Notes

APOLOGY

1. Brandes, G., Voltaire, I, 4.

2. Cousin, Victor, Histoire de la philosophie, in Buckle, H. T., History of Civilization in England, I, 519n.

3. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 16.

CHAPTER I

1. Brandes, Voltaire, I, 30.

2. Ibid., 31; Parton, James, Life of Voltaire, I, 26; Campbell, T. J., The Jesuits, 354.

3. Desnoiresterres, Voltaire et la société française au xviiie siècle, I, 32.

4. Ibid., 17–18.

5. Letter of Feb. 7, 1746, to Father Latour, in Desnoiresterres, I, 24; Brandes, I, 44.

6. Parton, I, 53.

7. Hazard, Paul, European Thought in the 18th Century, 129.

8. Parton, I, 66.

9. Desnoiresterres, I, 171.

10. Duclos, C. P., Secret Memoirs of the Regency, 6.

11. Saint-Simon, Memoirs, II, 329.

12. Duclos, 10.

13. Saint-Simon, II, 326.

14. Desnoiresterres, I, 96.

15. Wormeley, K. P., Correspondence of Madame, Princess Palatine,Marie Adélaïde de Savoie,…and Mme. de Maintenon, 29.

16. Guizot, F., History of France, V, 3.

17. Martin, Henri, Histoire de France, XV, 13.

18. Ducros, Louis, French Society in the 18th Century, 55.

19. Martin, H., XV, 20–22; Desnoiresterres, I, 164.

20. Stryienski, C, Eighteenth Century, 82.

21. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 47.

22. Martin, H., XV, 53.

23. Voltaire, Works, XVI, 20.

24. Martin, H., XV, 54.

25. Michelet, J., Histoire de France, V, 268.

26. Saint-Simon, II, 232.

27. Ibid., III, 239.

28. Martin, H., XV, 62.

29. Saint-Simon, III, 243.

30. In Lacroix, Paul, Eighteenth Century in France, 201.

31. Wormeley, 31.

32. Guizot, V, 42.

33. Duclos, Secret Memoirs, 70.

34. Martin, H., XV., 107.

35. Saint-Simon, III, 338.

36. Michelet, V, 133.

37. Ibid 135.

38. Saint-Simon, III, 69.

39. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 155.

40. Saint-Simon, III, 418.

41. Cambridge Modern History, II, 133.

42. Michelet, V, 197; Martin, H., XV, 1m.

43. Duclos, Secret Memoirs, 8.

44. Ercole, L., Gay Court Life in France in the 18th Century, 18–20.

45. Saint-Simon, III, 69.

46. Ercole, 27.

47. Ibid., 10.

48. Ducros, French Society, 56.

49. Ercole, 44.

50. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 132.

51. Duclos, Secret Memoirs, 131.

52. Ercole, 44.

53. Martin, H., XIV, 552n., and Michelet, V, 160, credit the charge of incest.

54. Martin, XV, 12.

55. Dupuy, Dialogues sur les plaisirs, 14, in Crocker, L. G., Age of Crisis, 117.

56. Brunetière, F., Manual of the History of French Literature, 282.

57. Wormeley, 30.

58. Lacroix, 83.

59. Michelet, V, 251.

60. Martin, H., XV, 339.

61. Batiffol, L., The Great Literary Salons, 103.

62. Toth, K., Woman and Rococo in France, 107.

63. Ibid.

64. Lacroix, 417.

65. Ercole, 56.

66. Louvre.

67. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

68. Louvre.

69. Metropolitan Mus. of Art.

70. Wallace Collection, London.

71. Dresden, Gemäldegalerie.

72. Wallace Collection.

73. There are outstanding collections of Watteau’s drawings in the Louvre and in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.

74. Goncourt, E. and J. de, French 18th-century Painters, 1.

75. Aldington, R., French Comedies of the 18th Century, 103.

76. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 81.

77. Ibid., 82.

78. Lesage, Adventures of Gil Bias, prefatory memoir.

79. Aldington, 131.

80. Lesage, Gil Bias, Book VIII, Ch. x.

81. Gil Bias, last line.

82. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits, I, 104.

83. Saint-Simon, III, 42; cf. 91–94.

84. Créqui, Marquise de, Souvenirs, 44.

85. Michelet, V, 126.

86. Faguet, Emile, Literary History of France, 474.

87. Saint-Simon, III, 376.

88. Duclos, Secret Memoirs, 326.

89. Michelet, V, 155; Martin, H., XV, 80.

90. Ibid., 115.

91. Saint-Simon, III, 373.

92. Ibid., 376.

93. 77.

94. In Torrey, N., The Spirit of Voltaire, 21.

95. Parton, I, 99.

96. Desnoiresterres, I, 217.

97. Parton, I, 98.

98. Brandes, I, 97.

99. Ibid., 98.

100. 99.

101. Parton, I, 115.

102. Like Desnoiresterres, I, 159, and Brandes, I, 100.

103. Créqui, 149.

104. Desnoiresterres, I, 157.

105. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 463 ; Brandes, I, 306.

106. Desnoiresterres, I, 190.

107. Parton, I, 154.

108. Desnoiresterres, I, 242; Faguet, Literary History, 469, gives a different version: “Gare que cet écrit in extremis n’aille pas à son addresse.”

109. Parton, I, 165.

110. Voltaire, Works, XXIa, 221.

111. Frederick the Great, Mémoires, I, 59.

112. Desnoiresterres, I, 345.

113. Brandes, I, 152.

114. Ibid.; Parton, I, 185.

115. Parton, I, 190.

CHAPTER II

1. Shakespeare, Richard II, II, i.

2. Defoe, Tour through England and Wales, I, 1 and passim.

3. Voltaire, Lettres philosophiques, No. 9; Ashton, T., Economic History of England: The 18th Century, 36.

4. Quennell, M. and C, History of Everyday Things in England, 21; Mantoux, P., Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century, 165.

5. Quennell, Everyday Things, 12.

6. Trevelyan, G. M., English Social History, 379.

7. Besant, Sir Walter, London in the 18th Century, 386.

8. Lipson, E., Growth of English Society, 212.

9. Nussbaum, Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 252.

10. Jaurès, Histoire socialiste de la Révolution française, I, 67.

11. Usher, A., History of Mechanical Inventions, 280.

12. Lipson, 196.

13. Ashton, Economic History, 220.

14. Encyclopaedia Britannica, VI, 544a.

15. Mantoux, 73.

16. Ashton, 201–4.

17. In Tawney, R. H., Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, 190.

18. Ashton, 212; Mantoux, 72.

19. Ashton, 203.

20. Webb, S. and B., History of Trade Unionism, 31–50.

21. Mantoux, 119.

22. Chesterfield, Earl of, Letters to His Son, letter of Sept. 22, 1749.

23. Mantoux, 102; Taine, H., Ancient Regime, 33.

24. Beard, M., Business Man, 430.

25. Voltaire, Lettres sur les Anglais, No. 10, in Mantoux, 138.

26. Hume, David, Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, 248.

27. In Beard, M., 435.

28. Lecky, W. E., History of England, I, 323.

29. Mackay, C, Extraordinary Popular Delusions, 50.

30. Ibid., 55.

31. Quennell, P., Caroline of England, 71.

32. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 181.

33. Mackay, 73.

34. Ibid., 78.

35. Voltaire, Works, XIIIa, 23.

36. Ranke, L., History of the Reformation in Germany, 468.

37. Rogers, J. E. T., Economic Interpretation of History, 157; Ashton, 2; Ogg, David, Europe in the 17th Century, 2.

38. Defoe, Tour, I, 337.

39. Besant, London in the 18th Century, 352.

40. Trevelyan, English Social History, 142.

41. Lecky, History of England, I, 482–84.

42. Ibid.

43. Letter of Mar. 23, 1752.

44. Besant, 380–81.

45. W. R. Brock in New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 266.

46. Besant, 238.

47. Lecky, II, 543–45.

48. James, B. B., Women of England, 335.

49. Besant, 138.

50. Markun, L., Mrs. Grundy, 183.

51. Faÿ, B., La Franc-Maçonnerie et la révolution intellectuelle du xviiie siècle, 78–79.

52. Besant, 384.

53. Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 15 m.

