E. D. Potts, British Baptist Missionaries in India, 1793–1837 (Cambridge, 1967), 220.

147. OIOC, H/MISC/507, 532.

148. DNB.

149. OIOC, H/MISC/507, 406.

150. Ibid., 532.

151. P. Spear, The Nabobs (1932), 59.

152. G. Moorhouse, India Britannica (1986 edn), 63.

153. Embree, Grant, 246.

154. Bryce, Ancient Roman Empire, 57.

155. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I, 623–4.

156. Butler, Eldest Brother, 237.

157. OHBE, III, 404.

158. R. Robinson and J. Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians (1965), 12.

159. Bayly, Imperial Meridian, 126.

160. H. Martineau, British Rule in India (1857), 161.

161. Collet, Roy, 336.

162. T. H. Beaglehole, Thomas Munro and the Development of Administrative Policy in Madras 1792–1818 (Cambridge, 1966), 121–2.

163. Jacquemont, Letters from India 1829–1832 (1936), xxv.

164. Collet, Roy, 387–8.

165. Bayly, Imperial Meridian, 163.

166. An Indian Officer, How I Spent My Two Years’ Leave (1875), 97–8.

167. Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers, I, 366.

168. D. Gilmour, The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj (2005), 42.

169. Harlow, Second British Empire, II (1964), 140.

170. A. Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan (1999), 532.

171. A. Frost, Convicts and Empire (Melbourne, 1980), 65.

172. Leckie, Foreign Affairs of Great Britain, 121.

173. Pocock, Nelson, 293.

174. J. Rosselli, Lord William Bentinck (1974), 147.

175. J. E. Tennent, Ceylon, II (1860 edn), 486.

176. R. Coupland, Raffles (1934), 7.

177. S. Raffles, Memoir of the Life and Public Services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (Singapore, 1991 edn), 399 and 422–8.

178. Ibid., 462 and 460.

179. D. C. Boulger, Life of Sir Stamford Raffles (1973 edn), 162.

180. J. C. Beaglehole, The Exploration of the Pacific (1947), 343.

181. G. Martin (ed.), The Founding of Australia (Sydney, 1978), 230 and 263.

182. G. Blainey, The Tyranny of Distance (Melbourne, 1966), 72.

183. R. Hyam, Britain’s Imperial Century (1993 edn), 68.

184. A. G. Stapleton, George Canning and His Times (1859), 411.

185. B. Smith, European Vision and the South Pacific 1786–1850 (Oxford, 1969), 133.

3. Exempt from the Disaster of Caste

1. The Works of the Rev. Sydney Smith, I (1839), 49 and 50. On 2 October 1807 The Times went further than Smith, saying that Australia, like Rome, might be destined to become “mistress of the world.”

2. HRNSW, I, ii (Sydney, 1892), 53.

3. D. Collins, An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales (1798), 74.

4. Martin (ed.), Founding of Australia, 176.

5. CHBE, VII, 63.

6. T. Delamothe and C. Bridge, Interpreting Australia (1988), 41.

7. HRNSW, II, 666.

8. HRNSW, II, 758.

9. Collins, New South Wales, 5.

10. T. Kenneally, The Commonwealth of Thieves (2006), 240 and 76.

11. HRNSW, II, 392–3.

12. W. Tench, 1788 (Melbourne, 1996), 47.

13. ML, Microfilm CY Reel 1301, 12 July 1788.

14. Collins, New South Wales, 72.

15. R. Southey, Life and Works of William Cowper, VII (1835–7), 85.

16. CHBE, VII, 68.

17. St James’s Chronicle, 16–18 January 1787.

18. G. Williams and A. Frost (eds), Terra Australis to Australia (Melbourne, 1988), 192.

19. HRNSW, I, ii, 212.

20. Williams and Frost, Australia, 202–3.

21. Tench, 1788, 75.

22. Smith, European Vision, 170.

23. Collins, New South Wales, 3.

24. CHBE, VII, 89.

25. Tench, 1788, 264, 71, 142, 91, 122 and 119.

26. C. Bateson, The Convict Ships (1959), 112.

27. Collins, New South Wales, 123.

28. HRNSW, II, 791.

29. Bateson, Convict Ships, 113.

30. HRNSW, II, 768. None of the captains was brought to justice though the system of payment was altered to reward the safe delivery of convicts, which improved matters but did not altogether prevent future atrocities.

31. T. Watling, Letters from an Exile at Botany-Bay (Penrith n.d., c. 1794), 8.

32. HRNSW, III, 65.

33. L. Macquarie, A Letter to the Right Honourable Viscount Sidmouth… (1821), 12.

34. L. L. Robson, The Convict Settlers of Australia (Melbourne, 1965), 128.

35. J. Clay, Maconochie’s Experiment (2001), 35–6.

36. Baron C. von Hügel, New Holland Journal, ed. D. Clark (Melbourne, 1994), 222.

37. T. C. Croker, Memoirs of Joseph Holt, II (1838), 219 and 270.

38. C. M. H. Clark (ed.), Select Documents in Australian History 1788–1850 (Sydney, 1950), 133.

39. C. M. H. Clark, A History of Australia (1962), 224.

40. J. Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly: Female Convicts, Sexuality and Gender in Colonial Australia (Cambridge, 1997), 46.

41. A Confidential Despatch from Sir John Franklin on Female Convicts in Van Diemen’s Land (Sullivan’s Cove, 1996), 55 and 36.

42. R. Hughes, The Fatal Shore (1996 edn), 487 and 383.

43. Clark (ed.), Select Documents, 123 and 140.

44. CUL, RCMS 278/40, H. M. Hull, The Aborigines of Tasmania 1873. Probably Tasmanian Aborigines numbered around four thousand before the European invasion.

45. P. H. Barrett and R. B. Freeman (eds), The Works of Charles Darwin, III, Journal of Researches, Pt II (1986), 417.

46. A. McGrath, Contested Ground (Sydney, 1995), 332.

47. Hughes, Fatal Shore, 120.

48. J. Frost, A Letter…on Transportation (n.d.), 17.

49. Historical Records of Australia, I (Sydney, 1914), 272.

50. Hughes, Fatal Shore, 293. This view has recently been much contested.

51. M. H. Ellis, Lachlan Macquarie: His Life, Adventures and Times (Sydney, 1952 edn), 176 and 492.

52. Works of Smith, II, 171.

53. J. Ritchie, The Evidence of the Bigge Reports, I (Melbourne, 1971), 199.

54. Sydney Gazette, 18 August 1821.

55. P. Cunningham, Two Years in New South Wales (1966 edn), 215, 186 and xxxvi.

56. Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, 22 (November 1827), 603.

57. Quoted by R. White, Inventing Australia (1981), 68.

58. Ellis, Macquarie, 316 and 318.

59. V. A. C. Gatrell, The Hanging Tree (Oxford, 1994), 578.

60. White, Inventing Australia, 24, 50 and 53.

61. Dixon, Course of Empire, 105 and 164.

62. L. Woodward, The Age of Reform 1815–1870 (Oxford, 1987 edn), 387.

63. P. Fitzgerald (ed.), The Works of Charles Lamb, III (1895), 300.

64. W. J. Lines, Taming the Great South Land (Berkeley, CA, 1991), 49.

65. D. Pike, Paradise of Dissent: South Australia 1829–1857 (1957), 7.

66. J. Morris, Heaven’s Command (1973), 146. Actually Australians were not free of class distinction; but the common European opinion, as expressed by Thackeray, was that after the emigrant woman’s last curtsy on English soil “her back won’t bend except to her labour.” Cf. M. Forster (ed.), Drawn from Life: The Journalism of William Makepeace Thackeray (1984), 29.

67. C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914 (Oxford, 2004), 101.

68. A. J. P. Taylor, From Napoleon to the Second International (1993), 374.

69. C. A. Bodelsen, Studies in Mid-Victorian Imperialism (1960), 44.

70. CUL, Add 7888, Sir James Stephen’s Journal II/119, 4 March 1846.

71. The Autobiography of Henry Taylor, II (1885), 34.

72. H. L. Hall, The Colonial Office (1937), 49.

73. E. T. Williams, “The Colonial Office in the Thirties,” HSANZ, II (1942–3), 144.

74. W. A. Baillie Hamilton, “Forty-four Years at the Colonial Office,” The Nineteenth Century and After, LXV (1909), 603.

75. R. C. Snelling and T. J. Barron, “The Colonial Office and Its Permanent Officials 1801–1914,” in G. Sutherland (ed.), Studies in the Growth of Nineteenth-century Government (1972), 153.

76. Hall, Colonial Office, 112 and 17–18.

77. W. L. Burn, Emancipation and Apprenticeship in the British West Indies (1937), 128.

78. CUL, Add 7888, II/119, 19 January 1846.

79. L. Stephen, The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen (1895), 63.

80. CUL, Add 7888, II/119, 4 March 1846.

81. Stephen, Life of Fitzjames Stephen, 64.

82. The Autobiography of Henry Taylor, II (1885), 304.

83. CUL, Add 7888, II/119, 31 March and 13 January 1846.

84. Stephen, Life of Fitzjames Stephen, 50.

85. CUL, Add 7888, II/119, 4 March 1846.

86. G. E. Marindin (ed.), Letters of Frederic Lord Blachford (1896), 299.

87. OHBE, III, 104.

88. D. Read, Cobden and Bright (1967), 238.

89. J. R. McCulloch, A Statistical Account of the British Empire (1837), 597.

90. P. Colquhoun, Treatise on the Wealth, Power, and Resources of the British Empire (1815), 314.

91. G. Martin, Britain and the Origins of Canadian Confederation, 1837–67 (1995), 63.

92. Colquhoun, Treatise, 311.

93. W. Cobbett, The Emigrant’s Guide… (1829), 41.

94. D. G. Creighton, Dominion of the North (1958), 239.

95. J. Pickering, Emigration or No Emigration (1830), 69.

96. E. W. Watkin, A Trip to the United States and Canada (1852), 28 and 32.

97. The Report of the Earl of Durham (1902 edn), 132.

98. J. Morley, Life of Richard Cobden, I (1881), 31.

99. A. Greer, The Patriots and the People (Toronto, 1993), 123, quoting Quebec Mercury, 27 October 1806.

100. CUL, Add 9556, Richard Cornwallis Neville, “Diary of Military Life in Canada 1838–40,” 14 November 1838.

101. Report of the Earl of Durham, 56.

102. P. A. Buckner, The Transition to Responsible Government (Westport, CT, 1985), 222.

103. CBHE, VI, 243.

104. F. Ouellet, Lower Canada 1791–1842 (Toronto, 1980), 216.

105. Greer, Patriots, 191.

106. F. Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada (1903), 80.

107. S. J. Reid, Life and Letters of the First Earl of Durham 1792–1840, II (1906), 179.

108. CUL, Add 9556, 9 and 12 November 1838.

109. Goldwin Smith, Canada and the Canadian Question (Toronto, 1971 edn), 81.

110. C. Lindsey, William Lyon Mackenzie (Toronto, 1938), 263 and 346–7.

111. J. Marlow, The Tolpuddle Martyrs (1974 edn), 253.

112. L. F. Gates, After the Rebellion (Toronto, 1988), 338.

113. HSANZ, II, 152.

114. Reid, Durham, II, 137–8.

115. E. M. Wrong, Charles Buller and Responsible Government (Oxford, 1926), 26.

116. M. Francis, Governors and Settlers: Images of Authority in the British Colonies 1820–60 (1992), 85.

117. Reid, Durham, I, 319.

118. Morris, Heaven’s Command, 132.

119. H. Reeve (ed.), The Greville Memoirs, III (1888), 232.

120. Reid, Durham, II, 165.

121. Bradshaw, Self-Government, 23.

122. Reid, Durham, II, 277.

123. J. Richardson, Eight Years in Canada (1967 edn), 53.

124. Reid, Durham, II, 320 and 339.

125. Report of the Earl of Durham, xxvi.

126. [J. S. Mill], “Lord Durham’s Return,” Westminster Review, XXXII (1838–9), 260.

127. Bradshaw, Self-Government, 23.

128. J. A. Roebuck, The Colonies of England (1849), 188.

129. E. W. Watkin, Canada and the States: Recollections (1887), 16.

130. Creighton, Dominion, 313.

131. R. S. Thompson, Empires on the Pacific (2001), 45.

132. The Times, 23 March 1849.

133. The Economist, 8 March 1851.

134. J. Pope (ed.), Memoirs of…Sir John Alexander Macdonald…, I (1894), 313.

135. Martin, Canadian Confederation, 171.

136. Smith, Canada, 125.

137. Annual Register 1839 (1840), 177.

138. G. Martin, Edward Gibbon Wakefield (Edinburgh, 1997), 12.

139. C. Woodham Smith, Florence Nightingale (1964 edn), 375.

140. H. T. Manning, “Lord Durham and the New Zealand Company,” NZJH, 6 (April 1972), 5.

141. T. Carlyle, “Chartism,” in English and Other Essays (Everyman edn, n.d.), 235, 238 and 211.

142. W. Gisborne, New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen 1840–1897 (1897), 63.

143. P. Adams, Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand 1830–1847 (Auckland, 1977), 96, 101 and 110.

144. F. E. Maning, Old New Zealand (1956 edn), 109, 176 and 8.

145. W. P. Reeve, The Long White Cloud (1950 edn), 108.

146. C. Hursthouse, New Zealand or Zealandia, The Britain of the South, I (1857), 32.

147. A. S. Thomson, The Story of New Zealand, I (1859), 303.

148. Ellis, Macquarie, 318.

149. R. McNab (ed.), Historical Records of New Zealand, I (Wellington, 1908), 321.

150. CHBE, VII, ii, 35.

151. A. T. Yarwood, Samuel Marsden (Melbourne, 1977), 173.

152. A. Lycett, Rudyard Kipling (1999), 483.

153. J. Belich, Making Peoples: A History of New Zealanders from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century (1996), 136.

154. J. R. Elder (ed.), The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, 1765–1838 (Dunedin, 1932), 415, 403 and 219.

155. The Works of the Rev. Sydney Smith, I (1839), 173. Macaulay waxed still more eloquent on the religious impulses to which tinkers succumbed. Lord Macaulay’s Essays (1886), 556.

156. N. Gunson, Messengers of Grace (Melbourne, 1978), 31.

157. British and Foreign Bible Society Annual Report (1835), lxxiv.

158. E. Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand, II (1843), 41.

159. E. T. Williams, “The Treaty of Waitangi,” History, 25 (1940–41), 242.

160. A. Earle, Narrative of a Residence in New Zealand (Oxford, 1966 edn), 57–9.

161. Dieffenbach, Travels, II, 20 and 128–30.

162. Barrett and Freeman (eds), Works of Charles Darwin, III, 397 and 398.

163. F. Darwin (ed.), The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, I (1887), 264.

164. CUL, British and Foreign Bible Society Foreign Correspondence, 10 May 1842.

165. Adams, Fatal Necessity, 140.

166. E. J. Wakefield, Adventure in New Zealand (Christchurch, 1908 edn), 62 and 148.

167. Belich, Making Peoples, 338.

168. J. C. Beaglehole, Captain Hobson and the New Zealand Company (Northampton, MA, 1927), 108.

169. Thomson, Story of New Zealand, II, 22.

170. CUL, RCMS 278/55, Letters to Colonists by G. F. Young, Young to Arthur Wakefield, 13 November 1842.

171. CUL, Add 7888, II/119, 18–19 March 1846.

172. Adams, Fatal Necessity, 240.

173. Reeves, White Cloud, 142. When this book was published in 1898 Maori numbers had reached their nadir at just over forty thousand; but they subsequently began to rise, belying the common notion that the race was doomed.

174. Mansergh, Commonwealth Experience, 103.

175. Hursthouse, New Zealand, I, 97 and 11.

176. B. Porter, The Lion’s Share: A Short History of Imperialism 1850–1983 (1984 edn), 22.

177. J. Belich, The New Zealand Wars (Auckland, 1986), 23.

178. A. Trollope, Australia and New Zealand, II (1873), 457.

179. E. G. Wakefield, A View of the Art of Colonization (1849), 221.

180. Hursthouse, New Zealand, II, 640.

181. T. Cholmondeley, Ultima Thule (1854), 324.

182. CUL, RCMS 304, Thornhill Family Letters, George to Minnie Thornhill, 1 January 1890.

183. OHBE, III, 582.

184. R. Taylor, New Zealand and Its Inhabitants (1853), 269.

185. S. Butler, A First Year in Canterbury Settlement (1964 edn), 33.

186. Reeves, White Cloud, 179.

187. Thomson, Story of New Zealand, II, 213.

188. Hursthouse, New Zealand, II, 631.

189. Thomson, Story of New Zealand, II, 307.

190. P. Raby, Samuel Butler (1991), 66.

191. HSANZ, II, 158.

192. Quoted by Belich, Making Peoples, 302.

193. Macaulay’s Essays, 542.

194. G. O. Trevelyan, The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay (1895), 359.

195. Review of Reviews, II (September 1890), 252.

196. P. Knaplund, James Stephen and the British Colonial System 1813–1847 (Madison, WI, 1953), 278.

4. To Stop Is Dangerous, To Recede, Ruin

1. E. T. Williams, “James Stephen and British Intervention in New Zealand, 1838–40,” JMH, 13 (1941), 33.

2. Asiatic Journal, IV, 3rd series (1845), 489.

3. Hyam, Imperial Century, 7.

4. Hall, Colonial Office, 177 and 145.

5. Sutherland (ed.), Studies in…Government, 195 and 164.

6. D. K. Fieldhouse, Economics and Empire 1830–1914 (1973), 81.

7. N. Mostert, Frontiers (1992), 932.

8. B. Gardner, The East India Company (1971), 203.

9. OHBE, III, 191.

10. Bayly, Imperial Meridian, 104.

11. S. Lane Poole, The Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe (1890), 180 and 190.

12. Morris, Pax Britannica, 28.

13. For an early criticism of the concept see D. C. M. Platt, “‘Imperialism of Free Trade’: some reservations,” EconHR, 21 (1968), 300.

14. S. Winchester, Outposts (1985), 115.

15. Kaye, Metcalfe, I, 320.

16. Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, LIII (January 1843), 1–2.

17. Hall, Colonial Office, 195.

18. R. Hyam and G. Martin, Reappraisals in British Imperial History (1975), 115.

19. E. Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India (Oxford, 1959), 44.

20. E. Ashley, Life of Viscount Palmerston, I (1879), 346.

21. D. Cecil, Melbourne (1954 edn), 346.

22. Woodward, Age of Reform, 300.

23. J. Ridley, Lord Palmerston (1972 edn), 676.

24. Punch, 26 September 1857.

25. Ridley, Palmerston, 526.

26. W. Baring Pemberton, Lord Palmerston (1954), 181 and 213.

27. Ridley, Palmerston, 524.

28. Trevelyan, Macaulay, 391.

29. J. Morley, The Life of William Ewart Gladstone, I (1908 edn), 168.

30. Ridley, Palmerston, 350.

31. J. K. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast, I (Cambridge, MA, 1953), 19.

32. A. Peyrefitte, The Collision of Two Civilisations (1993), 538.

33. Annual Register, 1840, 83.

34. W. C. Hunter, Bits of Old China (1911), 19.

35. Quennell (ed.), Hickey, 121.

36. H. B. Morse, The International Relations of the Chinese Empire (1910), 545.

37. P. W. Fay, The Opium War 1840–1842 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1975), 49.

38. J. Spence, Opium Smoking in Ch’ing China (2000 edn), 162.

39. F. Wakeman, Strangers at the Gate (Berkeley, CA, 1997 edn), 25.

40. J. Heria, Cherishing Men from Afar (1995), 68.

41. S. Warren, The Opium Question (1840), 125.

42. T. De Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium Eater, ed. A. Hayter (1971 edn), 71.

43. Warren, Opium, 75.

44. G. O. Trevelyan, The Competition Wallah (1864), 65.

45. F. G. Whelan, Edmund Burke and India (Pittsburgh, PA, 1996), 96.

46. A. P. Stanley, The Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold (1846 edn), 515.

47. Fay, Opium War, 117.

48. De Quincey, Confessions, 114.

49. A. Waley, The Opium War Through Chinese Eyes (1953), 29–30.

50. CUL, JMP, C5/4, James Matheson to William Jardine, 30 May 1839.

51. G. Graham, The China Station: War and Diplomacy 1830–1860 (Oxford, 1978), 105.

52. CUL, JMP, B1/10, 35, W. Crawford to R. Crawford, 8 August 1839.

53. Ibid., 41, W. Jardine to J. Jeejeebhoy, 5 October 1839.

54. M. Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China 1800–42 (2000 edn), 104.

55. D. R. Headrick, The Tools of Empire (New York, 1981), 50 and 52.

56. Graham, China Station, 234.

57. S. Hoe, The Private Life of Old Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 1991), 77.

58. A. Cunynghame, An Aide-de-Camp’s Recollections of Service in China… (1844), 96.

59. CUL, JMP, C6/3, Alexander Matheson to J. Adam Smith, 13 February 1843.

60. F. Welsh, A History of Hong Kong (1993), 122 and 197.

61. CUL, JMP, C6/3, 10 September 1843.

62. Ibid., Matheson to John Purvis, 21 April 1843.

63. E. J. Eitel, Europe in China (Hong Kong, 1983 edn), 290 and 246.

64. Morris, Heaven’s Command, 90.

65. Ashley, Palmerston, I, 361.

66. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy, I, 380.

67. CUL, Parkes Papers, H1, Harry Parkes to E. Hammond, 14 November 1856.

68. Pemberton, Palmerston, 249.

69. D. Hurd, The Arrow War (1967), 228.

70. G. R. Barmé, “The Garden of Perfect Brightness, a Life in Ruins,” EAH, 11 (June 1996), 113.

71. Peyrefitte, Two Civilisations, 529.

72. J. Lehmann, All Sir Garnet (1964), 106–7.

73. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 966.

74. Graham, China Station, 182.

75. CUL, JMP, C 6/4, A. Matheson to J. Abel Smith, 31 December 1845.

76. Hurd, Arrow War, 237.

77. Ashley, Palmerston, II, 32.

78. Welsh, Hong Kong, 158.

79. CUL, JMP, C 6/4, A. Matheson to J. Abel Smith, 31 December 1845.

80. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy, I, 160–61.

81. L. Oliphant, Elgin’s Mission to China and Japan, II (Hong Kong, 1970 edn), 268.

82. R. Bickers, “Shanghailanders: The Formation and Identity of the British Settler Community in Shanghai 1843–1947,” PP, 159 (May 1998), 193.

83. P. D. Coates, The China Consuls (Hong Kong, 1988), 265.

84. A. Moorehead, The Blue Nile (1974 edn), 237.

85. CUL, Crewe Papers, C/19–24, Crewe to Hardinge, 5 September 1912.

86. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy, I, 462.

87. N. R. Clifford, Spoilt Children of Empire (Hanover, NH, 1991), 34.

88. R. Pares, “The Economic Factors in the History of Empire,” EconHR, 7, no. 2 (May 1937), 144.

89. H. W. C. Davis, The Great Game in Asia (1926), 4 and passim.

90. E. O’Ballance, Afghan Wars 1839–1992 (1993), 7.

91. J. A. Norris, The First Afghan War 1838–1842 (Cambridge, 1987), 30.

92. K. Bourne, The Foreign Policy of Victorian England (Oxford, 1970), 36.

93. OIOC, MSS Eur, D634, Hutchinson Family Papers, Journal of Lt. Christopher Codrington, 8 February 1841.

94. Trousdale (ed.), War in Afghanistan, 78.

95. P. Macrory, Signal Catastrophe (1966), 159.

96. Blackwood’s Magazine, LIII (January, 1843), 258.

97. The Times, 5 April 1842.

98. Macrory, Signal Catastrophe, 86.

99. “Account of Mrs. Waller’s Experiences in the Afghan War of 1842 and as a Prisoner,” typescript in possession of C. and G. Woolley.

100. OIOC, MSS Eur C703, Journal of Captain William Anderson, 8 January 1842.

101. J. W. Kaye, History of the War in Afghanistan, II (1857), 371.

102. OIOC, MSS Eur C703, 12 January 1842.

103. Lady Sale, The First Afghan War, ed. P. Macrory (1969), 162.

104. Kaye, War in Afghanistan, II, 359.

105. The Times, 20 April 1842.

106. H. Lushington, A Great Country’s Little Wars (1844), 144.

107. Blackwood’s Magazine, LIII (1843), 144.

108. Stanley, Thomas Arnold, 601.

109. Blackwood’s Magazine, LIII, 540.

110. Norris, First Afghan War, 396–7 and 451.

111. G. W. Forrest, Life of Field-Marshal Sir Neville Chamberlain (1909), 146.

112. C. Allen, Soldier Sahibs (2000), 52.

113. Curzon, British Government in India, 199.

114. DNB.

115. Kaye, War in Afghanistan, III, 381.

116. P. Hopkirk, The Great Game (1990), 282.

117. A. Law (ed.), India under Lord Ellenborough (1926), 53.

118. R. Lawrence, Charles Napier (1952), 179 (the expression is Thackeray’s) and 170.

119. BL, Add 49140, Sir Charles Napier’s India Journal, 1 and 21 January 1846.

120. S. G. Baird (ed.), Private Letters of the Marquess of Dalhousie (Shannon, Ireland, 1972), vii.

121. T. R. E. Holmes, Four Famous Soldiers (1889), 46.

122. BL, Add 49115, Napier to Captain Porteous, 9 October 1842. The letter is marked “Not sent. I do not know Capt. Porteous sufficiently.”

123. Lawrence, Napier, 201.

124. See W. Doniger, “‘I Have Scinde’: Flogging a Dead (White Male Orientalist) Horse,” JAS 58 (November 1999), 940ff.

125. Holmes, Famous Soldiers, 67.

126. Edinburgh Review, LXXIX (1844), 559.

5. Sacred Wrath

1. R. Dudley Edwards, The Pursuit of Reason: The Economist 1843–1993 (1993), 53 and 52.

2. J. Mokyr and C. Ò Gràda, “Height and Health in the United Kingdom, 1815–1860: Evidence from the East India Company Army,” EEH, 33 (1996), 152.

3. Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, Ireland, I (1841), 7.

4. W. H. Dunn, James Anthony Froude, I (Oxford, 1961), 68.

5. L. Perry Curtis, Apes and Angels (Newton Abbot, 1971), 1.

6. Dunn, Froude, I, 69.

7. Charles Kingsley: His Letters and Memories of His Life, edited by his wife (1888), 236.

8. C. Hall, Cultures of Empire (Manchester, 2000), 209.

9. C. Ò Gràda, Black ’47 and Beyond (Princeton, NJ, 1999), 160.

10. J. Prunty, Dublin Slums, 1800–1925 (Dublin, 1999), 69.

11. P. Brendon, Head of Guinness (1979), ix.

12. D. Knight (ed.), Cobbett in Ireland (1984), 44.

13. D. Thomson and M. McGusty (eds), The Irish Journals of Elizabeth Smith 1840–1850 (Oxford, 1980), 308.

14. C. E. Trevelyan, The Irish Crisis (1848), 184.

15. The Times, 22 September 1846, quoted by P. Gray, Famine, Land and Politics (Dublin, 1999), 227.

16. Ò Gràda, Black ’47, 41.

17. C. Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger (1964 edn), 149.

18. Ò Gràda, Black ’47, 203.

19. P. Bishop, The Irish Empire (1999), 90.

20. S. Kierse, The Famine Years in the Parish of Killaloe 1845–1851 (Killaloe, 1984), 59.

21. NAM, 2000-12-632, Journal of Captain Frederick Charles Aylmer, 15 May 1849.

22. A. Trollope, The Irish Famine, ed. L. O. Tingay (1967), 13.

23. R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland 1600–1972 (1988), 363.

24. T. Coleman, Passage to America (1972), 130.

25. E. Laxton, The Famine Ships (1997 edn), 35.

26. P. Gray, The Irish Famine (1995), 178–9.

27. C. C. O’Brien, The Siege (1986), 330.

28. Lord Macaulay, The History of England, I (1889), 390. The Roman poet was presumably Horace, Odes, 2, I, 7–8.

29. M. Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts (2001), 37.

30. Trevelyan, Irish Crisis, 201.

31. L. Cazamian, The Social Novel in England (1973 edn), 88.

32. Gray, Famine, Land and Politics, 315.

33. J. O’Rourke, The Great Irish Famine (1969 edn), 266.

34. A. Nicholson, The Bible in Ireland, ed. A. T. Shepherd (1926), 16.

35. Woodham-Smith, Great Hunger, 357.

36. J. Mitchel, The Last Conquest of Ireland (Perhaps) (New York, 1873), 266, 243, 322, 313 and 325.

37. G. F. Lewis (ed.), Letters of Sir George Cornewall Lewis (1870), 190.

38. Rosselli, Bentinck, 108.

39. P. Brendon, Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism (1991), 147.

40. R. Singha, “‘Providential Circumstances’: The Thuggee Campaign of the 1830s and Legal Innovation,” MAS, 27, 1 (1993), 107.

41. C. A. Bayly, Empire and Information (Cambridge, 1996), 218.

42. M. E. Chamberlain, Britain and India (Newton Abbot, 1974), 105.

43. Rosselli, Bentinck, 129.

44. Gupta, Bentinck, 1.

45. Rosselli, Bentinck, 105–6.

46. H. R. Puckridge, A Short History of the Bengal Club (Calcutta, 1927), 13.

47. Voyage dans l’Inde par Victor Jacquemont…, I (1841), 212.

48. Morris, Heaven’s Command, 179.

49. P. Stanley, White Mutiny: British Military Culture in India, 1825–1875 (1998), 93.

50. E. M. Collingham, Imperial Bodies (2001), 106.

51. J. and R. Godden, Two Under the Indian Sun (1968), 13.

52. J. Lawrence and A. Woodiwiss (eds), The Journals of Honoria Lawrence (1980), 149.

53. J. K. Fairbank et al. (eds), Entering China’s Service: Robert Hart’s Journals, 1854–1863 (1986), 61.

54. Notes & Queries, 127 (3 April 1853), 331.

55. Schama, Citizens, 776.

56. F. Parkes, Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque (1975 edn), 22 and 320.

57. Davis, Great Game, 30. Victor Jacquemont noted that his own “long mustachios” had “a very imposing effect on the scarcely-bearded people of the Himalaya.” (Jacquemont, Letters, I, 213.)

