Modern history

NOTES

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INTRODUCTION

a bereft nation mourned: Richard Goold-Adams, John Foster Dulles: A Reappraisal (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962), p. 12.

“one of the truly great men”: New York Times, May 25, 1959.

Chantilly International: New York Times, Jan. 19, 1961, Nov. 18, 1962; Washington Post, Dec. 1, 2012.

“How appropriate”: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9017#axzz1cHFJ9RI1.

“mixture of veneration and hatred”: Goold-Adams, John Foster Dulles, p. 4.

“most of the éclat”: Leonard Mosley, Dulles: A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and Their Family Network (New York: Dial, 1978), p. 4.

“so powerful and implacable”: Ibid., p. 5.

“greatest intelligence officer”: James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), p. 6.

“Do you realize”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 7.

1: UNMENTIONABLE HAPPENINGS

Early every summer: Richard H. Immerman, John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1999), p. 2; Mosley, Dulles, p. 21; Ronald W. Pruessen, John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power (New York: Free Press, 1982), p. 4; Mark G. Toulouse, The Transformation of John Foster Dulles: From Prophet of Realism to High Priest of Nationalism (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1985), p. 5.

“finding the fish”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 23.

“Here in delightful surroundings”: Allen Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), pp. 2–3.

The first American member: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980), pp. xi, 15–17; Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, p. 4; Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), p. 7.

His family was pious: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, p. 4; Edwin Wilbur Rice, The Sunday-School Movement, 1780–1917, and the American Sunday-School Union (Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, 1917), pp. 98, 187.

One of the most cosmopolitan: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 14; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 6–7.

The boys grew up: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 13–14; Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles: The Last Year (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963), p. 27; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 12; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 9.

Relgiosity permeated: John Robinson Beal, John Foster Dulles: A Biography (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957), p. 28.

Foster … felt the impact: Immerman, John Foster Dulles, p. 2; Frederick Marks, Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995), p. 124; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 4.

“We did not think”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, pp. 62, 128.

Edith considered her boys: Michael A. Guhin, John Foster Dulles: A Statesman and His Times (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), pp. 10, 19; Immerman, John Foster Dulles, p. 4; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 6–7; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 17.

“Its strengths”: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, p. 8.

“The native inhabitants”: John Watson Foster, American Diplomacy in the Orient (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1904), p. 366.

After leaving office: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 5–8; “John W. Foster (1892–1893): Secretary of State,” http://millercenter.org/president/bharrison/essays/cabinet/381.

“Grandfather Foster” was infatuated: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, pp. 61–62; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 8.

“women with their sequins”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 62.

“I was an avid listener”: Allen Dulles, Craft of Intelligence, p. vii.

During that first winter: Mosley, Dulles, p. 16; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 13; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 26.

That view: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 23–24; Goold-Adams, John Foster Dulles, p. 16; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 13; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 26.

Already the two brothers: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, pp. 12–13; Mosley, Dulles, p. 15.

The passage of time: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 19; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 5–6.

Two of the boys’ three sisters: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 40–41, 66–67.

“He developed a schoolboy ‘crush’”: Ibid., pp. 24–25.

“nearly broke my mother’s heart”: Goold-Adams, John Foster Dulles, p. 17.

Not every student: Mark F. Bernstein, “An American Hero in Iran,” Princeton Alumni Weekly, May 9, 2007; Robert D. Burgener, “Iran’s American Martyr,” The Iranian, Aug. 31, 1998; S. R. Shafagh, Howard Baskerville 1885–1909, Fiftieth Anniversary: The Story of an American Who Died in the Cause of Iranian Freedom and Independence(Tabriz, Iran: Keyhan, 1959).

Foster graduated second: Mosley, Dulles, p. 26.

Allie arrived at Princeton: Ibid., p. 27.

Among the many girls: Ibid., pp. 14, 26; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 12–13.

As Foster had guessed: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 15.

“Isn’t the memory”: Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 55.

His starting salary: Ibid., p. 56; Nancy Lisagor and Frank Lipsius, A Law Unto Itself: The Untold Story of the Law Firm of Sullivan & Cromwell (New York: William Morrow, 1988), p. 61.

“Just you wait”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 30.

The two were married: Townsend Hoopes, The Devil and John Foster Dulles (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), p. 26.

“What warts”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 30.

in 1879: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, pp. 34–37.

“the man whose masterful mind”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 16.

Clients favored Sullivan & Cromwell: Ibid., pp. 15–16.

His first clients: Ibid., pp. 17–18.

Allie was also setting out: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 36.

Kim: Rudyard Kipling, Kim (Hollywood, Fla.: Simon & Brown, 2011), pp. 141, 115.

He never parted with his copy: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 18.

During his stay in India: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 38; Mosley, Dulles, p. 34.

“It is a great thing”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 19.

Few in Washington: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 45; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 36.

Of all that Lansing did: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 45.

“He thought Gaunt”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 38.

His first post: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 23.

The war years: Ibid., pp. 27–28, 32; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 84–85; Douglas C. Waller, Wild Bill Donovan: The Spymaster Who Created the OSS and Modern American Espionage (New York: Free Press, 2011), pp. 267–70.

“made the most of the area’s recreational facilities”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 78.

tennis balls: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 29.

In one letter home: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 72.

“spectacularly buxom … sisters”: Ibid.

Years afterward he learned: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 26; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 47–48.

Around the same time: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 81–82; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 45–46.

By the time: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 76.

A pro-American regime in Cuba: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 21–22; Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 67.

“Uncle Bert” was impressed: Beal, John Foster Dulles, pp. 59–60; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 22–23.

Costa Rica at this time: Jason Colby, The Business of Empire: United Fruit, Race, and U.S. Expansion in Central America (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2011), p. 131.

“sincere friendliness”: Dulles to the Secretary of State, May 21, 1917, Dulles Papers, box 1.

By the time Foster returned: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 66; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 26.

Foster found his uncle: Mosley, Dulles, p. 55.

This news: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 90; Goold-Adams, John Foster Dulles, p. 17.

Foster’s nine months: Mosley, Dulles, p. 56.

In between negotiating sessions: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, pp. 171–73.

“an art of living”: The Independent, Nov. 6, 2009.

she became pregnant: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 60–61.

Their sister Eleanor: Ibid., p. 40.

“Thousands of fine young men”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, p. 71.

Vietnamese nationalist: Jean Lacouture, Ho Chi Minh: A Political Biography (New York: Random House, 1968), p. 24; A. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War 1954–1975 (New York: Touchstone, 2000), p. 35.

Wilson argued ceaselessly: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 31, 47; David A. Andelman, A Shattered Peace: Versailles 1919 and the Price We Pay Today (Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2007) pp. 120–29.

“how completely they had been deceived”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 216.

“If the United States delegation”: Andelman, Shattered Peace, p. 125.

“a banana lying across the face of Europe”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 60.

It was the destiny of the United States: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 216.

Allie wrote home: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 65.

“the major benefit I got from Princeton”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 10.

“Our industrial fortunes”: Woodrow Wilson, Addresses of President Woodrow Wilson (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1919), p. 32.

“not humiliating but a benefit”: Karen L. Stanford, If We Must Die: African American Voices on War and Peace (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), p. 106.

“the poison of Bolshevism”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 26.

“the criminal, the depraved, and the mentally unfit”: John M. Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and the Versailles Peace (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), p. 15.

Hoover … “true social ends”: Markku Ruotsila, British and American Anticommunism Before the Cold War (London: Routledge, 2001), p. 82.

“on a certain day”: Anne Hagedorn, Savage Peace: Hope and Fear in America, 1919 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008), p. 229.

Cromwell made him a partner: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 33; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 59–63.

ghostwriting assignment: https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/jordan-a-schwarz-3/the-speculator-bernard-m-baruch-in-washington-1.

not a happy match: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 73–75, 86; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 10; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 73–74.

Rather than send Allen back: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 124–25; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 77, 84; Mosley, Dulles, p. 71.

Meeting with remarkable men: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 121–22, 136.

learned of his relationship: Mosley, Dulles, p. 74.

2: THE TAINT OF MY ENVIRONMENT

On a breezy day: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, pp. 99–100.

In the 1920s: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 67–72.

“A Bavarian hamlet”: Ibid., p. 72.

“I saw John Foster Dulles”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 76.

“with humility”: William O. Douglas, “An Understanding of Asia,” The Rotarian, Dec. 1956.

“I’m not sure”: Author’s interview with Cathleen Douglas Stone, 2012.

Not long after: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 142.

“I want to keep”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 93–94.

“the little minister”: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 129.

The first important new client: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 96.

accused Allen of fixing … a candidate: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, pp. 129–30.

In recognition: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 100.

While Allen was in Paris: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 10; Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 130.

“lived it to the hilt”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 101.

Poland’s electric system: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 130.

“He never bothered”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 102–3.

Ivar Kreuger: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 131.

No fewer than fifteen of these companies: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 119–20; Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 86.

Neither brother lacked for money: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 190–91.

Allen … and United Fruit: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 52.

“Where he was an asset”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 77.

Third Avenue elevated train: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 39; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 80, 125; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 103, 129.

“My father was … extroverted”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 452.

eleven extended foreign trips: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 100.

Letters he wrote home: Ibid., p. 106; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 165; Mosley, Dulles, p. 125.

“at least a hundred women”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 125.

never to pick up a napkin: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 107.

Soon after returning: Ibid., pp. 106–7; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 192.

“Sex … was … a form of physical therapy: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 165.

John Watson Foster Dulles: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 80–81.

“He called Dean”: Marquis Childs, oral history, Dulles Papers.

one of his last public pronouncements: New York Times, Dec. 13, 2008.

Foster’s middle child: Mosley, Dulles, p. 82.

Allen Macy Dulles: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 104, 332–38; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 181, 193, 446–49; Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, pp. 233–34.

Both of Allen’s daughters: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 181; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 104.

Her older sister: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 120, 161, 193; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 104–5.

their independent-minded sister: Mosely, Dulles, pp. 84–88, 93–95, 105–6; Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 42.

Roosevelt … invited Allen: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 108–10.

Adolf Hitler: Ibid., pp. 114–15; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 170–72.

“sinister impression”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 121.

devoted himself … to Germany: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 67–70.

From his course: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 90, 99.

“These dynamic peoples”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 131.

loans to Germany: Ibid., p. 92.

He sharply rejected critics: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 74–75.