54. Congreve, Wm., Way of the World, III, iii, in Hampden, J., Eighteenth-Century Plays.

55. Gay, John, Beggar’s Opera, I, v, in Hampden.

56. Halsband, R., Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 14.

57. Langdon-Davies, J., Short History of Women, 305.

58. Besant, 459; Lecky, I, 522; Quennell, P., Caroline of England, 29.

59. George, M. Dorothy, London in the 18th Century, 29.

60. Lecky, I, 477.

61. Ibid., 479; Besant, 297 f.

62. Berkeley, George, Siris, in Jefferson, D. W., Eighteenth-Century Prose, 122.

63. Besant, 301–2.

64. Turberville, Johnson’s England, I, 48.

65. Boswell, Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, 84 (Aug. 31, 1773).

66. Enc. Brit., XX, 779d.

67. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 187.

68. Ashton, 62–63.

69. Hobhouse, L. T., Morals in Evolution, 313.

70. Besant, 342.

71. Lecky, I, 183.

72. Ibid., 367; Barnes, H. E., Economic History of the Western World, 256.

73. Westermarck, E. A., Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, II, 558.

74. Turberville, I, 72.

75. Some instances in Thackeray, The Four Georges, 42–43.

76. Turberville, I, 312.

77. Fielding, H., Amelia, Book I, Ch. ii.

78. Turberville, I, 310.

79. Quennell, M. and C., Everyday Things, 9.

80. Lecky, I, 507.

81. Turberville, I, 322.

82. Ibid., 319; Lecky, I, 501–2.

83. Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture, II, 586.

84. Johnson, S., The Rambler, 183.

85. Pope, A., Imitations of Horace, Epistle II.

86. James, B. B., Women of England, 318.

87. Turberville, I, 341.

88. Thackeray, Four Georges, 41.

89. Allen, B. S., Tides in English Taste, I, 249.

90. Lecky, I, 552.

91. Ibid., 553–54.

92. Walpole, H., Letters, I, 309 (June 29, 1744).

93. Weinstock, H., Handel, 228.

94. Allen, B. S., Tides, I, 94; Chesterfield, Letters, Oct. 19, 1748.

95. Clergue, H., The Salon, 4.

96. Chesterfield, Letters, June 11, 1750.

97. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 25.

98. Wharton, G. and P., Wits and Beaux of Society, I, 349.

99. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 29.

100. Chesterfield, letter of July 8, 1739.

101. Letter of June, 1752, in Letters to His Son, II, 96.

102. Letter of Apr. 19, 1749.

103. Apr. 13, 1752.

104. Nov. 6, 1747.

105. May 16, 1751.

106. May 23, 1751.

107. Sept. 5, 1748.

108. Apr. 15, 1751.

109. In Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 41.

110. Dec. 25, 1753.

111. May 17, 1748.

112. Nov. 11, 1752.

113. Oct. 9, 1747.

114. Feb. 22, 1748.

115. Oct. 19, 1748.

116. Jan. 8, 1750.

117. Apr. 13, 1752.

118. Dec. 25, 1753.

119. Stephen, Leslie, English Literature and Society in the 18th Century, 150.

120. Krutch, J. W., Samuel Johnson, 354.

121. Chesterfield, July 25, 1741.

122. Feb. 24, 1747.

123. Krutch, 354.

124. Parton, II, 551.

125. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 43.

126. Nicolson, H., Age of Reason, 201.

127. In Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 34.

128. Dec. 2, 1746.

129. Oct. 17, 1768.

130. Letters, II, 334.

131. Oct. 11, 1769.

132. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 44.

133. lbid., 45.

CHAPTER III

1. Acton, Lord, Lectures on Modern History, 166.

2. Quennell, P., Caroline, 22.

3. Halsband, Lady Mary, 45.

4. Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 70–72; cf. Laski, H., Political Thought in England, Locke to Bentham, 16.

5. Hauser, Social History of Art, II, 261.

6. New Cambridge Modern History, VII, 261.

7. Voltaire, XIXb, 29.

8. Chidsey, D. B., Marlborough, 291.

9. Rowse, A. L., The Early Churchills, 131.

10. Martin, H., XV, 76.

11. Lang, A., History of Scotland, IV, 226–27.

12. Collins, J. C., Bolingbroke, and Voltaire in England, 117.

13. Churchill, W. S., History of the English-Speaking Peoples, III, 91.

14. Schoenfeld, H., Women of the Teutonic Nations, 275.

15. Quennell, Caroline, 93; Martin, H., XV, 343.

16. Traill, H. D., Social England, V, 139.

17. Walpole, H., Reminiscences, in Letters, introd., cxxx.

18. Walpole, H., Memoires ofthe Reign of George II, I, 63.

19. Thackeray, Four Georges, 33.

20. Wharton, G. and P., Wits and Beaux of Society, I, 276.

21. Lecky, History of England, I, 465.

22. Mossner, Bishop Butler and the Age of Reason, 4; Quennell, Caroline, 134.

23. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 77.

24. Voltaire, XIXb, 23.

25. Lecky, I, 520.

26. Quennell, Caroline, 252.

27. Lecky, I, 326; Camb. Mod. History, VI, 181.

28. Macaulay, T., Essays, I, 346.

29. Walpole, Memoires of the Reign of George II, II, 273.

30. Mossner, Bishop Butler, 5.

31. Beard, M., History of the Business Man, 477.

32. Macaulay, Essays, I, 348; Lecky, I, 367–72; Koven, A. de, Horace Walpole and Mme. du Deffand, 13.

33. Lord Hervey in Jefferson, D. W., Eighteenth-Century Prose, 28.

34. Tucker in Lecky, I, 334.

35. Frederick the Great, Mémoires, I, 29.

36. Chesterfield, letter of Dec. 12, 1749.

37. In Lovejoy, Essays, 177.

38. Collins, J. C., Bolingbroke, 166.

39. Camb. History of English Literature, IX, 254.

40. Bolingbroke, On the Spirit of Patriotism, 28.

41. Collins, J. C., 172.

42. Bolingbroke, 128.

43. Hearnshaw, F. J., Social and Political Ideas of Some English Thinkers of the Augustan Age, 215.

44. Ibid.

45. Acton, Lectures, 273.

46. See Camb. Mod. History, VI, 64 f.; Wingfield-Stratford, History of British Civilization, 681; Churchill, III, 101.

47. Lecky, I, 385n.; Burke, Letters on a Regicide Peace, in Reflections on the French Revolution.

48. Altamira, R., History of Spain, 435.

49. Enc. Brit., XX, 779c.

50. In Lecky, I, 394.

51. Ibid., 291.

52. Ibid.

53. 239.

54. 241.

55. Mantoux, Industrial Revolution, 87.

56. Swift, Jonathan, Short View of the State of Ireland, in Lecky, II, 208.

57. Lecky, II, 424.

58. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 485.

59. D’Alton, E. A., History of Ireland, IV, 531.

60. Lecky, II, 199.

61. D’Alton, IV, 472–73.

62. Lecky, II, 217.

63. Ibid.

64. Mossner, Life of Hume, 234.

65. Lecky, II, 83.

66. Trevelyan, English Social History, 444.

67. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 168.

68. Traill, Social England, V, 159.

69. Lang, A., History of Scotland, IV, 425–27.

70. Ibid., 449.

71. 451.

72. Voltaire, Age of Louis XV, II, 14.

73. Lang, A., IV, 512.

74. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 117.

75. Lang, A., IV, 519.

76. Enc. Brit., IV., 292d.

77. Voltaire, Age of Louis XV, II, 44.

78. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 191.

79. Wingfield-Stratford, 682.

80. Lecky, II, 479–80.

81. Ibid., 476.

82. Churchill, III, 112.

CHAPTER IV

1. Pensées diverses, in Lecky, II, 53 m.

2. Davidson, John, introd. to Montesquieu’s Persian Letters, xxi.

3. Ibid.

4. Hervey, Memoirs of the Court of George II, in introd. to Mandeville’s Fable of the Bees, x.

5. Besant, London, 152.

6. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 79.