58. Blackwood’s Magazine, 53 (February 1843), 234.

59. Baird (ed.), Dalhousie, 43.

60. The Times, 18 April 1959.

61. N. Mansergh, The Irish Question (1975 edn), 126.

62. R. Reynolds, Beards (1950), 270.

63. Royal Automobile Club Journal (28 March 1907), 391.

64. Jacquemont, Letters, 23 and 92.

65. Trevelyan, Competition Wallah, 447.

66. C. C. Coffin, Our New Way Round the World (1883), 186.

67. R. S. S. Baden-Powell, Indian Memories (1915), 17.

68. Lawrence and Woodiwiss (eds), Journals of Honoria Lawrence, 67 and 97.

69. Allen, Soldier Sahibs, 107.

70. V. Dickinson (ed.), Miss Eden’s Letters (1919), 281–2.

71. Bell, Smith, 96.

72. T. Pinney (ed.), The Letters of Thomas Babington Macaulay, III (Cambridge, 1976), 64, 35 and 37.

73. J. Clive, Thomas Babington Macaulay (1973), 295.

74. LRB (11 May 2006), 30.

75. Trevelyan, Macaulay, 553, 304, 305 and 323.

76. C. Allen, The Buddha and the Sahibs: The Men Who Discovered India’s Lost Religion (2002), 165.

77. Trevelyan, Macaulay, 291.

78. The Works of Lord Macaulay, XI (1898), 586.

79. Lawrence, Napier, 136.

80. S. Wolpert, A New History of India (New York, 1977), 228.

81. C. Hibbert, The Great Mutiny India 1857 (1980 edn), 51.

82. T. R. Metcalf, The Aftermath of the Revolt: India 1857–1870 (Princeton, NJ, 1965), 40.

83. Baird (ed.), Dalhousie, 62, 225 and 283.

84. S. David, The Indian Mutiny 1857 (2002), 62 and 77.

85. CSAS, Sampson Papers, 18 June 1857.

86. W. G. Broehl Jr., Crisis of the Raj (Hanover, NH, 1986), 49.

87. S. Gopal, British Policy in India 1858–1905 (Cambridge, 1965), 1.

88. CSAS, Mill Papers, 12, 48, 23 and 7.

89. Broehl Jr., Crisis, 154.

90. R. M. Martin, The Indian Empire, II (n.d., c. 1860), 394.

91. J. W. Kaye, A History of the Sepoy War in India, II (1876), 677.

92. Allen, Soldier Sahibs, 293.

93. W. H. Russell, My Indian Mutiny Diary, ed. M. Edwardes (1957), 45.

94. CSAS, Campbell/Metcalfe Papers, Box IV, Captain Edward to Georgina Campbell, 26 and 13 July 1857.

95. A. N. Wilson, The Victorians (2002), 223.

96. OIOC, MSS Eur C910, Cracklow Papers, George Cracklow to his mother, 28 October 1857.

97. Hibbert, Great Mutiny, 212 and 317.

98. V. D. Majendie, Up Among the Pandies (1859), 223.

99. A. Taylor, Laurence Oliphant (Oxford, 1982), 50.

100. A. Ward, Our Bones are Scattered (1996), 447.

101. R. Mukherjee, “‘Satan Let Loose upon Earth’: The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857,” PP, 128 (August 1990), 92.

102. Metcalf, Aftermath, 306.

103. Kaye, Sepoy War, II, 491.

104. OIOC, MSS Eur C860, Talbot Letters, J. R. Block to Gerald Talbot (Canning’s secretary).

105. Martin, Indian Empire, II, 409.

106. Punch, 22 August 1857.

107. Trevelyan, Macaulay, 656.

108. H. H. Greathed, Letters Written during the Siege of Delhi (1858), 31.

109. Broehl Jr., Crisis, 97.

110. Greathed, Letters, 176.

111. OIOC, MSS Eur C910, George Cracklow to his mother, 22 September 1857.

112. Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, I, 258–9.

113. CSAS, Campbell/Metcalfe Papers, Box IV, Georgina to Captain Edward Campbell, 1 October 1857.

114. Allen, Soldier Sahibs, 335.

115. Pemberton Papers, 7/18/28, Francis Pemberton Campbell to his mother, 18 January [1859?].

116. Russell, Mutiny Diary, 114. Russell was quoting from Thomas Campbell’s poem “Pleasures of Hope” (1899), I, l. 376. I am grateful to Dr. Richard Duncan-Jones for tracking down this elusive line.

117. Gopal, British Policy in India, 57. Disraeli himself thought that the habit of referring to Indians as “niggers” was disgusting, ignorant, brutal and mischievous (M. Bentley, Lord Salisbury’s World [Cambridge, 2001], 223–4). Despite his ugly reputation, the explorer Henry Morton Stanley also condemned the term. As late as 1933 a character in Bernard Shaw’s political play On the Rocks says, “That one word nigger will cost us India.” Not until the Second World War, under pressure from the West Indian George Padmore, described by MI5 as one of the country’s “most prominent left wing negros” [sic], did the BBC cease to use the word “nigger.”

118. Metcalf, Aftermath, 154.

119. I. Klein, “Materialism, Mutiny and Modernization in British India,” MAS, 34, 3 (2000), 561.

120. The Times, 4 January 1878.

121. Rudyard Kipling’s Verse (New York, 1938), 233.

122. C. Trevelyan, On the Education of the People of India (1838), 190. Trevelyan not only wrote in the spirit of Macaulay but also of Gibbon, who had deplored the fact that Muslims deprived themselves of classical learning which might have “unlocked the fetters of eastern despotism, diffused a liberal spirit of enquiry and toleration, and encouraged the Arabian sages to suspect that their caliph was a tyrant, and their prophet an impostor.” (Ibid, 45.)

123. Daily Telegraph, 3 September 1897. The offensive adjective was frequently attached to the noun, on this occasion by young Winston Churchill.

124. C. Hibbert, Queen Victoria (2000), 251.

125. Englishman, 5 November 1858.

126. G. Ritchie, The Ritchies in India (1920), 204.

127. Majendie, Pandies, 358.

6. Spread the Peaceful Gospel—with the Maxim Gun

1. J. Lord, The Maharajahs (1972), 56.

2. Hibbert, Queen Victoria, 365.

3. M. Alexander and S. Anand, Queen Victoria’s Maharajah (1980), 45 and 49.

4. E. Longford, Queen Victoria (1964), 427.

5. Annual Register (1876), 12.

6. N. Vance, The Victorians and Ancient Rome (Oxford, 1997), 225.

7. R. Blake, Disraeli (1974 edn), 563.

8. B. S. Cohn, “Representing Authority in Victorian India,” in E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (eds), The Invention of Tradition (1983), 200.

9. N. Parsons, King Khama, Emperor Joe and the Great White Queen (1998), 221.

10. Morris, Pax Britannica, 44.

11. D. R. Morris, The Washing of the Spears (1994 edn), 296.

12. J. E. Flint, Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria (1960), 209.

13. D. Gilmour, Curzon (1994), 234.

14. Morris, Spectacle of Empire, 185.

15. A. Draper, The Amritsar Massacre (1985), 64.

16. S. Bolt, Pseudo Sahib (Aylesbeare, 2007), 208.

17. P. Gillingham, At the Peak: Hong Kong between the Wars (Hong Kong, 1983), 25. In India there was little iconoclasm after independence. Some statues of Queen Victoria were consigned to an imperial necropolis of the kind created outside Delhi and Lucknow. Others were sold to the West Indies. I found one at the end of a corridor in the Udaipur public library. Even in Allahabad, citadel of the Congress Party, the Queen was revered. There, Sydney Bolt records, the “removal of her statue was effected surreptitiously by night, with an armed force standing by in case of riot.” (Pseudo Sahib, 209.)

18. G. Lamming, In the Castle of My Skin (1970 edn), 56.

19. C. Dunn, Central African Witness (1959), 100.

20. D. Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire (2001), 105.

21. O. Anderson, “The Growth of Christian Militarism,” HRE, 86 (1971), 49.

22. J. Ellis, The Social History of the Machine Gun (1975), 99.

23. The Times, 6 October 1873.

24. A. Allfrey, Man of Arms: The Life and Legend of Sir Basil Zaharoff (1989), 67.

25. J. A. Hobson, Imperialism (1948 edn), 126.

26. R. Baden-Powell, The Matabele Campaign 1896 (1897), 398, 64 and 155.

27. OHBE, III, 248.

28. D. C. M. Platt, Latin America and British Trade 1806–1914 (1972), 222.

29. R. Burton, Wanderings in West Africa, II (1863), 213.

30. H. T. Bernstein, Steamboats on the Ganges (1987 edn), 74.

31. J. H. Clapham, An Economic History of Modern Britain, II (Cambridge, 1926), 5.

32. Coffin, Round the World, 507.

33. Busteed, Calcutta, 66.

34. R. E. B. Duff, 100 Years of the Suez Canal (1969), 55.

35. Punch, 18 May 1861.

36. A. Moorehead, The White Nile (1976), 147.

37. Blake, Disraeli, 584.

38. D. A. Farnie, East and West of Suez: The Suez Canal in History, 1854–1956 (Oxford, 1969), 235.

39. W. Hepworth Dixon, British Cyprus (1879), 10.

40. Farnie, Suez, 233.

41. The title of J. R. Jefferies’ book (1876), subtitled Or, How Miss Britannia Bought a Dirty Puddle and Lost Her Sugar-Plums.

42. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 77.

43. Bryce, Ancient Roman Empire, 13.

44. Quarterly Review, 125 (1868), 55 and 65.

45. C. O. Burge, The Adventures of a Civil Engineer (1909), 120.

46. R. MacLeod and D. Kumar (eds), Technology and the Raj (1995), 178.

47. J. Richards and J. M. McKenzie, The Railway Station: A Social History (Oxford, 1986), 68.

48. I. J. Kerr, Building the Railways of the Raj 1850–1900 (Delhi, 1995), 141.

49. D. Arnold, The New Cambridge History of India, III. 5: Science, Technology and Medicine in Colonial India (Cambridge, 2000), 122.

50. H. Perkin, The Railway Age (1970), 119.

51. Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 26.

52. T. Pinney (ed.), Kipling’s India: Uncollected Sketches 1884–8 (1986), 33.

53. Mansergh, Commonwealth Experience, 50.

54. Quarterly Review, 125, 77.

55. Seeley, Expansion, 61.

56. CSAS, Macpherson Papers, Reel 9, Section 74, Dr. William Dick to William Macpherson, 25 November 1801. This prophylactic had probably been known to the Incas but Europeans were slow to adopt it.

57. J. R. Ryan, Picturing the Empire: Photography and the Visualization of the British Empire (1997), 72.

58. G. Geary, Burma, After the Conquest (1886), 241.

59. Eldridge, England’s Mission, 45.

60. M. Kingsley, West African Studies (1899), 386.

61. M. Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance (Ithaca, NY, 1989), 300.

62. J. Hunt, On the Negro’s Place in Nature (1863), 27, 45, 18, 21, 20 and 46.

63. J. A. B. Horton, West African Countries and Peoples…a Vindication of the African Race (1868), 34 and 30. Horton’s book echoed sentiments and phrases from W. Armistead’s notable Tribute for the Negro (Manchester, 1848).

64. J. C. Nott, “The Negro Race,” Popular Magazine of Anthropology, III (July 1866), 117.

65. J. C. Greene, The Death of Adam (Ames, IA, 1959), 318.

66. H. Spencer, An Autobiography, I (1904), 363.

67. P. Knaplund (ed.), “Gordon–Gladstone Correspondence, 1851–1896,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 51 (1961), 89.

68. Dilke, Greater Britain, 85.

69. W. Reade, The Martyrdom of Man (1968 edn), 412.

70. W. Reade, Savage Africa (1863), 587.

71. Popular Magazine of Anthropology, I (January 1866), 10.

72. G. Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution (1959), 213.

73. P. Appleman (ed.), Darwin (New York, 1970), 646.

74. Reade, Savage Africa, 509.

75. The Times, 18 November 1865.

76. L. Huxley, Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, I (1900), 280–81.

77. B. Porter, The Absent-Minded Imperialists (2004), 48.

78. J. A. Froude, Carlyle’s Life in London, II (1891), 351 and 390.

79. T. Carlyle, “The Nigger Question,” in English and Other Critical Essays (Everyman, n.d.), 310.

80. The Autobiography of John Stuart Mill (1958 edn), 254.

81. Westminster Review, 84 (1865), 489.

82. Wilson, Victorians, 272.

83. P. A. Brunt, “Reflections on British and Roman Imperialism,” CSSH, VII (1965), 282.

84. Contemporary Review, XXXIV (December 1878), 6.

85. S. W. Baker, Albert N’Yanza, I (1866), 63.

86. F. Driver, Geography Militant: Cultures of Exploration (2001), 45.

87. H. M. Stanley, How I Found Livingstone (1872), 112.

88. R. I. Rotberg (ed.), Africa and Its Explorers (Cambridge, MA, 1970), 301.

89. T. Pocock, Rider Haggard and the Lost Empire (1993), 6 and 110.

90. Conrad, Heart of Darkness, 52, 51 and 69.

91. Baker, Albert N’Yanza, I, 67; and II, 94, 25–6.

92. S. W. Baker, Eight Years in Ceylon (1874), 62.

93. Baker, Albert N’Yanza, II, 51.

94. Baker, Ceylon, 316.

95. Baker, Albert N’Yanza, I, xxii.

96. Baker, Ceylon, 313.

97. Burton, Wanderings, II, 58.

98. T. Jeal, Livingstone (1973), 131.

99. D. Livingstone, Missionary Travels (1857), 551.

100. W. S. Blunt, My Diaries, I, 1888–1900 (1919), 94.

101. E. Huxley, White Man’s Country: Lord Delamere and the Making of Kenya, I (1935), 83.

102. R. Burton, The Lake Regions of Central Africa, I (1860), 389.

103. Burton, Wanderings, II, 93, 86 and 72.

104. Blackwood’s Magazine, 82 (March 1858), 282.

105. W. S. Blunt, My Diaries, II, 1900–1914 (1920), 134.

106. E. W. Said, Orientalism (Harmondsworth, 1978), 195. Having condemned the West’s misapprehensions about the Orient, themselves the product of imperial hegemony, Said characteristically condemns Burton’s knowledge as a means of domination.

107. R. Burton, The Sotadic Zone (New York, n.d.), 18.

108. Burton, Wanderings, I, 65–6 and 51.

109. F. McLynn, Burton: Snow upon the Desert (1990), 118.

110. R. Coupland, The Exploitation of East Africa 1856–1890 (1939), 327.

111. T. Jeal, Stanley (2007), 178.

112. Stanley, Livingstone, 140.

113. H. M. Stanley, In Darkest Africa, I (1890), 301.

114. Saturday Review, 42, 2 September and 26 August 1876.

115. F. McLynn, Stanley: The Making of an African Explorer (1989), 215.

116. Hall, Stanley, 228.

117. B. Bond (ed.), Victorian Military Campaigns (1967), 10–11.

118. F. Harcourt, “Disraeli’s Imperialism, 1866–1868: A Question of Timing,” HJ, 31, 1 (1980), 99.

119. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 999.

120. D. Cumming, The Gentleman Savage: The Life of Mansfield Parkyns 1823–1894 (1987), 156.

121. BECM, 1999/054, Diary of Godfrey Twiss, 1 March 1868.

122. H. M. Stanley, Coomassie and Magdala (1874), 338.

123. BECM, 1999/054, 29 February and 5 March 1868.

124. Stanley, Coomassie and Magdala, 419 and 457–9.

125. BECM, 1999/054, 17 May 1868.

126. P. D. Curtin, Disease and Empire (Cambridge, 1988), 30.

127. H. A. C. Cairns, Prelude to Imperialism (1965), 27. This was Lugard’s opinion.

128. Blackwood’s Magazine, 83 (February–May, 1858), 203. This was Burton’s description.

129. D. Stanley (ed.), The Autobiography of Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1909), 296.

130. Stanley, Livingstone, 411. Tim Jeal (Stanley, 117) subjects the famous greeting to close analysis and has doubts about its authenticity.

131. Stanley (ed.), Autobiography of Stanley, 272.

132. Stanley, Livingstone, 434–5.

133. CUL RCMS, Col. Luke Norman’s Diary, 27 December 1868.

134. D. O. Helly, Livingstone’s Legacy (Athens, OH, 1987), 234.

135. Jeal, Livingstone, 206 and 208.

136. J. P. R. Wallis (ed.), The Zambesi Journal of James Stewart 1863–1863 (1952), 190.

137. Coupland, Exploitation of East Africa, 131.

138. I. Schapera (ed.), Livingstone’s African Journal 1853–56, I (1963), 32.

139. J. Thomson, “The Results of European Intercourse with the African,” Contemporary Review, LVII (March 1890), 343.

140. C. Dickens, Bleak House (New York, 1962 edn), 49.

141. C. Bolt, Victorian Attitudes to Race (1971), 8.

142. Helly, Livingstone’s Legacy, 215.

143. British Quarterly Review, 61 (1875), 397.

144. Symonds, Oxford and Empire, 221.

145. F. Jackson, Early Days in East Africa (1930 edn), 77.

146. Jeal, Livingstone, 356.

147. Hall, Stanley, 199.

148. Stanley (ed.), Autobiography of Stanley, 328, 324 and 327.

149. R. Stanley and A. Neame (eds), The Exploration Diaries of H. M. Stanley (1961), 163 and 165.

150. F. Driver, “Henry Morton Stanley and His Critics: Geography, Exploration and Empire,” PP, 133 (November 1991), 135.

151. Stanley (ed.), Autobiography of Stanley, 352.

152. V. Kiernan, The Lords of Human Kind (1995 edn), 244.

153. T. Youngs, Travellers in Africa (Manchester, 1994), 194.

154. Jeal, Livingstone, 382.

155. Edinburgh Review, 159 (1884), 591.

156. CHBE, III, 61.

157. Eldridge, England’s Mission, 152.

158. W. D. Rubinstein, Capitalism, Culture, and Decline in Britain 1750–1990 (1993), 136.

159. M. J. Wiener, English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit 1850–1980 (Cambridge, 1985 edn), 18 and 22.

160. The Times, 30 August 1944.

161. E. J. Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire (1969 edn), 186.

162. E. C. Mack, Public Schools and British Opinion since 1860 (New York, 1941), 242.

163. T. Hughes, Tom Brown at Oxford (1889 edn), 48.

164. D. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus (Cambridge, 1969), 285.

165. Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, 172–3. The Chancellor was George Goschen.

166. L. Edel (ed.), Henry James Letters, II (1975), 145.

167. P. Magnus, Gladstone (1970 edn), 262.

168. R. T. Harrison, Gladstone’s Imperialism in Egypt (Westport, CT, 1995), 160.

169. W. E. Gladstone, “Aggression on Egypt and Freedom in the East,” Nineteenth Century, II (August 1877), 158–9.

170. E. Dicey, “Mr. Gladstone and Our Empire,” Nineteenth Century, II (September 1877), 307.

171. P. Gifford and W. R. Louis, France and Britain in Africa (1971), 73.

172. Magnus, Gladstone, 261.

173. E. Stokes, “Milnerism,” HJ, VI (1962), 47.

174. J. Morley, The Life of William Ewart Gladstone, II (1903), 595.

175. W. E. Gladstone, Midlothian Speeches 1879 (Leicester, 1971), 128.

176. PRO, 30/40/9, Ardagh Papers.

177. Robinson and Gallagher, Africa, 96–7.

178. A. G. Hopkins, “The Victorians and Africa: A Reconsideration of the Occupation of Egypt, 1882,” JAH, 27 (1986), 384.

179. DNB.

180. Dilke, Greater Britain, 560.

181. H. W. Wilson, Ironclads in Action, I (1897), 353.

182. W. S. Blunt, A Secret History of the British Occupation of Egypt (1907), 14.

183. Lehmann, All Sir Garnet, 312.

184. G. Arthur (ed.), The Letters of Lord and Lady Wolseley 1870–1911 (1922), 74 and 72.

185. A. Preston, “Wolseley, the Khartoum Relief Expedition and the Defence of India, 1885–1900,” JICH, VI (May 1978), 257.

186. W. Butler, An Autobiography (1913), 240.

187. R. Churchill, The Rise and Fall of Sir Anthony Eden (1959), 298.

188. Blunt, Secret History, 428.

189. CUL RCMS 113/11, Gordon Letters, Gordon to Baker, 21 July 1882.

190. Butler, Autobiography, 248–9.

191. W. E. H. Lecky, Democracy and Liberty, I (1899), xxviii and xxvi.

192. Edinburgh Review, 154 (1881), 549.

193. A. Moore-Harell, Gordon and the Sudan (2001), 51.

194. CAC, ESHR 13/7, December 1880.

195. C. Chenevix Trench, Charley Gordon: An Eminent Victorian Reassessed (1978), 157.

196. Butler, Autobiography, 191.

197. PRO, 30/40/9.

198. Magnus, Gladstone, 309.

199. R. L. Schults, Crusader in Babylon (Lincoln, NB, 1972), 66.

200. R. Jenkins, Sir Charles Dilke (1968 edn), 181.

201. J. Pollock, Gordon: The Man Behind the Legend (1993), 303.

202. Earl of Cromer, Modern Egypt, I (1908), 448.

203. Lord Elton (ed.), General Gordon’s Khartoum Journal (1961), 56.

204. O. Woods and J. Bishop, The Story of the Times (1983), 130.

205. Lehmann, All Sir Garnet, 341.

206. [Edwarda Gibbon], The History of the Decline and Fall of the British Empire (1884), 12, 4 and 32.

207. Elton (ed.), Khartoum Journal, 49 and 73.

208. W. F. Butler, The Campaign of the Cataracts (1887), 119.

209. C. Knox, It Might Have Been You (1938), 223.

210. R. Kipling, Selected Verse (1983 edn), 163.

211. Cromer, Modern Egypt, II, 11.

212. A. Preston (ed.), In Relief of Gordon: Lord Wolseley’s Campaign of the Khartoum Relief Expedition 1884–1885 (1967), 136.

213. Cromer, Modern Egypt, II, 364 and 128.

214. J. Marlowe, Cromer in Egypt (1970), 109 and 142.

215. P. Mansfield, The British in Egypt (1971), 58.

216. R. Kipling, Letters of Travel (1892–1913) (n.d.), 232.

217. [M. Bell], Khedives and Pashas (1884), 245.

218. Earl of Cromer, Modern Egypt, I (1908), 7.

219. CAC, OCON, 2 April 1892.

220. Lord d’Abernon, Portraits and Appreciations (1931), 14.

221. A. Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt and Cromer (1968), 78.

222. Hobson, Imperialism, 207–11.

223. L. Strachey, Eminent Victorians (1934 edn), 301.

224. R. Kipling, Letters of Travel (1920), 254.

225. al-Sayyid, Egypt and Cromer, 63.

226. Cromer, Modern Egypt, II, 476.

227. Review of Reviews, XXI (April 1900), 324.

228. R. Owen, Lord Cromer (2004), 306.

229. G. W. Steevens, From Capetown to Ladysmith and Egypt in 1898 (1900), 240 and 233.

230. D. Sladen, Egypt and the English (1908), 73.

231. Blunt, Diaries, II, 198.

232. Brendon, Cook, 231, 201, 232 and 223.

233. W. M. Fullerton, In Cairo (1891), 6–7.

234. Cumming, Gentleman Savage, 17.

235. D. Landes, Bankers and Pashas (1958), 318.

236. M. Rodenbeck, Cairo: The City Victorious (1998), xi.

237. Fullerton, Cairo, 16.

238. A. Edwards, A Thousand Miles up the Nile (1982 edn), 151.

239. F. Nightingale, Letters from Egypt, ed. A. Sattin (1987), 63 and 74.

240. Cromer, Modern Egypt, II, 571.

241. M. E. Chamberlain, “Lord Cromer’s ‘Ancient and Modern Imperialism,’” JBS, XII (November 1972), 66.

242. Cromer, Ancient and Modern Imperialism, 118.

7. A Magnificent Empire Under the British Flag

1. Mostert, Frontiers, 174 and 781.

2. R. W. F. Drooglever, The Road to Isandhlwana (1992), 153.

3. Morris, Spears, 148.

4. Edinburgh Review, 145 (April 1877), 469.

5. T. Keegan, Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order (Leicester, 1996), 288.

6. Froude, Short Studies, III, 493 and 499.

7. P. Lewsen (ed.), Selections from the Correspondence of J. X. Merriman 1879–1890 (Cape Town, 1960), 24.

8. Pocock, Haggard, 21.

9. B. Worsfold, Sir Bartle Frere (1923), 225.

10. DNB.

11. Edinburgh Review, 182 (July 1895), 163.

12. A. Preston (ed.), The South African Journal of Sir Garnet Wolseley 1879–1880 (Cape Town, 1973), 39.

13. Worsfold, Frere, 137.

14. R. L. Cope, “Written in Characters of Blood? The Reign of King Cetshwayo Ka Mpande 1872–9,” JAH, 36 (1995), 247.

15. W. R. Haggard, Cetywayo and His White Neighbours (1888), 215.

16. C. W. De Kiewiet, The Imperial Factor in South Africa (1965 edn), 230.

17. Morris, Spears, 400.

18. I. Knight, The Anatomy of the Zulu Army from Shaka to Cetshwayo (1993), 219.

19. Morris, Spears, 387.

20. Pakenham, Scramble, 70.

21. S. Taylor, Shaka’s Children (1994), 249.

22. R. B. Edgerton, Like Lions They Fought (1988), 14.

23. J. Meintjes, President Paul Kruger (1974), 93.

24. D. M. Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger (1969), 63 and 88.

25. CHBE, VIII (1963), 494.

26. Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger, 123.

27. W. F. Butler, The Life of Sir George Pomeroy-Colley (1899), 400.

28. O. Ransford, The Battle of Majuba Hill (1967), 114.

29. B. Bond, “The Disaster at Majuba Hill 1881,” HT (July 1985), 493.

30. H. C. G. Matthew (ed.), The Gladstone Diaries, X (1990), 25.

31. Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger, 207 and 97.

32. L. Woolf, Empire and Commonwealth in Africa (1920), 34.

33. P. Gifford and W. R. Louis, Britain and Germany in Africa (1967), 4 and 340.

34. Robinson and Gallagher, Africa, 204.

35. Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger, 440.

36. Robinson and Gallagher, Africa, 178.

37. Lewsen (ed.), Merriman, 266 and 245.

38. Review of Reviews, XX (July 1899), 35.

39. W. T. Stead, The Last Will and Testament of Cecil John Rhodes (1902), 58–9 and 73.

40. H. Kingsmill, After Puritanism (1929), 200.

41. D. M. Reid, “Cromer and the Classics: Imperialism, Nationalism and the Greco-Roman Past in Modern Egypt,” MES, 32 (January 1996), 7.

42. R. I. Rotberg, The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power (Oxford, 1988), 8.

43. O. Spengler, The Decline of the West (1926 edn), 37.

44. E. Rosenthal, Gold! Gold! Gold! (New York, 1970), 34.

45. A. Trollope, South Africa (Cape Town, 1973 edn), 362.

46. Rotberg, Rhodes, 190.

47. A. Nutting, Scramble for Africa (1970), 121.

48. M. Tamarkin, Cecil Rhodes and the Afrikaners (1996), 139.

49. Hobson, Imperialism, 59.

50. S. D. Chapman, “Rhodes and the City of London: Another View of Imperialism,” HJ, 28, 3 (1985), 657 and 653.

51. Rotberg, Rhodes, 233.

52. W. A. Wills and L. T. Collingridge, The Downfall of Lobengula (Bulawayo, 1971 edn), 32.

53. I. Colvin, Life of Jameson, I (1922), 140.

54. F. Welsh, A History of South Africa (1998), 315.

55. The Memoirs of Paul Kruger, I (1902), 216.

56. T. L. Makhura, “Another Road to the Raid: The Neglected Role of the Boer–Bagananwa War as a Factor in the Coming of the Jameson Raid, 1894–1895,” JSAS, 21, 2 (June 1995), 264.

57. Chapman, HJ, 28, 660.

58. J. L. Garvin, The Life of Joseph Chamberlain, III (1934), 42.

59. J. van der Poel, The Jameson Raid (Cape Town, 1951), 56 and 71.

60. Westminster Budget, 17 November 1893.

61. H. M. Hole, Old Rhodesian Days (1928), 33.

62. NAM, 1999–07–20, Lieutenant Edward Leary’s Diary, July 1897.

63. Poel, Jameson Raid, 75, 85 and 104.

64. Blunt, Diaries, I, 262.

65. Gilmour, Recessional, 134.

66. W. O. Baylen, “W. T. Stead’s History of the Mystery of the Jameson Raid,” JBS, 4 (November 1964), 108.

67. M. Friedmann’s introduction to O. Schreiner, Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland (Johannesburg, 2001 edn), 10.

68. CAC, ESHR 5/6, Chamberlain to R. Brett, 3 January 1896.

69. V. Harlow, “Sir Frederic Hamilton’s Narrative of Events Relative to the Jameson Raid,” EHR, 72 (April 1957), 301.

70. CAC, STED 5/1, B. F. Hawksley to Rhodes, 9 April 1897.

71. E. Longford, Jameson’s Raid (1982 edn), 264. The phrase was apparently coined by W. T. Stead.

72. W. S. Churchill, The World Crisis (1938 edn), 14.

73. Robinson and Gallagher, Africa, 335.

74. R. Coupland, East Africa and Its Invaders (1939), 457.

75. CHA, VI, 107.

76. Pakenham, Scramble, 13.

77. L. H. Gann and P. Duignan, Rulers of British Africa 1870–1914 (1978), 22.

78. Fortnightly Review, 37 (January 1885), 193.

79. Gifford and Louis, Britain and Germany, 341.

80. G. M. Tuckwell, The Life of Sir Charles Dilke, II (1917), 256.

81. P. French, Younghusband (1994), 95.

82. Woolf, Empire and Commerce, 45.

83. K. Rose, The Later Cecils (1975), 34.

84. P. Smith (ed.), Lord Salisbury on Politics (Cambridge, 1972), 48.

85. Roberts, Salisbury, 43 and 169.

86. P. A. Baran, The Political Economy of Growth (1957), 145.

87. Roberts, Salisbury, 722.

88. Rose, Later Cecils, 23.

89. [Lord Salisbury], “Disintegration,” Quarterly Review, 156 (1883), 562.