International Nickel: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 126; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 127–28.

chemical cartel: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 124–28.

loan of nearly $500 million: Ibid., pp. 110, 126.

“several provincial governments”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 88.

it “thrived on its cartels”: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 125.

Drew Pearson: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 123.

“facade of starched respectability”: Robert E. Conot, Justice at Nuremberg (New York: Basic Books, 1983), p. 470.

Germany effectively defaulted: Adam Klug, The German Buybacks, 1932–1939: A Cure for Overhang? (Princeton: Princeton University International Economics, 1993), pp. 5–54.

“cost Americans a billion dollars”: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 83.

Sullivan & Cromwell had “permitted debt to pile up”: Ibid., p. 135.

“dynamic” countries … “potentialities”: Ibid., p. 132.

Hotel Esplanade: Ibid., p. 119.

“rationalizing this Hitler movement”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 90.

“great harm to our prestige”: Ibid., p. 91.

“closing down … in Germany: Ibid., p. 92; Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, pp. 133–34.

By some accounts, Foster wept: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 183; Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 47.

he backdated the announcement: Mosley, Dulles, p. 92; Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 134.

He and Janet … continued to visit Germany: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 125; Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, p. 134; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 183.

Churchill, Roosevelt … “warmongers”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 111.

Hitler impressed him: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 125.

“Only hysteria entertains the idea”: Ibid., p. 133.

“neither in the underlying causes”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 99.

“How can you call yourself a Christian”: Ibid., p. 96.

“I regret very much”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 133.

to run for a seat in Congress: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 189–90; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 128–29.

Foster wrote a letter: New York Times, Mar. 8, 1933.

Roosevelt … “class feeling”: Dulles to Dr. Stanley High, September 11, 1936, Dulles Papers, box 15.

testified against … Securities Act: Lisagor and Lipsius, Law Unto Itself, pp. 113–15.

Council on Foreign Relations: Laurence H. Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy (Thornton, Ontario: Author’s Choice, 2004), pp. 11–56.

“No nation can reach the position”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 125.

classified policy memos: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 186.

Grose may have been closer: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 98, 123.

“well ordered domestic economy”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 170.

“strategic nexus of international finance”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 90.

“What a difference between them”: Ibid., p. 95.

relationship with Thomas Dewey: Mosley, Dulles, p. 108; Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, pp. 53–54, 70–74; David M. Jordan, FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011), pp. 100, 217–20, 224.

rising to the presidency: Mosley, Dulles, p. 79.

imagined becoming secretary of state: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 82, 97, 109, 128.

“Uncle Bert” … to do favors: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 20–23, 61.

Pearson … “rounds of golf”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 96.

“operator for the bankers”: Ibid., p. 110.

“Possibly I shouldn’t have done it”: Ibid., p. 93.

“the room”: Ibid., pp. 152–53; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 152–53, 185–87, 194.

Foster … was disgusted: Mosley, Dulles, p. 107.

William Donovan: Anthony Cave Brown, Wild Bill Donovan: The Last Hero (New York: Times Books, 1982), pp. 127–43; Richard Dunlop, Donovan: America’s Master Spy (New York: Rand McNally, 1982), pp. 184–202; Waller, Wild Bill Donovan, pp. 50–68.

“While in Britain”: Allen Dulles, Craft of Intelligence, pp. 6–7.

“began to beat on Roosevelt”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 195.

Allen … an obvious recruit: Dunlop, Donovan, p. 203.

3: DULL, DULLER, DULLES

Ian Fleming: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 204.

“Donovan was a born leader of men”: Allen Dulles, Craft of Intelligence, pp. 4, 42.

Coordinator of Information: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 204–5; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 111–12; Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, The CIA and American Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), pp. 16–18.

job … required “absolute discretion”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 141.

By some accounts he was already working: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 207.

“New York was the logical first place”: Ibid., p. 210.

two principal assignments: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 146.

Mohawk Trading Corporation: Ibid., p. 146.

Allen had chosen his suite: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 201.

“He had much to teach me”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 114.

“Donovan’s blueprint”: Allen Dulles, The Secret Surrender (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), p. 9.

Allen hired many of them: Ibid., p. 10.

Donovan … sent President Roosevelt notice: William J. Donovan, Memorandum for the President no. 537, May 27, 1942, PSF box 166, OSS Files, Roosevelt Presidential Library, Hyde Park, N.Y.

“my past experience would serve me”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 149.

Allen had to reach Bern: Allen Dulles, Secret Surrender, pp. 13–14.

“While my train made its way”: Ibid., pp. 13–15.

apartment at Herrengasse 23: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 228.

“I had been in Switzerland”: Allen Dulles, Secret Surrender, p. 15.

Nazi agents, who also read the newspapers: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 236.

a quick series of successes: Allen Dulles, Secret Surrender, pp. 17, 22–23; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 237–38, 302; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 245.

“a tall, burly, sporting type”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 155.

Bancroft was a dynamic woman: Mary Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy (New York: William Morrow, 1983), pp. 8–81.

“let the work cover the romance”: Ibid., p. 137.

Every morning: Ibid., p. 138.

“We settled onto the living room couch”: Ibid., pp. 152–61.

Mary … submitted herself to Jung’s analysis: Ibid., pp. 91–96.

“all news … is being discounted”: Brown, Wild Bill Donovan, pp. 277–78.

wildly wrong predictions: Ibid., p. 566.

Two began when strangers knocked: Mosley, Dulles, p. 137; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 177–97, 256–57.

“dramatic event may take place”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 198.

Operation Sunrise: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 243–44; R. Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), pp. 105–11; Allen Dulles, Secret Surrender, pp. 28–247.

emissaries: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 143–44.

“German armies … have surrendered”: Stars and Stripes, May 3, 1945.

Clover … formed a remarkably strong bond: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 129, 338–41; Mosley, Dulles, p. 246; Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, pp. 290–92.

“What had been gained”: New York Review of Books, Sept. 8, 1966.

With the war over: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 230–36, 249; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 400; Waller, Wild Bill Donovan, p. 270.

transferred the OSS research unit: Mark M. Lowenthal, U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy (New York: Praeger, 1992), p. 13.

Commission … Just and Durable Peace: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 190.

The society of nation-states: Ibid., pp. 191–92, 205, 208; Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, pp. 57, 98, 101, 105.

“Lunched with A.”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 53.

“To look at him”: Life, Aug. 21, 1944.

Republicans proposed Foster: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, p. 133; Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 58; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 236–37.

Foster had become the only major figure: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 178–79, 187–89, 205–6; William A. Inboden III, Religion and American Foreign Policy, 1945–1960: The Soul of Containment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 41–42.

“at least a third”: T. Jeremy Gunn, Spiritual Weapons: The Cold War and the Forging of an American National Religion (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2008), p. 214.

“The two Presbyterians”: Ibid., pp. 316–17.

picture of the Soviet threat: Life, June 3 and 10, 1946.

Kennan’s words, “a great political force”: William Nester, International Relations: Politics and Economics in the 21st Century (Independence, Ky.: Wadsworth, 2000), p. 234.

“scare the hell out of the country”: Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W.W. Norton, 1969), pp. 219–25; James Chace, Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), pp. 162–65.

“American commitment to individual liberty”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 116.

Foster traveled to Amsterdam: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, pp. 198–200.

America’s refusal to recognize: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 268.

“proceed on the assumption”: Ibid., p. 279.

What led Foster to this turnaround: Imboden, Religion and American Foreign Policy, pp. 226–37; Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, pp. 170–80.

“clear understanding of the fundamentals”: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, p. 170.

obsessively reading … Problems of Leninism: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 64; Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 99.

In speeches and articles: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, pp. 171, 175, 210, 212.

“a challenge to established civilization”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 286.

“The outlook for world peace”: New York Post, July 28, 1947.

“We are the only great nation”: Robert Wuthnow, The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), p. 38.

“the similarity between our sin and the guilt of others”: Christianity and Crisis, Oct. 19, 1942.

“If we should perish”: Reinhold Niebuhr, The Irony of American History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), p. 174.

“a streak of lightning”: Toulouse, Transformation of John Foster Dulles, p. 88.

“no doubt about it”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 194.

4: THAT FELLA FROM WALL STREET

“We’ll clean up!”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 247.

“Much of the sparkle … went out”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, p. 139.

Allen’s … favorite companions: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 218–20, 225, 258.

Central Intelligence Group: Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Daring Early Years of the CIA (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), p. 28; Joseph J. Trento, The Secret History of the CIA (New York: MJF, 2001), p. 45; John Prados, Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006), pp. 32–33; Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (New York: Doubleday, 2007), pp. 14–19.

“The collection of secret intelligence”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 425.

Marshall … did not want his department to be involved: Lowenthal, U.S. Intelligence, p. 19.

“There were strong objections”: David M. Barrett, The CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), pp. 20–24.

“The fear generated by competition”: Robert Dallek, The Lost Peace: Leadership in a Time of Horror and Hope, 1945–1953 (New York: Harper, 2010), p. 249.

Truman did offer to make him ambassador: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 281.

“not intended to be a ‘Cloak and Dagger Outfit’!”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 3.

upcoming elections in Italy: Burton Hersh, The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1992), pp. 223–32; James E. Miller, “Taking Off the Gloves: The United States and the Italian Elections of 1948,” in Diplomatic History 7, no. 1 (Winter 1983), pp. 33–55; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 29–31; Robin Winks, Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939–1961 (New York: William Morrow, 1987), pp. 383–86.

Corsican gangsters: Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, Cloak and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), p. 156.

Bogotazo: Ibid., pp. 53–55.

“with dramatic suddenness”: Frank Kofsky, Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948: A Successful Campaign to Deceive the Nation (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995), p. 93.

“near-hysteria”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 242.

NSC 10/2: http://www.voltairenet.org/article163480.html; Sarah-Jane Corke, US Covert Operations and Cold War Strategy: Truman, Secret Warfare and the CIA, 1945–53 (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 59–62; William Daugherty, Executive Secrets: Covert Action and the Presidency (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2006), pp. 122–24.

“that shirt salesman”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 189.

“It is based on the theory”: James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), p. 135.

Foster was Dewey’s foreign policy adviser: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 359.

Foster began making plans: David Pietrusza, 1948: Harry Truman’s Improbable Victory and the Year that Transformed America (New York: Union Square Press, 2011), pp. 189, 196, 340.

“You see before you”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 215.

“quite a bombshell”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 387

wrote a private proposal: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 283–84, 290–92; Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 359.

he wound up paying a somber call: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 290.