7. Stephen, L., History of English Thought in the 18th Century, I, 217.

8. Thackeray, Four Georges, 34.

9. Lecky, II, 468.

10. Hume, D., essay “Of National Character.”

11. Besant, 153.

12. Lecky, I, 275–76, 303–4.

13. Trevelyan, G. M., England under the Stuarts, 342.

14. Robertson, J. M., History of Free-thought, II, 161; Lecky, I, 313.

15. Voltaire, XIXb, 218.

16. Voltaire, VIa, 288.

17. Woolston, Discourses, I, 34, in Stephen, History of English Thought, I, 232.

18. Bury, J. B., History of Freedom of Thought, 141; Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, article “Miracles,” in Works, VIa, 288–93; Robertson, J. M., Freethought, II, 157–59; Stephen, History of English Thought, I, 228–38.

19. Benn, A. W., History of English Rationalism in the 19th Century, I, 145.

20. Tindal, M., Christianity as Old as the Creation, 14, in Stephen, History, I, 139.

21. Stephen, I, 262; Robertson, II, 158.

22. In Stephen, I, 266.

23. Collins, J. C., Bolingbroke, 183.

24. Stephen, I, 178.

25. Torrey, N. L., Voltaire and the English Deists, 149.

26. In Hearnshaw, English Thinkers of the Augustan Age, 240.

27. Stephen, History, I, 180.

28. Collins, J. C., 180.

29. Goldsmith, O., Life of Bolingbroke, in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies, 1057.

30. In Stephen, I, 246.

31. Ibid., 345.

32. 349–52.

33. 356.

34. Enc. Brit., IV, 463b.

35. Mossner, Bishop Butler and the Age of Reason, 8.

36. Toynbee, Arnold J., Study of History, abridgment of Vols. I-VI by D. C. Somervell, 486.

37. Gibbon, Edward, Memoirs, 21.

38. Turberville, Johnson’s England, I, 33.

39. Inge, Christian Mysticism, 283.

40. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 81.

41. Gibbon, Memoirs, 22.

42. Bearne, Court Painter, 198.

43. Voltaire, essay “Epic Poetry.”

44. Besant, 149.

45. McConnell, F. J., John Wesley, 13.

46. Wesley, John, Journal, 94.

47. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, XII, 724d.

48. Ibid., 725a.

49. McConnell, 47.

50. Lecky, II, 554.

51. Wesley, Journal, 43; Hastings, XII, 725d.

52. Enc. Brit., XXIII, 576.

53. Lecky, II, 565.

54. Ibid.

55. 563.

56. 591–94; Lecky, History of European Rationalism, I, 45.

57. Turberville, Johnson’s England, I, 221.

58. Wesley, Journal for 1739, in Lecky, History of England, II, 584.

59. Ibid., 583.

60. 590.

61. 636; Toynbee, Study of History, IX, 459–60.

62. McConnell, 48.

63. Ibid., 66.

64. Wesley, Journal, entry for Mar. 30, 1736.

65. World Christian Handbook, 5.

66. Journal for Jan. 1, 1790.

67. Shaftesbury, 3d Earl of, Characteristics, I, 260.

68. Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, 83–85.

69. Hutcheson, F., Inquiry concerning Moral Good and Evil, in Enc. Brit., XI, 945c.

70. Buckle, II, 334.

71. Ibid., 336.

72. Hume, D., Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, 4.

73. Huxley, T. H., Hume, 3.

74. Ibid., 6.

75. Mossner, Life of Hume, 51.

76. Huxley, 6.

77. “My Own Life,” in Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, 233.

78. Mossner, 82.

79. Ibid., 94.

80. III.

81. Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, Book I, Part II, Sec. 5.

82. Ibid., I, II, I.

83. I, III, 10 and 7.

84. I, IV, 2 and 6.

85. I, IV, I.

86. Ibid.

87. Appendix.

88. I, IV, I.

89. I, IV, 7.

90. I, IV, 2.

91. I, IV, 1.

92. II, III, 3.

93. Ibid.

94. II, I, 10.

95. II, I, 7.

96. II, I, 8.

97. II, II, II.

98. “My Own Life,” in Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, p. 234.

99. Mossner, p. 129.

100. Treatise, III, I, Sec. 1.

101. III, II, 2.

102. III, III, 6.

103. Mossner, p. 213.

104. Ibid., 215–18.

105. Hume, Enquiry concerning the Human Understanding, p. 2.

106. Ibid., Part X, Secs. 91–95 and 100–101.

107. XI, 102.

108. Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, V, I, Secs. 174–75; Appendix II; cf. essay “Of the Dignity and Mean ness of Human Nature.”

109. Enquiry concerningMorals, IX, I, Sec. 226.

110. Ibid., IV, Sec. 166.

111. “My Own Life,” loc. cit., p. 236.

112. Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, 156.

113. Ibid., 148.

114. 182–83.

115. Essay “On Suicide.”

116. Dialogues, 210.

117. Ibid., 194.

118. 211.

119. 169.

120. 180.

121. 171.

122. 227.

123. 214.

124. Hume, Natural History of Religion, Secs. I, XIII-XV, in Cassirer, E., Philosophy of the Enlightenment, p. 181.

125. Dialogues, introd., xv.

126. Burton, Life of Hume, II, in Lecky, History of England, II, 543.

127. Enquiry concerningMorals, III, II, Sec. 155.

128. Hume, History of England, IV, p. 480.

129. Hume, Essays Literary, Moral, and Political, 27, 273.

130. Ibid., 161.

131. Essay “Of National Character.”

132. Enquiry concerning the Human Understanding, Part VII, Sec. 65.

133. Essay “Of Commerce.”

134. Essay “Of Civil Liberty.”

135. Essay “Jealousy of Trade.”

136. In Black, Art of History, p. 80.

137. Mossner, 317.

138. Essay “Of the Study of History.”

139. “My Own Life,” loc. cit., 236.

140. In Black, 114.

141. Mossner, 318.

142. “My Own Life,” loc. cit., 236.

143. Ibid., 237.

144. Mossner, 223.

145. Ibid., 318.

146. 444–45.

147. “My Own Life,” loc. cit., 238.

148. Ibid., 239.

149. Enquiry concerning the Human Understanding, Part XI, Sec. 108.

150. Mossner, 568.

151. Adam Smith, letter to Wm. Strahan, Nov. 9, 1776, in Hume, Dialogues, p. 247.

152. Treatise of Human Nature, Book I, Part IV, Sec. 5.

153. Wolf, History of Science, 757.

154. Mossner, 478.

155. Hume, Dialogues, introd., xxx.

156. Mossner, 588.

157. “My Own Life,” loc. cit., 239.

158. Strachey, L., Portraits in Miniature, 151.

159. “My Own Life,” loc. cit., 244.

160. Ibid., 245.

161. Mossner, 598–600.

162. Ibid., 603.

CHAPTER V

1. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 132.

2. Buckle, I, 312.

3. Johnson, Lives of the Poets, II, 143.

4. Pope, “Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” lines 127–28.

5. Essay on Criticism, lines 214–15.

6. Ibid., line 298.

7. Lines 631–42.

8. 585–87.

9. Stephen, L., Alexander Pope, 45.

10. Rape of the Lock, Canto II, lines 105–9.

11. Ibid.,III, 16.

12. v, 85–86.