90. Roberts, Salisbury, 43.

91. D. Kimble, A Political History of Ghana (Oxford, 1967), 13.

92. R. Oliver, Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa (1957), 121–2 and 175.

93. H. H. Johnston, British Central Africa (1897), 183–4.

94. D. Wellesley, Sir George Goldie (1934), 80, 94 and 91.

95. M. Perham and M. Bull, The Diaries of Lord Lugard, IV (1963), 82.

96. B. Porter, Critics of Empire (1968), 62.

97. Wellesley, Goldie, 62.

98. J. S. Galbraith, Mackinnon and East Africa 1878–1895: A Study in the “New Imperialism” (Cambridge, 1972), 228.

99. Review of Reviews, II (July 1890), 8.

100. Robinson and Gallagher, Africa, 301.

101. W. R. Louis, “Sir Percy Anderson’s Grand African Strategy 1883–1896,” EHR, 81 (April 1966), 305.

102. Lady G. Cecil, Life of Robert, Marquis of Salisbury, IV (1933), 323.

103. M. Perham, Lugard: The Years of Adventure 1858–1898 (1956), 513 and 499.

104. Flint, Goldie, 263.

105. Wellesley, Goldie, 70.

106. T. Falola, The History of Nigeria (Westport, CT, 1999), 70.

107. Lord Lugard, The Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa, ed. M. Perham (1965), 618–19, xlvii and 80–81.

108. M. Perham, Lugard: The Years of Authority 1898–1945 (1960), 199 and 201.

109. P. J. Crozier, Five Years Hard (1932), 161–3 and 149–50.

110. R. Hyam, Elgin and Churchill at the Colonial Office (1968), 208.

111. B. Semmel, Imperialism and Social Reform 1895–1914 (1960), 16.

112. Gann and Duignan, Rulers of British Africa, 36.

113. P. Fraser, Joseph Chamberlain (1966), 206.

114. Blunt, Diaries, I, 346.

115. F. Balfour, Ne Obliviscaris, II (1930), 332.

116. J. Mordaunt Crook, The Rise of the Nouveaux Riches (1999), 30.

117. K. Muggeridge and R. Adam, Beatrice Webb: A Life 1858–1943 (1967), 89.

118. J. Amery, The Life of Joseph Chamberlain, V (1969), 69.

119. J. L. Garvin, The Life of Joseph Chamberlain, III (1934), 16.

120. Balfour, Ne Obliviscaris, II, 270.

121. Blunt, Diaries, I, 262.

122. Jackson, East Africa, 321.

123. Oliver, Johnston, 293.

124. G. W. Steevens, With Kitchener to Khartoum (1990 edn), 4.

125. W. Churchill, The River War, I (1899 edn), 276.

126. W. Storrs, Orientations (1945 edn), 105.

127. PRO, 30/57/10, Kitchener Papers, Kitchener to Sir Edward Barrington, 21 May 1896.

128. Ibid., Wolseley to Kitchener, 14 April 1898.

129. P. Warner, Kitchener (1985), 13.

130. P. Magnus, Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist (1968 edn), 175.

131. J. Pollock, Kitchener (2001), 101.

132. French, Younghusband, 152.

133. Storrs, Orientations, 105.

134. J. Lees-Milne, The Enigmatic Edwardian (1986), 215.

135. Lycett, Kipling, 426.

136. P. Brendon, Winston Churchill: A Brief Life (2001 edn), 26.

137. Magnus, Kitchener, 158.

138. Steevens, Kitchener, 266.

139. R. S. Churchill, Winston S. Churchill, I (1966), 425.

140. L. James, The Savage Wars (1985), 4.

141. H. and M. Cecil, Imperial Marriage (2002), 90.

142. M. W. Daly, Empire on the Nile (Cambridge, 1986), 6.

143. D. Scott (ed.), Douglas Haig: The Preparatory Prologue 1861–1914 (Barnsley, 2006), 102–3.

144. Private information: Colonel Maurice Willoughby.

145. D. L. Lewis, The Race to Fashoda (1988), 220.

146. Blunt, Diaries, I, 367.

147. E. N. Bennett, “After Omdurman,” Contemporary Review, LXXV (January 1899), 23.

148. Churchill, River War, II, 196.

149. R. Wallace, “The Seamy Side of Imperialism,” Contemporary Review, LXXV (June 1899), 783.

150. W. Churchill, The Story of the Malakand Field Force (1974 edn), 95.

151. W. Churchill, Savrola (1990 edn), 78. Churchill maintained (78–9) that the British had moral ascendancy as well as might on their side whereas the Romans “had only their swords…and when they became effete they could no longer wield them.”

152. CAC, CHAR 8/2/7.

153. R. Kipling, Stalky and Co. (1982 edn), 214.

154. W. S. Churchill (ed.), Never Give In! (2003), 4.

155. R. Hyam, Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience (Manchester, 1990), 78.

156. P. Brendon, Eminent Edwardians (2003 edn), 215.

157. T. Hodgkin, “The Fall of the Roman Empire and Its Lessons for Us,” Fortnightly Review, LXXIII (January 1898), 70.

158. A. Lyall, The Rise and Expansion of the British Dominion in India (1907 edn), 346.

159. M. G. Jessett, The Bond of Empire (1902), xi.

160. Review of Reviews, XVI (July 1897), 83–4.

161. M. Twain, Europe and Elsewhere (1923), 206 and 207.

162. Illustrated London News, 12 June 1897.

163. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 211.

164. Garvin, Chamberlain, III, 195.

165. F. Driver and D. Gilbert, Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity (Manchester, 1999), 96.

166. Illustrated London News, 12 June 1897.

167. C. Hibbert, Queen Victoria in her Letters and Journals (1984), 335.

168. G. W. Steevens, Things Seen (1900), 193–4.

169. Twain, Europe, 209.

170. Hibbert, Letters and Journals, 335.

171. Review of Reviews, XVI (July 1897), 85.

172. R. Shannon, Gladstone: Heroic Minister 1865–1898 (1999), 588.

173. C. Hibbert, Queen Victoria (2000), 458.

174. Roberts, Salisbury, 663.

175. F. Harrison, “The Monarchy,” Fortnightly Review, LXVI (June 1872), 624.

176. J. A. S. Grenville, Lord Salisbury and Foreign Policy: The Close of the Nineteenth Century (1970 edn), 4.

177. A. Wilson, The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling (1977), 202.

178. Kipling, Verse, 130.

179. W. Clarke, “The Social Future of England,” Contemporary Review, 78 (December 1900), 860.

180. Ritortus, “The Imperialism of British Trade,” Contemporary Review, 67 (August 1899), 296.

181. Steevens, Things Seen, 23, 28, 30 and 36.

182. A. M. Gollin, Proconsul in Politics (1964), 17. The phrase was Rosebery’s.

183. J. Springhall, Youth, Empire and Society (1977), 42.

184. D. Judd, Balfour and the British Empire (1968), 44.

185. Review of Reviews, XVI (August 1897), 153.

186. Thompson, Empires on the Pacific, 45. (I have improved the punctuation.)

187. H. Brogan, Longman History of the United States of America (1985), 453.

188. Garvin, Chamberlain, III, 302.

189. C. S. Campbell, Anglo-American Understanding 1898–1903 (Baltimore, 1957), 45–6.

190. J. Keay, Last Post: The End of Empire in the Far East (1997), 117, 104 and 115–16.

191. Goldwin Smith, Commonwealth or Empire: A Bystander’s View of the Question (1902), 48, 60, 31 and 52.

8. Barbarians Thundering at the Frontiers

1. W. K. Hancock, Smuts, I (Cambridge, 1962), 109.

2. F. Wheen, Karl Marx (1999), 370.

3. D. Judd and K. Surridge, The Boer War (2002), 241 and 243.

4. D. Steele, “Salisbury and the Soldiers,” in J. Gooch (ed.), The Boer War (2000), 14.

5. J. Wilson, CB: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1973), 349.

6. C. Headlam (ed.), The Milner Papers, I (1931), 234.

7. Garvin, Chamberlain, III, 405.

8. A. Porter, “The South Africa War (1899–1902): Context and Motive Reconsidered,” JAH, 31 (1990), 46.

9. R. Hyam and P. Henshaw, The Lion and the Springbok (Cambridge, 2003), 44.

10. J. S. Marais, The Fall of Kruger’s Republic (Oxford, 1961), 172.

11. DNB.

12. T. Pakenham, The Boer War (1979), 79.

13. Review of Reviews, XX (July 1899), 19.

14. A. G. Gardiner, Pillars of Society (1913), 326.

15. According to Blunt (Diaries, I, 412–13), Milner had told Lady Cowper before setting off: “If I come back without having made war I shall consider my mission has failed.”

16. J. Benyon, “‘Intermediate’ imperialism and the test of Empire: Milner’s ‘excentric’ High Commission in South Africa,” in D. Lowry (ed.), The South African War Reappraised (Manchester, 2000), 94.

17. Review of Reviews, XX (September 1899), 277.

18. Hyam and Henshaw, Lion and Springbok, 45.

19. Headlam (ed.), Milner Papers, I, 58.

20. Butler, Autobiography, 403.

21. Pakenham, Boer War, 65.

22. E. Drus, “Select Documents from the Chamberlain Papers concerning Anglo-Transvaal relations 1896–1899,” BIHR, 27 (1954), 189.

23. Roberts, Salisbury, 725.

24. Marais, Kruger’s Republic, 318.

25. B. Farwell, The Great Boer War (1977), 126.

26. Biddesden MSS, Walter Guinness, 8 September 1900.

27. L. S. Amery, The Times History of the War in South Africa (1900–1906), II, 26.

28. J. B. Atkins, The Relief of Ladysmith (1900), 131.

29. Pakenham, Boer War, 204.

30. Amery, The Times History, II, 350.

31. H. Kochanski, “Wolseley and the South African War,” in Gooch (ed.), Boer War, 68.

32. E. R. and J. Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler (1908), 395. Apparently the joke was not original to Whistler. See J. and E. Pennell (eds), The Whistler Journal (1921), 240, where it is attributed to Harrison Morris.

33. Fortnightly Review, LXVII (January 1900), 8.

34. Review of Reviews, XXI (January 1900), 3.

35. Amery, The Times History, II, 460.

36. Royal Commission on Militia and Volunteers (1904), Cd. 2061, 28, and Butler, Autobiography, 207. It seems clear that Butler was referring to Buller, though he does not mention him by name.

37. Farwell, Great Boer War, 151.

38. Quoted by J. Montgomery, 1900: The End of an Era (1968), 68. For the original quatrain see L. S. Amery, My Political Life, I (1953), 135.

39. Stead, Last Will, 180.

40. Biddesden MSS, Walter Guinness, 2 August 1900.

41. H. W. Nevinson, Ladysmith: The Diary of a Siege (1900), 267.

42. Lycett, Kipling, 324.

43. F. Saunders, Mafeking Memories, ed. P. T. Smith (1996), 10.

44. P. M. Krebs, Gender, Race, and the Writing of Empire (Cambridge, 1999), 13.

45. Viscountess Milner, My Picture Gallery (1951), 122.

46. R. Price, An Imperial War and the British Working Class (1972), 175. This was Halévy’s charge.

47. Biddesden MSS, Walter Guinness, 15 June 1900.

48. Pollock, Kitchener, 181 and 176.

49. S. B. Spies, Methods of Barbarism? (Cape Town, 1977), 44.

50. The Times, 25 February 1902.

51. E. Hobhouse, The Brunt of War (1902), 255.

52. Review of Reviews, XXII (July 1901), 9.

53. Pakenham, Boer War, 508–9.

54. R. van Reenen (ed.), Emily Hobhouse: Boer War Letters (Cape Town, 1984), 101.

55. CAC, JACB 957, Treherne Journal, 167.

56. Daily News, 31 January 1902.

57. K. Jeffery, “The Irish Soldier in the Boer War,” in Gooch (ed.), Boer War, 141.

58. Elveden MSS, R. Guinness, “Boer War Diary,” 21 September 1900.

59. To quote the title of J. F. C. Fuller’s book (1937).

60. C. Carrington, Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Work (1955), 327.

61. Spies, Methods of Barbarism?, 126, 80 and 299.

62. Stead, Last Will, 184.

63. I. R. Smith, The Origins of the South African War, 1899–1902 (1996), 10.

64. Pakenham, Boer War, 563 and 119.

65. R. Hyam, “British Imperial Policy and South Africa 1901–10,” in P. Warwick (ed.), The South African War (1980), 376.

66. G. H. L. Le May, British Supremacy in South Africa 1899–1907 (Oxford, 1965), 29.

67. R. Kruger, Good-bye Dolly Gray (1959), 371.

68. W. N. Tilchin, “The United States and the Boer War,” in The International Impact of the Boer War, ed. K. Wilson (Chesham, 2001), 110.

69. National Review, 203 (January 1900), 670.

70. Review of Reviews, XXI (January 1900), 11.

71. J. A. Smith, John Buchan (1965), 110.

72. G. B. Pyrah, Imperial Policy and South Africa 1902–1910 (Oxford, 1955), 249.

73. I. Hexham, “Afrikaner Nationalism 1902–14,” in Warwick (ed.), South African War, 391.

74. Porter, Critics of Empire, 293.

75. A. P. Thornton, The Imperial Idea and its Enemies (1959), 108–9.

76. D. Lowry, “‘The Boers were the beginning of the end?’: The wider impact of the South African War,” in Lowry (ed.), South African War, 224.

77. P. M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (1983 edn), 217.

78. G. Searle, “‘National Efficiency’ and the ‘Lessons’ of the War,” in D. Omissi and A. S. Thompson (eds), The Impact of the South African War (Basingstoke, 2002), 199.

79. Kennedy, British Naval Mastery, 205.

80. Quoted by A. L. Friedberg, The Weary Titan (Princeton, NJ, 1988), 21.

81. J. Amery, Chamberlain, VI, 461.

82. M. Gilbert, Churchill (1991), 146.

83. R. S. S. Baden-Powell, Scouting for Boys (1908), 337.

84. G. R. Searle, The Quest for National Efficiency (Oxford, 1971), 60.

85. Montgomery, 1900, 78.

86. N. Mackenzie (ed.), The Letters of Sidney and Beatrice Webb, II (1978), 72.

87. The Decline and Fall of the British Empire (1905), 50. The true author is unknown.

88. F. G. Hutchins, The Illusion of Permanence: British Imperialism in India (Princeton, NJ, 1967), 145.

89. D. Omissi, “India: Some Perceptions of Race and Empire,” in Omissi and Thompson (eds), South African War, 224.

90. M. K. Gandhi, An Autobiography (Ahmedabad, 1958 edn), 78.

91. J. M. Brown, “Gandhi—A Victorian Gentleman: An Essay in Imperial Encounter,” JICH, XXVII (May 1999), 69ff.

92. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, 436.

93. D. G. Tendulkar, Mahatma, II (Delhi, 1951), 113.

94. C. Tsuzuki, Edward Carpenter 1844–1929: Prophet of Human Fellowship (Cambridge, 1980), 115 and 64.

95. Y. Chadha, Rediscovering Gandhi (1997), 189, 82 and 87.

96. Hancock, Smuts, I, 328.

97. W. Denison, Varieties of Vice-Regal Life, II (1870), 83.

98. Bence-Jones, Viceroys, 44.

99. Gopal, British Policy in India, 59.

100. CUL, Add 7490, Mayo Papers, File 149, Mayo to Argyll, 19 April 1869.

101. A. Seal, The Emergence of Indian Nationalism (Cambridge, 1968), 152.

102. P. Mason, The Men Who Ruled India (1985), 207.

103. G. Pottinger, Mayo (1990), 132.

104. Woodham Smith, Nightingale, 370.

105. CUL, Add 7490, File 149, Mayo to Disraeli, 2 May 1869.

106. Ibid., File 153, Mayo to Argyll, 6 April 1870.

107. Ibid., Mayo to Lord Napier, 15 May 1870.

108. Ibid., Mayo to Argyll, 26 August 1870.

109. Ibid., Mayo to Napier, 6 August 1870.

110. Ibid., File 149, Mayo to Argyll, 17 October 1869.

111. Ibid., 30 November 1869.

112. Ibid., File 153, Mayo to Argyll, 9 November 1870.

113. L. Stephen, The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen (1895), 293.

114. CUL, Add 7490, File 153, 15 May 1870.

115. B. Balfour, Lord Lytton’s Indian Administration (1899), 108 and 110.

116. N. Gradia, Lord Curzon (Delhi, 1993), 135. The phrase was Mary Curzon’s.

117. Seal, Indian Nationalism, 247.

118. Balfour, Lytton’s Indian Administration, 110.

119. V. Prinsep, Imperial India (n.d.), 36.

120. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 389.

121. W. W. Hunter, The India of the Queen (1903), 150.

122. W. S. Blunt, India under Ripon (1909), 237.

123. Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 31.

124. P. Moon, The British Conquest and Dominion of India (1989), 843.

125. M. Lutyens, The Lyttons in India (1979), 61.

126. Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 54.

127. M. Cowling, “Lytton, the Cabinet and the Russians, August to November 1878,” EHR, 76 (January 1961), 70.

128. CUL, Add 7349, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen Papers, Box 2, Lytton to Stephen, 28 January 1878.

129. Gopal, British Policy in India, 86.

130. Blunt, Secret History, 60.

131. Trousdale, War in Afghanistan, 101 and 124.

132. CUL, Add 7349, Box 2, Lytton to Stephen, 20 January 1880.

133. S. Gopal, The Viceroyalty of Lord Ripon 1880–1884 (Oxford, 1953), 84.

134. R. R. Choudhury, Calcutta A Hundred Years Ago (Calcutta, n.d.), 159.

135. Blunt, India under Ripon, 18.

136. Pinney (ed.), Kipling’s India, 83–4.

137. Gopal, Ripon, 143.

138. A. Pollen, John Hungerford Pollen (1912), 342.

139. Seal, Indian Nationalism, 291.

140. B. Martin, New India, 1885 (Berkeley, CA, 1969), 56.

141. M. Cumpston, “Some Early Indian Nationalists and Their Allies in the British Parliament, 1851–1906,” EHR, 76 (April 1961), 290.

142. Thant Myint-U, The Making of Modern Burma (Cambridge, 2001), 191.

143. H. T. White, A Civil Servant in Burma (1913), 105.

144. Thant Mint-U, Modern Burma, 53.

145. A. T. Q. Stewart, The Pagoda War (1972), 105.

146. Geary, Burma, 244–5.

147. Seal, Indian Nationalism, 190.

148. R. Guha, A Corner of a Foreign Field (2002), 51 and 35.

149. R. N. Cust, Pictures of Indian Life (1881), 272.

150. W. S. Churchill, India (1931), 136.

151. B. M. Bhatia, Famines in India (Delhi, 1967 edn), 271.

152. Seal, Indian Nationalism, 196.

153. N. C. Chaudhuri, The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian (1951), 223.

154. S. A. Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale (Berkeley, CA, 1962), 253.

155. R. J. Moore, “Curzon and Indian Reform,” MAS, 27, 4 (1993), 722.

156. Gilmour, Curzon, 30, 104, 102.

157. H. Nicolson, Curzon: The Last Phase (New York, 1974 edn), 12.

158. D’Abernon, Portraits, 25 and 28.

159. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 836.

160. D. Dilks, Curzon in India, I (1969), 95 and 237.

161. Earl of Ronaldshay, The Life of Lord Curzon, II (1928), 143.

162. The Times, 31 January 1921.

163. D. Dilks, Curzon in India, II (1970), 39.

164. Ronaldshay, Curzon, II, 229.

165. D. Cannadine, “Lord Curzon as Ceremonial Impressario,” in Cannadine, Aspects of Aristocracy (1994), 85.

166. Omissi, “India: Some Perceptions of Race and Empire,” in Omissi and Thompson (eds), South African War, 221.

167. Curzon, British Government in India, II, 123.

168. CSAS, Iris Portal, Unpublished Memoir, 33.

169. P. Kanwar, Imperial Simla: The Political Culture of the Raj (New Delhi, 2003 edn), 69.

170. P. H. Hansen, “Vertical Boundaries, National Identities: British Mountaineering on the Frontiers of Europe and the Empire, 1868–1914,” JICH, XXIV (January 1996), 63.

171. Bence-Jones, Viceroys, 93.

172. CSAS, Campbell/Metcalfe Papers, Box IX, Emily (Annie) Metcalfe to Georgiana, 22 July 1849.

173. French, Younghusband, 193.

174. Dilks, Curzon, II, 24.

175. C. Allen, Raj (1979 edn), 19.

176. S. A. Wolpert, Morley and India 1906–1910 (Berkeley, CA, 1967), 47.

177. A. M. Zaidi et al. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of India National Congress, V (Delhi, 1978), 211.

178. S. E. Koss, John Morley at the India Office 1905–1910 (1969), 184.

179. Zaidi et al. (eds), India National Congress, V, 215.

180. National Review, 203 (February 1900), 842.

181. M. Gilbert, Servant of India (1966), 119.

182. J. W. Robertson Scott, The Life and Death of a Newspaper (1952), 42.

183. V. Chirol, Indian Unrest (1910), 55.

184. Wolpert, Morley and India, 127.

185. Hyam, Britain’s Imperial Century (1976 edn), 241.

186. R. Coupland, The Empire in These Days (1935), 122.

187. J. Morley, Recollections, I (1917), 181.

188. CUL, Crewe Papers, C/19-24, Crewe to Hardinge, 18 July 1912.

189. CAC, BGGF, 1/64, Sir B. Godfrey-Faussett’s Journal, 12 December 1911.

190. P. Greenhalgh, Ephemeral Vistas (Manchester, 1988), 58.

191. CAC, BGGF, 1/62, 5 January 1912.

192. CUL, Crewe Papers, C/19-24, Crewe to Hardinge, 2 and 24 February 1911.

193. CAC, BGGF, 1/62, 15 December 1911.

194. B. C. Busch, Hardinge of Penshurst (Hamden, CT, 1980), 207.

195. CUL, Crewe Papers, C/19-24, Crewe to Hardinge, 14 May 1914.

196. CUL, Hardinge Papers, File 82, Hardinge to Carmichael, 2 August 1912.

197. CUL, Crewe Papers, C/19-24, Crewe to Hardinge, 6 December 1912.

198. The Letters of Gertrude Bell (1987 edn), 301.

199. Busch, Hardinge, 213.

200. A. Davidson, Edward Lear (1950 edn), 210.

201. W. Dalrymple, City of Djinns (1993), 84.

202. CAC, PJGG 6, Lady Grigg to Dorothy Hammond, 21 October 1934.

203. R. G. Irving, Indian Summer: Lutyens, Baker and Imperial Delhi (1981), 340.

204. CSAS, Portal, Memoir, 25.

205. Irving, Indian Summer, 355 and 350.

9. The Empire, Right or Wrong

1. A. G. S. Butler, The Architecture of Sir Edwin Lutyens, III (1950), 37. The phrase was Lloyd George’s.

2. M. H. Port, Imperial London (1995), 21.

3. East London Observer (6 January 1906), quoted by J. A. Garrard, The English and Immigration 1880–1910 (1971), 49.

4. M. Trevelyan, Britain’s Greatness Foretold (1900), xi.

5. D. Olsen, The Growth of Victorian London (1979 edn), 335 and 333.

6. H. G. Wells, Tono-Bungay (1972 edn), 73.

7. Port, Imperial London, 205 and 209.

8. I. Toplis, The Foreign Office: An Architectural History (1987), 164.

9. S. Goetze, Mural Decorations at the Foreign Office (1936), 5.

10. Driver and Gilbert (eds), Imperial Cities, 42 and 35.

11. The Times, 17 May 1911.

12. R. J. B. Bosworth, Mussolini’s Italy (2005), 12 and 13.

13. Illustrated London News, 20 May 1911.

14. The Times, 5 May 1911.

15. Standard of Empire, 26 March 1911.

16. R. Rhodes James (ed.), Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, VII (1974), 6920.

17. United Empire, I (1910), 119. The author was Arthur Bennett.

18. Driver and Gilbert (eds), Imperial Cities, 127.

19. A. B. Keith (ed.), Selected Speeches and Documents on British Colonial Policy 1763–1917, II (1933 edn), 358. Laurier was repeating what he had said in 1910.

20. J. Buchan, A History of the Great War, I (1921), 113.

21. Gilbert, Churchill, IV, 158.

22. N. Ferguson, The Pity of War (1998), 294.

23. W. Hughes, The Splendid Adventure (1929), 271.

24. M. Howard, Continental Commitment (1972), 60.

25. T. E. Lawrence, Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1976 edn), 4.

26. J. M. Brown, Gandhi’s Rise to Power (Cambridge, 1972), 126.

27. OHBE, IV, 121.

28. United Empire, VI (1915), 56.

29. D. Oliver, “A Canadian Armistice,” in H. Cecil and P. H. Liddle (eds), At the Eleventh Hour (1998), 186.

30. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 624.

31. Hobson, Imperialism, 223.

32. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 509.

33. Hardinge of Penshurst, My Indian Years 1910–1916 (1948), 34.

34. D. C. Ellinwood and S. D. Prahan (eds), India and World War, I (Manchester, 1978), 199.

35. Mulk Raj Anand, Across the Black Water (1940), 142.

36. OIOC, L/MIL/5/825, ff. 112, 270 and 242.

37. J. W. B. Merewether and F. Smith, The Indian Corps in France (1919), 8.

38. L. Macdonald, 1915: The Death of Innocence (1993), 96.

39. OIOC, L/MIL/5/825, f. 236.

40. Ibid., f. 250.

41. R. Grimshaw, Indian Cavalry Officer 1914–15 (1986), 39.

42. J. Willcocks, With the Indians in France (1920), 301.

43. OIOC, L/MIL/5/825, f. 245.

44. J. Keegan, The First World War (1998), 213.

45. S. Cowasjee, So May Freedom (Delhi, 1977), 111.

46. C. Chenevix Trench, The Indian Army and the King’s Enemies 1900–1947 (1988), 42.

47. OIOC, L/MIL/5/825, f. 233.

48. J. Collins, Dr. Brighton’s Indian Patients (Brighton, 1997), 23.

49. D. Omissi, The Sepoy and the Raj (1994), 161.

50. J. Greenhut, “The Imperial Reserve: The Indian Corps on the Western Front, 1914–15,” JICH, XII (October 1983), 56.

51. Brown, Gandhi’s Rise to Power, 150.

52. B. Farwell, Armies of the Raj (1989), 253.

53. Chenevix Trench, Indian Army, 82.

54. E. Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad (1919), 231.

55. A. J. Barker, The Neglected War: Mesopotamia 1916–1918 (1967), 18.

56. D. L. Neave, Remembering Kut (1937), 158.

57. S. Bhattacharya, “Anxious Celebrations: British India and the Armistice,” in Cecil and Liddle (eds), Eleventh Hour, 195.

58. J. M. Brown, “War and the Colonial Relationship: Britain, India and the War of 1914–18,” in Ellinwood and Prahan (eds), India and World War, I, 22.

59. DNB.

60. S. A. Wolpert, “Congress Leadership in Transition: Jinnah to Gandhi, 1914–20,” in Ellinwood and Prahan (eds), India and World War, I, 132.

61. R. von Albertini, “The Impact of Two World Wars on the Decline of Colonialism,” JCH, 4.1 (January 1969), 21.

62. M. O’Dwyer, India as I Knew It 1885–1925 (1925), 369. The pedant was Lionel Curtis, a member of Milner’s Kindergarten.

63. R. J. Moore, “Curzon and Indian Reform,” MAS, 27.4 (1993), 738.

64. E. S. Montagu, An Indian Diary (1930), 58 and 185.

65. S. Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan (New York, 1984), 67 and 62.

66. Brown, Gandhi’s Rise to Power, 161 and 174.

67. ‘Amritsar,” Blackwood’s Magazine, CCVII (April 1920), 445.

68. O’Dwyer, India, 274.

69. CSAS, Darling Papers, Malcolm Darling to his sister Irene, 30 April 1919.

70. Daily Mail, 4 May 1920.

71. D. Sayer, “British Reaction to the Amritsar Massacre,” PP, 131 (May 1991), 140.

72. CSAS, Darling Papers, Darling to his sister Irene, 30 April 1919. Darling lost all ambition after the episode and devoted himself to writing books about the peasantry, “a professional cul-de-sac which left his principles intact.” (C. Dewey, Anglo-Indian Attitudes [1993], 163.)

73. P. N. Furbank, E. M. Forster: A Life, II (1978), 61.

74. Gilbert, Churchill, 422.

75. A. Rumbold, Watershed in India 1914–1922 (1979), 202.

76. The Times, 9 July 1920.

77. A. Fitzroy, Memoirs, II (n.d.), 734.

78. Draper, Amritsar, 178.

79. J. Adams and P. Whitehead, The Dynasty: The Nehru–Gandhi Story (New York, 1997), 48.

80. R. Tagore, Letters to a Friend (1928), 88.

81. Zaidi et al. (eds), India National Congress, VII, 457 and 475.

82. J. Nehru, A Bunch of Old Letters (1960), 16.

83. S. M. Rai, “The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy: Its Impact on Political Awakening and Thinking in India,” in V. N. Datta and S. Setta (eds), Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (Delhi, 2000), 32.

84. S. R. Bakshi, Indian National Movement and the Raj, III (Delhi, 1989), 71.

85. S. D. Waley, Edwin Montagu (Bombay, 1964), 262.

86. Duke of Windsor, A King’s Story (1998 edn), 178.

87. G. Souter, Lion and Kangaroo (1976), 21.

88. R. Jebb, Studies in Colonial Nationalism (1905), 192 and 199.

89. Clark, History of Australia, V (1981), 5.

90. E. M. Andrews, The Anzac Illusion (Cambridge, 1993), 38.

91. United Empire, I (1910), 283.

92. Lawson’s lines are quoted by R. Ward, The Australian Legend (Melbourne, 1958), 228.

93. J. Masefield, Gallipoli (1916), 19.

94. C. E. W. Bean, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, I (Sydney, 1933), 6 and 605.

95. Bean, Official History, VI (1942), 1095.

96. A. Thomson, “‘Steadfast until Death?’ C. E. W. Bean and the Representation of Australian Military Manhood,” AHS, 23 (October 1989), 477.

97. J. Ross, The Myth of the Digger (Sydney, 1985), 110.

98. J. Barrett, “No Straw Man: C. E. W. Bean and Some Critics,” AHS, 23 (April 1988), 111.

99. Souter, Lion and Kangaroo, 118, 64 and 164.

100. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 595.