Duck Island: Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 37.

lighthouse keeper who had a radio: Ibid., pp. 106–7.

“a living instrument for righteousness”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 395.

“They even cut your hair”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 218.

“modern-day equivalents of the founders of the Church”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 78.

campaign brochure: Dulles Papers, box 16.

The special election was set: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, pp. 395–403; Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 56; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 216–21; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 298–99; Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 114.

“glad that duck lost”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 299.

“What, that bastard”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 251.

“no point in being at the end”: Pruessen, John Foster Dulles, p. 499.

policy decree called NSC-68: NSC-68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsc-hst/nsc-68.htm.

“I know nothing”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 306.

“deputy director for plans”: Ibid., p. 307; Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 428–30.

Ehrenburg took note: Washington Post, Jan. 31, 1969.

Smith “did not trust Allen’s capacity”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 309–10.

“Once one gets a taste for it”: Hersh, Old Boys, p. 95.

Congress approved … $100 million: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 332; Barrett, CIA and Congress, pp. 103–12.

hundreds in Europe, thousands in Asia: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 46, 54.

“At least we’re getting experience”: Thomas, Very Best Men, p. 73.

Philby … less impressed with Allen: Mosley, Dulles, p. 283.

“All were gregarious”: Thomas Powers, Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al-Qaeda (New York: New York Review of Books, 2002), p. 44.

“They were pining to get back”: Thomas, Very Best Men, p. 24.

“Lansdale operated with very little money”: Jonathan Nashel, Edward Lansdale’s Cold War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2005), pp. 34–35.

American newspapers ran articles: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 227.

officials … “hit the ceiling”: Ibid., pp. 230–31.

“The Director explained”: U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952–1954: Guatemala (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003), p. 36.

“I didn’t feel like raising the matter”: Los Angeles Times, Mar. 26, 1979.

Foster left the general with the manuscript: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 332.

“A Policy of Boldness”: Life, May 19, 1952.

condemned the “containment”: Stephen E. Ambrose and Douglas G. Brinkley, Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since 1938 (New York: Penguin, 1988), p. 133.

“lost the peace”: Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 131.

Ambrose has written: Stephen E. Ambrose, Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 1913–1962 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988), p. 226.

“We were all hysterical”: Harry Rositzke, The CIA’s Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Action (New York: Reader’s Digest, 1977), pp. 13–15.

leaning toward … McCloy: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 333.

also considered Paul Hoffman … and Walter Judd: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 28, 32.

“a lot of opposition”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 292.

surprising move to block Foster: Gunn, Spiritual Weapons, p. 334.

confirmation hearing: http://alvaradohistory.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/3ContainmentorLiberationbyDulles.362195419.pdf.

“Smooth is an inadequate word”: I. F. Stone, The Haunted Fifties, 1953–1963: A Nonconformist History of Our Times (Boston: Little, Brown, 1963), pp. 14–16.

Smith “made no secret of his concern”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 335.

Donovan, warned Eisenhower: Waller, Wild Bill Donovan, pp. 360–64.

Ford Foundation: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 336.

“incompatible with democracy”: Washington Post, Jan. 9, 1953.

“left hand of the king”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 431–32.

she had “the best brain”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 293.

Attitudes … still outraged Eleanor: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, pp. 228, 240.

Eisenhower … inaugural: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/eisen1.asp.

“It has always surprised me”: Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, p. 139.

5: A WHIRLING DERVISH WITH A COLLEGE EDUCATION

OCI proposal: Overseas Consultants Inc., Report on Seven Year Development Plan for the Plan Organization of the Imperial Government of Iran (New York: OCI, 1949).

“OCI provided the King of Kings”: Time, Oct. 24, 1949.

“My government and people are eager”: Council on Foreign Relations papers, Princeton University, series 4, box 442; James A. Bill, The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), p. 40.

“We were, perhaps, slow”: Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 504.

“He talked and corresponded”: Homa Katouzian, Mussadiq and the Struggle for Power in Iran (London: I. B. Tauris, 1999), p. 13.

“a grandiose plan”: Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 501.

“break the back of future generations”: Center for Documents of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, July 29, 1949, http://www.ical.ir/index.php?option=com_content& view=article&id=2377&Itemid=12.

“Iran should not blindly follow”: Center for Documents of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, Nov. 23, 1948, http://www.ical.ir/index.php?option=com_mashrooh&view=session&id=6514&page=122342&Itemid=38.

parliament … effectively killed it: Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 502.

Foster, who was then seeking business: Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: America’s Pursuit of Power in the Middle East (New York: Penguin, 2010), p. 139.

Mossadegh’s opposition to Western privilege: Bill, Eagle and the Lion, pp. 54–57; James A. Goode, The United States and Iran: In the Shadow of Musaddiq (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997), p. 13.

He rarely ventured out: Immerman, John Foster Dulles, p. 10.

“I scold my children”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 144.

“clicking noises”: Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 10.

“His speech was slow”: Times Literary Supplement, July 19, 1974.

“In an Ancient Game”: Time, Aug. 3, 1953.

Foster followed: Time, Oct. 12, 1953.

dense network of media contacts: Hugh Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008), pp. 225–27; Carl Bernstein, “The CIA and the Media,” Rolling Stone, Oct. 20, 1977.

he could “pick up the phone”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 77.

“notoriously thin skin”: Barrett, CIA and Congress, p. 202.

Operation Mockingbird: Deborah Davis, Katharine the Great: Katharine Graham and the Washington Post (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979), pp. 137–38; Mary Louise, “Operation Mockingbird: CIA Media Manipulation,” http://www.prisonplanet.com/analysis_louise_01_03_03_mockingbird.html; Clint Symons, In Bad Company (n.p.: CreateSpace, 2009), pp. 44–48, 58–64; “Project Mockingbird,” http://www.thedailybell.com/printerVersion.cfm?id=2719.

Wisner … called it: Wilford, Mighty Wurlitzer, p. 226.

Home life remained as complicated: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 450.

In his first speech: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 161; Richard H. Immerman (ed.), John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 58–59.

Mossadegh sent Eisenhower a message: Yonah Alexander and Allen Nanes (eds.), The United States and Iran: A Documentary History (Frederick, Md.: Aletheia, 1980), pp. 230–32.

a secret trip to Washington: Bill, Eagle and the Lion, p. 86; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 655.

“When we knew what the prejudices”: Christopher Montague Woodhouse, Something Ventured (London: Granada, 1982), p. 117.

“initially took little interest”: Jean Edward Smith, Eisenhower in War and Peace (New York: Random House, 2012), p. 623.

“newly installed chief”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 83.

vivid dispatches: Goode, United States and Iran, p. 116.

wanted his country “to avoid entanglement”: B. R. Nanda, Indian Foreign Policy: The Nehru Years (Delhi: Vikas, 1976), p. 134.

“we’ve never had trouble”: H. W. Brands, The Devil We Knew: Americans and the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 53.

“They might be more or less invisible”: David Halberstam, The Fifties (New York: Villard, 1993), pp. 373–74.

“United States clearly had an interest”: Bill, Eagle and the Lion, p. 81.

“If disorders flare up”: Life, June 4, 1951.

“driven back to our island”: Wawro, Quicksand, p. 132.

Truman to “gallop together”: Mostafa Elm, Oil, Power, and Principle: Iran’s Oil Nationalization and Its Aftermath (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1992), pp. 250–52.

“distinct cleavage”: Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 505.

Eisenhower came into office believing: Blanche Wiesen Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower: A Divided Legacy of Peace and Political Warfare (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981), p. 106.

“If it weren’t for the Cold War”: Wawro, Quicksand, p. 139.

as many as ten times: Dwight Eisenhower, oral history, Dulles Papers.

Foster and Allen: Mosley, Dulles, p. 344; Immerman, John Foster Dulles, p. 134; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 339.

“The line between intelligence and policy”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 341.

“Many of the liberals”: Jeffreys-Jones, CIA and American Democracy, p. 76.

“if I could not be where I had grown up”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 342.

truly global organization: Ted Gup, The Book of Honor: Covert Lives and Classified Deaths at the CIA (New York: Doubleday, 2000), p. 74.

fifteen thousand employees in fifty countries: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 68; Barrett, CIA and Congress, p. 149.

operations in Eastern Europe: Rositzke, CIA’s Secret Operations, pp. 169–71; Prados, Safe for Democracy, pp. 59–64, 70–77.

did not foresee Stalin’s death: Trento, Secret History of the CIA, pp. 106–7.

Burma was an early example: Prados, Safe for Democracy, pp. 134–37; David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The Invisible Government (New York: Random House, 1964), pp. 129–32.

National Security Council: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 500; Karl F. Inderfurth and Loch K. Johnson (eds.), Fateful Decisions: Inside the National Security Council (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 17–62.

March 4, 1953: FRUS, Iran, pp. 692–99.

exploded in frustration: Goode, United States and Iran, p. 111.

“Moscow’s involvement in Iran was negligible”: Immerman, John Foster Dulles, p. 65.

“Eisenhower participated in none of the meetings”: Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier and President (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991), p. 333.

Allen signed an order: Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 102.

MKULTRA: “Declassified MK-Ultra Project Documents.” http://www.michael-robinett.com/declass/c000.htm; Project MKUltra, the CIA’s Program of Research into Behavioral Modification. Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session, August 3, 1977 (Government Printing Office, 1977); New York Times, Sept. 3, 1977; Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, Together with Additional, Supplemental, and Separate Views, April 26, 1976 (Washington: U.S. Senate, 1976), pp. 385–420.

One prisoner who participated: Dick Lehr and Gerard O’Neill, Whitey: The Life of America’s Most Notorious Mob Boss (New York: Crown, 2013), p. 121.

secret prisons: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 64.

farthest-reaching projects: Daniele Ganser, “Terrorism in Western Europe: An Approach to NATO’s Secret Stay-Behind Armies,” Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 6, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2005); New York Times, Nov. 16, 1990; Guardian, Mar. 26, 2001; Nation, Apr. 6, 1992; John Prados, William Colby and the CIA: The Secret Wars of a Controversial Spymaster(Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009), pp. 53–56.

House Appropriations Committee: Barrett, CIA and Congress, pp. 150–52.

withheld “no secrets”: Ibid., pp. 238–39.

“We cannot defend the nation”: Richard A. Melanson and David Mayers (eds.), Reevaluating Eisenhower: American Foreign Policy in the Fifties (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), p. 54.