13. See “Windsor Forest,” lines 41–42.

14. Pope, “Eloïsa to Abelard,” lines 281–92.

15. Ibid., lines 325–28.

16. Stephen, Pope, p. 61.

17. Ibid., 64.

18. Johnson, Lives, II, 161.

19. Stephen, Pope, 64.

20. Ibid., 78.

21. Pope, “Second Epistle of the Second Book of Horace,” lines 68–69, in Collected Poems, p. 305.

22. Thornton, J. C., Table Talk from Ben Jonson to Leigh Hunt, 112.

23. E.g., see Jefferson, Eighteenth-Century Prose, 25.

24. Parton, I, 214.

25. Stephen, Pope, 91.

26. Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

27. London, National Portrait Gallery.

28. Stephen, Pope, 100.

29. See “Farewell to London,” in Poems, 368, and Strachey, Portraits, 14.

30. Garnett and Gosse, English Literature, III, 199.

31. Pope, Dunciad, Book II, lines 75–76, 102–8, 155–56.

32. Ibid., Book IV, lines 471–82.

33. Robertson, J. M., in Shaftesbury, Char acteristics, introd., p. xxv.

34. Collins, Bolingbroke, 158.

35. Stephen, Pope, 166.

36. Essay on Man, Epistle I, lines 1–16.

37. Milton, Paradise Lost, 1, line 26.

38. Essay on Man, I, 81–84.

39. I, 91–96.

40. End of Epistle I.

41. Essay on Man, II, 1–17.

42. Ibid., 217–20.

43. III, 303–6.

44. IV, 35–36.

45. 49–50.

46. Taine, H., History of English Literature, Book III, Ch. vii, Sec. 4.

47. Voltaire, Lettres sur les Anglais, in Works, XIXb, p. 94.

48. Johnson, Lives, II, 193.

49. “Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” lines 305–29.

50. Satires, epilogue, lines 208–9.

51. Dunciad, IV, 629–55.

52. Johnson, Lives, II, p. 199.

53. Thackeray, English Humourists, 213.

54. Walt Whitman, in Traubel, H., With Walt Whitman in Camden, 126.

55. Lecky, History of England, I, 463.

56. Brandes, Voltaire, I, 16.

57. Woods, Watt, and Anderson, Literature of England, II, 51.

58. Garnett and Gosse, III, 287; questioned by Camb. History of English Literature, X, 147.

59. Arnold, M., Essays in Criticism, 317.

60. Johnson, Lives, II, 391, 388.

61. Allen, R. J., Life in 18th-Century England, 16.

62. Brandes, Voltaire, I, 32.

63. Lecky, History of England, I, 541.

64. Mossner, Hume, 357.

65. Ibid., 360.

66. 379.

67. 364.

68. Pope, “Epitaph on Gay.”

69. Gay, John, Beggar’s Opera, I, v.

70. Ibid., I, viii.

71. III, xi.

72. Camb. History of English Literature, X, 3.

73. Richardson, S., Pamela, 2.

74. Ibid., 179.

75. Richardson, Clarissa, 429–31.

76. Ibid., introd., viii.

77. Ibid., ix.

78. Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters, II, 232 (Mar. 1, 1752).

79. Rousseau, J. J., letter to Duclos, Nov. 19, 1760.

80. Francke, K., History of German Literature, 216.

81. Texte, J., J. J. Rousseau and the Cosmopolitan Spirit, 148 f.

82. Fielding, H., introd. to Amelia, xxiii; Thackeray, English Humourists, 263n.

83. Fielding, Joseph Andrews, Book I, Ch. x.

84. Saintsbury, G., introd. to Pamela.

85. Joseph Andrews, II, xiv.

86. Fielding, Jonathan Wild, preface.

87. Jonathan Wild, I, i.

88. Ibid., I, v.

89. I, iii.

90. III, vii.

91. IV, xv.

92. Thackeray, English Humourists, 266n.

93. Fielding, Tom Jones, III, v.

94. Ibid., III, x.

95. XVIII, xii.

96. Besant, London, 502 f.; Lecky, History of England, I, 487.

97. Amelia, IV, ii.

98. Ibid., I, ii.

99. XI, ix.

100. VI, ii.

101. Thackeray, 263.

102. Smollett, T., Roderick Random, Ch. xi, pp. 56–58.

103. Ibid., xx, 114.

104. xvii, 95.

105. xxxix, 223.

106. Smollett, Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, Ch. ii.

107. Ibid., vi.

108. Thackeray, 254n.

109. Ibid., 255n.

110. 254n.

111. Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, xxvii.

112. Thackeray, 256.

113. Smollett, Humphrey Clinker, 16 (letter of Apr. 18).

114. Ibid., 142 (letter of June 8).

115. 218–20 (letter of July 4).

116. 225–37 (letter of July 13).

117. Montagu, Lady M. W., Letters, I, 173.

118. Halsband, Lady Mary Worthy Montagu, II.

119. Montagu, Letters, I, 174 (Apr. 25, 1710).

120. Ibid., 178.

121. 181.

122. Letter of Aug. 16, 1712; Halsband, 25.

123. Pope, Collected Poems, 370.

124. Halsband, 58.

125. Pope, letter of Aug. 18, 1716, in Montagu, 1, 405–7.

126. Montagu, I, 237 (Sept. 14, 1716).

127. Brockway and Winer, Second Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 170.

128. Halsband, 63.

129. Montagu, I, 431, 434.

130. Collection of the Marquess of Bute.

131. Pope, Poems, 371.

132. Halsband, 113.

133. Ibid., 130.

134. 141.

135. Camb. History of English Literature, IX, 277.

136. Translated from Halsband, 156.

137. Ibid., 157.

138. Walpole, H., Letters, I, 57–62 (Sept. 25 and Oct. 2, 1740).

139. Halsband, 204, 218.

140. Ibid., 218.

141. 289.

CHAPTER VI

1. Turberville, Johnson’s England, II, 75.

2. Allen, B. S., Tides in English Taste, I, 73 f.

3. Lecky, History of England, I, 530.

4. Tate Gallery, London.

5. Staatsbibliothek, Hamburg.

6. Traill, Social England, V, 271.

7. Wilenski, R., English Painting, 102.

8. Thackeray, English Humourists, 247n.

9. Beckett, R. B., Hogarth, 22.

10. Vienna.

11. Collection of Sir Francis Cook.

12. Frick Gallery, New York.

13. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

14. Tate Gallery.

15. Ibid.

16. National Gallery, London.

17. Tate Gallery.

18. Thackeray, 247.

19. Quennell, P., Hogarth’s Progress, 31.

20. Tate Gallery.

21. Thackeray, 245n.; Wilenski, 60.

22. Wilensky, 79 f.; Dobson, Hogarth, 23.

23. Wilenski, 72.

24. Beckett, 13.

25. Art Gallery, Birmingham, England.

26. St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London.

27. Collection of Earl of Faversham.

28. Wilenski, 63; Beckett, 18, questions this story.

29. Wilenski, 85.

30. Dobson, 21.

31. Wilenski, 71.

32. Tate Gallery.

33. Wilenski, 68.

34. Craven, Thos., Treasury of Art Master pieces, 210; Quennell, P., Hogarth, 7.

35. Wingfield-Stratford, History of British Civilization, 777.

36. Dobson, 31.

37. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, II, 406.

38. Weinstock, Handel, 55.

39. Brockway and Weinstock, Men of Music, 60; Turberville, Johnson’s England, II, 160.

40. This section is especially indebted to Herbert Weinstock’s Handel.

41. Grove’s Dictionary, II, 504.

42. Weinstock, 32; Brockway and Weinstock, 57.

43. Oxford History of Music, IV, 80; Weinstock, 38.

44. Mainwaring, John, Life of Handel, in Deutsch, Otto, Handel, 27.

45. Burney, C., General History of Music, II, 662.

46. Weinstock, 60.

47. Ibid., 92.

48. 97.

49. Oxford History of Music, IV, 209.

50. Burney, II, 72m.

51. Ibid.

52. Weinstock, 115.

53. Ibid., 172.

54. McKinney and Anderson, Music in History, 438.

55. Weinstock, 207.

56. Burney, II, 817.

57. Weinstock, 212.

58. Láng, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 522.

59. Brockway and Weinstock, Men of Music, 76.

60. Oxford History of Music, IV, 84; Weinstock, 225; Brockway and Weinstock, 76.

61. Weinstock, 232.

62. Ibid., 239.

63. 241.