101. T. Higgins, Winston Churchill and the Dardanelles (1963), 106 and 134.

102. J. Winter and B. Baggett, The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century (1996), 110.

103. I. Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary, I (1920), 122.

104. C. Pugsley, Gallipoli: The New Zealand Story (2001 edn), 75.

105. Clark, History of Australia, V, 394.

106. J. Robertson, Anzac and Empire (1990), 44.

107. A. Herbert, Mons, Anzac & Kut (1930), 115.

108. D. Craven, Peninsula of Death (n.d.), 27.

109. Robertson, Anzac, 68 and 76.

110. L. A. Carlyon, Gallipoli (2002), 45.

111. J. H. Morrow, The Great War in Imperial History (2004), 73.

112. C. F. Aspinall-Oglander, Gallipoli, I (1992 edn), 197.

113. A. Thomson, “‘The Vilest Libel of the War?’: Imperial Politics and the Official Histories of Gallipoli,” AHS, 25 (October 1993), 629.

114. Aspinall-Oglander, Gallipoli, I, 268.

115. Masefield, Gallipoli, 52.

116. B. Carman and J. McPherson (eds), Bimbashi McPherson (1983), 144.

117. E. Ashmead-Bartlett, The Uncensored Dardanelles (n.d.), 57.

118. J. Murray, Gallipoli as I Saw It (1965), 76.

119. C. Mackenzie, Gallipoli Memories (1929), 82.

120. K. Fewster (ed.), Gallipoli Correspondent: The Frontline Diary of C. E. W. Bean (Sydney, 1983), 157 and 39.

121. IWM, 01/121, Diary of Brigadier-General G. Napier Johnston, 24 August and 4 September 1915, 12 January 1916 and 14 October 1915. Johnston was commanding New Zealander artillery men and as these extracts suggest, his diaries, which were not revised, reflect feelings which varied from day to day under the stress of battle. I have emended his punctuation.

122. Bean, Official History, I, 547–8.

123. B. Gammage, The Broken Years: Australian Soldiers in the Great War (Canberra, 1974), 89.

124. Andrews, Anzac Illusion, 154.

125. Ashmead-Bartlett, Dardanelles, 107.

126. R. Rhodes James, Gallipoli (1965), 154.

127. K. Sinclair, A Destiny Apart (Wellington, NZ, 1986), 144.

128. Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary, I, 184–5.

129. Rhodes James, Gallipoli, 142.

130. Mackenzie, Gallipoli, 152.

131. A. B. Facey, A Fortunate Life (1986 edn), 262.

132. Andrews, Anzac Illusion, 54.

133. M. B. Tyquin, Gallipoli: The Medical War (Kensington, NSW, 1993), 180.

134. S. Roskill, Hankey: Man of Secrets, I (1970), 220.

135. Fewster (ed.), Gallipoli Correspondent, 163.

136. B. Page, The Murdoch Archipelago (2003), 41.

137. R. Owen, Lord Cromer (Oxford, 2004), 387.

138. N. Steel and P. Hart, Defeat at Gallipoli (1995 edn), 420.

139. Bean, Official History, III (Sydney, 1934), 600.

140. C. E. W. Bean, Letters from France (1917), 108.

141. Souter, Lion and Kangaroo, 238.

142. Gammage, Broken Years, 165.

143. Andrews, Anzac Illusion, 98.

144. J. Thompson, On Lips of Living Men (1962), 124.

145. L. F. Fitzhardinge, The Little Digger, II (1979), 48.

146. N. Cowper, “Sir Galahad, the Dauntless Imp and Others,” Australian Quarterly, XXIII (June 1951), 51.

147. Clark, History of Australia, VI, 112.

148. M. MacMillan, Peacemakers (2003 edn), 56.

149. W. M. Hughes, Policies and Potentates (Sydney, 1950), 242.

150. Fitzhardinge, Little Digger, II, 318 and 392.

151. Clark, History of Australia, VI, 17.

152. P. White, Flaws in the Glass (1981), 232.

153. K. S. Inglis, “World War One Memorials in Australia,” Guerres Mondiales et Conflits Contemporains, 167 (July 1992), 58.

154. J. Phillips, “Was the Great War New Zealand’s War?” in C. Wilcox (ed.), The Great War (Canberra, 1995), 67.

155. Robertson, Anzac and Empire, 247.

156. Sinclair, Destiny Apart, 172.

157. Souter, Lion and Kangaroo, 205.

158. Bean, Official History, VI, 1086.

159. Hughes, Splendid Adventure, 437–8.

160. C. P. Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict, I (Toronto, 1977), 49–50.

161. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 232.

162. W. F. Butler, The Great Lone Land (1872), 331.

163. P. Berton, The National Dream (Toronto, 1972), 10.

164. S. Zeller, Inventing Canada: Early Victorian Science and the Idea of a Transcontinental Nation (Toronto, 1987), 73.

165. W. K. Lamb, History of the Canadian Pacific Railway (New York, 1977), 14.

166. J. McNaughton, Lord Strathcona (Toronto, 1926), 294.

167. O. Lavallée, Van Horne’s Road (Don Mills, Ont., 1974), 204.

168. P. Berton, The Last Spike (Toronto, 1973), 111.

169. W. Vaughan, Sir William Van Horne (Toronto, 1926), 109 and 91.

170. Butler, Lone Land, 276.

171. Lavallée, Van Horne’s Road, 220.

172. Lamb, Canadian Pacific, 1.

173. J. A. Eagle, The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Development of Western Canada (Kingston, Ont., 1989), 150.

174. Berton, National Dream, 295.

175. Elveden MSS, Gwendolen Guinness Diary (1910), 70.

176. Berton, Last Spike, 118.

177. Elveden MSS, G. Guinness Diary, 81 and 77.

178. D. Creighton, John A. Macdonald: The Old Chieftain (Toronto, 1955), 254.

179. H. Dempsey (ed.), The CPR West: The Iron Road and the Making of a Nation (Vancouver, 1984), 151 and 273.

180. K. McNaught, The History of Canada (1970), 193.

181. G. Woodcock, A Social History of Canada (New York, 1988), 281.

182. L. G. Reynolds, The British Immigrant (Toronto, 1935), 269.

183. W. Booth, In Darkest England and the Way Out (1970 edn), 93.

184. Zeller, Inventing Canada, 260.

185. C. Berger, The Sense of Power: Studies in the Ideas of Canadian Imperialism 1867–1914 (Toronto, 1970), 132.

186. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 233.

187. G. Smith, The Political Destiny of Canada (1878), 24 and 36.

188. H. B. Neatby, “Laurier and Imperialism,” in C. Berger (ed.), Imperial Relations in the Age of Laurier (Toronto, 1969), 1.

189. J. Schull, Laurier: The First Canadian (Toronto, 1965), 410.

190. Carrington, Kipling, 398.

191. C. Brown, “Goldwin Smith and Anti-Imperialism,” in Berger (ed.), Imperial Relations, 22.

192. C. Murrow, Henri Bourassa and French-Canadian Nationalism (Montreal, 1968), 35.

193. Schull, Laurier, 531.

194. Stacey, Canada, 176.

195. M. G. McGowan, The Waning of the Green (Montreal, 1999), 278 and 253.

196. Elveden MSS, G. Guinness to H. Onslow, 27 June 1916.

197. M. Wade, The French Canadians, II (Toronto, 1968), 658.

198. H. P. Grundy, “Sir Wilfrid Laurier and Lord Minto,” in Berger (ed.), Imperial Relations, 31.

199. W. S. Churchill, The World Crisis 1911–1918, II (1938 edn), 1155.

200. IWM, 65/55/1, Major Edison F. Lynn Diary, 1 January 1916.

201. IWM, 01/51/1, Letters of Brigadier J. M. Prower, 13 July 1915.

202. D. Morton, Canada and War (Toronto, 1981), 65.

203. P. J. Haythornthwaite, The World War One Source Book (1997 edn), 267.

204. D. Morton and J. L. Granatstein, Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War 1914–1919 (Toronto, 1989), 114.

205. T. Travers, The Killing Ground: The British Army of the Western Front and the Emergence of Modern Warfare (1987), 20.

206. A. McKee, Vimy Ridge (1966), 65.

207. B. Rawling, Surviving Trench Warfare: Technology and the Canadian Corps 1914–1918 (Toronto, 1992), 89.

208. G. W. L. Nicholson, Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914–1919 (Ottawa, 1962), 244.

209. IWM, 65/55/1, 25 April and 5 May 1917.

210. D. Morton, When Your Number’s Up (Toronto, 1993), 168.

211. McKee, Vimy Ridge, 91.

212. IWM, 65/55/1, 9 April 1917.

213. McKee, Vimy Ridge, 126.

214. K. Macksey, The Shadow of Vimy Ridge (1965), 77.

215. War Memoirs of David Lloyd George, II (1938 edn), 2007.

216. Morton and Granatstein, Marching to Armageddon, 197.

217. Stacey, Canada, 211 and 239.

218. J. F. Vance, Death So Noble: Memory, Meaning and the First World War (Vancouver, 1997), 228.

219. Wade, French Canadians, II, 712.

220. Elveden MSS, G. Guinness to H. Onslow, 7 June 1916.

221. R. Craig Brown and R. Cook, Canada 1896–1921 (Toronto, 1976), 305.

222. D. G. Dancocks, Spearhead to Victory: Canada and the Great War (Edmonton, 1987), 237.

223. E. J. Leed, No Man’s Land (Cambridge, 1979), 193.

10. Aflame with the Hope of Liberation

1. K. Jeffery, “Irish Culture and the Great War,” Bullán, I, 2 (1994), 89.

2. J. Leonard, “Lest We Forget,” in D. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Ireland and the First World War (Westmeath, 1988), 67.

3. P. Berton, Vimy (Toronto, 1986), 301. Not until the end of the twentieth century, after the Irish peace process, was comparable recognition given to the thirty thousand men from the south who fell in the Great War—in the shape of a one-hundred-foot Celtic round tower at Messines, built with stones from all the thirty-two counties.

4. K. B. Nowlan (ed.), The Making of 1916 (Dublin, 1969), viii.

5. D. H. Akenson, The Irish in Ontario (Montreal, 1984), 41.

6. Magnus, Gladstone, 300.

7. Quoted by T. P. O’Connor, The Parnell Movement (1886), 202.

8. Foster, Modern Ireland, 375.

9. F. S. L. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine (1967 edn), 130.

10. F. S. L. Lyons, Charles Stewart Parnell (1977), 92.

11. D. G. Boyce, “‘The Portrait of the King Is the King’: The Biographers of Charles Stewart Parnell,” in D. G. Boyce and A. O’Day (eds), Parnell in Perspective (1991), 294.

12. R. B. O’Brien, The Life of Charles Stewart Parnell, I (1899 edn), 73 and 146.

13. Magdalene College Magazine & Record, 36 (October 1992), 37.

14. C. C. O’Brien, Parnell and His Party 1880–1890 (1959), 10.

15. R. F. Foster, Charles Stewart Parnell (Hassocks, Suffolk, 1976), 290. The term was used by Parnell’s brother John.

16. T. M. Healy, Letters and Leaders of My Day, I (1928), 89.

17. R. B. O’Brien, Parnell, I, 145.

18. Healy, Letters, I, 83.

19. C. Townshend, Political Violence in Ireland (Oxford, 1983), 7 and 106.

20. R. V. Comerford, The Fenians in Context (Dublin, 1985), 226.

21. W. O’Brien and D. Ryan (eds), Devoy’s Postbag, 1871–1928, I (Dublin, 1948), 16.

22. K. O’Shea, Charles Stewart Parnell, I (1914), 172.

23. W. S. Blunt, The Land War in Ireland (1912), 400.

24. G. Moore, Parnell and His Island (1887), 250.

25. Brendon, Eminent Edwardians, 91.

26. J. L. Hammond, Gladstone and the Irish Nation (1938), 284.

27. S. Gwynn and G. M. Tuckwell, Life of Sir Charles Dilke, I (1917), 441.

28. E. D. Steele, “Gladstone and Ireland,” IHS, XVII, 65 (March 1970), 74.

29. Hammond, Gladstone, 710.

30. R. B. O’Brien, Parnell, II, 42.

31. Mansergh, Irish Question, 213.

32. S. B. Cook, Imperial Affinities (New Delhi, 1993), 30.

33. L. P. Curtis, Coercion and Conciliation in Ireland 1880–1892 (1963), 33.

34. Rose, Superior Person, 134.

35. Edinburgh Review, 165 (1887), 585.

36. S. H. Zebel, Balfour (1973), 67.

37. Curtis, Coercion and Conciliation, 223.

38. B. Alderson, Arthur James Balfour (1903), 72.

39. Moore, Parnell, 252.

40. R. Ellmann, Yeats (Oxford, 1979 edn), 100.

41. J. Joyce, Dubliners (1996 edn), 151.

42. M. Brown, The Politics of Irish Literature (1972), 324.

43. V. S. Pritchett, Dublin (1991 edn), 36.

44. S. O’Grady, The Story of Ireland (1894), 211.

45. E. Norman, A History of Modern Ireland (1971), 224.

46. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 999.

47. A. Bairner, “Ireland, sport and empire,” in K. Jeffery (ed.), “An Irish Empire?” (Manchester, 1996), 68.

48. T. Fishlock, Conquerors of Time (2004), 410.

49. G. Moore, Hail and Farewell (Gerrards Cross, 1976 edn), 290, 26 and 238.

50. D. McCartney, “Hyde, D. P. Moran and Irish Ireland,” in F. X. Martin (ed.), Leaders and Men of the Easter Rising: Dublin 1916 (1967), 46.

51. S. O’Casey, Autobiographies, I (1963 edn), 428 and 456.

52. J. Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society 1848–1918 (Dublin, 1973), 138.

53. Moore, Hail and Farewell, 223.

54. D. McCartney, “Gaelic Ideological Origins of 1916,” in O. Dudley Edwards and F. Pyle (eds), 1916: The Easter Rising (1968), 46.

55. Brown, Politics of Irish Literature, 355.

56. L. MacNeice, Selected Poems (1958), 62.

57. T. Jones, Whitehall Diary, III (Oxford, 1969), xxiii.

58. R. Blake, The Unknown Prime Minister (1955), 129.

59. Brendon, Churchill, 66.

60. P. H. Pearse, Three Lectures on Gaelic Topics (Dublin, 1898), 49.

61. R. Dudley Edwards, Patrick Pearse: The Triumph of Failure (1977), 179, 335 and 245.

62. D. Ryan, The Rising (Dublin, 1957 edn), 16.

63. Townshend, Political Violence, 283.

64. O’Casey, Autobiographies, I, 626.

65. F. Shaw, “The Canon of Irish History—A Challenge,” Studies (1972), 126.

66. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine, 360.

67. Edwards, Pearse, 277.

68. Ryan, Rising, 128.

69. J. Good, Enchanted by Dreams (Dublin, 1996), 32.

70. Ryan, Rising, 130.

71. R. Dudley Edwards, James Connolly (Dublin, 1981), 139.

72. S. O’Casey, Three Plays (1980 edn), 194.

73. G. Githens-Mazer, Myths and Memories of the Easter Rising (Dublin, 2006), 126.

74. O’Casey, Autobiographies, I, 660.

75. M. Foy and B. Barton, The Easter Rising (Guildford, 1999), 140.

76. K. O’Brien, My Ireland (1962), 114.

77. Good, Enchanted, 77.

78. J. Stephens, The Insurrection in Dublin (Dublin, 1916), 73.

79. K. Jeffery, The GPO and the Easter Rising (Dublin, 2006), 174.

80. E. O’Halpin, The Decline of the Union (Dublin, 1987), 120.

81. C. Townshend, “The Suppression of the Easter Rising,” Bullán, I, 1 (Spring 1994), 30.

82. Dudley Edwards and Pyle (eds), 1916, 67.

83. BL, Add 49740, Balfour Papers, Sir C. Spring-Rice to Balfour, 5 December 1916.

84. G. B. Shaw, The Complete Prefaces, I, ed. D. H. Laurence and D. J. Leary (1993), 239.

85. Porter, Critics of Empire, 267.

86. D. Ryan, The Man Called Pearse (Dublin, 1919), 1–2.

87. The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats (1950), 205.

88. Dudley Edwards, Connolly, 120.

89. Dudley Edwards and Pyle (eds), 1916, 194.

90. D. Kiberd, Inventing Ireland (1995), 259.

91. Townshend, Political Violence, 323.

92. J. Augusteijn, From Public Defiance to Guerrilla Warfare (Dublin, 1996), 57.

93. G. Dangerfield, The Damnable Question (1977), 259.

94. T. Ryle Dwyer, De Valera: The Man & the Myths (Swords, Co. Dublin, 1991), 40.

95. R. Kee, The Green Flag, III (1972 edn), 30.

96. M. Laffan, The Resurrection of Ireland (Cambridge, 1999), 53.

97. A. T. Q. Stewart, Michael Collins: The Secret File (Belfast, 1997), 29.

98. D. Ryan, Remembering Sion (1934), 235 and 251.

99. T. P. Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow (1993), 121 and 122.

100. S. Milne, “Britain: Imperial Nostalgia,” Global Policy Forum (May 2005).

101. A. J. Ward, Ireland and Anglo-American Relations (1969), 229 and 166.

102. Rhodes James (ed.), Churchill: His Complete Speeches, III, 3022.

103. J. Campbell, F. E. Smith First Earl of Birkenhead (1983), 552.

104. Stewart, Collins, 6.

105. Kee, Green Flag, III, 112.

106. D. Duff, Sword for Hire (1934), 64.

107. F. S. L. Lyons, John Dillon (1968), 467.

108. F. Pakenham, Peace by Ordeal (1992 edn), 49.

109. F. Owen, Tempestuous Journey (1954), 572.

110. D. Macardle, The Irish Republic (Dublin, 1951 edn), 416.

111. Irish Times, 14 March 1921.

112. H. Martin, Ireland in Insurrection (1921), 11.

113. Jones, Whitehall Diary, III, 65.

114. P. S. O’Hegarty, A History of Ireland under the Union (1952), 781.

115. Hancock, Smuts, II, 61.

116. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine, 444.

117. N. C. Johnson, Ireland, the Great War and the Geography of Remembrance (Cambridge, 2003), 149.

118. Dwyer, De Valera, 285.

119. Lawrence, Seven Pillars, 42.

120. P. Knightley and C. Simpson, The Secret Lives of Lawrence of Arabia (1969), 215.

121. J. Buchan, Memory Hold-the-Door (1945 edn), 226.

122. M. FitzHerbert, The Man Who Was Greenmantle (1983), 144.

123. Lawrence, Seven Pillars, 368, 272 and 450.

124. R. Meinertzhagen, Middle East Diary (1959), 30 and 32.

125. J. E. Mack, A Prince of Our Disorder (1976), 501. The author was Malcolm Muggeridge, writing in the New York Times Book Review, 10 May 1964.

126. E. Kedouri, Islam and the Modern World (1980), 273 and 270.

127. J. Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia (1979), 339.

128. Lawrence, Seven Pillars, 450.

129. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 189.

130. G. de S. Barrow, The Fire of Life (n.d.), 207.

131. Wilson, Lawrence, 349.

132. L. James, The Golden Warrior: The Life and Legend of Lawrence of Arabia (1990), 163.

133. C. M. Andrew, “France, Britain and the Peace Settlement: A Reconsideration,” in U. Dann (ed.), The Great Powers and the Middle East 1919–1939 (1988), 164.

134. R. Sanders, The High Walls of Jerusalem (1983), 243, quoting Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 608.

135. E. Kedourie, The Chatham House Version and Other Middle Eastern Studies (1984), 17.

136. James, Golden Warrior, 170.

137. Wilson, Lawrence, 414.

138. R. A. Adelson, Mark Sykes (1975), 226.

139. C. Weizmann, Trial and Error (1950), 223.

140. Storrs, Orientations, 415.

141. L. Stein, The Balfour Declaration (1961), 154 and 163.

142. M. Egremont, The Cousins (1977), 270. The term used by Solzhenitsyn was current in Edwardian England.

143. J. C. Hurewitz, Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East: A Documentary Record, II (Princeton, NJ, 1956), 26.

144. Zebel, Balfour, 247–8.

145. W. Laqueur, A History of Zionism (1972), 187.

146. Cocker, Meinertzhagen, 129.

147. H. S. Gullett, The Australian Imperial Force in Sinai and Palestine (Sydney, 1923), 755 and 708.

148. D. Garnett (ed.), The Letters of T. E. Lawrence (1938), 196.

149. W. T. Massey, Allenby’s Final Triumph (1920), 234.

150. H. M. Sachar, The Emergence of the Middle East (New York, 1969), 240.

151. J. C. Hill, Chauvel of the Light Horse (Melbourne, 1978), 178.

152. Gullett, Australian Imperial Force, 755.

153. Quoted by M. Glenny, The Balkans, 1804–1999: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers (2000 edn), 363.

154. E. Monroe, Britain’s Moment in the Middle East 1914–1971 (1981 edn), 46.

155. OHBE, IV, 11.

156. J. Morris, Farewell the Trumpets: An Imperial Retreat (1978), 208.

157. J. Darwin, Britain, Egypt and the Middle East (1981), 155.

158. H. Mejcher, Imperial Quest for Oil: Iraq 1910–1928 (1976), 177.

159. Letters of Gertrude Bell, 404.

160. J. Vincent (ed.), The Crawford Papers (1984), 397.

161. J. Kimche, The Unromantics (1968), 74.

162. T. Dodge, Inventing Iraq (2003), 74.

163. Candler, Baghdad, I, 232.

164. Darwin, Middle East, 194.

165. H. St. J. B. Philby, Arabian Days (1948), 184.

166. Letters of Gertrude Bell, 397.

167. A. T. Wilson, Mesopotamia, 1917–1920 (1931), 319.

168. A. L. Haldane, The Insurrection in Mesopotamia, 1920 (1922), 261 and 256.

169. W. Thesiger, A Life of My Choice (1987), 171.

170. P. Graves, The Life of Sir Percy Cox (1941), 19.

171. Letters of Gertrude Bell, 428.

172. C. Catherwood, Winston’s Folly: Imperialism and the Creation of Modern Iraq (2004), 165.

173. Fitzherbert, Greenmantle, 239.

174. R. Lansing, The Big Four and Others of the Peace Conference (1922), 169.

175. E. Burgoyne, Gertrude Bell 1914–1926 (1961), 279.

176. P. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq 1914–1932 (1976), 77.

177. Graves, Cox, 231.

178. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, 281–2.

179. T. Royle, Glubb Pasha (1992), 98.

180. D. Omissi, Air Power and Colonial Control (Manchester, 1990), 160.

181. The Times, 29 November 1998. The RAF’s Director of Research said that if mustard gas could be accepted for “savage warfare, it should prove more efficient than any other known form of frightfulness.” (D. Killingray, “‘A Swift Agent of Government’: Air Power in British Colonial Africa, 1916–1939,” JAH, 25 [1984], 432.)

182. C. Townshend, “Civilization and ‘Frightfulness’: Air Control in the Middle East Between the Wars,” in C. Wrigley (ed.), Warfare, Diplomacy and Politics (1986), 150.

183. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, 264, quoting George Lansbury.

184. Darwin, Middle East, 87.

185. Carman and McPherson (eds), Bimbashi McPherson, 222.

186. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 53.

187. Sanders, High Walls, 221.

188. Storrs, Orientations, 79.

189. Lord Lloyd, Egypt since Cromer, I (1933), 283.

190. J. J. Terry, The Wafd 1919–1952 (1982), 95.

191. J. Berque, Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution (1972), 270.

192. R. Seth, Russell Pasha (1966), 144.

193. A. L. al-Sayyid-Marsot, Egypt’s Liberal Experiment: 1922–1936 (Los Angeles, 1977), 21.

194. Kedourie, Chatham House, 113.

195. Gollin, Proconsul, 593.

196. Darwin, Middle East, 123.

197. Kedourie, Chatham House, 121.

198. Darwin, Middle East, 267.

199. Marsot, Egypt’s Liberal Experiment, 69.

200. L. Grafftey-Smith, Bright Levant (1970), 102.

201. J. Charmley, Lord Lloyd and the Decline of the British Empire (1987), 95, 194 and 152.

202. Lloyd, Egypt since Cromer, II (1934), 359.

203. P. Ziegler (ed.), The Diaries of Lord Louis Mountbatten 1920–1922 (1987), 306.

204. C. Petrie, Life and Letters of Sir Austen Chamberlain, II (1940), 341.

205. Marsot, Egypt’s Liberal Experiment, 75 and 152.

206. Charmley, Lloyd, 118.

207. G. Waterfield, Professional Diplomat (1973), 167.

208. Darwin, Middle East, 269.

209. R. A. C. Parker, “Great Britain, France and the Ethiopian Crisis 1935–1936,” EHR, 89 (1974), 310.

210. J. Bowle, Viscount Samuel (1957), 195.

211. The Times, 7 October 1922.

212. Lord D’Abernon, An Ambassador of Peace, I (1929), 20.

11. Englishmen Like Posing as Gods

1. OHBE, IV, 48.

2. W. R. Louis, In the Name of God, Go! (1992), 86.

3. A. J. P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (1967 edn), 253.

4. J. McLaren, Gentlemen of the Empire (1940), 9.

5. Spectator, 8 May 1924.

6. Amery, Forward View, 187.

7. J. R. M. Butler, Lord Lothian (1960), 52.

8. S. Gopal, “All Souls and India, 1921–47,” JICH, XXVII (May 1999), 87.

9. Lord Northcliffe, My Journey Round the World 1921–22 (1923), 159.

10. Quoted by James, British Empire, 451.

11. Goetze, Mural Decorations, 5ff. N. Ferguson (Empire, 312) reproduces portions of the painting, though his interpretation of it differs significantly from that of the artist.

12. G. S. Viereck, Spreading Germs of Hate (New York, 1930), 277.

13. M. Grant, Propaganda and the Role of the State in Inter-War Britain (Oxford, 1994), 11.

14. V. Cunningham, British Writers of the Thirties (Oxford, 1988), 93. C. Day-Lewis used the phrase as a book title.

15. J. M. MacKenzie, Propaganda and Empire (Manchester, 1984), 82.

16. P. Brendon and P. Whitehead, The Windsors (2000 edn), 52.

17. R. Baden-Powell, Scouting for Boys (2004 edn), 278.

18. S. Orwell and I. Angus (eds), The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, I (Harmondsworth, 1971), 530 and 518.

19. CAC, PJGG 6, Lady Grigg to Dorothy Hammond, 30 August 1934.

20. MacKenzie, Propaganda, 253.

21. W. Albig, Public Opinion (1939), 290.

22. Daily Mail, 24 April 1924.

23. Spectator, 26 April 1924.

24. A. N. Wilson, After the Victorians (2005), 274–5.

25. United Empire, XV (1924), 581.

26. P. M. Taylor, The Projection of Britain (Cambridge, 1981), 104.

27. The Times, 20 September and 23 April 1924.

28. M. Kennedy, Portrait of Elgar (1982), 300.

29. K. Walthew, “The British Empire Exhibition of 1924,” HT, 31 (August 1981), 39.

30. The Times, 30 September 1924.

31. D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (1977), 65.

32. S. White, Britain and the Bolshevik Revolution (1979), 121. The expression was Radek’s.

33. Daily Herald, 1 July 1924.

34. United Empire, XIV (1923), 544.

35. The Times, 23 April 1924.

36. N. and J. MacKenzie (eds), The Diary of Beatrice Webb (1985), 198.

37. A. Kirk-Greene, On Crown Service (1999), 36.

38. Orwell and Angus (eds), Orwell, I, 269.

39. A. Clayton, The British Empire as a Superpower, 1919–39 (1986), 12.

40. W. Somerset Maugham, “The Outstation,” in Collected Short Stories, IV (Harmondsworth, 1967 edn), 340. This formality was gradually relaxed before the Second World War, to the dismay of those who thought prestige should come before comfort.

41. E. M. Forster, A Passage to India (Harmondsworth, 1959 edn), 29 and 49.

42. Mack, Public Schools, 238.

43. Dewey, Anglo-Saxon Attitudes, 120. The phrase was Malcolm Darling’s.

44. R. Furse, Aucuparius (1962), 241.

45. Kirk-Greene, Crown Service, 194.

46. R. Heussler, Yesterday’s Rulers (1963), 116.

47. J. G. Butcher, The British in Malaya 1880–1941 (Kuala Lumpur, 1979), 41.

48. E. D. Morel, Nigeria (1912 edn), 7.

49. I am grateful to the author, Manus Nunan, for sending me his typescript.

50. J. Callaghan, Time and Chance (1983), 120.

51. C. Ondaatje, Woolf in Ceylon (2005), 39.

52. M. Perham, West African Passage (1983), 54.

53. J. Nehru, An Autobiography (1936), 442.

54. Mack, Public Schools, 267.

55. A. J. Greenberger, The British Image of India (1969), 89.

56. D. and S. Howarth, The Story of P & O (1986), 59. The opulent new liners of the 1930s were white with buff funnels.

57. R. Kipling, From Sea to Sea, I (1924), 261.

58. G. Biliankin, Hail, Penang (1932), 1.

59. Morris, Pax Britannica, 54.

60. J. H. Harris, Dawn in Darkest Africa (1982), 96.

61. Steevens, Capetown to Ladysmith, 167.

62. Maugham, “P. & O.,” in Short Stories, IV, 88.

63. ‘Youth,” in The Complete Short Stories of Joseph Conrad (n.d.), 89.

64. G. Bowker, George Orwell (2003), 77. It has been suggested that this episode was a parable “almost too neatly realised” (D. J. Taylor, Orwell [2003], 64). In fact, such incidents were commonplace. Witness Jack Moore’s prewar memory: “the half-naked brown body of a native lying in the gutter outside the shop [of Cowasgee Dinshaw in Aden] and a white sailor kicking violently at the body—and, as far as I recollect, nobody had the humanity or courage to intervene.” (CUL RCMS 57, Jack Moore, “From Aden to…Quetta,” 15.) Similarly, on arrival at Calcutta in 1945, the future film star Dirk Bogarde saw a porter being thrashed by a “ginger-haired, moustached, red-faced stocky little major from Transport.” (Quoted by C. Bayly and T. Harper, Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain’s Asian Empire [2007], 138.)

65. G. Orwell, Burmese Days (2001 edn), 70.

66. M. Muggeridge, Chronicles of Wasted Time, I, The Green Stick (1972), 96. Muggeridge supposed that this view was held “almost universally” on P&O boats during the 1920s.