“disturbing revelation”: New York Times, Apr. 24, 1953.

Eisenhower’s favorite: High NoonNew York Review of Books, Apr. 26, 2012.

“In their recognition”: Stanley Corkin, Cowboys as Cold Warriors: The Western and U.S. History (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), pp. 130, 151, 153.

“no disposition to meddle”: New York Times, May 25, 1953.

“Although it was hoped”: Alexander and Nanes, United States and Iran, pp. 232–33.

“how we get rid of that madman”: Wawro, Quicksand, pp. 142–43.

“anything but assent would be ill-received”: Kermit Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for Control of Iran (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979), pp. 1–19.

calling the president: Wawro, Quicksand, p. 143.

Eisenhower sent a tart answer: Alexander and Nanes, United States and Iran, pp. 234–35.

Eleanor had been given this post: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, p. 243.

“Riddleberger went to see Foster”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 406.

the morning of June 16: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, pp. 253–55.

“fascist putsch was staged”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 357.

“Some of the provocateurs”: Andrew Tully, Central Intelligence Agency: The Inside Story (New York: Corgi, 1963), p. 64.

“woefully lacks any prospect”: Goode, United States and Iran, p. 116.

Goiran … wrote himself out of the script: Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty’s Secret Intelligence Service (New York: Free Press, 2000), p. 584.

Douglas … championed Mossadegh: William O. Douglas, Strange Lands and Friendly People (New York, Harper, 1951), p. 119.

“If you and I were in Persia”: New Republic, Apr. 28, 1952.

Foster never forgot the trauma: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 129.

“find a basis for cooperation”: Laura A. Belmonte, Selling the American Way: U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), p. 52.

singled out John Carter Vincent … and John Paton Davies: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, pp. 153–55.

“positive loyalty”: Ibid., p. 158.

called the CIA: Ted Morgan, Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Random House, 2004) pp. 448–54; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 344–46; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 106.

Roosevelt crossed into Iran: Stephen E. Ambrose, Ike’s Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1981), pp. 206–14; Bill, Eagle and the Lion, pp. 86–94; Central Intelligence Agency, Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran, November 1952–August 1953,http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html; Richard W. Cottam, Iran and the United States: A Cold War Case Study (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988), pp. 103–9; Dorril, MI6, pp. 558–600; Goode, United States and Iran, pp. 109–37; Stephen Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2003), pp. 1–16, 165–88; Prados, Safe for Democracy, pp. 99–107; Roosevelt, Countercoup, pp. 140–203; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 81–92.

“serious defeat”: Robert A. Divine, Eisenhower and the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), p. 76.

6: THE MOST FORTHRIGHT PRO-COMMUNIST

Guatemalan figurines decorated: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 370; photos of Allen’s home in Dulles Papers, box 127.

“Some paradox”: Lionel Trilling, The Liberal Imagination (New York: New York Review of Books, 2008), p. 221.

“If the finance minister were to overdraw”: Fortune, Mar. 1933.

Sullivan & Cromwell also represented: Author’s interview with Thomas McCann, 2013.

signed in 1936: Richard H. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982), p. 71.

“Dulles … reputed to be the author”: Thomas McCann, An American Company: The Tragedy of United Fruit (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 56; Immerman, CIA in Guatemala, p. 124.

“legal and pseudo-legal assaults”: New York Times, Feb. 26, 1949.

“Guatemala’s government”: McCann, American Company, p. 45.

inaugural address: Juan José Arévalo and Jacobo Arbenz. Discursos del Doctor Juan José Arévalo y del Teniente Coronel Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán en el Acto de Transmisión de la Presidencia de la República (Guatemala: Tipografía Nacional, 1951), p. 26.

“I reported at the White House”: Roosevelt, Countercoup pp. 209–10.

Eisenhower offered Foster his job: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, p. 314.

“This fellow preaches”: John Lukacs, Churchill: Visionary. Statesman. Historian. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), p. 80.

European Defense Community: Mosley, Dulles, p. 324; Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, pp. 162–165; Immerman (ed.), John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War, pp. 79–98.

“Employed to inspire the allies”: Chris Tudda, Truth Is Our Weapon: The Rhetorical Diplomacy of Dwight D. Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006), pp. 72–73.

“different packages” tied together: Kenneth Osgood, Total Cold WarEisenhower’s Secret Propaganda Battle at Home and Abroad (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008), pp. 198–99.

“perception that the USSR was using negotiations”: Ibid., pp. 212–13.

“Adenauer wanted to know”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, pp. 245–46.

“cataclysmic powers”: Immerman (ed.), John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War, p. 111.

“shortcomings of a serious nature”: Ibid., p. 272.

The first spy … second was quickly: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 110.

A team that he assembled: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 402–4.

“This law has affected United Fruit Company land”: Guillermo Toriello, La Batalla de Guatemala (Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria, 1955), pp. 249–53.

ties to United Fruit: Immerman, CIA in Guatemala, pp. 116–18, 124–25; McCann, American Company, p. 56; Peter Chapman, Bananas: How the United Fruit Company Shaped the World (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2009), p. 98; Toriello, Batalla de Guatemala, p. 501.

Why the Kremlin Hates Bananas: Gunn, Spiritual Weapons, p. 141.

“In Czechoslovakia”: Author’s interview with Arthur Hulnick, 2012.

first proposal: FRUS, Guatemala, pp. 102–8.

“most vitally important”: Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 116.

“Dulles became the executive agent”: Ibid., pp. 109–10.

Arbenz … speak defiantly: Time, Mar. 15, 1954.

overthrowing Figueres: Wise and Ross, Invisible Government, pp. 127–28.

“Our main enemy”: Immerman (ed.), John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War, p. 171.

the official position: Kenneth Lehman, “Revolutions and Attributions: Making Sense of Eisenhower Administration Policies in Bolivia and Guatemala,” Diplomatic History 21, no. 2 (Spring 1997), pp. 185–213.

“Marxist rather than communist”: Ibid., p. 193.

“Bolivia was far from the United States”: Bryce Wood, The Dismantling of the Good Neighbor Policy (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985), p. 151.

“You don’t know what you’re talking about”: Halberstam, Fifties, p. 373.

“The CIA recruiter asked my college president”: Author’s interview with retired CIA officer, 2012.

“You’ve just joined the Cold War arm”: Joseph B. Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior: Second Thoughts of a Top CIA Agent (New York: Ballantine, 1976), p. 55.

Mansfield delivered the sharpest public critique: Barrett, CIA and Congress, p. 173.

“aggressive and suspicious nature”: Ibid., pp. 172–75.

managed to derail the bill: Jeffreys-Jones, CIA and American Democracy, p. 78.

“Never before or since”: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 364–65.

“State Department for unfriendly countries”: Ambrose, Ike’s Spies, p. 178.

“phenomenal” quantities: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 345.

“too cautious”: Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 110.

situation “very ticklish”: John Moors Cabot, oral history, Dulles Papers.

gave a dramatic speech: U.S. Department of State, Tenth Inter-American Conference: Report of the Delegation of the United States of America with Related Documents (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955), p. 9.

“conspirators and the foreign monopolies”: Toriello, Batalla de Guatemala, p. 91.

One delegate: Time, Mar. 15, 1954.

It declared that: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/intam10.asp.

Toriello later marveled: Toriello, Batalla de Guatemala, p. 77.

“striking victory for freedom”: Washington Post, Mar. 15, 1954.

“triumph for Secretary Dulles”: New York Times, Mar. 14, 1954.

one of the largest bases: Nick Cullather, Secret History: The CIA’s Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952–1954 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p. 46; Immerman, CIA in Guatemala, p. 138.

“Continue the good work”: Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 116.

had Gruson recalled: Cullather, Secret History, p. 94.

had rarely appeared in print: Barrett, CIA and Congress, pp. 166–67.

one of every fifty: Cullather, Secret History, p. 41.

“inspired … by the devil”: David Aikman, Billy Graham: His Life and Influence (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2007), p. 68.

admired Francisco Franco: Greg Grandin, The Last Colonial Massacre: Latin America in the Cold War (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 80, 236.

“approached Spellman in 1954”: John Cooney, The American Pope: The Life and Times of Francis Cardinal Spellman (New York: Dell, 1986), p. 297.

pastoral letter: El Calvario de Guatemala (Guatemala: Comité de Estudiantes Universitarias Anticommunistas, 1955), pp. 319–24.

directed their Guatemala team: FRUS, Guatemala, pp. 267–68.

“considered himself a communist”: Piero Gleijeses, Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, 1944–1954 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991), p. 147.

constitution required: Ibid., p. 205.

“Guatemalan aggression”: New York Times, May 25, 1954.

“be damn good and sure”: W. Thomas Smith, Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency (New York: Facts on File, 2003), p. 115.

“With the Dulles Brothers”: New York Times, June 20, 1954.

“If at any time”: Stephen G. Rabe, Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), p. 60.

“Heartiest congratulations”: FRUS, Guatemala, p. 409.

“Thanks, Allen”: Rabe, Eisenhower and Latin America, p. 81.

Some were dubious: FRUS, Guatemala, p. 377.

“Tonight I should like to talk”: United States Department of State, Intervention of International Communism in the Americas, Publication 5556 (Washington, D.C.: Department of State, 1954), pp. 30–34.

A few months later: Toriello, Batalla de Guatemala, p. 9.

7: A MATCHLESS INTERPLAY OF RUTHLESSNESS AND GUILE

“Mysterious Doings of the CIA”: Saturday Evening Post, Oct. 30, Nov. 6, and Nov. 13, 1954.

“Man of the Year”: Time, Jan. 3, 1955.

he quoted American scripture: Paul M. Kattenburg, The Vietnam Trauma in American Foreign Policy, 1945–75 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1980), p. 119; Fredrik Logevall, Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America’s Vietnam (New York: Random House, 2012), pp. 642–45.

American diplomats in Vietnam reported: Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1997), p. 9.

Douglas wrote: William O. Douglas, North from Malaya (New York: Doubleday, 1953), pp. 150, 153, 165.

Washington press conference: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 209.

“Not unless our automobiles collide”: Langguth, Our Vietnam, p. 72.

“Question whether Ho”: FRUS, Vietnam, vol. 7, pp. 29–30.

“To lose those countries”: Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War, p. 11.

subsidizing France’s war: The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), volume 1, chapter 4, “U.S. and France in Indochina, 1950–56,” https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon/pent9.htm.

One mid-level figure: Kattenburg, Vietnam Trauma, p. 40.