64. Rolland, R., Musical Tour through the Land of the Past, 58.

65. Oxford History of Music, IV, 198.

66. Weinstock, 77.

67. Brockway and Weinstock, 81.

68. Rolland, 49.

69. Davison, A., Bach and Handel, 46.

70. Ibid., 44.

71. Rolland, 67.

72. Weinstock, 303.

73. Ibid., 305.

74. Davison, A., 41.

75. Oxford History of Music, IV, 85–89, 93.

76. Burney, II, 1023.

77. Letter to Thieriot in Strachey, Books and Characters, 122.

78. E.g., Works, XXIa, 211.

79. Works, XIXb, 91.

80. Goldsmith, O., Life of Voltaire, in Miscellaneous Works, 504.

81. Letter of July 19, 1776, in Desnoiresterres, VIII, 108; article “Dramatic Art” quoted in Holzknecht, Backgrounds of Shakespeare, 387.

82. Collins, J. C., Bolingbroke, and Voltaire in England, 201; Brandes, Voltaire, I, 173.

83. Johnson, Lives of the Poets, II, 7.

84. Works, XIXb, 209.

85. In Buckle, I, 528.

86. Philosophical Dictionary, article “Government.”

87. Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 44.

88. Parton, II, 523.

89. Voltaire, Correspondance, ed. Besterman, II, 31.

90. Johnson, Lives, II, 176; Collins, J. C., 210.

91. Collins, 230.

92. Brunetière, Manual of the History of French Literature, 319.

CHAPTER VII

1. Sée, H., Economic and Social Conditions in France during the 18th Century, 87.

2. Ibid., 84.

3. Sumner, W. G., Folkways, 165.

4. Sée, 104; Goodwin, A., The European Nobility in the 18th Century, 36.

5. Tocqueville, L’Ancien Régime, 107.

6. Ducros, L., French Society in the 18th Century, 158, 207; Wolf, A., History of Scienceand Philosophy in the 18th Century, 558.

7. Palmer, R. R., Catholics and Unbelievers in 18th-Century France, 13n.

8. Lacroix, P., Eighteenth Century, 138.

9. Camb. Mod. History, VIII, 53.

10. Lacroix, 138.

11. Ducros, 24; Herbert, S., Fall of Feudalism in France, xvii.

12. Taine, Ancient Regime, 130.

13. Goodwin, European Nobility, 31.

14. Jaurès, Histoire socialiste, I, 32.

15. Sée, 61.

16. Taine, Ancient Regime, 20, 41.

17. Tocqueville, 34.

18. Taine, 15.

19. Camb. Mod. History, VIII, 53.

20. Ibid., 52; Sée, 3.

21. Palmer, R. R., 25; Lacroix, 157.

22. Taine, 42 f.

23. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 261.

24. Martin, H., XV, 439.

25. Ibid., 439–40.

26. Lacroix, 157.

27. Ibid., 269.

28. Taine, 34.

29. Ibid., 119–20.

30. Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 10, 15; Montalembert, Monks of the West, II, 86.

31. Martin, Kingsley, Rise of French Liberal Thought, 79.

32. Taine, 62; Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 288.

33. Martin, H., XV, 441.

34. Ibid., 442.

35. Taine, 63.

36. Lecky, History of England, V, 329.

37. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 248.

38. Lacroix, 270.

39. Guizot, History of France, V, 48.

40. Sée, 4.

41. Herbert, Fall of Feudalism, 56.

42. Taine, 23–24; Ducros, 256–57.

43. Herbert, 37.

44. Sée, 15.

45. Herbert, 4–5.

46. Sée, 28.

47. Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters, I, 395 (Oct. 10, 1718).

48. Taine, 330.

49. Martin, H., XV, 216.

50. Sée, 38.

51. Voltaire, Works, XIXa, 94.

52. Philosophical Dictionary, article “Lent.”

53. Cobban, History of Modern France, 42.

54. Sée, 182.

55. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 193.

56. Mantoux, Industrial Revolution, 409.

57. Sée, 165.

58. Taine, 334.

59. Mornet, Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution française, 28.

60. Parton, II, 184.

61. Lacroix, 228.

62. Ibid., 311.

63. Nussbaum, History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 124.

64. Jaurès, Histoire socialiste, I, 67.

65. Sée, 151–53.

66. Martin, H., XV, 213.

67. Ibid., 305.

68. Sée, 93.

69. Ducros, 160.

70. Toth, Woman and Rococo in France, 179.

71. Lacroix, 206.

72. Ibid.

73. Goncourts, Madame de Pompadour, 5–7.

74. Desnoiresterres, III, 241.

75. Grimm, Correspondance, VIII, 231–33, in Buckle, I, 539.

76. Saint-Simon in Lacroix, 302.

77. Lacroix, 299.

78. Ducros, 53.

79. Stryienski, Eighteenth Century, 57.

80. Lanfrey, L’Eglise et les philosophes au xviiie siècle, 129.

81. Michelet, V, 277; Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 445.

82. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 157.

83. Stryienski, 79.

84. Works, XVIa, 158.

85. Martin, H., XV, 256n.

86. Stryienski, 85.

87. Desnoiresterres, II, 336.

88. Martin, H., XV, 251.

89. Saint-Simon, Memoirs, III, 283.

90. Michelet, V, 248.

91. Martin, H., XV, 116n.; Ercole, Gay Court Life, 88.

92. Bearne, Court Painter, 85.

93. Guizot, History of France, V, 78.

94. Goncourts, Pompadour, 9.

95. Michelet, V, 325.

96. Ercole, 167.

97. Lewis, D. B. Wyndham, Four Favorites, 42.

98. Stryienski, 140–41.

99. Webster’s Biographical Dictionary, 833.

100. Brandes, I, 224.

101. Voltaire, Works, XVIb, 224.

102. Carlyle, Thos., History of Friedrich II, IV, 438; Enc. Brit., IX, 454a.

103. Voltaire, XVIb, 238; Martin, H., XV, 282; Stryienski, 148.

104. Voltaire, XVIb, 239.

105. Stryienski, 149.

106. Martin, H., XV, 43 m.

107. Lichtenberger in Martin, K., Rise of French Liberal Thought, 238.

108. Martin, H., XV, 356–58.

109. Lecky, England, V, 327.

110. Goncourts, Pompadour, 12.

111. Michelet, V, 349.

112. Ercole, 197.

113. Goncourts, 117.

114. Ercole, 203.

115. Lewis, Four Favorites, 48.

116. Taine, Ancient Regime, 82.

117. Goncourts, 71.

118. Ibid., 348.

119. Sainte-Beuve, I, 450.

120. Ibid., 451.

121. Michelet, V, 354.

122. Martin, H., XV, 436.

123. Goncourts, 131.

124. Lewis, 50.

125. Ercole, 209.

126. Toth, 165.

127. Goncourts, 127.

128. Du Hausset, Mme., Memoirs of Mme. de Pompadour, 65.

129. Ercole, 220.

130. Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 249.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Sée, Economic and Social Conditions, 48 f.

2. Funck-Brentano, L’Ancien Régime, 422.

3. La Fontainerie, French Liberalism and Education, 6.

4. Lacroix, 252.

5. Ibid., 151.

6. 242.

7. 244.

8. Desnoiresterres, III, 133.

9. Créqui, Souvenirs, 57, 121.

10. Ducros, French Society, 83.

11. Chesterfield, Letters, I, 348.

12. Brandes, I, 147.

13. Ibid., 141.

14. Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 187.

15. Ibid., 188.

16. Mornet, Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution française, 53.

17. Funck-Brentano, 50.

18. Ducros, 61.

19. Quoted in Funck-Brentano, 60.

20. Taine, Ancient Regime, 134.

21. Walpole, Letters, I, 309 (Oct. 28, 1752).

22. Toth, 135.

23. Frederick the Great, Mémoires, I, 25.

24. D’Argenson, Mémoires, in Martin, H., XV, 341.

25. Ducros, 342.

26. Mossner, Hume, 92.

27. Köhler, Carl, History of Costume, 340.

28. Créqui, 123.

29. Lacroix, 370.

30. Ducros, 35.

31. Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Lent,” in Works, VIa, 108.