67. New Statesman, 27 September 1924.

68. K. Tidrick, Empire and the English Character (1990), 90.

69. J. van der Poel (ed.), Selections from the Smuts Papers, V (Cambridge, 1973), 194.

70. R. Craddock, “Should Englishmen enter the Indian Services?” Nineteenth Century and After, 97 (February 1925), 260.

71. A. Grimble, A Pattern of Islands (1952), 174.

72. P. Balfour, Grand Tour (n.d.), 217.

73. Butcher, British in Malaya, 22.

74. CAC, AMEL 2/4/15 (File 5) Malaya, Sir L. Guillemard to L. Amery, 20 November 1924.

75. V. Purcell, The Memoirs of a Malayan Official (1965), 268.

76. Hyam, Empire and Sexuality, 109.

77. T. N. Harper, The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya (Cambridge, 1999), 130, quoting The Planter (9 September 1947), 235.

78. J. de V. Allen, “Malayan Civil Service, 1874–1941: Colonial Bureaucracy/Malayan Elite,” CSSH, 12 (1970), 149.

79. R. H. Bruce Lockhart, Return to Malaya (1936), 413 and 333.

80. Harper, End of Empire, 23.

81. C. Allen (ed.), Tales from the South Seas (1983), 64.

82. Lockhart, Malaya, 113.

83. H. Callaway, Gender, Culture and Empire: European Women in Colonial Nigeria (1987), 237.

84. J. Cary, Mister Johnson (Harmondsworth, 1983 edn), 103.

85. B. Thomson, The Scene Changes (1939), 74.

86. J. R. Ackerley, Hindoo Holiday (1952), 79.

87. CSAS, Portal Memoir, 58.

88. CAC, PJGG6, Lady Grigg to Dorothy Hammond, 17 July 1934.

89. Quoted from Malaysia Messenger (June 1911) by J. N. Brownfoot, “Sisters under the skin: Imperialism and the emancipation of woman in Malaya, c. 1891–1941,” in J. A. Mangan (ed.), Making Imperial Mentalities (Manchester, 1990), 51. 2001), 17.

90. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, 61.

91. C. Knapman, White Women in Fiji 1835–1930 (1986), 9, quoting from Geoffrey Dawson’s novel Queen Emma of the South Seas.

92. Ondaatje, Woolf in Ceylon, 41.

93. S. Leith-Ross, Stepping-Stones: Memoirs of Colonial Nigeria 1907–1960 (1983), 84.

94. Allen, CSSH, 12, 169.

95. Northcliffe, Journey, 244.

96. L. Woolf, Growing (1967), 135.

97. G. Byng, Reap the Whirlwind (1968), 55.

98. D. Foster, Landscape with Arabs (Brighton, 1969), 166.

99. Private information: Sydney Bolt.

100. CSAS, Shaw Stewart Papers, Box 1, H. D. Love, “Short History of the Madras Club” (1902), 10.

101. CUL, Add 6799–6801, Stella Benson Diaries, 5 November 1930.

102. H. Sharp, Good-bye India (1946), 138, quoted by M. Sinha, “Britishness, Clubbability, and the Colonial Public Sphere: The Genealogy of an Imperial Institution in India,” JBS, 40 (October 2001), 502.

103. Hill Club Complaints Book, 25 May 1913, 23 April 1901 and 4 May 1900.

104. CUL RCMS, Bombay Club Records, “Complaints and Suggestions,” 19 February and 15 November 1882.

105. J. Wyett, Staff Wallah (St. Leonards, NSW, 1996), 19.

106. Love, “Madras Club,” 11.

107. BECM, 2001/299, Kendall Papers, C. H. B. Kendall’s Indian letters, 15 February 1903.

108. P. J. Rich, Chains of Empire (1991), 166.

109. Kipling, From Sea to Sea, 288.

110. D. J. M. Tate, The Lake Club 1890–1990 (Singapore, 1990), 111.

111. Clifford, Children of Empire, 75.

112. V. Gatrell, City of Laughter (2006), 110.

113. Moore, Parnell, 31.

114. Gilmour, Ruling Caste, 79.

115. E. Wakefield, Past Imperative (1966), 4.

116. R. Hunt and J. Harrison, The District Officer in India 1930–1947 (1980), 34.

117. J. D. N. Banks, The History of the Hill Club (Nuwara Eliya, 1988), 34.

118. H. Kuklick, The Imperial Bureaucrat (Stanford, CA, 1979), 125.

119. Orwell, Burmese Days, 29.

120. CUL RCMS 78, “Minutes Book 1867–1876,” 19 October 1870.

121. A. Burns, Colonial Civil Servant (1949), 57.

122. T. Kuruvilla, Fairy Dell: Story of the High Range Club 1909–1993 (Calcutta, 1993), 53.

123. N. Ferguson, The War of the World (2006), 523.

124. Russell, Freedom and Organisation, 415.

125. R. A. Bickers and J. N. Wasserton, “Shanghai’s ‘Dogs and Chinese Not Admitted’ Sign: Legend, History and Contemporary Symbol,” CQ, 142 (June 1995), 447. Dogs and Chinese were both refused admission but they were never bracketed in any official sign.

126. Clifford, Children of Empire, 75.

127. F. Wakeman, Policing Shanghai 1927–1937 (1995), 214.

128. North-China Herald, 19 January 1932.

129. R. Bickers, Empire Made Me: An Englishman Adrift in Shanghai (2003), 122, 126 and 291.

130. I. Nish (ed.), Anglo-Japanese Alienation 1919–1952 (Cambridge, 1982), 39–40.

131. Orwell, Burmese Days, 69.

132. G. Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier (Harmondsworth, 1962 edn), 127.

133. Taylor, Orwell, 76.

134. Orwell, Burmese Days, 68.

135. R. Pearce, Once a Happy Valley: Memoirs of an ICS Officer in Sindh, 1938–1948 (Oxford, 2001), 17.

136. Woolf, Growing, 158–9.

137. S. Maugham, “The Gentleman in the Parlour” [1930], in The Travel Books of W. Somerset Maugham (1955), 10–11.

12. White Mates Black in a Very Few Moves

1. W. M. Ross, Kenya from Within (1927), 47, and C. Eliot, The East Africa Protectorate (1905), 302.

2. Huxley, Delamere, 81.

3. R. Meinertzhagen, Kenya Diary 1902–1906 (1957), 59.

4. Eliot, East Africa, 310.

5. G. Bennett, Kenya: A Political History (1963), 14.

6. J. Iliffe, The African Poor (Cambridge, 1987), 156.

7. Lord Hindlip, British East Africa (1905), 48.

8. G. H. Mungeam, British Rule in Kenya 1895–1912 (Oxford, 1966), 177.

9. Cocker, Meinertzhagen, 48.

10. B. Berman and J. Lonsdale, Unhappy Valley (1992), 19.

11. V. Harlow and E. M. Chilver (eds), History of East Africa (Oxford, 1965), 32 and 55.

12. R. Hardy, The Iron Snake (1965), 242–3 and 247.

13. C. Chenevix Trench, Men Who Ruled Kenya (1993), 17.

14. Lord Altrincham, Kenya’s Opportunity (1955), 224.

15. CUL, RCMS 113/44, George Nightingale Memoirs, Chapter 5, 5.

16. Meinertzhagen, Kenya Diary, 78 and 60.

17. Harlow and Chilver, East Africa, 268.

18. Mungeam, British Rule in Kenya, 195.

19. “The Case of the Masai,” Empire Review, 35 (October 1921), 389.

20. Meinertzhagen, Kenya Diary, 153.

21. Hyam, Empire and Sexuality, 160 and 168.

22. C. S. Nicholls, Red Strangers (2005), 72.

23. OHBE, IV, 267.

24. E. Bradlow, “The Evolution of ‘Trusteeship,’ in Kenya,” SAHJ, IV (1972), 60.

25. Eliot, East Africa, 143.

26. K. Blixen, Out of Africa (Harmondsworth, 1954 edn), 124.

27. Lord Cranworth, A Colony in the Making or Sport and Profit in East Africa (1912), 11.

28. D. Kennedy, Islands of White (Durham, NC, 1987), 48.

29. Ross, Kenya, 103. Lugard’s own view was that “The requirements of the settlers, to put it bluntly, are incompatible with the interests and advancement of agricultural tribes, nor could they be otherwise than impatient of native development as a rival in the growing of coffee, flax, and sisal…British immigrants should be fully warned of the deficiency of native labour, and discouraged from coming to the country unless they are prepared to dispense with it.” (Dual Mandate, 397.)

30. W. Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (Washington, DC, 1982), 165.

31. CUL, RCMS 178, Arnold Paice Letters, Box 1, 3 July 1907, 29 May 1910 and 15 December 1907.

32. Ross, Kenya, 95 and 94.

33. CUL, RCMS 178, Box 1, 26 August 1911.

34. B. Berman, Control & Crisis in Colonial Kenya (1990), 62.

35. CUL, RCMS 178, Box 1, 9 September 1907.

36. Berman, Control & Crisis, 184.

37. Hyam, Elgin and Churchill, 215.

38. W. S. Churchill, My African Journey (1968 edn), 25.

39. E. Huxley, Red Strangers (1999 edn), 268.

40. E. Paice, Tip & Run: The Untold Tragedy of the Great War in Africa (2007), 288.

41. Kennedy, Islands of White, 78.

42. J. W. Cell, By Kenya Possessed (Chicago, 1976), 92.

43. CUL, RCMS 113/44, Chapter on Kiltanon, 2.

44. Harry Thuku: An Autobiography (Nairobi, 1970), 18.

45. Ross, Kenya, 226 and 228.

46. Huxley, Delamere, II, 67, 113 and 138.

47. N. Best, Happy Valley (1970), 109.

48. J. G. Kamoche, Imperial Trusteeship and Political Evolution in Kenya, 1923–1963 (Washington, DC, 1981), 51.

49. S. Ball, The Guardsmen (2004), 96.

50. A. Buxton, Kenya Days (1927), 15.

51. CUL, RCMS 178, Box 1, 9 October 1907.

52. E. Bache, The Youngest Lion (1934), 14.

53. M. Perham, East African Journey (1976), 25.

54. M. S. Lovell, Straight on Till Morning (1987), 129.

55. E. Huxley, The Flame Trees of Thika (1959), 14.

56. L. Powys, Ebony and Ivory (New York, 1923), 19.

57. N. Leys, Kenya (1973 edn), 182.

58. R. L. Tignor, The Colonial Transformation of Kenya (Princeton, NJ, 976), 156.

59. “The ‘Black Peril’ in British East Africa,” Empire Review, 35 (June 1921), 199 and 197.

60. J. Fox, White Mischief (1982), 46.

61. Kennedy, Islands of White, 87.

62. Mungeam, British Rule in Kenya, 279.

63. Cell (ed.), Kenya Possessed, 114.

64. Harlow and Chilver (eds), East Africa, 331.

65. A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, “The Sudan Political Service: A Profile in the Sociology of Imperialism,” IJAHS, 15 (1982), 22.

66. J. A. Mangan, The Games Ethic and Imperialism (1986), 87.

67. O. Keun, A Foreigner Looks at the Sudan (1930), 5, 52–3 and 13.

68. Sudan Notes & Records, XIV (1931), Pt I, 99.

69. D. C. Smith, H. G. Wells, Desperately Mortal (1986), 408.

70. BECM 2001/299, Brian Kendall, “Memories of Sudan Service.”

71. Daly, Empire on the Nile, 95.

72. United Empire, I (1910), 191.

73. Kipling, Letters of Travel, 284.

74. Lycett, Kipling, 381.

75. DUL, 578/4/1–76, MacMichael Papers, MacMichael to his parents, 14 October 1905.

76. BECM, 2001/299, 1943.

77. K. D. D. Henderson, The Making of the Modern Sudan (1953), 109.

78. DUL, MacMichael Papers 585/4/1–383, Diary, 30 November 1906.

79. Daly, Empire on the Nile, 366.

80. M. W. Daly, Imperial Sudan (Cambridge, 1991), 67 and 152.

81. BECM, 2001/299, 1946 and 1947.

82. Rameses [C. S. Jarvis], Oriental Spotlight (1937), 120.

83. Daly, Empire on the Nile, 399–400.

84. H. C. Jackson, Sudan Days and Ways (1954), 161.

85. C. Allen, Tales from the Dark Continent (1986 edn), 107.

86. Daly, Empire of the Nile, 400 and 142.

87. R. O. Collins, Shadows in the Grass (New Haven, CT, 1983), 138.

88. Daly, Empire of the Nile, 415.

89. R. O. Collins and F. M. Deng (eds), The British in the Sudan, 1898–1956 (1984), 52.

90. BECM, 2001/299, 1946.

91. D. H. Johnson (ed.), The Upper Nile Province Handbook 1931 (1995), 28.

92. D. Cameron, My Tanganyika Service and Some Nigeria (1939), 103.

93. P. Mitchell, African Afterthoughts (1954), 129.

94. Collins and Deng (eds), British in the Sudan, 107 and 169.

95. Thesiger, Life of My Choice, 202.

96. C. A. E. Lea, On Trek in Kordofan, ed. M. W. Daly (Oxford, 1994), 43.

97. Henderson, Modern Sudan, 11–12.

98. P. Woodward, Condominium and Sudanese Nationalism (1979), 32.

99. Daly, Imperial Sudan, 42.

100. F. M. Deng, Africans of Two Worlds (1978), 156.

101. Collins and Deng (eds), British in the Sudan, 85.

102. F. M. Deng and M. W. Daly, Bonds of Silk (East Lansing, MI, 1989), 75.

103. C. H. Johnston, The View from Steamer Point (1964), 192.

104. Henderson, Modern Sudan, 172, 542, 555 and 558.

105. The Times, 17 May 1944.

106. Deng and Daly, Bonds of Silk, 97.

107. R. I. Rotberg, The Rise of Nationalism in Central Africa (Cambridge, MA, 1966), 111.

108. G. Padmore, How Britain Rules Africa (1936), 4.

109. I. Henderson, “The Origins of Nationalism in East and Central Africa: The Zambian Case,” JAH, XI, 4 (1970), 598.

110. A. Roberts, A History of Zambia (1976), 193.

111. Porter, Lion’s Share, 282.

112. J. Cary, The Case for Africa and Other Writings on Africa (Austin, TX, 1962), 17.

113. R. I. Rotberg, Black Heart: Gore-Browne and the Politics of Multiracial Zambia (Berkeley, CA, 1977), 300.

114. CHA, VII, 64.

115. Mitchell, Afterthoughts, 18.

116. M. Crowder, West Africa under Colonial Rule (1968), 460–61.

117. Harris, Darkest Africa, 107.

118. Lord Hailey, “Nationalism in Africa,” JRAS, 36 (April 1937), 138.

119. R. Robinson, “The Moral Disarmament of the African Empire 1919–1947,” JICH, VIII (October 1979), 99.

120. G. Shepperson, “Notes on Negro American Influences on the Emergence of African Nationalism,” JAH, I, 2 (1960), 300.

121. Cary, Case for Africa, 20–21.

122. R. G. Gregory, India and East Africa (Oxford, 1971), 417.

13. Spinning the Destiny of India

1. Nehru, Autobiography, 129–30.

2. Chadha, Gandhi, 425.

3. Nehru, Autobiography, 254.

4. Nehru, Old Letters, 59.

5. S. P. and P. Chablani (eds), Motilal Nehru (Delhi, 1961), 205.

6. SWJN, I, 4 and 76–7.

7. S. Gandhi (ed.), Freedom’s Daughter (1989), 77.

8. SWJN, I, 167.

9. S. P. and P. Chablani (eds), Motilal Nehru, 32.

10. Nehru, Autobiography, 230 and 52.

11. SWJN, I, 257.

12. S. C. Bose, The Indian Struggle 1920–1942 (Delhi, 1997 edn), 110.

13. Chadha, Gandhi, 272.

14. Nehru, Autobiography, 95. Nehru doubtless read J. B. Bury’s seven-volume edition of the Decline and Fall (1st edn, 1896). So did Gandhi.

15. H. Pollitt (ed.), Lenin on Britain (1934), 52.

16. S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru, I (1975), 103.

17. Nehru, Autobiography, 506.

18. J. Campbell, F. E. Smith First Earl of Birkenhead (1983), 756 and 733.

19. J. Barnes and D. Nicholson (eds), The Empire at Bay: The Leo Amery Diaries 1929–1945 (1988), 48.

20. S. Wolpert, Nehru (New York, 1996), 76.

21. S. Gopal, The Viceroyalty of Lord Irwin 1926–1931 (Oxford, 1957), 23.

22. Nehru, Autobiography, 180.

23. J. N. Sahni, Fifty Years of Indian Politics 1921–1971 (Delhi, 1971), 52.

24. K. Harris, Attlee (1982), 78.

25. Nehru, Autobiography, 204 and 207.

26. K. N. Hutheesing with A. Hatch, We Nehrus (New York, 1967), 126.

27. SWJN, I, 311. From Marino Faliero, Act II, Scene 2.

28. Tendulkar, Mahatma, II, 372.

29. The Times, 15 April 1930.

30. A. Roberts, The Holy Fox (1991), 31.

31. Bakshi, Indian Nation Movement, III, 44.

32. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, 292.

33. D. Keer, Mahatma Gandhi (Bombay, 1973), 519.

34. T. Weber, On the Salt March (Delhi, 1997), 133.

35. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, XLII (Ahmedabad, 1970), 500.

36. The Times, 11 April 1930.

37. New York Times, 6 April 1930.

38. Keer, Gandhi, 524.

39. The Times, 10, 14, 12 and 10 April 1930.

40. Private Information, Mrs. Morvyth Seely.

41. CUL RCMS 52, G. E. Wheeler, “The Pathography of a Cuckoo,” 68.

42. S. M. Burke and S. A. Quraishi, The British Raj in India (Karachi, 1995), 280.

43. B. R. Nanda, In Gandhi’s Footsteps (Delhi, 1990), 187.

44. Lord Birkenhead, Halifax (1965), 284 and 248.

45. Campbell, Smith, 734.

46. P. Addison, The Road to 1945 (1975), 84.

47. Nehru, Autobiography, 543.

48. F. Younghusband, Dawn in India (1930), 151 and 29.

49. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, The Scope of Happiness (1979), 39.

50. Wolpert, Nehru, 122.

51. P. Murphy, Alan Lennox-Boyd (1999), 30.

52. Birkenhead, Halifax, 247.

53. Tendulkar, Mahatma, III, 56.

54. L. Fischer, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1982 edn), 348.

55. Louis, In the Name of God, 110.

56. S. Gopal, “Churchill and India,” in R. Blake and W. R. Louis (eds), Churchill (Oxford, 1992), 460.

57. Gilbert, Churchill, V, 467.

58. W. S. Churchill, The Second World War, I (6 vols, 1948–54), 26.

59. Gilbert, Churchill, V, 376.

60. Answers, 21 July 1934.

61. CAC, CHAR 2/169/60, Sir Abe Bailey to Churchill, 17 September 1930.

62. R. A. Callahan, Churchill: Retreat from Empire (1984), 35.

63. H. Pelling, Winston Churchill (1974), 352.

64. Barnes and Nicholson (eds), Empire at Bay, 326.

65. G. Best, Churchill: A Study in Greatness (2001), 135.

66. C. Bridge, Holding India to the Empire (1986), 73.

67. B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj 1914–1947 (1979), 141.

68. S. P. Cohen, The Indian Army (Berkeley, CA, 1971), 122.

69. Sahni, Fifty Years, 102–3.

70. Gopal, Nehru, I, 170.

71. Bence-Jones, Viceroys, 272.

72. Sahni, Fifty Years, 95.

73. J. Darwin, “Imperialism in Decline? Tendencies in British Imperial Policy between the Wars,” HJ, 23, 3 (1980), 677.

74. A. Read and D. Fisher, The Proudest Day (1998 edn), 255.

75. Mansergh, Commonwealth Experience, 267. Churchill made it clear that he said “sham” not (as is often quoted) “shame.”

76. CAC, CHAR 9/113.

77. CAC, PJGG 6, Lady Grigg to Tom Jones, 13 April 1935.

78. J. Glendevon, The Viceroy at Bay: Lord Linlithgow in India, 1936–1943 (1971), 119.

79. Gopal, Nehru, I, 231.

80. J. Nehru, The Unity of India (1948 edn), 65, 181 and 196.

81. Bose, Indian Struggle, 368.

82. J. M. Brown, Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy (Oxford, 1994 edn), 300.

83. CSAS, Darling Papers, Box 27, April to Irene Darling, 7 March 1939.

84. Nehru, Unity of India, 36.

85. G. Rizvi, Linlithgow and India (1978), 135.

86. Nehru, Old Letters, 178.

87. D. A. Low, Britain and Indian Nationalism (Cambridge, 1997), 300.

88. R. J. Moore, Endgames of Empire (Delhi, 1988), 83.

89. J. Nehru, The Discovery of India (1946), 374.

90. CAC, PJGG 2, Grigg to Sir Philip Chetwode, 18 July 1936.

91. SWJN, X, 191.

92. A. S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity (1997), 81.

93. Nehru, Old Letters, 427.

94. S. S. Pirzada, Foundations of Pakistan (Karachi, 1970), 337.

95. Gilbert, Churchill, V, 886.

96. News of the World, 22 May 1938.

97. Clarke, Cripps, 111.

98. M. Gilbert, Churchill (1991), 646.

99. Barnes and Nicholson (eds), Empire at Bay, 637.

100. Louis, Name of God, 20.

101. Nehru, Unity of India, 418.

102. Rizvi, Linlithgow, 166.

103. S. Gandhi, Two Alone, Two Together: Letters between Indira Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru 1940–1961 (1992), 101 and 9.

104. E. Roosevelt, As He Saw It (1946), 37.

105. R. Hyam, “Churchill and the British Empire,” in Blake and Louis (eds), Churchill, 180.

106. Gilbert, Churchill, VI, 1163.

107. Churchill, Second World War, II, 386. Actually the text was prepared for Churchill by Sir Alexander Cadogan, head of the Foreign Office.

108. N. Angell, “A Re-Interpretation of Empire,” United Empire, 43 (September-October 1952), 255.

109. Gopal, Nehru, I, 260.

110. W. F. Kimball, The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman (Princeton, NJ, 1991), 133.

111. M. and S. Harries, Soldiers of the Sun (1991), 93.

112. Low, Britain and Indian Nationalism, 335.

113. Barnes and Nicholson (eds), Empire at Bay, 783.

114. Rizvi, Linlithgow, 183.

115. TOPI, I, 440.

116. R. Rhodes James (ed.), Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon (1967), 423 and 446.

117. Clarke, Cripps, 355.

118. A. M. Browne, Long Sunset (1995), 76. Linlithgow also used this nickname, so perhaps Churchill did not coin it. Cf. P. French, Liberty or Death (1997), 142.

119. P. Moon (ed.), Wavell: The Viceroy’s Journal (1973), 33.

120. Moore, Endgames, 92.

121. Clarke, Cripps, 305.

122. TOPI, I, 634.

123. W. F. Kimball, Forged in War: Churchill, Roosevelt and the Second World War (1997), 140.

124. W. F. Kimball (ed.), Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence, I (1984), 446–7.

125. Private information: Mae Berger.

126. TOPI, I, 665.

127. French, Liberty or Death, 159.

128. Barnes and Nicholson (eds), Empire at Bay, 842.

129. Churchill by His Contemporaries—An Observer Appreciation (1965), 97.

130. Quoted by S. Wolton, Lord Hailey, the Colonial Office and the Politics of Race and Empire in the Second World War (Basingstoke, 2000), 101.

131. E. Sevareid, Not so Wild a Dream (1946), 239 and 241.

132. W. R. Louis, Imperialism at Bay: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire 1941–1945 (Oxford, 1977), 433.

133. CAC, CHAR 9/191A/3–12.

134. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 37–8.

135. TOPI, III, 35.

136. Nehru, Discovery of India, 426.

137. Mason, Men who Ruled India, 333.

138. Bhatia, Famines, 324.

139. P. S. Gupta (ed.), Towards Freedom: Documents on the Movement for Independence in India, Pt II (Delhi, 1997), 1890.

140. J. Connell, Auchinleck (1959), 736.

141. Bhatia, Famines, 339.

142. CAC, CHAR 9/191/33 ff.

143. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 78.

144. Wolpert, Nehru, 335.

145. CAC, CHAR 9/191/33 ff.

146. Barnes and Nicholson (eds), Empire at Bay, 943.

147. Louis, Name of God, 173.

148. Lord Casey, Personal Experience 1939–1946 (1962), 210.

149. J. Colville, The Fringes of Power (1985), 563.

150. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 89.

151. The Times, 3 November 1921.

152. K. Young (ed.), The Diaries of Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, II (1980), 390.

153. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 165.

154. Daily Mail, 6 September 1932.

155. Answers, 21 July 1934.

156. Young (ed.), Lockhart, II, 243.

157. TOPI, V, 765.

158. Read and Fisher, Proudest Day, 354.

159. W. Wyatt, Confessions of an Optimist (1985), 154.

160. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 168.

161. Wolpert, Nehru, 333.

162. The Times, 12 January 1942.

163. S. Howe, Anticolonialism in British Politics (Oxford, 1993), 139.

164. A. Bullock, Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary 1945–1951 (1983), 234.

165. Taylor, English History, 599.

166. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 165 and 387.

167. A. Jalal, The Sole Spokesman (Cambridge, 1985), 137.

168. R. J. Moore, Escape from Empire (1984), 76.

169. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 295, 314 and 341.

170. S. Bose and A. Jalal, Modern South Asia (1998), 179.

171. S. Ghosh, Gandhi’s Emissary (1967), 105.

172. P. Moon, Divide and Quit (Delhi, 1998 edn), 81.

173. F. Tuker, While Memory Serves (1950), 160.

174. Gopal, Nehru, I, 337.

175. Moon (ed.), Wavell, 402.

176. H. V. Brasted and C. Bridge, “The Transfer of Power in South Asia: An Historiographical Review,” SA, XVII, 1 (1994), 108.

177. B. Fergusson, The Trumpet in the Hall 1930–1958 (1970), 176.

178. A. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians (1994), 60.

179. Ahmed, Jinnah, 168.

180. H. V. Hodson, The Great Divide (Karachi, 1997 edn), 531.

181. B. Loring Vila, Unauthorized Action: Mountbatten and the Dieppe Raid 1942 (Oxford, 1990), 256.

182. P. Ziegler (ed.), Personal Diary of Admiral the Lord Louis Mountbatten 1943–1946 (1988), 204.

183. TOPI, IX, 453.

184. J. Morgan, Edwina Mountbatten: A Life of Her Own (1991), 298.

185. P. Ziegler, Mountbatten (1986 edn), 475 and 368.

186. S. Qureshi, Jinnah (Karachi, 1999), 37.

187. G. D. Khosla, Stern Reckoning (1989 edn), 102.

188. M. N. Das, End of the British-Indian Empire, I (Cuttack, 1983), 290.

189. I. Copland, India 1885–1947 (2001), 74.

190. TOPI, XI, 826 and 39.

191. United Empire, XXXIX (July-August 1948), 195.

192. The Memoirs of General the Lord Ismay (1960), 416.

193. The Times, 27 August 1947.

194. L. Mosley, The Last Days of the Raj (1961), 57.

195. Times of India, 30 May 1947.

196. R. Hudson (ed.), The Raj: An Eyewitness History of the British in India (1999), 580.

197. TOPI, XI, 131.

198. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 120.

199. Quoted from the Calcutta Statesman by Tuker, While Memory Serves, 588.

200. TOPI, XII, 444.

201. A. K. Azad, India Wins Freedom (1960), 190.

202. L. A. Sherwani, The Partition of India and Mountbatten (Karachi, 1986), 183.

203. CSAS, Patrick Brendon, “Disaster in Gurgaon,” 60.

204. Hodson, Great Divide, 534.

205. I. Copland, The Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire 1917–1947 (Cambridge, 1997), 269.

206. Moon, Divide and Quit, 107.

207. The Times, 15 August 1947.

208. L. Collins and D. Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight (1982 edn), 125.

209. TOPI, XII, 770–71.

210. V. P. Menon, The Transfer of Power in India (1957), 413.

211. Azad, India Wins Freedom, 209.

212. The Times, 16 August 1947.

213. Collins and Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight, 309.

214. TOPI, XII, 773.

215. A. Campbell-Johnson, Mission with Mountbatten (1951), 161.

216. The Times, 15 August 1947.

217. New York Times, 24 August 1947.

218. S. Heffer, Like the Roman (1998), 98.

219. P. Hennessy, Never Again: Britain 1945–51 (1992), 235.

220. Azad, India Wins Freedom, 190. Azad had warned Mountbatten of this and said that “the British would be responsible for the carnage.”

221. New York Times, 15, 20 and 21 August 1947.

222. S. S. Hamid, Disastrous Twilight (1986 edn), 225.

223. Khosla, Stern Reckoning, 123.

224. The Times, 25 August 1947.

225. Read and Fisher, Proudest Day, 498.

226. P. Singh, Of Dreams and Demons (1994), 26.

227. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, 837.

228. R. Symonds, In the Margins of Independence (Oxford, 2001), 3.

229. Menon, Transfer of Power, 434.

230. Ziegler, Mountbatten, 437.

231. T. Royle, The Last Days of the Raj (1997 edn), 218, 213 and 214.

232. Angell in United Empire, XLIII (September-October 1952), 255.

233. Khosla, Stern Reckoning, 296.

234. Hamid, Disastrous Twilight, 238.

14. That Is the End of the British Empire

1. Brown, India, 320.

2. Gopal, JICH, XXVII (May 1999), 107.

3. J. Gallagher, The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1982), 145.

4. R. C. H. McKie, This Was Singapore (n.d.), 19 and 101.

5. O. D. Gallagher, Retreat in the East (1942), 68.

6. Sydney Morning Herald, 14 February 1938, quoted by C. M. Turnbull, A History of Singapore (Kuala Lumpur, 1977), 163.

7. S. Roskill, Hankey, II (1973), 544.

8. R. Douglas, Liquidation of Empire (2002), 37.

9. W. R. Louis, Ends of British Imperialism (2006), 308.

10. R. Callahan, The Worst Disaster: The Fall of Singapore (Newark, NJ, 1977), 31.

11. A. Warren, Singapore 1942 (2002), 26.

12. P. S. Chapman, The Jungle Is Neutral (1949), 17.

13. K. Attiwill, The Singapore Story (1959), 19.

14. The Times, 8 December 1941.

15. Turnbull, Singapore, 141.

16. Attiwill, Singapore, 66.

17. Kipling, Sea to Sea, I, 258.

18. Wyett, Staff Wallah, 87.

19. Warren, Singapore, 43.

20. B. Bond (ed.), Chief of Staff, II (1974), 67.

21. P. Elphick, Singapore: The Pregnable Fortress (1995), 153.

22. I. Morrison, Malayan Postscript (1942), 157.

23. D. Cooper, Old Men Forget (1953), 305.

24. Chapman, Jungle, 18.

25. CUL, RCMS, BAM Addenda, Mic. 8239, K. A. Brundle, “Escape from Singapore 1942,” 3, in “An Architect’s Memoirs of Malaya.”