“just no sense in talking about”: Blema S. Steinberg, Shame and Humiliation: Presidential Decision Making on Vietnam (Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 1996), p. 257.

“Nothing could hold Dulles back”: David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Penguin, 1972), p. 180.

“from a scratch on the map”: Time, Mar. 29, 1954.

“a matchless interplay”: Time, Nov. 22, 1954.

“immediate armed intervention”: Robert D. Schulzinger, A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941–1975 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 67.

Eisenhower appealed to Prime Minister Churchill: John Prados, Vietnam: The History of an Unwinnable War, 1945–1975 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009), p. 29.

“loss of the fortress”: Logevall, Embers of War, p. 506.

Hagerty, warned that: James C. Hagerty Papers, Hagerty Diary, July 11, 1954, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.

“In certain areas at least”: Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), p. 152.

“against sending American GI’s into the mud”: Gerald Astor, Presidents at War: From Truman to Bush, the Gathering of Military Power to Our Commanders in Chief (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2006), p. 54.

only “intervention on a Korean scale”: Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (New York: Mariner, 2002), p. 322.

“wishful thinking”: Kathryn Statler, Replacing France: The Origins of American Intervention in Vietnam (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009), p. 110.

“Far Eastern Munich”: Herbert S. Parmet, Eisenhower and the American Crusades (New York: Macmillan, 1972), p. 303.

“develop plans … for certain contingencies”: John P. Burke and Fred I. Greenstein, How Presidents Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam 1954 and 1965 (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1989), p. 36.

Foster launched his part: Address to Overseas Press Club, Dulles Papers, box 87.

claimed to have cabinet-level sources: Mosley, Dulles, p. 324.

John … defected: Tully, Central Intelligence Agency, pp. 57–58.

Liberal Democratic Party: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 119–20.

“We ran Japan”: Ibid., p. 121.

propaganda and mass psychology: Osgood, Total Cold War, p. 303.

“These covertly sponsored activities”: Rositzke, CIA’s Secret Operations, p. 162.

Animal Farm: Frances Stonor Saunders, The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New York: New Press, 2001), pp. 293–95.

“a child’s enjoyment”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 453.

“Dulles was enthralled”: Trento, Secret History of the CIA, p. 168.

Doolittle’s conclusions: http://cryptome.org/cia-doolittle.pdf.

fire Allen Dulles: George C. Herring, America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986), p. 356; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 108.

A senior British agent: Ambrose, Ike’s Spies, p. 174.

phone-tapping tunnel: Trento, Secret History of the CIA, pp. 144–46, 161; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 110–12.

“one of the major coups”: Prados, Safe for Democracy, pp. 153–55; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 123–25.

Buraimi Oasis: Wawro, Quicksand, pp. 228–29; Mosley, Dulles, pp. 348–49; Tore T. Peterson, “Anglo-American Rivalry in the Middle East: The Struggle for the Buraimi Oasis, 1952–1957,” International History Review 14, no. 1 (Feb. 1992), pp. 71–91.

More successful: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 350–51.

“The process of delegation”: Eugene McCarthy, Up ’Til Now: A Memoir (New York: Harcourt, 1987), p. 128.

“pathological rage and gloom”: Immerman, John Foster Dulles, p. 93.

“pinched distaste of a puritan”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 222.

“At the first meeting”: U. Alexis Johnson, oral history, Dulles Papers.

“governments or rulers that do not respect”: New York Times, Jan. 19, 1954.

“Dull, unimaginative, uncomprehending”: Logevall, Embers of War, p. 557.

“leave it to the Communists”: Maurice Couve de Murville, oral history, Dulles Papers.

“French blood will no longer flow”: Logevall, Embers of War, p. 612.

“refrain from the threat or use of force”: William J. Duiker, U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994), pp. 188–89.

He believed the United States had a duty: Richard H. Immerman, Empire for Liberty: A History of American Imperialism from Benjamin Franklin to Paul Wolfowitz (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), pp. 192–93.

“extremely pig-headed”: Gunn, Spiritual Weapons, p. 169.

“a psychopath”: Ibid., p. 162.

“I had said to Foster Dulles”: Maurice Couve de Murville, oral history, Dulles Papers.

“I want you to do”: Nashel, Edward Lansdale’s Cold War, p. 136.

Lansdale saved him twice: Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Viking, 1983), pp. 221–22; Logevall, Embers of War, pp. 642–45.

“Up to now”: Ho Chi Minh, Down with Colonialism! (London: Verso, 2007), p. 134.

every Vietnamese agent: Cook, Declassified Eisenhower, p. 246.

more than 150 different books: Osgood, Total Cold War, p. 118.

“extremely intensive … operation”: Bernard Fall, The Two Vietnams: A Political and Military Analysis (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1967), pp. 153–54.

In his best-selling book: Tom Dooley, Deliver Us from Evil (New York: Signet, 1981), pp. 55, 139.

“The American press reported”: Gunn, Spiritual Weapons, p. 171.

“As a key agent”: Peter Brush, “Doctor Tom Dooley,” http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/central/Brush/Tom-Dooley.htm.

“A remarkable lack of psychology”: Statler, Replacing France, p. 108.

“more likely to promote mistrust”: Lubna Saif, “Pakistan and SEATO,” Pakistan Journal of History and Culture 28, no. 2 (2007), p. 84.

“When military aid comes in”: L. Natarajan, American Shadow over India (New Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1956), p. 147.

“nothing … has so exercised India: New York Times, Jan. 10, 1953.

“sharp deterioration”: New York Times, Jan. 25, 1953.

Foster was sympathetic: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, pp. 277–78.

“We’re not talking now”: Ibid., p. 266.

“One must look to … Dulles”: Daniel Aaron Rubin, “Pawns of the Cold War: John Foster Dulles, the PRC, and the Imprisonments of John Downey and Richard Fecteau,” http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/1839/1/umi-umd-1832.pdf.

“absolutely no regard”: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 353–54.

“always ready to go on the rampage”: James Cable, The Geneva Conference of 1954 on Indochina (New York: St. Martin’s, 1986), p. 38.

“Dulles is the only case I know”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 361.

“My Power Is the Love of the People”: Time, Oct. 26, 1953.

“When you figure”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 380.

“heavy opaqueness”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 142.

“department has gone too far”: Ibid., p. 144.

“How terrifically dynamic”: Richard Wright, The Color Curtain (Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 1995), p. 136.

“communist road show”: Time, Apr. 18, 1955.

“so-called Afro-Asian conference”: Wright, Color Curtain, p. 88.

In private his aides scorned it: Herring, America’s Longest War, p. 395.

They cheered Nehru: George McTurnan Kahin, Asian-African Conference: Bandung, Indonesia (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1956), p. 65.

Nasser insisted: The Asian African Conference, Vital Speeches of the Day, June 1, 1955, p. 1258.

“affable of manner”: Carlos Romulo, The Meaning of Bandung (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956), p. 11.

“He behaved very humbly”: Goold-Adams, John Foster Dulles, p. 168.

Powell wrote in his memoir: Adam Clayton Powell III, Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (New York: Kensington, 2001), pp. 107–9.

“There was something extra-political”: Wright, Color Curtain, p. 14.

Malcolm X did not attend: George Breitman (ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements (New York: Merit, 1965), p. 5.

“pactomania”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 241.

“possibly eighty percent”: Gunn, Spiritual Weapons, p. 175.

“gentleman’s agreement”: Daniel P. O’C. Greene, “John Foster Dulles and the End of the Franco-American Entente in Indochina,” Diplomatic History 16, no. 4 (Oct. 1992), p. 551.

“suppression of alternatives”: Pentagon Papers, Section 1, pp. 179–214, https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon/pent9.htm.

an interview he gave: Life, Jan. 30, 1956.

“edgy gambler”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 311.

“He doesn’t just stumble”: New York Times, Jan. 15, 1956.

“We will not be tied down”: Jessica Chapman, “Staging Democracy: South Vietnam’s 1955 Referendum to Depose Bao Dai,” Diplomatic History 30, no. 4 (Sept. 2006), p. 694.

a “dung beetle”: Ibid.

claimed more than 600,000 votes: Anthony Best et al., International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond (London: Routledge, 2008), p. 298.

put aside their doubts: Jessica Chapman, “Staging Democracy,” pp. 698–99.

“No systematic or serious examination”: New York Review of Books, Dec. 2, 1971.

Foster considered the possibility: John R. Lampe et al., Yugoslav-American Economic Relations Since World War II (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990), p. 57; Lorraine M. Lees, Keeping Tito Afloat: The United States, Yugoslavia, and the Cold War (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997), pp. 144–46, 155.

“We have been exploring ways”: Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002), p. 275.

“long-range program”: Pentagon Papers, Part IV, A, 3, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/United_States_%E2%80%93_Vietnam_Relations,_1945%E2%80%931967:_A_Study_Prepated_by_the_Department_of_Defense/IV._A._3._U.S._and_France%27s_Withdrawal_from_Vietnam,_1954%E2%80%9356.

“None of [Foster] Dulles’s actions”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 202.

set out to circle the globe: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 432.

Soviets “have never occupied”: John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997), p. 168.

Allen sent Kermit Roosevelt: Wawro, Quicksand, p. 169.

“Remember Guatemala”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 388.

“choke on your fury”: Tully, Central Intelligence Agency, p. 108.

“administrative inadequacies of Allen Dulles”: Jeffreys-Jones, CIA and American Democracy, p. 108.

prepare a report on the CIA: http://cryptome.org/0001/bruce-lovett.htm.

second inaugural address: http://www.pagebypagebooks.com/Dwight_D_Eisenhower/Second_Inaugural_Address/Second_Inaugural_Address_p1.html.

8: THE SELF-INTOXICATED PRESIDENT

“today is a famous anniversary”: Vital Speeches of the Day 21, no. 16, June 1, 1955, pp. 1250–51.

“As the leader and personification”: FRUS, Indonesia, p. 236.

Their meeting was pleasant: Cindy Adams and Sukarno, Sukarno: An Autobiography (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965), p. 227.

“I am a brown man”: Baltimore Evening Sun, May 17, 1956.

“Sukarno Captivates Washington”: New York Times, May 16, 1956.

“President Wows Capital”: St. Louis Globe Democrat, May 17, 1956.

“sensitive Asian nationalist”: New York Times, May 17, 1956.