32. Mousnier and Labrousse, Dix-huitième Siècle, 166.

33. Michelet, V, 189.

34. Láng, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 441.

35. Burney, C., General History of Music, II, 965, 969.

36. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, IV, 320d.

37. Burney, II, 970.

38. Diderot, Le Neveu de Rameau.

39. Duclos, C., Considérations sur les moeurs, 13.

40. Goldsmith, O., Miscellaneous Works, 430.

41. Mme. Vigée-Lebrun, Mémoires, I, 156, in Taine, Ancient Regime, 141n.

42. Goncourts, Woman, 317.

43. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 181.

44. Batiffol, Great Literary Salons, 131.

45. Walpole to Gray, Jan. 25, 1766.

46. Batiffol, 208.

47. Kavanagh, Woman in France during the 18th Century, I, 168.

48. Diderot, “On Women,” in Dialogues, 196.

CHAPTER IX

1. Faniel, S., French Art of the 18th Century, 36.

2. Ibid., 91.

3. Funck-Brentano, 180.

4. Louvre.

5. See the great commode in the Wallace Collection.

6. Dilke, Lady E., French Architects and Sculptors of the 18th Century, 77.

7. Ibid., 81.

8. Louvre.

9. Turner and Baker, Stories of the French Artists, 181.

10. Dijon Museum.

11. Versailles Museum.

12. Louvre.

13. Bearne, Court Painter, 164.

14. Diderot, Salons, I, 9, 114–19.

15. Bearne, 43.

16. Turner, 193.

17. Goncourts, French 18th-Century Painters, 61.

18. Turner, 197.

19. Louvre.

20. Block, François Boucher and the Beauvais Tapestries, 26.

21. Goncourts, French Painters, 69.

22. Seven are in the Huntington Library and Gallery at San Marino, Calif.

23. Ibid.

24. Wallace Collection.

25. Goncourts, French Painters, 91.

26. Ibid., 84.

27. Block, 22.

28. Ridder, Chardin, 8; Goncourts, French Painters, 117.

29. Louvre.

30. Louvre.

31. Louvre.

32. Goncourts, 141–42; Havens, Age of Ideas, 321.

33. Diderot, Salons, III, 4.

34. Goncourts, 177n.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., 164n.

38. Louvre.

39. St.-Quentin Museum.

40. Dresden.

41. St.-Quentin.

CHAPTER X

1. Duclos, Considérations, 217.

2. Grimm, Correspondance, III, 73.

3. Parton, I, 509.

4. Voltaire, essay “Ancient and Modern Tragedy,” in Works, XIXa, 134.

5. “Discourse on Tragedy,” in Works, XIXb, 181 f.

6. Parton, II, 325.

7. Brandes, I, 72.

8. Edwards, H. S., Idols of the French Stage, 83; Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 170.

9. Michelet, V, 303.

10. Sainte-Beuve, I, 180.

11. Michelet, V, 304.

12. Mitford, N., Madame de Pompadour, 126.

13. Hazard, European Thought in the 18th Century, 260.

14. Marivaux, Vie de Marianne, 3.

15. Crébillon fils, Le Sopha, introd.

16. Le Sopha, 65.

17. Palache, Four Novelists of the Old Regime, 4, 49.

18. Crébillon, Le Sopha, introd.

19. Saintsbury, G., introd. to Prévost’s Manon Lescaut, xliii.

20. Manon Lescaut, 220.

21. Ibid., 10.

22. 57.

23. Faguet, E., Literary History of France, 489.

24. Saintsbury, introd. to Manon Lescaut, ix-xii.

25. Bury, J., History of the Idea of Progress, 135–36; Martin, K., 280.

26. Lichtenberger, A., Le Socialisme et la Révolution française, 73; Martin, H., XV, 335; Martin, K., 62; Hazard, 197.

27. In Martin, K., 61.

28. In Crocker, Age of Crisis, 426–29.

29. Duclos, Considérations, 11–12.

30. Ibid., 17, 21.

31. 27.

32. 25.

33. Toth, 38.

34. La Bruyère and Vauvenargues, Selections, 189.

35. Vauvenargues, Oeuvres choisies,CXV, IV.

36. La Bruyère and Vauvenargues, 179.

37. Vauvenargues, CLXXXVII.

38. Ibid.,CLXXXII.

39. Crocker, Age of Crisis, 138–39.

40. Ibid., 30.

41. Vauvenargues, CLXIX.

42. La Bruyère and Vauvenargues, 173.

43. Vauvenargues, CL.

44. Ibid.,LVII.

45. CLXXX.

46. CLVII.

47. P. 158.

48. P. 173.

49. Ibid.

50. 310.

51. Voltaire, letter of Apr. 4, 1744, in Martin, H., XV, 407n.

52. Voltaire, XIXa, 43.

53. Sorel, A., Montesquieu, 125.

54. Ibid., 9.

55. 23

56. Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, Book V, Ch. xix.

57. Persian Letters,XXIV.

58. In Sorel, 43.

59. Herodotus, History, IV, 183.

60. Aristotle, Historia animalium, viii, 12.

61. Persian Letters, XII.

62. Letter XXIV.

63. XXIX.

64. CXVIII.

65. CXIII.

66. CXVIII.

67. XXXV.

68. LXXXVI.

69. Sorel, 49.

70. Grandeur et décadence des Romains, introd., vi.

71. Ibid., Ch. xviii.

72. Ch. xii.

73. Ch. xviii.

74. Ch. vi.

75. Ch. xv.

76. Quoted in Faguet, Dix-huitième Siècle, 195.

77. Spirit of Laws, preface.

78. Ibid.

79. Palache, 35.

80. Martin, K., 151.

81. Spirit of Laws, Book I, Ch. iii.

82. Ibid., XIV, i-x.

83. XVI, i-iii.

84. Ibid., xi.

85. Ibid.

86. XIV, v.

87. VIII, xvi-xix.

88. Explanatory notes prefixed by Montesquieu to the second edition.

89. IV, vi.

90. In Sée, H., Idées politiques en France au xviiie siècle, 46.

91. Spirit of Laws, VIII, ii.

92. V, xiii.

93. V, x.

94. XI, vi.

95. Ibid.

96. Ibid.

97. XI, iii.

98. Grandeur et décadence, Ch. vii.

99. Spirit of Laws, XXIII, xxviii.

100. XV, v.

101. X, ii.

102. XIII, xvii.

103. Pensées diverses, in Hearnshaw, Great Thinkers of the Age of Reason, 116.

104. Faguet, Dix-huitième Siècle, 173.

105. Spirit of Laws, XXIV, x.

106. I, i.

107. XII, xxix.

108. In Havens, Age of Ideas, 121.

109. Spirit of Laws, XXIV, ii.

110. Ibid., iii and xxvi.

111. XXIV, v.

112. XXV, V.

113. Ibid., xiii.

114. Ibid., x.

115. Quoted in Faguet, 195.

116. Sorel, 166.

117. Pappas, Berthier’s Journal de Trévoux, 78 f.; Martin, K., 153.

118. Sorel, 163.

119. Martin, K., 168.

120. Sorel, 165.

121. Voltaire, XIXa, 238–39.

122. Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Climate,” in Works, IVa, 204–9.

123. Ibid.

124. Art. “Laws,” in Works, VIa, 104.

125. Art. “Laws, Spirit of,” in Works, VIa, 106–8.

126. Morley, Life of Voltaire, 9.

127. Cf. Macaulay, Critical… Essays and Poems, I, 226; Dunning, History of Political Theories, III, 428–31; Flint, History of the Philosophy of History, 272–76; Brunetière, 301; Stephen, L., English Thought in the 18th Century, II, 188; Sorel, 139–41.

128. Spirit of Laws, VII, iii.

129. Spencer, Principles of Sociology (3v., London, 1876–96).

130. Laski, H., Political Thought in England, 109.

131. Taine, Ancient Regime, 213.

132. Walpole, Letters, II, 187 (Jan. 10, 1750).

133. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits, I, 146.