26. Gallagher, Retreat, 65.

27. Elphick, Singapore, 257.

28. M. Tsuji, Singapore 1941–1942: The Japanese Version of the Malayan Campaign of World War, II (Oxford, 1988), 68.

29. H. P. Willmott, Empires in the Balance (1982), 241 and 247.

30. Chapman, Jungle, 15.

31. L. Allen, Singapore 1941–1942 (1977), 255.

32. W. D. McIntyre, The Rise and Fall of the Singapore Naval Base, 1919–1942 (1979), 226.

33. CUL, RCMS, BAM Addenda, Mic. 8239, 6.

34. Elphick, Singapore, 285.

35. CUL, RCMS, BAM Addenda, Mic. 8239, 3.

36. E. M. Glover, In 70 Days (1946), 122.

37. C. Bayly and T. Harper, Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia 1941–1945 (2005), 130.

38. CUL, RCMS, BAM Addenda, Mic. 8239, 10.

39. Warren, Singapore, 278.

40. Churchill, Second World War, IV, 81.

41. Turnbull, Singapore, 215.

42. Glover, 70 Days, 239.

43. E. C. T. Chew and E. Lee (eds), A History of Singapore (Singapore, 1991), 117.

44. James, Rise and Fall, 453.

45. H. Nicolson, Diaries and Letters 1939–1945 (1967), 214.

46. The Times, 14 March 1942.

47. Melbourne Herald, 27 December 1941.

48. R. E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce (1994), 177.

49. CSAS, Tayabji Papers, “The Burma Story,” 20, 36, 21 and 3.

50. Thant Myint-U, Modern Burma, 102.

51. H. F. Hall, The Soul of the People (1905), 53.

52. D. M. Smeaton, The Loyal Karens of Burma (1887), 26.

53. Geary, Burma, 245.

54. J. S. Furnivall, An Introduction to the Political Economy of Burma (Rangoon, 1931), xii.

55. J. S. Furnivall, Colonial Policy and Practice (New York, 1956), 162.

56. Ba Maw, Breakthrough in Burma (1968), xxii.

57. Smeaton, Loyal Karens, 26 and 216–17.

58. Furnivall, Colonial Policy, 108.

59. Orwell and Calder (eds), Collected Orwell, I, 265.

60. Furnivall, Colonial Policy, 90 and 150.

61. White, Civil Servant, 11.

62. Smeaton, Loyal Karens, 4.

63. H. Tinker (ed.), Burma: The Struggle for Independence 1944–1948, I (1983), 608.

64. Cooper, Old Men Forget, 295.

65. J. F. Cady, A History of Modern Burma (Ithaca, NY, 1958), 231.

66. J. Silverstein (ed.), The Political Legacy of Aung San (Ithaca, NY, 1993), 81.

67. Cady, Modern Burma, 218 and 252.

68. M. Collis, Trials in Burma (1945), 213.

69. C. Connolly (ed.), Horizon Stories (1953), 93.

70. R. Slater, Guns Through Arcady: Burma and the Burma Road (Sydney, 1941), 12.

71. Furnivall, Colonial Policy, 175 and 149.

72. Ba Maw, Breakthrough, 24, 21, 20 and 89.

73. Cady, Modern Burma, 418.

74. Ba Maw, Breakthrough, 65.

75. M. Collis, Last and First in Burma (1946), 32–3.

76. Ba Maw, Breakthrough, 174 and 206.

77. Cady, Modern Burma, 442.

78. R. Butwell, U Nu of Burma (Stanford, CA, 1969), 42.

79. C. Bayly, “Rangoon (Yangon) 1939–49: The death of a colonial metropolis,” CSAS, Occasional Paper No. 3 (2003), 16.

80. Tinker (ed.), Burma, I, 65.

81. Thakin Nu, Burma under the Japanese (1954), 77.

82. F. N. Trager (ed.), Burma: Japanese Military Administration, Selected Documents, 1941–1945 (Philadelphia, 1971), 164.

83. Tinker (ed.), Burma, I, 727.

84. H. Tinker, The Union of Burma (1967), 14.

85. United Empire, XXXVII (March 1946), 81 and 84.

86. Viscount Slim, Defeat into Victory (1956), 520 and 518.

87. N. Tarling, The Fourth Anglo-Burmese War (Gaya, Bihar, 1987), 42 and 47.

88. Collis, First in Burma, 210.

89. J. S. Furnivall, “Twilight in Burma: Reconquest and Crisis,” PA, XXII (1949), 9.

90. N. Tarling, The Fall of Imperial Britain in South-East Asia (New York, 1993), 161.

91. Tinker, Burma, I, 284, 1018, 1034, 934, 938 and 910.

92. Tinker, Burma, II, 13.

93. Tarling, Anglo-Burmese War, 342, 244 and 338.

94. Tinker, Burma, II, 877.

95. Tarling, Anglo-Burmese War, 329.

96. Bayly and Harper, Forgotten Wars, 374.

15. The Aim of Labour Is to Save the Empire

1. F. Lewis, Sixty-Four Years in Ceylon (Colombo, 1926), 217–18.

2. R. Moxham, Tea: Addiction, Exploitation and Empire (2003), 180.

3. Baker, Ceylon, 47.

4. Woolf, Growing, 48.

5. C. S. Blackton, “The Europeans of the Ceylon Civil Service in the Nineteen Twenties: The View from the Kachcheri,” CJHSS, NS, VIII (1978), 38.

6. C. M. Enriquez, Ceylon Past and Present (1927), 35 and 116.

7. Sri Lanka National Archives, 7/39, Governor’s Secret Diary (1798), 2.

8. W. Knighton, Forest Life in Ceylon, I (1854), 97.

9. Tennent, Ceylon, II, 167.

10. R. W. Kostal, “A Jurisprudence of Power: Martial Law and the Ceylon Controversy of 1848–51,” JICH, 28 (January 2000), 6.

11. K. M. de Silva (ed.), Letters on Ceylon 1846–50 (Colombo, 1965), 137.

12. A. C. M. Ameer Ali, “Rice and Irrigation in 19th Century Sri Lanka,” CHJ, XXV (October 1978), 259.

13. G. F. Perera, The Ceylon Railway (1925), 44 and 86.

14. H. A. J. Hulugalle, British Governors of Ceylon (Colombo, 1963), 85.

15. Woolf, Growing, 92.

16. R. K. de Silva (ed.), 19th-Century Newspaper Engravings of Ceylon-Sri Lanka (1998), 159.

17. Tennent, Ceylon, II, 189.

18. Hulugalle, British Governors, 73.

19. Sri Lanka National Archives, 25/5, Stuart Mackenzie Collection, Mackenzie to James Stephen, 14 March 1841.

20. Tennent, Ceylon, I, 3, and II, 99.

21. E. Haeckel, “A Visit to Ceylon,” CHJ, 23 (1975), 59.

22. Tennent, Ceylon, II, 255.

23. H. Williams, Ceylon: Pearl of the East (1950), 17.

24. Knighton, Forest Life, I, 150.

25. Tsuzuki, Carpenter, 105.

26. M. Roberts, “Stimulants and Ingredients in the Awakening of Latter-Day Nationalism,” in M. Roberts (ed.), Collective Identities: Nationalism and Protest in Modern Sri Lanka (Colombo, 1979), 226.

27. J. Manor, The Expedient Utopian: Bandaranaike and Ceylon (Cambridge, 1989), 63.

28. S. A. Pakeman, Ceylon (1964), 108.

29. S. Bandaranaike, Remembered Yesterdays (1929), 16, 273 and 224.

30. K. M. de Silva and H. Wriggins, J. R. Jayewardene, I (1988), 17.

31. C. T. Blackton, “The Empire at Bay: British Attitudes and the Growth of Nationalism in the Early Twentieth Century,” in Roberts (ed.), Collective Identities, 381.

32. H. A. J. Hulugalle, The Life and Times of Don Stephen Senanayake (Colombo, 1975), 25.

33. Hulugalle, British Governors, 159 and 164.

34. Sri Lanka National Archives, 25/7/1, S. C. Fernando/Woolf Papers, E. W. Perera and D. E. Jayatitaka to Colonial Secretary, 18 September 1917. The authors said that the Attorney-General withheld this remark from the commission of inquiry because foreign critics “might make capital out of it, and because it was a shameful thing.” Perera also accused the Attorney, in a letter to Leonard Woolf (26 October 1917), of trying “to blacken the character of the men shot.”

35. Manchester Guardian, 28 August 1917.

36. Sri Lanka National Archives, 25/7/1, Perera and Jayatitaka, 18 September 1917.

37. C. S. Blackton, “The 1915 Riots in Ceylon,” CJHSS, X (1967), 62.

38. M. Vythilingam, The Life of Sir Ponnambalam Ramathan, II (Chunnakam, 1977), 234.

39. K. M. de Silva, “The Formation and Character of the Ceylon National Congress 1917–1919,” CJHSS, X (1967), 100.

40. K. M. de Silva, “The Ceylon National Congress in Disarray II: The Triumph of Sir William Manning,” CJHSS, NS, III (1973), 17.

41. C. Jeffries, Ceylon—The Path to Independence (1962), 51.

42. K. M. de Silva (ed.), BDEEP, Series E, Vol. II, Sri Lanka, Pt I (1997), 107, 156, 11 and 44.

43. Viscount Soulbury, “D. S. Senanayake the Man,” CHJ, V (1955–6), 64.

44. De Silva (ed.), Sri Lanka, Pt I, 132.

45. Blackton, “Empire at Bay,” in Roberts (ed.), Collective Identities, 381.

46. Manor, Expedient Utopian, 152.

47. De Silva (ed.), Sri Lanka, Pt I, 133 and 135.

48. K. M. de Silva (ed.), University of Ceylon History of Ceylon, III (Colombo, 1973), 419.

49. Hullugalle, Senanayake, 136.

50. De Silva (ed.), Sri Lanka, Pt II, 92.

51. ICS, JENN/125, Papers of Sir Ivor Jennings, C/14/1, “Road to Peradeniya,” 131.

52. De Silva (ed.), Sri Lanka, Pt II, 96, 113 and 112.

53. ICS, JENN/125, C/14/1, 139.

54. De Silva (ed.), Sri Lanka, Pt II, 284.

55. K. M. de Silva, “The Transfer of Power in Sri Lanka—A Review of British Perspectives,” CJHSS, NS, IV (1974), 19.

56. H. Grimal, Decolonization (1978 edn), 135. The speaker was Patrick Gordon Walker, a junior minister in the Commonwealth Relations Office.

57. Ludowyk, Ceylon, 204.

58. W. R. Roff, The Origins of Malay Nationalism (Kuala Lumpur, 1994 edn), 235, 183 and 232.

59. A. Milner, The Invention of Politics in Colonial Malaya (Cambridge, 1995), 264.

60. P. H. Kratoska, The Japanese Occupation of Malaya (Cambridge, 1998), 349.

61. Thorne, Allies, 728.

62. Chin Peng, My Side of History (Singapore, 2003), 267.

63. The Times, 16 August 1945.

64. Cheah Boon Kheng, Red Star over Malaya (Singapore, 1983), 138 and 133.

65. Bayly and Harper, Forgotten Wars, 270.

66. D. Mackay, The Malayan Emergency, 1948–60 (1997), 157.

67. A. J. Stockwell (ed.), BDEEP, Series B, Vol. 3, Malaya, Pt II (1995), 37.

68. N. J. White, Business, Government and the End of Empire (Kuala Lumpur, 1996), 275 and 8.

69. A. Lau, The Malayan Union Controversy 1942–1948 (Singapore, 1991), 101.

70. S. C. Smith, “The Rise, Decline and Survival of the Malay Rulers during the Colonial Period, 1874–1957,” JICH, 22 (January 1994), 97.

71. A. J. Stockwell, British Policy and Malay Politics during the Malayan Union Experiment, 1942–1948 (Kuala Lumpur, 1979), 57.

72. Kheng, Red Star, 277.

73. R. Heussler, Completing a Stewardship: The Malayan Civil Service 1942–1957 (Westport, CT, 1983), 97.

74. M. Shennan, Out in the Midday Sun: The British in Malaya 1880–1960 (2000), 304.

75. T. Harper, “The Politics of Disease and Disorder in Post-War Malaya,” JSeAS, 21 (March 1990), 99.

76. R. B. Smith, “Some Contrasts between Burma and Malaya in British Policy towards South-East Asia, 1942–1946,” in R. B. Smith and A. J. Stockwell (eds), British Policy and the Transfer of Power in Asia: Documentary Perspectives (1988), 63.

77. R. Stubbs, Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare (Singapore, 1989), 55.

78. A. Short, The Communist Insurrection in Malaya 1948–1960 (1975), 61.

79. Stockwell (ed.), Malaya, Pt II, 21.

80. Straits Times, 17 June 1948.

81. Shennan, Midday Sun, 318.

82. Stubbs, Hearts and Minds, 75 and 90.

83. P. Deery, “The Terminology of Terrorism: Malaya, 1948–52,” JSeAS, 34 (2003), 241.

84. J. D. Leary, Violence and the Dream People (Athens, OH, 1995), 42.

85. Chin Peng, History, 270.

86. J. Cloake, Templer, Tiger of Malaya (1985), 204.

87. Stockwell (ed.), Malaya, Pt II, 330.

88. Cloake, Templer, 263.

89. M. R. Henderson, Malayan Journal (1987), 13.

90. Muggeridge, Chronicles of Wasted Time, II, 116.

91. Purcell, Malayan Official, 272.

92. K. Ramakrishna, “‘Transmogrifying’ Malaya: The Impact of Sir Gerald Templer,” JSeAS, 32 (February 2001), 84.

93. Cloake, Templer, 220 and 239.

94. Harper, End of Empire, 281.

95. Cloake, Templer, 214 and 230.

96. Short, Communist Insurrection, 380, 292 and 193.

97. Chin Peng, History, 301.

98. M. C. A. Henniker, Red Shadow over Malaya (1955), 112.

99. K. Hack, “‘Iron Claws on Malaya’: The Historiography of the Malayan Emergency,” JSeAS, 30 (March 1999), 118.

100. A. Burgess, Little Wilson and Big God (1978), 395.

101. K. Ramakrishna, Emergency Propaganda (Richmond, 2002), 165.

102. Harper, End of Empire, 355.

103. Stockwell (ed.), Malaya, Pt II, 455.

16. A Golden Bowl Full of Scorpions

1. D. Reynolds, Britannia Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century (1991), 167.

2. W. R. Louis, The British Empire in the Middle East (Oxford, 1984), 31.

3. Gilbert, Churchill, VIII, 171.

4. Bullock, Bevin: Foreign Secretary, 659.

5. D. Reynolds, In Command of History (2005), 43.

6. B. Wasserstein, The British in Palestine (1978), 111.

7. C. Sykes, Cross Roads to Israel (1965), 88.

8. A. Koestler, Promise and Fulfilment: Palestine 1917–1949 (1949), 33.

9. D. Duff, Bailing with a Teaspoon (1953), 76.

10. A. Shapira, “Ben-Gurion and the Bible: The Forging of an Historical Narrative,” MES, 33 (October 1997), 651.

11. G. Antonius, The Arab Awakening (2000 edn), 409 and 411.

12. Wasserstein, British in Palestine, 60.

13. Antonius, Arab Awakening, 411.

14. Wasserstein, British in Palestine, 79.

15. D. Ingrams (ed.), Palestine Papers 1917–1922 (New York, 1973), 171.

16. T. Segev, One Palestine, Complete (2000), 147.

17. N. Rose, Harold Nicolson (2005), 20.

18. Segev, One Palestine, 160 and 155.

19. Sherman, Mandate Days, 45.

20. Wasserstein, British in Palestine, 107.

21. J. M. N. Jeffries, Palestine: The Reality (1939), 279 and 333.

22. Meinertzhagen, Middle East Diary, 48.

23. G. K. Chesterton, The New Jerusalem (1920), 93–4.

24. Sykes, Cross Roads, 39.

25. CAC, AMEL 1/5/46, “Secret and Confidential: Josiah Wedgwood’s Recollections After a Dinner 26-7-1928.”

26. Pembroke College, Cambridge, Storrs Papers, Reel 8, Storrs to unnamed recipient, 9 February 1922. Storrs said that Northcliffe “arrived in Palestine still a Zionist by reputation but far other at heart and soon in speech.”

27. Pound and Harmsworth, Northcliffe, 845.

28. B. Pimlott (ed.), The Political Diary of Hugh Dalton (1986), 207.

29. E. Keith-Roach, Pasha in Jerusalem (1994), 56.

30. P. Loti, Jerusalem and the Holy Land (2002 edn), 58.

31. Storrs, Orientations, 439.

32. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 648 and 564.

33. Loti, Jerusalem, 62.

34. H. C. Luke (ed.), The Traveller’s Guide for Palestine and Syria (1924), 145.

35. R. Andrews, Blood on the Mountain (1999), 198.

36. Keith-Roach, Pasha, 119.

37. S. Perowne, The One Remains (1954), 82.

38. G. A. Smith, The Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1966 edn), 212.

39. Pembroke College, Cambridge, Storrs Papers, Reel 8, Storrs to George Lloyd, 1 September 1922.

40. P. Mattar, The Mufti of Jerusalem (New York, 1988), 38.

41. J. C. Hurewitz, The Struggle for Palestine (New York, 1976 edn), 74.

42. E. C. Hodgkin (ed.), Thomas Hodgkin: Letters from Palestine 1932–1936 (1986), 22.

43. N. Bentwich, My 77 Years (1962), 163.

44. Antonius, Arab Awakening, 408.

45. S. Teveth, Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Arabs (New York, 1985), 166.

46. D. Duff, Palestine Picture (1936), 68.

47. A. M. Kayyali, Palestine: A Modern History (1978), 175.

48. A. Eban, An Autobiography (1977), 43.

49. S. Teveth, Ben-Gurion: The Burning Ground 1886–1948 (Boston, 1987), 437.

50. CAC, AMEL 1/5/46, “Wedgwood’s Recollections After a Dinner 26-7-1928.”

51. B. Litvinoff (ed.), The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, XVII, Series A (Jerusalem, 1979), 268.

52. CAC, AMEL 1/5/46, “Secret Note of Conversation on 23 Feb. 1937.”

53. Segev, One Palestine, 456.

54. A. Perlmutter, The Life and Times of Menachem Begin (New York, 1987), 67.

55. Sherman, Mandate Days, 109.

56. Keith-Roach, Pasha, 194.

57. M. J. Cohen, Palestine: Retreat from the Mandate (1978), 49.

58. SAC, GB 165–0196, MacMichael Papers, File 6, Notes for speech 16 June 1944.

59. C. Sykes, Orde Wingate (1959), 133.

60. Cohen, Retreat, 85.

61. C. Sanger, Malcolm MacDonald: Bringing an End to Empire (Liverpool, 1995), 171.

62. Teveth, Ben-Gurion, 194.

63. L. Baker, Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews (New York, 1978), 227.

64. A. M. Lesch, Arab Politics in Palestine, 1917–1939 (1979), 227.

65. A. J. Toynbee (ed.), Survey of International Affairs 1938, I (1941), 468.

66. Mattar, Mufti, 105.

67. J. Heller, The Stern Gang (1995), 46.

68. Segev, One Palestine, 471–2.

69. N. Bethell, The Palestine Triangle (1979), 74 and 83.

70. G. Kirk, The Middle East in the War (1952), 231.

71. New York Times, 12 May 1942.

72. Kirk, Middle East, 317.

73. Bethell, Palestine Triangle, 145 and 126.

74. Perlmutter, Begin, 71.

75. Bethell, Palestine Triangle, 190.

76. R. Crossman, Palestine Mission (1947), 90.

77. Teveth, Burning Ground, 872.

78. C. Mayhew, “British Foreign Policy since 1945,” IA, 26 (1950), 484.

79. M. Jebb (ed.), The Diaries of Cynthia Gladwyn (1995), 24.

80. R. Ovendale, “The Palestine Policy of the British Labour Government 1945–1946,” IA, 55 (July 1979), 413.

81. A. Howard, Crossman (1990), 116.

82. Louis, British Empire in the Middle East, 428.

83. New Statesman, 11 May 1946.

84. Crossman, Palestine Mission, 138.

85. Koestler, Promise and Fulfilment, 117.

86. The Jewish War, BBC 2, 26 November 2004. Yet at the time members of the Stern Gang did describe themselves as terrorists.

87. G. Kirk, The Middle East 1945–1950 (1954), 229.

88. Louis, British Empire in the Middle East, 446.

89. The Times, 3 March 1947.

90. Zionist Review (11 April 1947), 3.

91. Bethell, Palestine Triangle, 336. The phrase was coined by the French Communist newspaper L’Humanité.

92. R. D. Wilson, Cordon and Search (1949), 110.

93. A. Gill, The Journey Back from Hell (1988), 269.

94. J. and D. Kimche, Both Sides of the Hill (1960), 22.

95. M. J. Cohen, Palestine and the Great Powers, 1945–1948 (Princeton, NJ, 1982), 268.

96. Louis, British Empire in the Middle East, 435.

97. Bullock, Bevin: Foreign Secretary, 359.

98. D. Acheson, Present at the Creation (1969), 180.

99. W. R. Louis and R. W. Stookey (eds), The End of the Palestine Mandate (1982), 66.

100. Pimlott (ed.), Diary of Hugh Dalton, 414.

101. SAC, GB 165-0196, File 4, W. I. Fitzgerald to MacMichael, 8 November 1947.

102. N. Shepherd, Ploughing Sand: British Rule in Palestine 1917–1948 (1999), 232.

103. P. Gifford and W. R. Louis (eds), Decolonization and African Independence: The Transfer of Power, 1960–1980 (New Haven, CT, 1988), x.

104. T. Clarke, By Blood and Fire (1981), 165.

105. R. M. Graves, Experiment in Anarchy (1949), 147.

106. W. R. Louis, “Sir Alan Cunningham and the End of British Rule in Palestine,” JICH, XVI (May 1988), 134 and 142.

107. S. Flapan, The Birth of Israel (1987), 95.

108. Segev, One Palestine, 509.

109. CAC, AMEL 1/5/47, Amery to Lord Salisbury, 21 May 1948.

110. SAC, GB 165–0128, Sir Henry Gurney Collection, File 2, Diary 20 March and 6 April 1948.

17. The Destruction of National Will

1. Louis, British Empire in the Middle East, 378.

2. W. Khalidi, “Nasser’s Memoirs of the First Palestine War,” JPS, II (Winter 1973), 10.

3. J. Lacouture, Nasser (1973), 265 and 65.

4. H. G. A. Nasser, Britain and the Egyptian Nationalist Movement (Reading, 1994), 100.

5. E. Shuckburgh, Descent to Suez (1986), 4 and 6.

6. T. E. Evans (ed.), The Killearn Diaries 1934–1946 (1972), 101.

7. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 167.

8. A. Cooper, Cairo in the War 1939–1945 (1989), 115.

9. P. J. Vatikiotis, The Modern History of Egypt (1969), 348.

10. Evans (ed.), Killearn Diaries, 214.

11. W. Stadien, Too Rich (1992), 205.

12. Lacouture, Nasser, 48.

13. Nasser, Egyptian Nationalist Movement, 296 and 132.

14. Louis, British Empire in the Middle East, 241.

15. Lacouture, Nasser, 32.

16. Evans (ed.), Killearn Diaries, 329.

17. Farnie, Suez, 632.

18. Shuckburgh, Descent to Suez, 29.

19. The Times, 28 and 29 January 1952.

20. R. Stephens, Nasser (1971), 101.

21. A. Nutting, Nasser (1972), 41.

22. Lacouture, Nasser, 135.

23. H. Trevelyan, The Middle East in Revolution (1970), 86.

24. J. Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (1986), 301. Much folklore surrounds this edifice: the Americans allegedly retaliated by calling the Tower “Nasser’s Prick.”

25. W. R. Louis and R. Owen (eds), Suez 1956 (Oxford, 1989), 53.

26. Brendon, Churchill, 213.

27. Lord Moran, Churchill: The Struggle for Survival 1940–1965 (1966), 357.

28. M. H. Heikal, Cutting the Lion’s Tail (1986), 41.

29. Gilbert, Churchill, VIII, 897.

30. K. Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran (1979), 210.

31. Blake and Louis (eds), Churchill, 479.

32. CAC, AMEJ 679, Memoranda of 20 July 1954 and March 1953.

33. CAC, AMEJ 483/2, Handwritten Memorandum on the Middle East, 9.

34. D. R. Thorpe, Selwyn Lloyd (1989), 173.

35. R. Rhodes James, Anthony Eden (1986), 334.

36. D. Carlton, Anthony Eden (1986 edn), 292.

37. W. Scott Lucas, Divided We Stand (1991), 98.

38. The phrase was Enoch Powell’s. CAC, POLL 3/1/12.

39. W. Clark, From Three Worlds (1986), 146.

40. Ball, Guardsmen, 144.

41. H. Thomas, The Suez Affair (1986 edn), 46.

42. Heikal, Lion’s Tail, 62.

43. M. Heikal, Nasser: The Cairo Documents (1972), 81.

44. V. Mussolini, Vita con mio padre (Rome, 1957), 62.

45. Shuckburgh, Descent to Suez, 281.

46. Lacouture, Nasser, 163.

47. Schuckburgh, Descent to Suez, 327.

48. Royle, Glubb, 439.

49. A. Nutting, No end of a lesson (1967), 17.

50. R. S. Churchill, The Rise and Fall of Sir Anthony Eden (1959), 225.

51. B. Lapping, End of Empire (1985), 262.

52. Andrew, Secret Service, 495.

53. EL, Bernard Shanley Diaries, 2239, 4 September 1956.

54. P. L. Hahn, “Discord or Partnership? British and American policy toward Egypt, 1942–1956,” in M. J. Cohen and M. Kolinsky (eds), Demise of the British Empire in the Middle East (1998), 175.

55. K. Love, Suez: The Twice-Fought War (1969), 333.

56. N. Frankland (ed.), Documents on International Affairs 1956 (1959), 88, 109 and 113.

57. Browne, Long Sunset, 132.

58. H. Finer, Dulles over Suez (1964), 192.

59. A. Horne, Macmillan 1894–1956 (1988), 397.

60. I. McDonald, The History of the Times, V (1984), 266.

61. CAC, SELO 6/71, Record of conversation between Selwyn Lloyd and Lord Avon, 30 May 1958.

62. K. Kyle, Suez (1991), 137.

63. EL, AWF, Eisenhower Diary Series, Box 15, 30 July 1956. Cf. A. Eden, Full Circle (1960), 437.

64. EL, AWF, Dulles-Herter Series, Box 5, 2 August 1956.

65. P. Brendon, Ike: The Life and Times of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1987), 233.

66. P. G. Boyle (ed.), The Eden–Eisenhower Correspondence 1955–1957 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2005), 203.

67. H. Macmillan, War Diaries 1943–1945 (1984), 285.

68. Lord Egremont, Wyndham and Children First (1968), 84.

69. R. Davenport-Hines, The Macmillans (1992), 223.

70. Horne, Macmillan 1894–1956, 422.

71. R. Ovendale, The English-Speaking Alliance: Britain, the United States, the Dominions and the Cold War 1945–1951 (1985), 124.

72. Lucas, Divided We Stand, 270.

73. Brendon, Ike, 328.

74. CAC, KLMR 6/9, Notes on Suez.

75. Ball, Guardsmen, 319.

76. Thorpe, Lloyd, 2.

77. C. Foley, Island in Revolt (1962), 64.

78. CAC, SELO 6/65, Correspondence.

79. M. Dayan, Story of My Life (1976), 231.

80. Rhodes James, Eden, 536.

81. Kyle, Suez, 370.

82. Nutting, No end of a lesson, 107.

83. D. Dodds-Parker, Political Eunuch (1986), 105.

84. Clark, Three Worlds, 209. Clark also said Eden was “a criminal lunatic.” Tony Benn, who recorded this in his diary, added: “And knowing what a moderate, middle-of-the-road, wishy-washy man Clark is, I was quite surprised to hear such strong language used.” (E. Pearce, Denis Healey [2002], 180.)

85. Ziegler, Mountbatten, 545.

86. G. Warner, “‘Collusion’ and the Suez Crisis of 1956,” IA, 55 (April 1979), 229.

87. D. R. Thorpe, Alec Douglas-Home (1996), 181.

88. Farnie, Suez, 707.

89. Daily Express, 1 November 1956.

90. A. Chisholm and M. Davie, Lord Beaverbrook: A Life (New York, 1993), 495.

91. The Times, 2 November 1956.

92. EL, AWF, Eisenhower Diary Series, 29 October 1956.

93. Ibid., 30 October 1956.

94. Dodds-Parker, Eunuch, 112.

95. EL, AWF, Eisenhower Diary Series, 5 November 1956.

96. J. B. Tournoux, Secrets d’Etat (Paris, 1960), 169.

97. Love, Suez, 630.

98. EL, AWF, Eisenhower Diary Series, 20 November 1956.

99. T. Hoopes, The Devil and John Foster Dulles (1974), 405.

100. CAC, AMEJ 483/2, 21.

101. Horne, Macmillan 1894–1956, 441.

102. M. Amory (ed.), The Letters of Ann Fleming (1985), 188.

103. M. Foot, Aneurin Bevan, II, 1945–69 (1973), 521.

104. EL, AWF, Eisenhower Diary Series, Box 8, 10 January 1957.

105. Ibid., Box 20, 20 November 1956.

106. D. D. Eisenhower, Waging Peace (1965), 178.

107. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 283.