“Understand that, and you have the key”: New York Herald Tribune, May 17, 1956.

two-week tour: Paul F. Gardner, Shared Hopes, Separate Fears: Fifty Years of U.S.-Indonesian Relations (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1997), p. 126; Brian May, The Indonesian Tragedy (n.p.: Non Basic Stock Line, 2000), p. 126; Washington Post, May 18, 1956.

“I find only one fault”: Adams and Sukarno, Sukarno, p. 275.

“tried to explain”: May, Indonesian Tragedy, p. 128.

loan “will place Soviet ‘technicians’”: Time, Sept. 24, 1956.

Sukarno felt insulted: Adams and Sukarno, Sukarno, p. 294.

“I think it’s time”: Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior, p. 197.

one of the largest-scale covert operations: Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 140.

“During the late 1950s”: Audrey R. Kahin and George McT. Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), pp. 3, 106.

“three gorgeous … stewardesses”: John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (London: Sceptre, 1988), p. 334.

Khrushchev changed course: Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 68.

softer line was “a strategy”: Osgood, Total Cold War, p. 70.

“Far from seeing”: Ibid., p. 68.

tourism in the Soviet Union: Ibid., p. 217; Rositzke, CIA’s Secret Operations, pp. 59–60.

begin obtaining the weaponry: Rositzke, CIA’s Secret Operations, p. 61.

“If that colonel of yours”: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 373.

“even drastic ones”: Ray Takeyh, The Origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine: The US, Britain and Nasser’s Egypt, 1953–57 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000), p. 108.

“Given the conception”: Ibid., p. xiii.

campaign of escalating coercion: Ibid., pp. 111–12.

Eisenhower unveiled it: C. Philip Skardon, A Lesson for Our Times: How America Kept the Peace in the Hungary-Suez Crisis of 1956 (n.p.: Authorhouse, 2010), p. 625; Irene L. Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East, 1945–1958 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), pp. 215–16.

He became indignant: Patrick Tyler, A World of Trouble: The White House and the Middle East—From the Cold War to the War on Terror (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2009), p. 59.

several Omega projects: Prados, Safe for Democracy, pp. 125–26; Tully, Central Intelligence Agency, p. 113; Wawro, Quicksand, pp. 139, 235.

“Throughout the elections”: Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield, p. 222.

sustained campaigns against two … neutralists: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, pp. 10–14.

nationalized several … businesses: Geoff Simons, Indonesia: The Long Oppression (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000), p. 152.

“a Javanese characteristic”: John D. Legge, Sukarno: A Political Biography (Singapore: Didier Millet, 2007), p. 22.

“Don’t tie yourself irrevocably”: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 75.

Foster recalled Ambassador Cumming: Ibid., p. 83.

Simbolon … wished to meet: Ibid., pp. 70, 101–2; Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, Feet to the Fire: CIA Covert Operations in Indonesia, 1957–1958 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1999), p. 33.

four-party government: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 77.

National Security Council to authorize: FRUS, Indonesia, p. 2.

Allen immediately sent $50,000: Gardner, Shared Hopes, Separate Fears, p. 145.

“Send more books”: Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, p. 29.

“raise annoying questions”: Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior, p. 221.

“with a little flourish”: Thomas, Very Best Men, p. 158.

one of his most bizarre projects: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 169; Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior, p. 169; Thomas, Very Best Men, p. 159.

One large shipment alone: Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, p. 180.

“get to a point”: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 124.

In public statements: Ibid., p. 142.

public ultimatum: May, Indonesian Tragedy, p. 79.

“We don’t take any part”: Ibid., p. 149.

“If a government allows”: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 148.

Late one night: Graham Greene, The Quiet American (New York: Penguin, 2004), p. 119.

“your motives are good”: Ibid., p. 172.

“completely change” the book’s message: Wilford, Mighty Wurlitzer, pp. 176–77.

“ruining our foreign policy”: Cary Fraser, “Crossing the Color Line in Little Rock: The Eisenhower Administration and the Dilemma of Race for U.S. Foreign Policy,” Diplomatic History 24, no. 2 (Jan. 2000), p. 247.

“Let us not pretend”: Life, Oct. 7, 1957.

“like a cancer”: Ralph W. McGhee, Deadly Deceits: My 25 Years in the CIA (Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1999), p. 42.

“disaster for the United States”: “Discussion at the 347th Meeting of the National Security Council, Thursday, December 5, 1957,” http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/dec57.html.

had grown weak and tired: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, pp. 338, 429.

widely covered speech: New York Times, Nov. 12, 1958.

Alsop and … Humphrey: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 403.

Burnett’s gag song: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgTN13_bfXQ.

Christmas dinner: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 18.

“great gain for the Soviets”: Ibid., pp. 100–101.

traveled to Princeton: Ibid., p. 124.

they “did not really separate”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 451.

“The director always began”: Ibid., p. 485.

One of his favorite friends: Ibid., p. 451.

“a reasonable chance”: Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, p. 60.

“Indonesia, racked by civil war”: Time, Mar. 10, 1958.

“would not fight their Muslim brothers”: Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, pp. 51, 92.

barges loaded with weapons: Ibid., p. 34; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 148.

“play with fire”: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 186.

Foster concluded: Ibid., p. 156.

“Our policy is one of careful neutrality”: Wise and Ross, Invisible Government, p. 145.

“I am called a communist”: FRUS, Indonesia, p. 76.

reacted by telephoning: Gardner, Shared Hopes, Separate Fears, p. 52.

“We did not write about it”: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 158.

“It is unfortunate”: New York Times, May 9, 1957.

they met at Foster’s home: FRUS, Indonesia, p. 99.

Pope’s B-26 burst into flames: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, pp. 179–81; Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, pp. 132–40.

He had bombed military bases: Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, pp. 118, 122.

“Tell me why”: Adams and Sukarno, Sukarno, p. 269.

“pulling the plug”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 453–54; Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, pp. 145–46.

“I am definitely convinced”: Wise and Ross, Invisible Government, p. 152.

“dictator somewhat of the Hitler type”: Wawro, Quicksand, p. 235.

“More important than Chamoun’s second term: Ibid., pp. 234, 238.

Chamoun was eased from office: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 437.

“sheer delusion”: Wawro, Quicksand, p. 240.

lamented the “mixing of American blood”: Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield, p. 329.

“patriotic people of Iraq”: Ibid., p. 333.

“Listen carefully”: Gardner, Shared Hopes, Separate Fears, pp. 161–62.

Allen ordered intensive work: Conboy and Morrison, Feet to the Fire, pp. 162–65.

“when it comes to women”: Adams and Sukarno, Sukarno, p. 271.

“We killed thousands”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 153.

Rebellions … sputtered on: Kahin and Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy, p. 216.

“prolonged exclusion”: May, Indonesian Tragedy, p. 162.

“neat, orderly Western pigeon holes”: Ibid., p. 66.

“I had great respect”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 146.

“If there is an out-and-out question”: Adams and Sukarno, Sukarno, p. 300.

9: THE TALL, GOATEED RADICAL

carried a royal visitor aloft: New York Times, Oct. 29, 1960; Penny von Eschen, Satchmo Blows Up the World: Jazz Ambassadors Play the Cold War (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006), pp. 58, 66–68, 71, 77; video is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXWy0NvzlCA.

“America’s secret weapon”: New York Times, Nov. 6. 1955.

“extremely strong feelings”: Ambrose, Ike’s Spies, p. 196; Brands, Devil We Knew, p. 63.

“one of the most secret documents”: Jim Rasenberger, The Brilliant Disaster: JFK, Castro, and America’s Doomed Invasion of Cuba’s Bay of Pigs (New York: Scribner, 2011), p. 49.

“it would have been unseemly”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 50.

Allen could not mistake the message: Madeleine G. Kalb, The Congo Cables: The Cold War in Africa—from Eisenhower to Kennedy (New York: Macmillan, 1982), p. 64.

“In high quarters”: Larry Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone (New York: PublicAffairs, 2007), p. 62.

Devlin received a second … cable: Ibid., p. 20; Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 66.

“It’s your responsibility”: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 95.

“They loved to talk”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 124.

a spate of reports: Mosley, Dulles, p. 457.

new calls to split the CIA in two: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 478.

“Communist high command”: Barrett, CIA and Congress, p. 285.

Allen was more realistic: Ibid., p. 286.

Eisenhower was reportedly ready to name: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 428.

Clark … was said to be his choice: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 47.

“a real and deeply felt hurt”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 197.

“a recurring nightmare”: Ibid., p. 28.

His health had deteriorated: Ibid., pp. 226–29; Mosley, Dulles, 444–45.

“Foster was aware of certain medical facts”: Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, p. 230.

resignation letter … president replied: Hoopes, Devil and John Foster Dulles, p. 485.

outside Foster’s room: Mosley, Dulles, p. 447; Eleanor Lansing Dulles, John Foster Dulles, pp. 225–31; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 457–62.

“A few weeks before”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 448.

“Some fellow got up”: Ibid., p. 449.

Eisenhower invited him: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 463.

“Herter never really replaced Dulles”: Cook, Declassified Eisenhower, p. 211.

trained his secret police force: Thomas G. Paterson, Contesting Castro: The United States and the Triumph of the Cuban Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 63, 74, 192, 279.

Daily News reported: http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/fidel-new-york-gallery-1.48730.

Nixon to meet Castro: Carl Mydans, The Violent Peace (New York: Scribner, 1968), p. 313; Jeffrey J. Stafford, “The Nixon-Castro Meeting of 19 April 1959,” Diplomatic History 4, no. 4 (October 1980), pp. 425–31.

Kempton, later wrote: Peter Carlson, K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America’s Most Unlikely Tourist (New York: PublicAffairs, 2009), p. xiii.

Khrushchev visited: Ibid., pp. 49–250.

U-2 spy plane disappeared: Thomas Charles Fensch (ed.), Top Secret: The CIA and the U-2 Program, 1954–1974 (The Woodlands, Tex.: New Century, 2001), pp. 161–98; Michael R. Beschloss, May Day: Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), pp. 27–30; Alex von Tunzelmann, Red Heat: Conspiracy, Murder, and the Cold War in the Caribbean (New York: Henry Holt, 2011), pp. 173–74.

“Allen Dulles is no weatherman”: Tunzelmann, Red Heat, p. 174.

“I am not going to shift the blame”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 488.

“If you gentlemen are spies: Tully, Central Intelligence Agency, p. 128.

an angry press conference: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1960/The-Paris-Summit-Falls-Apart/12295509435928-2/#ixzz23cwtISFB.