134. Hearnshaw, French Thinkers of the Age of Reason, 116.

135. Havens, Age of Ideas, 127.

136. Sorel, 169.

137. Grimm, Correspondance, II, 491.

138. Gibbon, E., Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1779 ed.), II, 142.

139. Waliszewski, Romance of an Empress, 91.

140. Sorel, 171.

141. Faguet, Dix-huitième Siècle, 188.

CHAPTER XI

1. Desnoiresterres, I, 410.

2. Bain, R. N., in Voltaire, Charles XII, introd., xxii.

3. E.g., Buckle, I, 577.

4. Voltaire, Charles XII, p. II.

5. Ibid., 334.

6. Letter of Aug. 25, 1732, in Works, XXIa, 216.

7. Zaïre, I, i, in Works, Xa, 27.

8. Zaïre, II, iii.

9. Desnoiresterres, II, 2.

10. Créqui, Souvenirs, 35.

11. Brandes, I, 256.

12. Ibid., 345.

13. Letters on the English, Letter 1, in Works, XIXb, 193–98.

14. Letter v.

15. Ibid.

16. Letter VIII, translation in Havens, Age of Ideas, 168.

17. Ibid., 169.

18. Letter x.

19. Letter VIII; Hearnshaw, French Thinkers of the Age of Reason, 151.

20. Works, XIXb, 29.

21. Brandes, I, 203.

22. Voltaire, XIb, 212.

23. Ibid., 219.

24. 235

25. Buckle, I, 517.

26. Parton, I, 225.

27. Ibid., 303.

28. 343.

29. Desnoiresterres, II, 139.

30. Parton, I, 384.

31. Desnoiresterres, II, 239.

32. Ibid., III, 113–15.

33. Françoise de Graffigny, Vie privée de Voltaire et Mme du Châtelet à Cirey (Paris, 1820), in Brandes, I, 400.

34. Brandes, I, 354.

35. Pomeau, La Religion de Voltaire, 190.

36. Parton, I, 391.

37. Créqui, 35.

38. Parton, I, 389.

39. Wade, Ira, Voltaire and Mme. du Châtelet, 14.

40. Ibid.

41. 37.

42. Brandes, I, 388.

43. Voltaire, XXIa, 197–201.

44. Desnoiresterres, III, 330.

45. Voltaire, XXIa, 193, 209.

46. Letter of Apr. 15, 1741, in Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 26.

47. Brandes, I, 365; Desnoiresterres, II, 53.

48. Voltaire, XXIb, 107.

49. Ia, 299.

50. Voltaire, Traité de métaphysique (Oeuvres complètes, XLIII), end of Ch. i.

51. Ibid., p. 187.

52. Taine, Ancient Regime, 258.

53. La Pucelle, Canto II, in Works, XXa, 83 f.

54. Voltaire, Alzire, I, i.

55. Brandes, I, 361.

56. Parton, I, 445.

57. Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, 474.

58. Mahomet, III, vi, in Works, VIIIb, 55.

59. Brandes, II, 8.

60. Voltaire and Frederick the Great, Letters, p. 102.

61. Gibbon, E., Journal, 130.

62. Parton, I, 462.

63. Brandes, I, 405.

64. Ibid.

65. Mitford, N., Voltaire in Love, 75.

66. Parton, I, 542–45.

67. Martin, H., XV, 402.

68. Voltaire, XXIb, 98.

69. XXIa, 190, 193.

70. Ibid., 195.

71. Parton, I, 575.

72. Ibid., 352.

73. Voltaire, VIIIb, 12.

74. Ibid., 14.

75. Voltaire, IIa, 282.

76. Ib, 6.

77. IIb, 41.

78. IIa, 63.

79. IIa, 26.

80. IIa, 44–45.

81. Parton, I, 581–82.

82. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 188, 191.

83. Longchamp in Parton, I, 553 f.

84. Longchamp in Desnoiresterres, III, 246, and Parton, I, 556.

85. Parton, I, 562.

86. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 197.

87. Desnoiresterres, III, 390.

88. Parton, I, 571.

89. Voltaire-Frederick Letters, 33.

90. Voltaire, Lettres d’amour à sa nièce, 53.

91. Voltaire, Love Letters to His Niece, 46. Dr. Besterman translates cazzo as “prick.”

92. Lettres d’amour, 57; Love Letters, 48.

93. Lettres d’amour, 69; Love Letters, 54.

94. Letters d’amour, 77; Love Letters, 57.

95. Lettres d’amour, 77; Love Letters, 58.

96. Lettres d’amour, 146.

97. Love Letters, 103.

98. Lettres d’amour, 15.

99. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 121.

100. Mitford, N., Voltaire in Love, 303.

101. Nicolson, Age of Reason, 110.

102. Voltaire-Frederick Letters, 212; Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 150.

103. Gay, 151.

CHAPTER XII

1. Mossner, Hume, 210.

2. Richard, E., History of German Civilization, 326; de Tocqueville, L’Ancien Régime, 27; Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History ofthe Later Middle Ages, 483.

3. Taine, Ancient Regime, 28.

4. See Mühlhausen as described in Spitta, J. S. Bach, I, 344.

5. Láng, Music in Western Civilization, 608.

6. Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters, I, 255 (Nov. 21, 1716).

7. Tietze, Treasures of the Great National Galleries, 137.

8. Burney, C., General History of Music, II, 943.

9. Desnoiresterres, IV, 160.

10. In Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 334.

11. Francke, History of German Literature, 223.

12. Ausubel, Superman: The Life of Frederick the Great, 756.

13. Wolf, History of Scienceand Philosophy, 778.

14. Hazard, European Thought in the 18th Century, 40.

15. Lovejoy, Essays in the History of Ideas, 108.

16. Enc. Brit., XXIII, 697c.

17. Enc. of Religion and Ethics, VIII, 838b.

18. Schoenfeld, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 283.

19. Ibid., 298.

20. Text in Smith, P., History of Modern Culture, II, 601.

21. Chesterfield, Letters, Sept. 5, 1748.

22. Goldsmith, O., Inquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe, in Miscellaneous Works, 426.

23. Frederick the Great, Mémoires, I, 63.

24. Montagu, Lady Mary, letter of Dec. 17, 1716.

25. Dillon, E., Glass, 5.

26. Bock, E., Geschichte der Graphischen Kunst, 477–84.

27. Berlin.

28. Barockmuseum, Vienna.

29. Sitwell, S., German Baroque Art, 94.

30. Oxford History of Music, IV, 4.

31. Láng, 450.

32. Spitta, Bach, II, 46; Enc. Brit., XVII, 896b.

33. Spitta, III, 18.

34. Rolland, Musical Tour, 84.

35. Ibid., 211.

36. 207–8.

37. Grove’s Dictionary of Music, II, 556.

38. Rolland, 211n.

39. Grove’s, V, 297.

40. Ebeling in Rolland, 119.

41. E.g., Concerto in D for trumpet; Suite in A Minor for flute; Don Quixote Suite.

42. Schweitzer, A., J. S. Bach, I, 103–4.

43. Spitta, I, 373.

44. Grove’s, I, 158. On the Vivaldi transcriptions, see Pincherle, Marc, Vivaldi, 230–31.

45. Spitta, II, 147.

46. Láng, 493.

47. Grove’s, I, 161.

48. Schweitzer, I, 115.

49. Spitta, III, 261–64.

50. Grove’s, I, 165.

51. Pratt, History of Music, 257.

52. Schweitzer, I, 338.

53. Ibid., 321.

54. Spitta, II, 55.

55. Forkel in Schweitzer, I, 323.

56. Ibid., 404.

57. 292.

58. Láng, 499.

59. Davison, A., Bach and Handel, 56.

60. Schweitzer, I, 180.

61. Spitta, III, 252.

62. Ibid.

63. 263.

64. Weinstock, Handel, 4.

65. Grove’s, I, 167.

66. Rolland, 71.

67. Spitta, II, 147.

68. McKinney and Anderson, Music in History, 407.

69. Words of the preacher at Bach’s funeral, Spitta, III, 275.

70. Letter of Karl Zelter in Schweitzer, I, 231.

71. Ibid., 230; Rolland, 219; Davison, II.

72. Schweitzer, I, 238.

73. Ibid., 242.

74. 254.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Carlyle, T., Friedrich the Second, IV, 173.