108. Nutting, No end of a lesson, 12.

109. P. Hennessy, Whitehall (1989), 214.

110. CAC, AMEJ 483/2, 21 and 18.

111. Stephens, Nasser, 247.

112. Clark, Three Worlds, 214.

113. CAC, DSND 6/29, Suez Operation Reports 1956–7, undated and unsigned paper.

114. The Economist, 19 January 1957, quoted by G. Parmentier, “The British Press in the Suez Crisis,” HJ, 23 (1980), 446.

115. D. Reynolds, “Eden the Diplomatist, 1931–56: The Suezide of a Statesman?” History, 74 (February 1989), 71 and 84.

116. J. Eayrs (ed.), The Commonwealth and Suez: A Documentary Survey (Oxford, 1964), 194. According to two authoritative Canadian historians, Louis St. Laurent’s alignment of his country with the United Nations rather than the United Kingdom “marked the de facto end of the British Empire in Canada.” (N. Hillmer and J. L. Granatstein, Empire to Umpire [Toronto, 1994], 226.)

117. CAC, HICK 2, Personal Memoir of R. H. Hickling, 138.

118. Johnston, Steamer Point, 26.

119. J. Cochrane (ed.), Kipling (1983 edn), 209.

120. Tom Stacey in Sunday Times, 17 May 1964.

121. Foster, Landscape with Arabs, 164.

122. G. Balfour-Paul, The End of Empire in the Middle East (Cambridge, 1991), 69.

123. R. Ovendale, Britain, the United States and the transfer of power in the Middle East, 1945–1962 (1996), 178.

124. S. R. Ashton and S. E. Stockwell (eds), BDEEP, Series A, Vol. I, Imperial Policy and Colonial Practice 1925–1945, Pt II (1996), 204.

125. F. Halliday, Arabia Without Sultans (Harmondsworth, 1974), 89.

126. CAC, HICK 2, 95.

127. R. J. Gavin, Aden under British Rule 1839–1967 (1975), 333.

128. K. Trevaskis, Shades of Amber (1968), xii and 80.

129. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 159.

130. D. Ledger, Shifting Sands (1983), 200.

131. Trevaskis, Amber, 9.

132. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 162.

133. Balfour-Paul, End of Empire, 56.

134. D. Holden, Farewell to Arabia (1966), 49.

135. F. Heinlein, British Government Policy and Decolonisation 1945–1963 (2002), 172.

136. P. Darby, British Defence Policy East of Suez 1947–1968 (1973), 1 and 49.

137. R. Hyam and W. R. Louis (eds), BDEEP, Series A, Vol. 4, The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1957–1964, Pt I, High Policy, Political and Constitutional Change (2000), xlix.

138. Murphy, Lennox-Boyd, 192.

139. S. R. Ashton and W. R. Louis (eds), BDEEP, Series A, Vol. 5, East of Suez and the Commonwealth 1964–1971, Pt I, East of Suez (2004), 277.

140. Trevaskis, Amber, 143.

141. Johnston, Steamer Point, 194 and 117.

142. Hyam and Louis (eds), Conservative Government, 619.

143. J. Paget, Last Post: Aden 1964–1967 (1969), 39.

144. CAC, BDOHP, Denis Doble, 9.

145. Halliday, Arabia, 206 and 204. According to Reginald Hickling (CAC, HICK 2, 119 and 279), there was “a substantial body of evidence” that detainees were also tortured in al-Mansoura Gaol. Yet, he concluded, “without being unctuously dishonest, I think no other armed forces, faced with the intense bitterness and fury of South Arabia, could have behaved with such restraint.”

146. M. Jones, “A Decision delayed: Britain’s withdrawal from South-East Asia reconsidered 1961–8,” EHR, CXVII (June 2002), 582–3. George Ball, American Under-Secretary of State, made this remark to Harold Wilson on 8 September 1965. Two days later the Chancellor of the Exchequer, James Callaghan, announced that Britain had acquired a short-term stabilisation loan of one billion dollars.

147. CAC, DSND, 8/16, Julian Amery to Sandys, 7 May 1964.

148. K. Pieragostini, Britain, Aden and South Arabia: Abandoning Empire (1991), 114.

149. The Times, 3 February 1966.

150. Ashton and Louis (eds), East of Suez, 248.

151. But according to an undated sheet of figures in Duncan Sandys’s papers (CAC, DSND 14/1, File 1), British casualties from terrorism in Aden numbered 111 per month during 1967.

152. Paget, Last Post, 194.

153. CAC, HICK 2, 282.

154. Paget, Last Post, 202 and 205.

155. Ledger, Shifting Sands, 180.

156. BCEM 2003/208, De Heveningham Baekeland Papers, 20.

157. CAC, HICK 2, 276

158. M. Crouch, An Element of Luck: To South Arabia and Beyond (1993), 5–6.

159. CAC, BDOHP, Sir Brian Crowe, 17.

160. CAC, HICK 2, Introduction—which Hickling wrote in haste after leaving Aden “while I felt strongly upon many of the issues” but subsequently deleted.

161. B. Pimlott, Harold Wilson (1997), 482.

162. BBC TV (audiotape), 19 November 1967.

163. S. R. Ashton and W. R. Louis (eds), East of Suez, 132 and 131.

18. Renascent Africa

1. D. Killingray, “Soldiers, Ex-Servicemen, and Politics in the Gold Coast, 1939–50,” JMAS, 21 (1983), 525.

2. A. E. Ekoko, “Conscript Labour and Tin Mining in Nigeria during the Second World War, JHSN, XI (December 1982), 76.

3. Pembroke College, Cambridge, Storrs Papers, Reel 11, Storrs to E. Marsh, 17 December 1930.

4. D. Rooney, Sir Charles Arden-Clarke (1982), 5.

5. Gallagher, Decline, Revival and Fall, 142.

6. Albertini, JCH (January 1969), 33.

7. D. Fieldhouse, “Decolonization, Development and Dependence: A Survey of Changing Attitudes,” in P. Gifford and W. R. Louis (eds), The Transfer of Power in Africa: Decolonization 1940–1960 (New Haven, CT, 1982), 489.

8. Hyam, Labour Government, I, xxxv.

9. Leith-Ross, Stepping-Stones, 117.

10. J. S. Coleman, Nigeria: Background to Nationalism (Berkeley, CA, 1971), 152.

11. Leith-Ross, Stepping-Stones, 114.

12. N. Azikiwe, My Odyssey (1970), 254.

13. R. Robinson, “Andrew Cohen and the Transfer of Power in Tropical Africa, 1940–1957,” in W. H. Morris-Jones and G. Fischer (eds), Decolonisation and After (1980), 54.

14. A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, Africa in the Colonial Period, III, The Transfer of Power (Oxford, 1979), 15. The words were those of Sir Hilton Poynton, who added later that he disliked the word “decolonisation” because it was “flavoured with the garlic of guilt.” (Ibid., 65.)

15. A. Creech Jones, “British Colonial Policy with Particular Reference to Africa,” IA, 27 (April 1951), 177.

16. Grimal, Decolonization, 121.

17. J. R. Hooker, Black Revolutionary (1967), 66.

18. J. A. Langley, Pan-Africanism and Nationalism in West Africa (Oxford, 1973), 353.

19. R. Rathbone (ed.), BDEEP, Series B, Vol. 1, Ghana, Pt I, 1945–1952 (1992), xxxv.

20. Perham, West African Passage, 62.

21. A. W. Cardinall, The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (1921), 82.

22. Kimble, Ghana, 132 and 134.

23. N. Farson, Behind God’s Back (1940), 447.

24. D. Austin, Politics in Ghana 1946–1960 (Oxford, 1970), 97. In 1874, General Wolseley had plundered many other items of the sacred regalia, including “the largest gold work known from Ashanti.” (R. Chamberlain, Loot: The Heritage of Plunder [1983], 93.)

25. R. E. Wraith, Guggisberg (1967), 100.

26. Kimble, Ghana, 548.

27. Wraith, Guggisberg, 216.

28. Farson, God’s Back, 443.

29. Burns, Civil Servant, 216.

30. K. Bradley, Once a District Officer (1966), 146.

31. M. Perham, The Colonial Reckoning: The End of Imperial Rule in Africa in the Light of Experience (1961), 114.

32. Burns, Civil Servant, 322.

33. Bing, Whirlwind, 48.

34. J. D. Hargreaves, The End of Colonial Rule in West Africa (1979), 43.

35. Burns, Civil Servant, 298 and 318.

36. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana, Pt I, xlii.

37. E. Huxley, Four Guineas (1954), 85.

38. J. Gunther, Inside Africa (1955), 784.

39. B. Davidson, Black Star (1973), 46 and 39.

40. Rooney, Arden-Clarke, 91.

41. Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (1957), 91.

42. C. Imray, Policeman in Africa (1997), 129 and 130.

43. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana, Pt I, 385 and xliv.

44. Rooney, Arden-Clarke, 67 and 88.

45. P. Dennis, Goodbye to Pith Helmets (Bishop Auckland, 2000), 133.

46. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana, Pt I, 391, 121 and 122.

47. Austin, Ghana, 87.

48. Nkrumah, Autobiography, 116.

49. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana, Pt I, 403.

50. Rooney, Arden-Clarke, 212.

51. Daily Telegraph, 17 October 1950. The article accused the CPP of carrying out violent intimidation and concluded: “We should make it quite plain to the Gold Coast and to the world that the British mission is not yet finished and that in no circumstances will we allow the country to relapse into chaos or to become a Russian outpost on the equator.”

52. CHA, 8, 52.

53. Austin, Ghana, 126.

54. AA, 57 (January 1958), 33.

55. Nkrumah, Autobiography, 136.

56. Scotsman, 15 October 1999. Julius Nyerere observed this phenomenon among Ghanaian students abroad.

57. Lapping, End of Empire, 382.

58. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana, Pt I, 373, and Pt II, 4.

59. Gunther, Inside Africa, 801.

60. Ghana Evening News, 1 May 1957.

61. Nkrumah, Autobiography, 142.

62. C. Walton, “British intelligence and threats to national security, c. 1941–1951” (Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 2006), 694.

63. CAC, SPRS, 1048, Box 1, R, 31 January 1953.

64. E. Powell, Private Secretary (Female)/Gold Coast (1984), 74.

65. CAC, SPRS, 1048, Box 1, R, 17 January 1953.

66. Bradley, District Officer, 145.

67. Austin, Ghana, 219.

68. H. K. Akyeampong (ed.), Journey to Independence and After, II (Accra, 1971), 96.

69. Huxley, Four Guineas, 81.

70. T. P. Omari, Kwame Nkrumah (1970), 144.

71. Nkrumah, Autobiography, 197.

72. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana, Pt I, 35.

73. J-M. Allman, “The Youngmen and the Porcupine: Class, Nationalism and Asante’s Struggle for Self-Determination,” JAH, 31 (1990), 275.

74. Rooney, Arden-Clarke, 175.

75. Austin, Ghana, 334.

76. Murphy, Lennox-Boyd, viii.

77. D. Goldsworthy (ed.), BDEEP, Series A, Vol. 3, The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951–1957, Pt I (1994), liv.

78. Lapping, End of Empire, 387.

79. SOAS, MS 380596, Papers of Sir Charles Arden-Clarke, File 1, speech made at midnight on 5 March 1957.

80. Purcell, Private Secretary, 106.

81. CAC, SPRS, BOX 1, T, 9 March 1966.

82. M. Meredith, The State of Africa (2005), 96 and 307.

83. The Times, 10 June 1944.

84. Coleman, Nigeria, 15.

85. J. Morley, Colonial Postscript: Diary of a District Officer 1935–56 (1992), 75.

86. Huxley, Four Guineas, 167.

87. J. Wheare, The Nigerian Legislative Council (1950), x.

88. G. Gorer, Africa Dances (1935), opposite 129.

89. C. Achebe, Things Fall Apart (1965 edn), 160.

90. J. Smith, Colonial Cadet in Nigeria (Durham, NC, 1968), 22.

91. O. Awolowo, The People’s Republic (Ibadan, 1968), 65.

92. B. Sharwood Smith, “But Always As Friends” (1970), 150.

93. H. Foot, A Start in Freedom (1964), 108.

94. Perham, West African Passage, 25.

95. H. L. Ward Price, Dark Subjects (1939), 199.

96. W. R. Crocker, Nigeria: A Critique of British Administration (1936), 206–7.

97. I. Brook, The One-Eyed Man Is King (1966), 90.

98. A. Grantham, Via Ports (Hong Kong, 1965), 50.

99. Gunther, Inside Africa, 740.

100. Coleman, Nigeria, 151.

101. Ward Price, Dark Subjects, 230.

102. M. Lynn (ed.), BDEEP, Series B, Vol. 7, Nigeria: Managing Political Reform 1943–1953, Pt I (2001), xlvi.

103. J. E. Flint, “Managing Nationalism: The Colonial Office and Nnamde Azikiwe, 1932–43,” in R. D. King and R. W. Wilson (eds), The Statecraft of British Imperialism (1999), 148.

104. R. D. Pearce, Sir Bernard Bourdillon (Oxford, 1987), 338, 309, 198, 313, 351 and 345.

105. O. Awolowo, Awo (Cambridge, 1960), 69.

106. Gorer, Africa Dances, 274.

107. R. L. Sklar, Nigerian Political Parties (Princeton, NJ, 1963), 50.

108. Azikiwe, Odyssey, 174 and 252.

109. P. S. Zachernuk, Colonial Subjects: An African Intelligentsia and Atlantic Ideas (Charlottesville, VA, 2000), 110.

110. W. R. Crocker, Self-Government for the Colonies (1949), 47.

111. Awolowo, Awo, 141 and 137.

112. Coleman, Nigeria, 264.

113. T. Clark, A Right Honourable Gentleman: Abubakar From the Black Rock (1991), 97.

114. A. Low, “The End of the British Empire in Africa,” in Gifford and Louis (eds), Decolonization and African Independence, 45–6.

115. The Times, 30 May 1946.

116. M. Crowder, The Story of Nigeria (1973 edn), 275.

117. D. K. Fieldhouse, Black Africa 1945–80 (1986), 7.

118. A. G. Hopkins, An Economic History of West Africa (1973), 266.

119. Crocker, Self-Government, vi.

120. T. Falola, “British Imperialism: Roger Louis and the West African Case,” in King and Wilson (eds), Statecraft, 135.

121. Gunther, Inside Africa, 736.

122. Pearce, Bourdillon, 274.

123. Coleman, Nigeria, 286.

124. The Times, 20 August 1946.

125. C. U. Uwanaka, Zik & Awo in Political Storm (Lagos, 1982), 8.

126. N. Azikiwe, Zik: A Selection of the Speeches of Nnamde Azikiwe (Cambridge, 1961), 165.

127. Zachernuk, Colonial Subjects, 156.

128. Crowder, Story of Nigeria, 268.

129. R. Pearce (ed.), Then the Wind Changed: Nigerian Letters of Robert Hepburn Wright, 1936–49 (1992), 124.

130. Clark, Abubakar, 182.

131. M. S. O. Olisa and O. M. Ikejiani-Clark (eds), Azikiwe and the African Revolution (Onitsha, 1989), 224.

132. S. O. Jaja, “The Enugu Colliery Massacre in Retrospect: An Episode in British Administration of Nigeria,” JHSN, XI (December 1982), 88.

133. Awolowo, People’s Republic, 62.

134. Sharwood Smith, But Always, 276.

135. Zachernuk, Colonial Subjects, 164.

136. Sklar, Nigerian Political Parties, 144 and 195.

137. Lynn (ed.), Nigeria, Pt II, 259, 184, 333 and 334.

138. Sklar, Nigerian Political Parties, 173.

139. Lynn, Nigeria, Pt II, 183.

140. CUL, RCMS 133/1, A. Kirk-Greene, “Scrapbooks of News Cuttings of Royal Visit to Nigeria 1956.”

141. Ibid., 133/2.

142. United Empire, XLVII (May-June 1956), 78.

143. CUL, RCMS 133/2.

144. Ibid.

145. United Empire, XLVII (May-June 1956), 78.

146. A. Bello, My Life (1960), 182.

147. A. Enahoro, Fugitive Offender (1965), 152.

148. C. Douglas-Home, Evelyn Baring: The Last Proconsul (1978), 153.

149. CUL, RCMS 133/1. I have standardised the punctuation and capitalisation.

150. Sharwood Smith, But Always, 317.

151. Bello, My Life, 180.

152. CUL, RCMS 133/3.

153. Lynn, Nigeria, Pt II, 80, 184 and 3.

154. CUL, RCMS 113/23, H. Smith, “A Squalid End to Empire,” Ruskin Record (August 1992), 2. I am grateful to John Smith, David Angus and Manus Nunan for exposing the untrustworthiness of this source. For an authoritative account, see K. Post, The Nigerian Federal Election of 1959: Politics and Administration in a Developing Political System (1963).

155. CUL, RCMS 136/31, B. Azikiwe, “Military Revolution in Nigeria” (Chapter 30), 32.

156. Sharwood Smith, But Always, 362.

157. Lynn (ed.), Nigeria, Pt II, 567.

158. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 805.

159. R. Blake, A History of Rhodesia (1977), 328.

160. R. Shepherd, Iain Macleod (1995 edn), 162.

161. Azikiwe, Speeches, 158.

162. Mansergh, Commonwealth Experience, 347.

163. Perham, Colonial Reckoning, 9.

164. The Times, 28 December 1960.

165. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 96.

166. Lord Halifax, Fulness of Days (1957), 273.

167. United Empire, XLIX (March-April 1958), 65.

168. J. English, “Empire Day in Britain 1904–1958,” HJ, 49 (March 2006), 274.

169. Heinlein, British Government Policy, 107.

170. United Empire, XLVII (July-August 1956), 119.

171. N. Annan, Our Age (1990 edn), 43.

172. United Empire, XLVIII (July-August 1956), 179.

173. Hobson, Imperialism, 46. P. E. Hallett (ed.), Utopia (1937 edn), 224–5—the translation is slightly different.

174. P. Brendon, Our Own Dear Queen (1986), 230.

175. J. Darwin, The End of the British Empire: The Historical Debate (Oxford, 1991), 80–81.

176. H. Macmillan, Riding the Storm 1956–1959 (1971), 383.

177. United Empire, XLVIII (July-August 1956), 179.

178. The Times, 27 February 1961.

179. Heinlein, British Government Policy, 144.

180. ODNB.

181. A. Horne, Harold Macmillan 1957–1986, II (1989), 204.

182. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 376.

183. Davenport-Hines, Macmillans, 277.

184. Horne, Macmillan, I, 109.

185. P. Brendon, “An Anachronism in His Own Time,” New York Times Book Review (26 November 1989), 11.

186. Hyam and Louis (eds), Conservative Government, Pt I, xxvii.

187. Clarke and Trebilcock (eds), Understanding Decline, 238.

188. C. Ponting, Breach of Promise: Labour in Power 1964–1970 (1989), 43.

189. Horne, Macmillan 1894–1956, 160.

190. Macmillan, Storm, 378.

191. H. Macmillan, Pointing the Way 1959–1961 (1972), 116.

192. Ball, Guardsmen, 345.

193. S. J. Ball, “Macmillan, the Second World War and the Empire,” in R. Aldous and S. Lee (eds), Harold Macmillan: Aspects of a Political Life (1999), 172.

194. Macmillan, Pointing, 475.

195. Daily Herald, 4 February 1960.

196. Macmillan, Pointing, 477.

19. Uhuru—Freedom

1. F. Brockway, African Journeys (1955), 87–8.

2. RH, MSS Afr.s.746, Blundell Papers, Box 12, File 1, I. W. Idakho to Blundell, 24 January 1953.

3. CAC, FEBR 22/9, Brockway quoted by the Nairobi Daily Chronicle, 9 September 1950.

4. T. Kanogo, Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau 1905–63 (1987), 59.

5. CUL RCMS 318/1/3, Memoirs of Thomas and Florence Edgar, 24.

6. Bache, Young Lion, 66 and 279.

7. J. Iliffe, Africans: The History of a Continent (Cambridge, 1995), 217.

8. CUL RCMS 113/44, Chapter XIII, 1.

9. Berman, Control & Crisis, 274.

10. Throup, Origins of Mau Mau, 68.

11. D. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged (2005), 26.

12. Kanogo, Squatters, 127.

13. CUL RCMS 113/44, Chapter XI, 1. However, the multi-racial United Kenya Club was founded in 1946.

14. A. Hake, African Metropolis (1977), 57.

15. J. Lewis, Empire State-Building: War & Welfare in Kenya 1925–52 (Oxford, 2000), 99.

16. CAC, FEBR 3/48k, Brockway’s “Report to the Secretary of State for Colonial Affairs.”

17. F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (Harmondsworth, 1967 edn), 30.

18. H. H. Werlin, Governing an African City: A Study of Nairobi (New York, 1974), 61.

19. M. Gicaru, Land of Sunshine (1958), 133.

20. R. M. Gatheru, Child of Two Worlds (1964), 75.

21. B. A. Ogot and W. R. Ochieng’, Decolonization & Independence in Kenya 1940–1993 (1995), 33.

22. R. Frost, Enigmatic Proconsul: Sir Philip Mitchell and the Twilight of Empire (1992), 181.

23. P. Mitchell, African Afterthoughts (1954), 273.

24. Lewis, Empire State-Building, 272.

25. J. Murray-Brown, Kenyatta (1972), 190.

26. N. Cunard (ed.), Negro (1970 edn), 454.

27. E. Huxley, The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (1948), 60.

28. B. Berman and J. M. Lonsdale, “The Labours of Muigwithania: Jomo Kenyatta as Author, 1928–45,” Research in African Literatures, 29 (Spring 1998), 38 and 37.

29. N. Farson, Last Chance in Africa (1953), 113.

30. D. L. Barnett and K. Njama, Mau Mau from Within (1966), 75.

31. H. Muoria, I, The Gikuyu and the White Fury (Nairobi, 1994), 17.

32. J. M. Kariuki, “Mau Mau” Detainee (1963), 12.

33. Barnett and Njama, Mau Mau, 75.

34. Lapping, End of Empire, 411.

35. RH, MSS Afr.s.746, Box 12, File 1, I. W. Idakho to Blundell, 24 January 1953.

36. T. Askwith, From Mau Mau to Harambee (Cambridge, 1995), 112.

37. DUL, Baring Papers, GRE/1/18/1 and 29, Mitchell to Baring, 25 March and 16 June 1952.

38. East African Standard, 10 April 1952.

39. R. Ruark, Something of Value (1955), 177.

40. Douglas-Home, Baring, 231, 229 and 230.

41. C. Elkins, Britain’s Gulag: The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya (2005), 61.

42. DUL, Baring Papers, GRE 1/19/150, Baring to Lyttelton, 9 October 1952.

43. Gicaru, Land of Sunshine, 17.

44. CUL RCMS 175, T. H. R. Cashmore, “Kenya Days,” 35.

45. R. B. Edgerton, Mau Mau (1990), 152.

46. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged, 85.

47. Gicaru, Land of Sunshine, 115. Graham Greene also thought the settlers “a kind of white Mau Mau.” (N. Sherry, The Life of Graham Greene, II [1994], 462.)

48. Barnett and Njama, Mau Mau, 208.

49. Ruark, Something of Value, 406.

50. RH, MSS Afr.s.746, Box 12, File 1, Nini Langmead to Blundell, 4 March 1953.

51. CUL, RCMS 175, 26.

52. M. Blundell, So Rough a Wind (1964), 145.

53. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged, 1.

54. BECM, 2001/299, Undated Police Report on “Mau Mau Ceremonies as Described by Participants.”

55. M. S. Clough, Mau Mau Memoirs (Boulder, CO, 1998), 120.

56. Kariuki, Detainee, 18 and 27.

57. Mitchell, African Afterthoughts, xvii–xviii and 220.

58. O. Lyttelton, The Memoirs of Lord Chandos (1962), 394–5.

59. M. Blundell, A Love Affair with the Sun (Nairobi, 1994), 139.

60. Douglas-Home, Baring, 237.

61. Edgerton, Mau Mau, 80.

62. Blundell, Rough a Wind, 133.

63. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged, 152.

64. H. Cuss, “British Intelligence and the Leaders of Colonial Independence Movements: The Cases of Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta” (Cambridge M.Phil., 2006), 54.

65. A. Clayton, Counter-Insurgency in Kenya 1952–60 (Yuma, KA, 1984), 5.

66. Douglas-Home, Baring, 243 and 256.

67. Clayton, Counter-Insurgency, 11.

68. R. Buijtenhuijs, Mau Mau: Twenty Years After (The Hague, 1973), 107.

69. CUL RCMS 175, 11 and 16.

70. L. White, The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi (Chicago, 1990), 185.

71. CUL RCMS 175, 68–9 and 26.

72. CUL RCMS 113/44, Chapter XXI, 3.

73. Lyttelton, Memoirs, 405.

74. Anderson, Histories of the Hanged, 79. The phrase was coined by Ng˜ug˜amp2; wa Thiong’o.

75. Edgerton, Mau Mau, 143.

76. CUL RCMS 175, 28.

77. Elkins, Britain’s Gulag, 67.

78. CUL RCMS 175, Appendix, 5.

79. B. Castle, Fighting All the Way (1993), 271 and 273.

80. CUL RCMS 175, 33 and 26.

81. Caroline Elkins takes this expression as the title for her book and David Anderson describes the comparison with the Soviet archipelago made by M. Clough (Mau Mau, 205) as “tellingly accurate” (Histories of the Hanged, 315). But Ronald Hyam rightly criticises this “abuse of language,” saying that we must have words left “to denounce the worst evils of all.” (Britain’s Declining Empire: The Road to Decolonisation, 1918–1968 [Cambridge, 2007], 192.)

82. C. G. Rosberg and J. Nottingham, The Myth of “Mau Mau”: Nationalism in Kenya (New York, 1966), 334, 346 and 378.

83. Blundell, Rough a Wind, 198.

84. W. Itote, “Mau Mau” General (Nairobi, 1974 edn), 125.

85. Barnett and Njama, Mau Mau, 209.

86. Kariuki, Detainee, 89.

87. Elkins, Britain’s Gulag, 193.

88. The Times, 16 June 1959.

89. Elkins, Britain’s Gulag, 283. The phrase was coined by Baring’s compliant Attorney General, Eric Griffith-Jones.

90. Castle, Fighting, 262.

91. BECM 2002/218, Breckenridge Papers, Bernard Mwai Gathua, 24 March 1956, J. W. Mwathi, 22 October 1954, Cyrus Gakuo Karuga, 18 February 1957—all writing to Mrs. Breckenridge.

92. O. Odinga, Not Yet Uhuru (1968 edn), 141.

93. D. Goldsworthy, Tom Mboya (New York, 1982), 74.

94. DUL, Baring Papers GRE/1/98/1–29, Kenya Notebook 1959.

95. Douglas-Home, Baring, 279.

96. RH, Welensky Papers, 592/2, Blundell to Welensky, 3 January 1960.

97. CUL RCMS 175, 71, 34, 68, 71 and 62.

98. DUL, Baring Papers GRE/1/98/1–29, Kenya Notebook 1959.

99. The Times, 7 May 1959.

100. Edgerton, Mau Mau, 194.

101. The Times, 16 June 1959.

102. The Times, 28 July 1959.

103. CAC, POLL 3/1/18, J. Mcleod to Powell, n.d.

104. Ibid., V. Bonham Carter to Powell, 31 July 1959.

105. Heinlein, British Government Policy, 195.

106. A. W. B. Simpson, Human Rights and the End of Empire (Oxford, 2001), 1057.

107. Shepherd, Macleod, 159.

108. Spectator, 31 January 1964.

109. New York Times, 17 July 1959.

110. Murray-Brown, Kenyatta, 298.

111. J. Yorke, Lancaster House (2001), 171.

112. Daily Herald and Daily Mail, 21 January 1960.

113. RH, Welensky Papers 592/2, Blundell to Welensky, 29 February 1960.

114. Bennett, Kenya, 153.

115. RH, Welensky Papers, 592/2, Blundell to Welensky, 29 February 1960.

116. Edgerton, Mau Mau, 208.

117. Blundell, Rough a Wind, 283.

118. CUL RCMS 175, 95.

119. RH, Welensky Papers, 592/8, Welensky to Lord Salisbury, 18 August 1961.

120. Nicholls, Red Strangers, 273.

121. BCEM, 2003/208, 16.

122. G. Wasserman, Politics of Decolonisation: Kenya Europeans and the Land Issue 1960–1965 (Cambridge, 1976), 162.

123. Murray-Brown, Kenyatta, 309.

124. Sanger, MacDonald, 390.

125. Heinlein, British Government Policy, 257.

126. N. wa Thiong’o, Writers in Politics (Oxford, 1997), 106.

127. Murray-Brown, Kenyatta, 320.

128. The Times, 12 December 1963.

129. Askwith, Mau Mau to Harambee, 101.

130. CUL, RCMS 175, 103.

131. Milne, Global Policy Forum (May 2005). The press did not quote Brown’s qualifying remarks.

132. CUL, RCMS 175, 103.

20. Kith and Kin

1. T. O. Ranger, Revolt in Southern Rhodesia 1896–7 (1967), 104 and 319.

2. W. H. Brown, On the South African Frontier (1899), 322.

3. N. Jones, Rhodesian Genesis (Bulawayo, 1953), 113.

4. A. Keppel-Jones, Rhodes and Rhodesia (Kingston, Ont., 1983), 401.

5. Headlam (ed.), Milner Papers, I, 141.

6. The Times, 29 January 1895.

7. I. Phimister, An Economic and Social History of Zimbabwe, 1890–1948 (1988), 8 and 7.

8. Colvin, Jameson, I, 214.

9. M. Hall, “The Legend of the Lost City: Or, the Man with Golden Balls,” JSAS, 21 (June 1995), 188. This bird, symbolising the link which Rhodes tried to construct between North and South Africa, features in the décor of Rhodes House.