“The episode humiliated Khrushchev”: New York Times, Oct. 28, 1982.

calculated to strike terror: Westad, Global Cold War, p. 138; Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba (London: Verso, 2001), p. 78.

seventeen college graduates: New York Review of Books, Oct. 4, 2001.

attended religious schools: Robin McKown, Lumumba: A Biography (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1969), pp. 11–53; Jean Omassombo Tshonda, “Patrice Lumumba’s Youth,” in Bogumil Jewsiewicki et al., A Congo Chronicle: Patrice Lumumba in Urban Art (New York: Museum for African Art, 1999), pp. 29–37.

In the course of barely more than a … day: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 75–78.

“The man to beat”: Time, May 30, 1960.

“Lumumba is living proof”: Times (London), July 15, 1960.

uranium used to fuel: McKown, Lumumba, p. 21.

Baudouin began his welcoming speech: De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, p. 1.

“turned a deathly pale”: Time, July 11, 1960.

“Our wounds are too fresh”: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 101–4.

“inter-racial politeness”: Time, July 11, 1960.

“consider this a … final warning”: Time, July 25, 1960.

Janssens convened his Congolese troops: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 109–10; De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, p. 6.

soldiers, already angry: Time, July 18, 1960.

Belgians were gone: McKown, Lumumba, 114.

Belgian commandos began parachuting: Ibid., pp. 112–13.

Union Minière du Haut: Ibid., p. 81; David W. Doyle, True Men and Traitors (New York: John Wiley, 2001), p. 135.

Champion, cashiered hundreds: Doyle, True Men and Traitors, pp. 138–39; McKown, Lumumba, p. 133; G. Heinz and H. Donnay, Lumumba: The Last Fifty Days (New York: Grove, 1969), pp. 97–98.

sent him nine tons: Time, Sept. 19, 1960.

“Tshombe became the most unpopular … leader”: Doyle, True Men and Traitors, p. 135.

“under the domination of Belgian officials”: Daily Telegraph, July 27, 1960.

“We accuse the Belgian government”: McKown, Lumumba, p. 126.

Lumumba also took another step: Ibid., p. 127.

“We have no arms”: Ibid., p. 129.

Hammarskjöld … “very optimistic”: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 34.

“If I die tomorrow”: McKown, Lumumba, p. 170.

“not rational being”: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 37.

real problem may have been: Ibid.; New York Review of Books, Oct. 4, 2001.

“We are being attacked”: Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, p. 163.

Devlin … had been warning: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 54.

genteel recruiting session: Ibid., pp. 1–2.

“In retrospect”: Ibid. pp. 54, 66.

Lumumba proved unwilling or unable: Leo Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba: Africa’s Lost Leader (London: Haus, 2008), p. 104.

the council decided: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 38.

preparing “resolute measures”: Ibid., p. 41.

foreign journalists converged: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 135–37.

detested the man he called “Lumumbavitch”: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 92.

vivid cables to Washington: Ibid., p. 27.

Burden picked up his telephone: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, pp. 45–46.

State Department had no bureau of African affairs: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. xxvi.

“None of us had any real concept”: Doyle, True Men and Traitors, p. 129.

“recruiting agents and running them”: Ibid., pp. 128–29.

The station organized: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, pp. 57–61, 68–69.

Anonymous leaflets: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 142–43.

On August 18 Devlin cabled: William H. Worger et al., Africa and the West: A Documentary History, vol. 2, From Colonialism to Independence, 1875 to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 136.

“off the record meeting”: The President’s Appointments, July–December, 1960, President’s Daily Appointments Schedules: Dwight D. Eisenhower: Records as President, 1953–1961, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library.

“I was authorized”: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 63.

“The moment they became aware”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 450.

“The embassy and station were humming”: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 68.

Lumumba held mass rallies: Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba, p. 113.

Lumumba’s friends … warned him: Kalb, Congo Cables, pp. 69, 86; Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba, p. 116; Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 77.

“Red Weeds Grow”: Time, Sept. 12, 1960.

Kasavubu’s tape was played: Time, Sept. 19, 1960.

proclaimed the decision: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 67.

UN soldiers closed: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 149–50.

convey “top-level feeling”: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 79.

Mobutu agreed to lead a coup: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 87; Time, Sept. 26, 1960.

Both … were on the CIA payroll: Godfrey Mwakikagile, Africa 1960–1970: Chronicle and Analysis (Dar es Salaam: New Africa Press, 2009), p. 82; Stephen R. Weissman, “Congo-Kinshasa: U.S. Role in Lumumba Murder Revealed,” http://allafrica.com/stories/200207220024.html?viewall=1.

Nehru of India demanded: McKown, Lumumba, p. 157.

“Lumumba talents and dynamism”: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, p. 17; Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 87.

Lumumba was arrested twice: Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, pp. 22–23.

Wadsworth … made sure: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 99.

“give every possible support”: Ibid., p. 102.

“prowled the balcony”: Time, Oct. 24, 1960.

CIA officers were trying … to poison him: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB222/top06.pdf.

“Hunting good here”: United States Senate, Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975), p. 57.

“[Bissell] called me in”: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 151; Loch K. Johnson and James J. Wirtz (eds.), Strategic Intelligence: Windows into a Secret World (Cary, N.C.: Roxbury, 2004), pp. 224–30.

“Wait, even indefinitely”: Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, p. 10.

“cool as a cucumber”: Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba, p. 130.

wife departed to Switzerland: Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, p. 31.

“The big rabbit”: Ibid., p. 41.

book was Ian Fleming’s novel: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 491.

“Dulles liked Bond”: Christopher Moran, “Ian Fleming and CIA Director Allen Dulles: The Very Best of Friends,” in James G. Wiener et al. (eds.), James Bond in World and Popular Culture: The Films Are Not Enough (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2011), p. 209.

“Wisner came out to my house”: Hersh, Old Boys, p. 402.

Wisner lost his grip: Ibid., pp. 435–41; Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, pp. 153, 262–64; Powers, Intelligence Wars, p. 96.

“He remained an actor”: Hersh, Old Boys, pp. 420–21.

Five thousand people turned out: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 41.

sent her on a forty-nation tour: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 452–53.

working with Tibetan rebels: Prados, Safe for Democracy, pp. 184–203; Barrett, CIA and Congress, pp. 346–51.

Lumumba began planning this breakout: Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba, p. 120; Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, pp. 3–5; McKown, Lumumba, p. 162; De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, pp. 52–55.

“working closely” with Congolese police: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 158.

Lumumba’s pursuers pinpointed his location: De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, pp. 52–57; Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, pp. 42–43.

“very bad fifteen minutes”: Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, p. 43.

“Mobutu … calmly watched”: Ibid., p. 46.

thrown onto the back of a pickup truck: McKown, Lumumba, p. 171; video is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGnGFaJqmzU.

“illegal Mobutu bands”: Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, p. 70.

emergency summit in Casablanca: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 189.

“Present government may fall”: Johnson and Wirtz (eds.), Strategic Intelligence, p. 237.

hustled onto a plane: De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, pp. 90–94; Heinz and Donnay, Lumumba, p. 93.

“we would have baked a snake”: Kalb, Congo Cables, p. 192.

Urquhart … gave this account: New York Review of Books, Oct. 4, 2001.

Lumumba should be freed: McKown, Lumumba, p. 185.

“great shock”: Lewiston Daily Sun, Feb. 14, 1961.

shock extended far beyond Washington: Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba, p. 133; Nyunda ya Rubango, “Patrice Lumumba at the Crossroads of History and Myth,” in Jewsiewicki, Congo Chronicle, pp. 56–57.

Sartre lamented the loss: De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, p. xxiv.

Malcolm X called Lumumba: http://congolese.blogspot.com/2008/09/lumumba.html.

Lumumba was “invincible”: Aimé Césaire, A Season in the Congo (New York: Seagull, 2010), p. 124.

oddest leader of the … cult: McKown, Lumumba, pp. 178, 187–88, 193; De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, pp. 148, 165, 174; Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba, pp. 131–33.

“I have nothing against him”: McKown, Lumumba, p. 193.

Devlin later came to believe: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, pp. 54, 56.

“one of the … most important political assassinations”: De Witte, Assassination of Lumumba, p. xviii.

Soviet aid project: Devlin, Chief of Station, Congo, pp. 26, 77.

“we overrated the danger”: Stephen R. Weissman, American Foreign Policy in the Congo 1960–1964 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974), p. 280.

10: THE BEARDED STRONGMAN

“rapid-fire succession”: Montana Standard, Nov. 11, 1960.

“I have asked Mr. Allen Dulles”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wa-rbVCMvG0.

“I candidly confess”: Lars Schoultz, That Infernal Little Cuban Republic: The United States and the Cuban Revolution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011), p. 19.

Castro made his tumultuous trip: Tunzelmann, Red Heat, p. 183; Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, pp. 86–89.

“an impenitent disciple”: Pittsburgh Press, Jan. 18, 1960.

imprisoned thousands … and executed several hundred: Tunzelmann, Red Heat, p. 129.

“bearded strongman”: Time, Feb. 8, 1960.

“Vilification of the US broke all bounds”: Time, Mar. 21, 1960.

“There was considerable discussion”: Peter Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba (New York: New Press, 1988), p. 32.

restless sons of privilege: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster pp. 57–64; Thomas, Very Best Men, pp. 87–97; Peter Wyden, Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), p. 13.

“Bissell spent little time”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 65.

Eisenhower … would favor any plot: Richard M. Bissell Jr., Reflections of a Cold Warrior: From Yalta to the Bay of Pigs (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), p. 153.

“concerned and perplexed”: Robert E. Quirk, Fidel Castro (New York: W.W. Norton, 1995), p. 289.

“things that might be drastic”: Jack Pfeiffer, Official History of the Bay of Pigs Operation, p. 50, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB355/bop-vol1-part1.pdf.

“no thought of intervention”: Daniel F. Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba: The Dissolution of Friendly Relations Between Washington and Havana, 1956–1961 (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2011), p. 175.

“informal … short cut”: Pfeiffer, Official History, p. 34.

Allen presented “A Program”: Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 269; Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, p. 153; Howard Jones, The Bay of Pigs (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 19.

could imagine “no better plan”: Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 269.

“great problem is leakage”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 56; Barrett, CIA and Congress, p. 431.

Allen did not even attend: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 76.

“couldn’t hit a bull”: Thomas, Very Best Men, p. 304.

“He had turned the whole thing over”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 470.

told Castro why it succeeded: Simon Reid-Henry, Fidel and Che: A Revolutionary Friendship (New York: Walker, 2009), p. 229; Cullather, Secret History, p. 110.

would-be guerrillas were brought to camps: Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 273.

Tensions … rose steadily: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, pp. 76–77.

pulling its baseball team: Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, pp. 187, 217.

“The thing we should never do”: Schoultz, That Infernal Little Cuban Republic, p. 100.

“We must not allow Laos to fall”: David E. Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 2002), p. 31.

“Had we shown more open-mindedness”: Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, pp. 141–42.

By his own account: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 94.

“I just told Kennedy”: Ibid., p. 79.

In campaign speeches: Wyden, Bay of Pigs, pp. 66–67; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 507.

“Are they falling dead”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 80.

wanted the Cuban leader “sawed off”: Ibid., p. 83.

“In that period”: Ibid.; Jones, Bay of Pigs, pp. 27–28; Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, p. 144.

CIA passed them six poison pills: Jones, Bay of Pigs, pp. 22–27; Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, pp. 81–83, 142–43; Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, p. 188; Wyden, Bay of Pigs, pp. 40–43; Tunzelmann, Red Heat, p. 205.

suggested staging a phony Cuban attack: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 101.

Allen and Bissell flew to Palm Beach: Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, p. 160; Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 278; Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 241; Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, pp. 99–100.

“level of interest … escalated”: Pfeiffer, Official History, pp. 165–66.

“Take more chances”: Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 278.

Preparations for the invasion: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 6.

“Dulles briefed the attendees”: Pfeiffer, Official History, p. 182.

“It is axiomatic”: FRUS, Cuba, p. 14.

Arms … were unloaded in Havana: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, pp. 132–35.

fighters were “ready to invade”: Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, p. 196.

“American Embassy that is paying the terrorists”: Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, p. 194.

“don’t know what they’re talking about”: Ibid., p. 196.

CIA circulated a memo: Ibid., p. 195; Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, pp. 281–82.

startling headline: New York Times, Jan. 10, 1961.

Allen warned editors: Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, p. 188; Wyden, Bay of Pigs, pp. 45–46; Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 274.

“Are We Training Cuban Guerrillas”: Nation, Nov. 19, 1960.

A Guatemalan newspaper: Wyden, Bay of Pigs, p. 46; Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, pp. 277–78.

Allen persuaded the New York Times: Kornbluh (ed.), Bay of Pigs Declassified, p. 301.

“I decided that we should say nothing”: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Waging Peace, 1956–1961: The White House Years (New York: Doubleday, 1965), p. 614.

Bissell wrote later: Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, p. 163.

“To the utmost”: Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, p. 109; Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 109.

Time reported “guerrilla training camps”: Time, Jan. 27, 1961.

“disposal” problem: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 130; Wyden, Bay of Pigs, p. 100; Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 246.

“We made it very clear”: Lucien S. Vandenbroucke, “Anatomy of a Failure: The Decision to Land at the Bay of Pigs,” Political Science Quarterly 99, no. 3 (Fall 1998), p. 476.

Peace Corps … Alliance for Progress: Tunzelmann, Red Heat, p. 208.

“sold us on it”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 127.

“You present a plan”: Ibid.

“fix a malevolent image”: Ibid., p. 129.

“thorn in the flesh”: Ibid., p. 152; Jones, Bay of Pigs, p. 65.

“doesn’t take Price Waterhouse”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 147.

too “noisy”: Ibid., p. 185; Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, p. 170; Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 270.

“still thought it would succeed”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 141.

last, poignant warning: Ibid., pp. 173–76.

“We made a bad mistake”: Don Bohning, “A Remembrance of Jake Esterline,” Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies 19, no. 2 (Summer/Fall 2012), p. 42.

“there will not be … an intervention”: Jones, Bay of Pigs, p. 69.

“get ahold of the President”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 235.

Radio Moscow reported: Ibid., p. 249.

“how is it going”: Ibid., p. 259.

Burke … came to the Oval Office: Ibid., pp. 282–83.

“I probably made a mistake”: Ibid., p. 272; Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 531.

“Everything is lost”: Solomon, Breaking Up with Cuba, p. 205; Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 307; Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 264.

“How could I have been so stupid”: Rasenberger, Brilliant Disaster, p. 314.

“Cuba Disaster”: Time, Apr. 28, 1961.

“Victory has a hundred fathers”: Jeffreys-Jones, CIA and American Democracy, p. 127.

“looked like living death”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 525.

No harsh words: Ibid., p. 530.

“We took the … best military advice”: Barrett, CIA and Congress, p. 452.

“he just wasn’t involved”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 520.

Retirement … would come in two years: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 534.

wished he could “splinter the CIA”: Jones, Bay of Pigs, p. 131; New York Times, Apr. 25, 1966.

dedication ceremony: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 538.

“I stood right here”: Look, Aug. 10, 1965.

sharp rebuttal: Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 556–58; Allen Dulles, “My Answer to the Bay of Pigs,” unpublished, Allen Dulles Papers, box 224.

“had already begun to lose”: Mosley, Dulles, p. 479.

“when the chips were down”: Higgins Trumble, The Perfect Failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of Pigs (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989), p. 103.

Eleanor was another casualty: Mosley, Dulles, pp. 473–74; Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Chances of a Lifetime, p. 305.

In retirement: Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 538–39.

“some foreign complications”: Ibid., p. 542.

“systematically used his influence”: Ibid., p. 544; Jones, Bay of Pigs, pp. 168–69.

bland report: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 558.

sentimental trip: Mosley, Dulles, p. 480.

Wolff had reason for gratitude: Ibid.; Grose, Gentleman Spy, pp. 253–54; New York Review of Books, Dec. 29, 1966, and Mar. 9, 1967.

“Perhaps it was what we call”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 580.

looked all of his … years: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 564; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 560.

“I am too old”: Grose, Gentleman Spy, p. 560.

“creative, powerful, and eminent”: Washington Post, Jan. 31, 1969.

11: A FACE OF GOD

ordered small-format copies: Beal, John Foster Dulles, pp. 235–36.

“Once you touch the biographies”: Walter Lippmann, A Preface to Politics (n.p.: CreateSpace, 2012) p. 86.

“I have always felt”: May, Indonesian Tragedy, p. 113.

One of Eisenhower’s … thoughts: Raj Roy and John W. Young, Ambassador to Sixties London: The Diaries of David Bruce, 1961–1969 (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Republic of Letters, 2009).

“Dulles, not Eisenhower”: Roscoe Drummond and Gaston Coblentz, Duel at the Brink: John Foster Dulles’ Command of American Power (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1960), p. 25.

This view has shifted: Prados, Safe for Democracy, p. 459; Divine, Eisenhower and the Cold War, p. 23; Fred I. Greenstein, The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), pp. 6, 62, 137, 213, 228.

“no longer any question”: Jerald A. Combs, The History of American Foreign Policy from 1895 (London: M.E. Sharpe, 2012), p. 256.

“Inspired by a Manichean conception”: William R. Keylor, The Twentieth-Century World and Beyond: An International History Since 1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 287, 308.

Leffler summarized: Melvyn P. Leffler, “Inside Enemy Archives: The Cold War Reopened,” Foreign Affairs 75, no. 4 (July/Aug. 1996), pp. 120–35.

“Dulles’ moral universe”: New Republic, Dec. 1, 1958.

“So long as our foreign broadcasts”: Urie Bronfenbrenner, “The Mirror Image in Soviet-American Relations,” in Edwin P. Hollander and Raymond G. Hunt (eds.), Current Perspectives in Social Psychology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 622.

“you had to develop operations”: Jeffreys-Jones, CIA and American Democracy, p. 98.

“We had constructed for ourselves”: Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, p. 154.

“We carried our walking wounded”: Doyle, True Men and Traitors, p. 248.

“caused havoc”: Ibid., p. 227.

filed a lawsuit alleging: New York Times, Nov. 26, 2012.

“a lost opportunity”: U.S. Senate, Final Report on Intelligence Activities, pp. 44–45.

Allen imagined himself as … Walsingham: Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior, p. 139.

“a frivolous man”: Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 522.

“slimy, octopus-like tentacles”: Guhin, John Foster Dulles, p. 129.

“impossible to produce evidence”: Stephen G. Rabe, Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), p. 57.

“a single pattern”: Guhin, John Foster Dulles, p. 129.

“It is inevitable”: Spokane Daily Chronicle, Aug. 24, 1948.

“policy … not to intervene”: William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II (Monroe, Me.: Common Courage, 2008), p. 78.

During one of his meetings: Andrew Preston, Sword of the Spirit, Shield of Faith: Religion in American War and Diplomacy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), pp. 454–55.

“two kinds of people”: Christian Pineau, oral history, Dulles Papers.

“Specimen 1”: Charles E. Osgood, “Cognitive Dynamics in the Conduct of Human Affairs,” in Hollander and Hunt (eds.), Current Perspectives in Social Psychology, pp. 358, 360.

People are motivated: Cass M. Sunstein, Going to Extremes: How Like Minds Unite and Divide (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), p. 110.

Dissonance is eliminated: Margaret Heffernan, Willful Blindness: Why We Ignore the Obvious at Our Peril (New York: Walker, 2011), pp. 24, 51.

Moral hypocrisy: Robert Trivers, The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life (New York: Basic Books, 2011), pp. 22–23.

Groupthink leads: Irving L. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes (Independence, Ky.: Cengage Learning, 1982), p. 86.

We are often confident: Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011), pp. 4, 212.

Certain beliefs are so important: Jonathan Haidt, New York Times, Aug. 19, 2012.

An American political scientist: Ole Holsti, “Cognitive Dynamics and Images of the Enemy: Dulles and Russia,” in David J. Finlay et al., Enemies in Politics (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967).

“America is beyond power”: John Updike, Rabbit Redux (New York: Random House, 1996), p. 49.

“International communism is a conspiracy”: Beal, John Foster Dulles, p. 232.

“one of the most powerfully developed narratives”: Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination 1945–1961 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), p. 36.

“If there’s no evident menace”: Stanley E. Spangler, Force and Accommodation in World Politics (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991), p. 88.

“Depriving the individual of his right”: Kattenburg, Vietnam Trauma, p. 37.

Foster “misleads public opinion”: Ocala Star Banner, Feb. 3, 1959.

“By the late 1950s”: Westad, Global Cold War, p. 130.

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