10. Brown, South African Frontier, 400. Rhodes himself endorsed this book.

11. Ranger, Revolt, 119.

12. Baden-Powell, Matabele Campaign, 329.

13. T. Ranger, Voices from the Rocks (Bloomington, IN, 1999), 14.

14. F. W. Sykes, With Plumer in Matabeleland (1897), 168.

15. NAM, 1999-07-20, 5 June 1897 ff.

16. Brown, South African Frontier, 369.

17. F. C. Selous, Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia (1896), 30 and 193.

18. Ranger, Revolt, 131.

19. G. Sims, Paladin of Empire: Earl Grey and Rhodesia (Salisbury, 1970), 3 and 45.

20. Ranger, Revolt, 14.

21. Selous, Sunshine and Storm, 137.

22. Baden-Powell, Matabele Campaign, 131–2 and 290.

23. T. Jeal, Baden-Powell (1989), 175.

24. C. Summers, From Civilization to Segregation (Athens, OH, 1994), 52.

25. J. Iliffe, Famine in Zimbabwe 1890–1960 (Gweru, 1990), 26.

26. Rotberg, Rhodes, 561.

27. Keppel-Jones, Rhodes and Rhodesia, 503–4.

28. Rotberg, Rhodes, 568.

29. Pakenham, Scramble for Africa, 500.

30. Blake, Rhodesia, 145.

31. L. H. Gann, A History of Southern Rhodesia (1965), 209.

32. Hancock, Smuts, II, 154.

33. E. Tawse Jollie, The Real Rhodesia (1924), 85.

34. Brown, South African Frontier, 384, 394 and 391.

35. I. Henderson, “White Populism in Southern Rhodesia,” CSSH, 14 (September 1972), 390.

36. Ranger, Revolt, 323 and 376.

37. P. Mason, The Birth of a Dilemma (1958), 204.

38. R. Palmer, Land and Racial Domination in Rhodesia (1977), 97, 118, 71 and 89.

39. T. Burke, Lifebuoy Men, Lux Women (1996), 19.

40. Hole, Rhodesian Days, 98.

41. Kennedy, Islands of White, 158–9.

42. Summers, Civilization to Segregation, 139.

43. Palmer, Land and Racial Domination, 152.

44. Gann, Southern Rhodesia, 229.

45. K. Good, “Settler Colonialism in Rhodesia,” AA (1974), 11.

46. L. H. Gann and M. Gelfand, Huggins of Rhodesia (1964), 70.

47. Southern Rhodesia: Information for Settlers (1905), 35.

48. D. Lessing, Under My Skin (1994), 160.

49. Phimister, Zimbabwe, 183.

50. Palmer, Land and Racial Domination, 178.

51. R. Gray, The Two Nations (1960), 103.

52. E. Schmidt, “Negotiated Spaces and Contest Terrain: Men, Women and the Law in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1890–1939,” JSAS, 16, 4 (1990), 646.

53. Gray, Two Nations, 261 and 255.

54. A. DeRoche, Black, White and Chrome: The United States and Zimbabwe 1953–1998 (Trenton, NJ, 2001), 16.

55. Phimister, Zimbabwe, 196.

56. Gann and Gelfand, Huggins, 266.

57. L. Vambe, From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe (1976), 73.

58. T. O. Ranger, The African Voice in Southern Rhodesia 1898–1930 (1970), 224.

59. Phimister, Zimbabwe, 156 and 198.

60. Tawse Jollie, Real Rhodesia, 243.

61. Phimister, Zimbabwe, 187.

62. Gann, Southern Rhodesia, 314.

63. Gray, Two Nations, 319.

64. Vambe, Rhodesia to Zimbabwe, 159.

65. J. Parker, Rhodesia: Little White Island (1972), 62.

66. Dunn, Central African Witness, 177.

67. ODNB.

68. Rotberg, Black Heart, 260 and 188.

69. R. Hyam, “Africa and the Labour Government, 1945–1951,” JICS, 16 (May 1988), 168.

70. P. Murphy (ed.), BDEEP, Series B, Vol. 9, Central Africa, Pt I (2005), 331.

71. A. Cousins, “State Ideology and Power in Rhodesia, 1958–1972,” IJAHS, 24, 1 (1991), 39.

72. H. Franklin, Unholy Wedlock (1963), 49 and 87.

73. Rotberg, Nationalism in Central Africa, 248. The phrase was Banda’s.

74. L. W. Bowman, Politics in Rhodesia (Cambridge, MA, 1973), 19–20.

75. Roberts, History of Zambia, 213.

76. Rotberg, Nationalism in Central Africa, 265.

77. N. M. Shamuyarira, Crisis in Rhodesia (New York, 1966), 33.

78. Franklin, Unholy Wedlock, 82.

79. T. O. Ranger (ed.), Aspects of Central African History (1968), 238.

80. I. Phimister, “Rethinking the Reserves: Southern Rhodesia’s Land Husbandry Act Reviewed,” JSAS, 19 (June 1993), 239.

81. Nkomo: The Story of My Life (1984), 53.

82. J. R. T. Wood, The Welensky Papers (Durban, 1983), 535.

83. R. Welensky, Welensky’s 4000 Days (1964), 98.

84. P. Short, Banda (1974), 104.

85. Wood, Welensky Papers, 663.

86. R. C. Tredgold, The Rhodesia That Was My Life (1968), 227, 229 and 230.

87. Rhodesia Herald, 27 October 1960.

88. C. Sanger, Central African Emergency (1960), 262 and 286.

89. Lapping, End of Empire, 482.

90. The Times, 24 July 1959.

91. J. Darwin, “The Central African Emergency, 1959,” JICH, 21 (September 1993), 230.

92. Horne, Macmillan, II, 182.

93. The Times, 29 and 22 July 1959.

94. Franklin, Unholy Wedlock, 155.

95. The Times, 8 January 1960.

96. Blake, Rhodesia, 327.

97. Shepherd, Macleod, 203.

98. Murphy (ed.), Central Africa, Pt II, 141.

99. Welensky, 4000 Days, 270 and 299.

100. RH, Welensky Papers, 665/5, Lord Salisbury to Welensky, 7 August 1963.

101. Ibid., 592/8, Lord Salisbury to Welensky, 5 February 1961.

102. The Times, 8 March 1961.

103. R. Maudling, Memoirs (1978), 96.

104. RH, Welensky Papers, 770/3, Welensky to Lord Salisbury, 3 March 1964.

105. Ibid., 665/5, Welensky to Lord Salisbury, 25 January 1963.

106. Ibid., 592/8, Welensky to Lord Salisbury, 7 October 1961.

107. Ibid., 25 May 1961.

108. L. J. Butler, “Britain, the United States, and the Demise of the Central African Federation, 1959–63,” JICH, 28 (September 2000), 132.

109. Bowman, Politics in Rhodesia, 28.

110. Parker, Rhodesia, 94.

111. Lord Butler, The Art of the Possible (1971), 220.

112. Parker, Rhodesia, 100.

113. D. Lowry, “‘Shame upon “Little England” while “Greater England” Stands!’ Southern Rhodesia and the Imperial Idea,” in A. Bosco and A. May (eds), The Round Table and British Foreign Policy (1997), 306.

114. P. Allen, Interesting Things: Uganda Diaries 1955–1986 (Lewes, 2000), 29.

115. Hyam and Louis (eds), Conservative Government and the End of Empire, xlviii.

116. Foot, Start in Freedom, 219–20.

117. A. Megahey, Humphrey Gibbs: Beleaguered Governor (1998), 88.

118. I. D. Smith, Bitter Harvest (2001), 67.

119. Blake, Rhodesia, 361.

120. RH, Welensky Papers, 770/3, Welensky to Lord Salisbury, 4 May 1964.

121. D. Caute, Under the Skin (1983), 89.

122. Megahey, Gibbs, 81.

123. Shamuyarira, Crisis in Rhodesia, 210.

124. K. Young, Rhodesia and Independence (1969), 109.

125. M. Meredith, The Past Is Another Country (1979), 64–5.

126. K. Flower, Serving Secretly (1987), 36.

127. CAC, DSND 14/25/1, A. F. Hopkinson to Sandys, 13 July 1966.

128. Bowman, Politics in Rhodesia, 71.

129. Young, Rhodesia and Independence, 174.

130. H. Wilson, The Labour Government 1964–1970: A Personal Record (1971), 143, 159 and 163.

131. Pimlott, Wilson, 371.

132. Smith, Bitter Harvest, 96.

133. B. Castle, The Castle Diaries (1984), 67.

134. Smith, Bitter Harvest, 105.

135. CAC, DSND 14/25/1, Vera Bromley to Sandys, 14 October 1965.

136. Bowman, Politics in Rhodesia, 89.

137. Young, Rhodesia and Independence, 370.

138. Castle, Castle Diaries, 162.

139. Hyam, South African Expansion, 185.

140. CAC, DSND 14/25/1, Vera Bromley to Sandys, 14 October 1965.

141. CAC, DSND 14/25/1, I. Collyer to Sandys, 12 July 1966.

142. The Times, 15 November 1965.

143. Flower, Serving Secretly, 73.

144. R. Hall, My Life with Tiny: A Biography of Tiny Rowland (1987), 116.

145. T. Benn, Office without Power: Diaries 1968–72 (1988), 115.

146. H. R. Strack, Sanctions: The Case of Rhodesia (Syracuse, 1978), 29.

147. ODNB. The author of the article on Home, Douglas Hurd, is quoting from Cyril Connolly’s Enemies of Promise.

148. RH, Welensky Papers, 624/10, A. Douglas-Home to Welensky, 29 February 1960.

149. Bowman, Politics in Rhodesia, 123.

150. RH, Welensky Papers, 770/3, Welensky to Lord Salisbury, 3 March 1964. Winston Field, the Rhodesian Prime Minister, coined this phrase.

151. Meredith, Past Is Another Country, 79.

152. A. T. Muzorewa, Rise up and Walk (1978), 95 and 117.

153. DeRoche, Black, White & Chrome, 99.

154. J. Alexander, J. McGregor and T. Ranger, Violence & Memory (Oxford, 2000), 122–3.

155. Flower, Serving Secretly, 134.

156. Meredith, Past Is Another Country, 171.

157. J. McGregor, “The Victoria Falls 1900–1940: Landscape, Tourism and the Geographical Imagination,” JSAS, 29 (September 2003), 728.

158. H. Kissinger, Years of Renewal (1999), 917.

159. K. O. Morgan, Callaghan: A Life (Oxford, 1997), 595.

160. The Kissinger Study on Southern Africa (Nottingham, 1975), 11.

161. W. Isaacson, Kissinger (1992), 686.

162. Kissinger, Years of Renewal, 937.

163. The Times, 28 April 1976.

164. Meredith, Past Is Another Country, 52 and 254.

165. G. R. Berridge and A. James, A Dictionary of Diplomacy (Basingstoke, 2001).

166. The Times, 18 and 24 September 1976.

167. D. Owen, Time to Declare (1992), 301.

168. Flower, Serving Secretly, 185 and 194.

169. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 92.

170. Smith, Bitter Harvest, 309.

171. Brendon and Whitehead, The Windsors, 208.

172. M. Thatcher, Downing Street Years (1993), 75.

173. M. Charlton, The Last Colony in Africa (1990), 58.

174. H. Young, One of Us (1989), 179.

175. M. Meredith, Our Votes, Our Guns (New York, 2002), 8.

176. Smith, Bitter Harvest, 320.

177. Lord Carrington, Reflect on Things Past (1988), 298 and 302.

178. Meredith, Our Votes, 9.

179. The Times, 18 April 1980.

180. J. Campbell, Margaret Thatcher, II (2003), 74–5.

21. Rocks and Islands

1. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 1062.

2. CSJ, 3 (1960), 125.

3. Reynolds, Beards, 282.

4. The Times, 10 April 1950 and 25 August 1947.

5. O. Mandelstam, Selected Poems, trans. C. Brown and W. S. Merwin (Harmondsworth, 1977), 98.

6. P. G. Wodehouse, Jeeves and the Feudal Spirit (1963 edn), 12. By 1963 Private Eye was not only giving a mock-Gibbonian account of “the twilight of the British Empire” but mercilessly tweaking Macmillan’s “ludicrous moustache.” (D. Sandbrook, Never Had It So Good [2005], 667.) The moustache would return, of course, as a sign of male homosexual virility.

7. CSJ, 3 (1960), 126.

8. F. Madden (ed.), The End of Empire: Dependencies since 1948 Select Documents…, VIII (Westport, CT, 2000), xiv.

9. Hyam and Louis (eds), Conservative Government and the End of Empire, xxxii.

10. T. M. Campbell and G. C. Herring (eds), The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1943–1946, I (New York, 1975), 40.

11. OHBE, IV, 344.

12. Guardian, 29 May 2006.

13. Beckford, Jamaica, I, xiii.

14. S. R. Ashton and D. Killingray (eds), BDEEP, Series A, Vol. 6, The West Indies (1999), xl.

15. J. A. Froude, The English in the West Indies (1888), 37.

16. G. Sewell, The Ordeal of Free Labour in the British West Indies (1862), 174 and 172.

17. A. Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main (1860), 31 and 169.

18. Froude, West Indies, 247 and 70.

19. Trollope, West Indies, 84.

20. Froude, West Indies, 121.

21. Parry et al., West Indies, 132.

22. G. K. Lewis, The Growth of the Modern West Indies (1968), 105.

23. Burn, Emancipation and Apprenticeship, 69.

24. J. Brown, “William Des Voeux: A portrait of a Crown Colony Governor,” Chronicle of the West India Committee, LXXXIX (January 1964), 23.

25. G. W. Des Voeux, My Colonial Service, I (1903), 157.

26. C. Cross, The Fall of the British Empire (1968), 126.

27. E. Wallace, The British Caribbean: From the Decline of Colonialism to the End of Federation (Toronto, 1977), 17.

28. A. Calder-Marshall, Glory Dead (1939), 117.

29. W. M. Macmillan, Warning from the West Indies (1936), 136.

30. C. L. R. James, Beyond a Boundary (1983 edn), 120.

31. Wallace, British Caribbean, 32.

32. F. A. Hoyos, Grantley Adams and the Social Revolution (1974), 245.

33. E. Williams, Inward Hunger: The Education of a Prime Minister (1969), 35.

34. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, 367 and 522.

35. ODNB.

36. W. Bell, Jamaican Leaders (Berkeley, CA, 1964), 17.

37. P. Leigh Fermor, The Traveller’s Tree (1950), 347.

38. Bell, Jamaican Leaders, 17.

39. A. Jackson, The British Empire and the Second World War (2006), 1.

40. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, xliv.

41. J. Mordecai, The West Indies: The Federal Negotiations (1968), 28.

42. Wallace, British Caribbean, 99.

43. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, 400.

44. W. P. Kirkman, Unscrambling the Empire (1966), 203.

45. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, lxiv and 400.

46. S. R. Cudjoe (ed.), Eric E. Williams Speaks (Wellesley, MA, 1993), 238 and 245.

47. V. S. Naipaul, The Middle Passage (1962), 78.

48. Wallace, British Caribbean, 169 and 198.

49. Madden (ed.), End of Empire, 134.

50. J. Gerassi, “The United States and Revolution in Latin America,” in N. D. Houghton (ed.), Struggle Against History (New York, 1968), 166.

51. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, 489.

52. C. Fraser, Ambivalent Anti-Colonialism: The United States and the Genesis of West Indian Independence, 1940–1964 (Westport, CT, 1994), 192.

53. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, 487, 488 and 597.

54. Ranelagh, The Agency, 390.

55. A. Toynbee, America and the World Revolution (1962), 17, 32 and 31.

56. D. W. White, The American Century (1996), 121. The art critic Bernard Berenson called Toynbee’s work “romance, philosophical, theological, anything you like but not history.”(R. Davenport-Hines [ed.], Letters from Oxford [2006], 36.)

57. Julien, America’s Empire, 369.

58. Ashton and Killingray (eds), West Indies, 718.

59. G. K. Lewis, Grenada: The Jewel Despoiled (1987), 115.

60. J. W. Fulbright, The Arrogance of Power (1967), 32.

61. A. Payne et al., Grenada: Revolution and Invasion (1984), 49.

62. Thornton, File on Empire, 324.

63. Payne, Grenada, 165 and 164.

64. Campbell, Thatcher, II, 274.

65. Payne, Grenada, 170.

66. Lewis, Grenada, 1.

67. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 663.

68. Lehmann, All Sir Garnet, 241.

69. The Times, 17 July 1878.

70. M. Roussou-Sinclair, Victorian Travellers in Cyprus: A Garden of Their Own (Nicosia, 2002), 82.

71. J. Reddaway, Burdened with Cyprus (1986), 10. The phrase was Sir Charles Dilke’s.

72. G. S. Georghallides, Cyprus and the Governorship of Sir Ronald Storrs: The Causes of the 1931 Crisis (Nicosia, 1985), 676.

73. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, II, 964.

74. N. Crawshaw, The Cyprus Revolt (1978), 23.

75. I. D. Stefanides, Isle of Discord (1999), 292.

76. Storrs, Orientations, 457.

77. H. Foot, History of Government House (Nicosia, 1958), 8.

78. Storrs, Orientations, 457.

79. Georghallides, Cyprus, 143.

80. Pembroke College, Cambridge, Storrs Papers, Reel 11, Storrs to E. Marsh, n.d., 1927.

81. Georghallides, Cyprus, 700, 612, 614, 689 and 698.

82. The Times, 26 October 1931.

83. Pembroke College, Cambridge, Storrs Papers, Reel 11, Storrs to George V, 17 November 1931.

84. Ibid., Reel 13, Storrs to W. D. Cane, 25 October 1931.

85. A. Azinas, 50 Years of Silence, Vol. A (Nicosia, 2002), 28.

86. Reddaway, Burdened with Cyprus, 40 and 41.

87. R. Holland, Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus 1954–1959 (Oxford, 1998), 16.

88. Stefanides, Isle of Discord, 116.

89. R. Holland, “Never, Never Land: British Colonial Policy and the Roots of Violence in Cyprus, 1950–54,” JICH, XXI (September 1993), 151.

90. Holland, Revolt in Cyprus, 27.

91. S. Mayes, Makarios (1981), 18.

92. Azinas, 50 Years, Vol. A, 146.

93. A. James, Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963–64 (Basingstoke, 2002), 8. The American observer was George Ball.

94. C. Foley (ed.), The Memoirs of General Grivas (1964), 3.

95. Azinas, 50 Years, Vol. A, 257.

96. C. Thubron, Journey into Cyprus (1975), 110.

97. S. Foot, Emergency Exit (1960), 20.

98. P. Balfour, The Orphaned Realm (1951), 198–9.

99. L. Durrell, Bitter Lemons (1957), 35, 136, 36, 168 and 118.

100. Stefanides, Isle of Discord, 156.

101. C. Hitchens, Hostage to History (1997 edn), 37.

102. The Times, 29 July 1954.

103. S. Schlesinger, “How Dulles Worked the Coup d’Etat,” Nation (28 October 1978), 439.

104. C. M. Woodhouse, Something Ventured (1982), 134.

105. Holland, Revolt in Cyprus, 52.

106. C. Baker, Retreat from Empire: Sir Robert Armitage in Africa and Cyprus (1998), 109.

107. D. M. Anderson, “Policing and Communal Conflict: The Cyprus Emergency, 1954–60,” JICH, XXI (September 1993), 192.

108. Holland, Revolt in Cyprus, 64.

109. Foley (ed.), Memoirs of Grivas, 46.

110. Foley, Island in Revolt, 158 and 186.

111. Murphy, Lennox-Boyd, 117.

112. Holland, Revolt in Cyprus, 112–13.

113. D. W. Markides, “Britain’s ‘New Look’ Policy for Cyprus and the Makarios–Harding Talks, January 1955–March 1956,” JICH, XXIII (September 1995), 497.

114. S. L. Carruthers, Winning Hearts and Minds (1995), 196.

115. Foley (ed.), Memoirs of Grivas, 73 and 82.

116. Foley, Island in Revolt, 119.

117. F. Crouzet, Le Conflit de Chypre, II (Brussels, 1973), 620, 602, 561 and 626.

118. J. B. Bell, On Revolt (Cambridge, MA, 1976), 124.

119. Mayes, Makarios, 114.

120. Azinas, Fifty Years, Vol. B, 658.

121. Foley, Island in Revolt, 85.

122. Simpson, Human Rights and the End of Empire, 347 and 982.

123. Carruthers, Winning Hearts, 227.

124. Crawshaw, Cyprus Revolt, 264.

125. Foley (ed.), Memoirs of Grivas, 131.

126. Foot, Start in Freedom, 167.

127. Crawshaw, Cyprus Revolt, 287.

128. Holland, Revolt in Cyprus, 266.

129. Oxford Opinion, 31 January 1959.

130. Azinas, Fifty Years, Vol. B, 761 and 764.

131. D. Austin, Malta and the End of Empire (1971), 106.

132. Macmillan, Riding the Storm, 226 and 657.

133. Holland, Revolt in Cyprus, 302.

134. Macmillan, Riding the Storm, 657.

22. All Our Pomp of Yesterday

1. L. Freedman, The Official History of the Falklands Campaign, I (2005), 5.

2. D. J. Greene (ed.), The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson, X (1977), 350 and 369.

3. R. Hunt, My Falkland Days (1992), 53 and 31.

4. M. Hastings and S. Jenkins, The Battle for the Falklands (1992 edn), 24.

5. Freedman, Falklands Campaign, I, 47, 46 and 134.

6. Hastings and Jenkins, Falklands, 23.

7. N. West, The Secret War for the Falklands (1997), 220.

8. Freedman, Falklands Campaign, I, 127.

9. The Franks Report (1983), 37.

10. A. Dorman, “John Nott and the Royal Navy: The 1981 Defence Review Revisited,” CBH, 15 (Spring 2001), 103.

11. CAC, NOTT, 1/2/5.

12. Young, One of Us, 239 and 275.

13. The Times, 13 November 1986.

14. The Economist, 3 March 1984.

15. H. Leach, Endure No Makeshifts (1993), 198.

16. Thatcher, Downing Street Years, 177.

17. West, Secret War, 57.

18. D. K. Gilbran, The Falklands War (Jefferson, NC, 1998), 34.

19. Hunt, Falkland Days, 202–3.

20. Thatcher, Downing Street Years, 173.

21. Daily Mail, 5 April 1982.

22. Campbell, Thatcher, II, 139.

23. Leach, Makeshifts, 221.

24. Lord Carrington, Reflect on Things Past (1988), 370.

25. J. Nott, Here Today, Gone Tomorrow (2003), 269 and 246.

26. Guardian, 18 January 2006.

27. The Economist, 3 March 1984.

28. Thatcher, Downing Street Years, 196.

29. A. Barnett, Iron Britannia (1982), 31.

30. D. Tinker, A Message from the Falklands (Harmondsworth, 1983), 169.

31. R. Fox, Eyewitness Falklands (1982), 1.

32. The Times, 29 April 1982.

33. W. Shawcross, Rupert Murdoch (1992), 257–9.

34. Fox, Eyewitness, 58.

35. Freedman, Falklands Campaign, II, 302 and 403.

36. Tinker, Message, 187.

37. Freedman, Falklands Campaign, II, 729.

38. Tinker, Message, 172.

39. West, Secret War, 2.

40. M. Middlebrook, The Falklands War, 1982 (2001 edn), 225.

41. The Times, 5 May 1982.

42. Fox, Eyewitness, 9.

43. Hastings and Jenkins, Falklands, 309.

44. S. Woodward, One Hundred Days: The Memoirs of the Falklands Battle Group (1992), 331.

45. Nott, Here Today, 319 and 242.

46. Davenport-Hines (ed.), Letters from Oxford, 290.

47. Franks Report, 86.

48. Margaret Thatcher Foundation website: speech at Cheltenham, 3 July 1982.

49. Colley, Captives, 376.

50. The Times, 15 January 1993.

51. Guardian, 1 July 2006.

52. J. Dimbleby, The Last Governor (1997), 48.

53. R. Hughes, Hong Kong (1968), 9.

54. J. Morris, Among the Cities (Harmondsworth, 1987 edn), 151.

55. V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, IV (Moscow, 1960), 374.

56. I. Bird, The Golden Chersonese (1883), 114.

57. CUL, Add 6799–6801, Stella Benson Diary, 12 November 1930.

58. J. Grant, Stella Benson (1987), 275.

59. Grantham, Via Ports, 107.

60. Eitel, Europe in China, 573.

61. Des Voeux, Colonial Service, II, 244 and 205.

62. Perham, Lugard, II, 290.

63. A. P. Haydon, Sir Matthew Nathan (St Lucia, Queensland, 1976), 110.

64. Welsh, Hong Kong, 326.

65. J. Pope Hennessy, Half-Crown Colony (1969), 69.

66. C. Mun, “The Criminal Trial under Early Colonial Rule,” in Tak-Wing Ngo (ed.), Hong Kong’s History (1999), 53.

67. The Hong Kong Guide 1893 (Hong Kong, 1982 edn), 92.

68. Eitel, Europe in China, 411.

69. J. Pope Hennessy, Verandah (1964), 194.

70. Welsh, Hong Kong, 257.

71. G. B. Endacott, A History of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 1973 edn), 278.

72. J. Darwin, “Hong Kong in British Decolonisation,” in J. M. Brown and R. Foot (eds), Hong Kong’s Transitions, 1842–1997 (Basingstoke, 1997), 20.

73. Gillingham, At the Peak, 31.

74. Chan Lau Kit-ching, China, Britain and Hong Kong 1895–1945 (Hong Kong, 1990), 226.

75. K. Furuya, Chiang Kai-shek: His Life and Times (New York, 1981), 196.

76. Chan Lau Kit-ching, From Nothing to Nothing: The Chinese Communist Movement and Hong Kong, 1921–1936 (1999), 200.

77. CUL, Add 6799–6801, 4 March 1931.

78. Gillingham, At the Peak, 114.

79. S. Tang, “Government and Politics in Hong Kong: A Colonial Paradox,” in Brown and Foot (eds), Hong Kong’s Transition, 64.

80. Perham, Lugard, II, 320.

81. N. Miners, Hong Kong under Imperial Rule 1912–1941 (Hong Kong, 1987), 256 and 240.

82. CUL, Add 6799–6801, 17 August 1931, 19 August 1930 and 3 November 1931.

83. Virgil Kit-yin Ho, “The Limits of Hatred: Popular Attitudes towards the West in Republican Canton,” EAH, II (December 1991), 104.

84. Tak-Wing Ngo, “Industrial History and the Artifice of laissez-faire Colonialism,” in Tak-Wing Ngo (ed.), Hong Kong’s History, 120.

85. Reynolds, Command of History, 115.

86. Churchill, Second World War, III, 157.

87. Jackson, British Empire and the Second World War, 455.

88. A. Birch, Hong Kong: The Colony that Never Was (Hong Kong, 1991), 63.

89. RH, MSS Ind Oc. s.300, D. MacDougall Papers, Notebook describing the days after 8 December 1941.

90. O. Lindsay, The Lasting Honour (1978), 20.

91. M. Gilbert, Road to Victory (1986), 19.

92. Welsh, Hong Kong, 415.

93. Lindsay, Lasting Honour, 197.

94. RH, MSS Ind Oc. s.73, L. A. Searle Diary, 17 May 1942.

95. Barnes and Nicholson (eds), Empire at Bay, 851.

96. Chan Lau Kit-ching, China, Britain and Hong Kong, 303.

97. D. Irving, Churchill’s War, II (2001), 564.

98. L. Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War, IV (1975), 539–40.

99. S. Tang, “Government and Politics in Hong Kong: A Colonial Paradox,” in Brown and Foot (eds), Hong Kong’s Transitions, 72.

100. S. Yui-San Tsang, Democracy Shelved: Great Britain, China, and Attempts at Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong, 1945–1952 (Hong Kong, 1988), 74.

101. Grantham, Via Ports, 138.

102. RH, MSS Brit Emp. s.288, Interview with Sir Alexander Grantham (1968), 12.

103. Grantham, Via Ports, 171 and 112.

104. RH, MSS Ind Oc. s.348, Interview with Sir Robert Black (1987), 13.

105. RH, MSS Brit Emp. s.288, 9 and 6.

106. Grantham, Via Ports, 122 and 124.

107. A. Coates, Myself a Mandarin (1968), 2 and 5–6.

108. R. A. Bickers, “The Colony’s Shifting Position in the British Informal Empire in China,” in Brown and Foot (eds), Hong Kong’s Transitions, 53.

109. Independent, 30 June 1997.

110. I. Fleming, Thrilling Cities (1963), 19.

111. Time, 20 June 1949.

112. N. Miners, The Government and Politics of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 1998 edn), 22.

113. RH, MSS. Brit Emp. s.288, 17.

114. RH, MSS. Ind Oc. s.348, 123.

115. S. Tang in Brown and Foot (eds), Hong Kong’s Transitions, 75.

116. D. Bonavia, Hong Kong 1997 (Bromley, 1984), 56.

117. Hughes, Hong Kong, 73.

118. Louis, Ends of British Imperialism, 341.

119. Bonavia, Hong Kong, 119.

120. M. Roberti, The Fall of Hong Kong (New York, 1996), 51.

121. Bonavia, Hong Kong, 107–8.

122. P. Cradock, Experiences in China (1999 edn), 175, 176 and 177.

123. R. Cottrell, The End of Hong Kong: The Secret Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat (1993), 92, 90 and 94.

124. S. Howe, Conflict of Interest (1994), 368.

125. Cradock, Experiences, 231, 184 and 188.

126. Howe, Conflict, 373.

127. Thatcher, Downing Street Years, 493.

128. Howe, Conflict, 381.

129. Independent, 18 November 2005.

130. M. Yahuda, Hong Kong: China’s Challenge (1996), 14.

131. Roberti, Hong Kong, 192.

132. S. Curtis (ed.), The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt, II (1999), 104.

133. M. Stuart, Douglas Hurd: The Public Servant (1998), 351.

134. Dimbleby, Last Governor, 96 and 156.

135. Stuart, Hurd, 361.

136. The Times, 1 July 1997 and 1 December 1992.

137. M. Heseltine, Life in the Jungle (2000), 459.

138. Daily Telegraph, 1 July 1997.

139. Daily Mail, 1 July 1997.

140. The Times, 1 July 1997.

141. New York Times, 1 July 1997.

142. Daily Mail, 1 July 1997.

143. Guardian, 19 November 2005.

144. Daily Telegraph, 1 July 1997.

145. Daily Mail, 1 July 1997.

146. Guardian, 19 November 2005.

147. R. Winder, Bloody Foreigners: The Story of Immigration to Britain (2004), 295 and 291.

148. K. O. Morgan, “Imperialists at Bay: British Labour and Decolonization,” in R. D. King and R. K. Wilson (eds), The Statecraft of British Imperialism (1999), 253.

149. Daily Mail, 1 July 1997. The writer was Allan Massie.

150. Independent, 30 June 1997. The journalist was Andrew Marshall.

151. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 142.

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