2. Goodwin, European Nobility, 129.

3. Montagu, Lady Mary, Letters, I, 245.

4. Goodwin, 112.

5. Mowat, R. B., Age of Reason, 264; New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 402.

6. In 1714–34.

7. 1720–33.

8. 1715–56.

9. 1722–32.

10. 1729–32.

11. Nawrath, Austria, 15. The church was built in 1733.

12. Sitwell, German Baroque Art, 37; cf. Baedeker, Austria, 46.

13. Barockmuseum, Vienna.

14. Ibid.

15. Montagu, Lady M., I, 238.

16. Burney, C., II, 942.

17. Garnett, R., History of Italian Literature, 315.

18. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 14.

19. Enc. Brit., X, 274b.

20. Coxe, Wm., History of the House of Austria, III, 241.

21. Ibid., 242.

22. New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 407.

23. Monroe, Paul, History of Education, 435.

24. Macaulay, Essays, II, 121; Acton, Lectures on Modern History, 288.

25. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 210.

26. Ibid., 213.

27. 214.

28. Carlyle, Friedrich, I, 335.

29. Wilhelmine, Margravine, Memoirs, 31, 34, 52, 204.

30. Ibid., 13, 63.

31. Carlyle, I, 377.

32. Wilhelmine, 91.

33. Ibid., 84, 91.

34. Carlyle, II, 95.

35. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 212.

36. Wilhelmine, 109.

37. Ibid., 164.

38. Carlyle, II, 327.

39. Ibid., 339.

40. 349.

41. Wilhelmine, 230.

42. Carlyle, III, 64–66.

43. Ibid., 66–68.

44. Voltaire-Frederick Letters, Nov. 4, 1736.

45. Apr. 7, 1737.

46. Jan. 20, 1737.

47. Frederick to Voltaire, Nov. 4, 1736, Feb. 8, 1737.

48. Dec. 3, 1736.

49. Dec. 25, 1737.

50. June, 1738.

51. Dec. 25, 1737.

52. Mar. 28, 1738.

53. Carlyle, III, 98.

54. Parron, I, 240.

55. Frederick, quoted in Villari, P., Life and Times of Niccolò Machiavelli, II, 201.

56. In Francke, History of German Literature, 230.

57. Carlyle, III, 142.

58. Valori in Ausubel, 435.

59. Frederick to Voltaire, June 6, 1740.

60. June 27, 1740.

61. Lea, H. C., Superstition and Force, 575.

62. Carlyle, III, 161.

63. Ibid., 163.

64. Smith, P., History of Modern Culture, II, 571.

65. Carlyle, III, 175.

66. Goldsmith, O., Miscellaneous Works, 427.

67. Carlyle, III, 233.

68. Ibid.; Desnoiresterres, II, 290.

69. Voltaire-Frederick Letters, 143.

70. Fleury to Voltaire, Nov. 14, 1740, in Parton, I, 438.

71. Ibid.

72. Carlyle, III, 278.

73. Ausubel, 443.

74. Lützow, Count von, Bohemia, 317.

75. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 94.

76. Ibid., 103.

77. Coxe, House of Austria, III, 270; Macaulay, Essays, II, 126.

78. Enc. Brit., XIV, 88Id.

79. Carlyle, IV, 70.

80. Coxe, III, 309.

81. Carlyle, V, 36.

82. Voltaire to Frederick, March, 1742, in Voltaire-Frederick Letters, 159.

83. Frederick to Voltaire, Feb. 12, 1742.

84. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 5.

85. Enc. Brit., IX, 718c.

86. In Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 313.

87. Carlyle, V, 201.

88. Ibid., III, 260.

89. Carlyle, V, 197, hotly repudiates any sodomitic implications.

90. Enc. Brit., IX, 718c.

91. Carlyle, V, 65.

92. Ibid., VII, 462; Mowat, Age of Reason, 101.

93. Letter of Aug. 31, 1750, in Parton, I, 611.

94. Desnoiresterres, IV, 108.

95. Taine, Ancient Regime, 28m.

96. Voltaire, Works, XXIa, 221.

97. Parton, I, 610.

98. Ibid.

99. Carlyle, V, 137.

100. Ibid., 146.

101. Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 154.

102. Voltaire, XXIa, 213.

103. Lanson, Voltaire, 112–13.

104. Parton, I, 340.

105. Chesterfield, letter of Apr. 13, 1752.

106. Parton, II, 59.

107. Ibid., 59–60; Desnoiresterres, IV, 196.

108. Morley, Life of Voltaire, 184.

109. Carlyle, V, 182.

110. Ibid., 180.

111. 209.

112. 213.

113. 214; Strachey, Books and Characters, 191.

114. Voltaire, XIXa, 184f.

115. Ibid.

116. Parton, II, 126.

117. Ibid., 103.

118. Carlyle, V, 223.

119. Parton, II, 108.

120. Ibid., 138.

121. Voltaire, Lettres d’Alsace, 135–36 (Dec. 14, 1753).

122. Parton, II, 167–69.

123. Montesquieu, letter of Sept. 28, 1753, in Lanfrey, L’Église et les philosophes, 162.

124. Philosophical Dictionary, article “Quakers.

125. Bertrand, J., D’Alembert, 91.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Letter of May 27, 1756, in Chaponnière, Voltaire chez les Calvinistes, 18.

2. Épinay, Mme. d’, Memoirs and Correspondence, III, 178.

3. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 317.

4. Morley, Life of Voltaire, 200.

5. Boswell, Life of Samuel Johnson, 87.

6. Oechsli, W., History of Switzerland, 260.

7. Ibid., 272.

8. In Herold, The Swiss without Halos, 161.

9. Oechsli, 264.

10. Coxe, Travels in Switzerland, II, 225.

11. Ibid., 179.

12. Oechsli, 265.

13. Coxe, Travels, I, 304.

14. Oechsli, 243.

15. Ibid., 245.

16. Coxe, II, 262.

17. Casanova, Memoirs, I, 392, 407.

18. Coxe, II, 292.

19. Ibid.

20. Francke, History of German Literature, 220.

21. Lough, J., The Encyclopédie, 56.

22. Épinay, Memoirs, III, 199.

23. Coxe, II, 357.

24. Épinay, III, 173–75.

25. Masson, P., La Religion de Rousseau, I, 10–11.

26. In Naves, Voltaire et l’Encyclopédie, 148.

27. Ibid., 39.

28. 40.

29. Lough, 94.

30. Desnoiresterres, V, 179–81.

31. Lough, 92.

32. Geneva, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire.

33. Jean Gaberel in Parton, II, 228.

34. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, Ch. lxviii.

35. Morley, 284.

36. Ibid., 290.

37. Flint, History of the Philosophy of History, 254.

38. Letter to Thieriot, Oct. 31, 1738.

39. Parton, I, 465.

40. Buckle, I, 580.

41. Phil. Dict., art. “History,” in Works, Vb, 64.

42. Ibid.

43. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 137.

44. XIVa, 230.

45. Essai sur les moeurs, Ch. xx.

46. Ibid., Ch. cxxxix.

47. Lanson, Voltaire, 123–24.

48. Robertson, Wm., History of the Reign of Charles V, I, 290.

49. “Observations on History,” in Works, XIXa, 269.

50. Essai, Ch. cxcvii.

51. Ch. lxviii.

52. Works, XVIa, 133–36, 144.

53. Chateaubriand, The Genius of Christianity, III, iii, 6, p. 430.

54. Voltaire, XVIa, 250–51.

55. Michelet, V, 274.

CHAPTER XV

1. Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 307 f.

2. Smith, P., Modern Culture, II, 543; Nicolson, Age of Reason, 294.

3. Frederick to Voltaire, June 29, 1771.

4. Voltaire, Works, VIIb, 143.

5. Lecky, History of Rationalism, 145.

6. Blackstone, Commentaries (Oxford, 1775), IV, 60, in Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in Spain, IV, 247.

7. Clark, G. N., The 17th Century, 246.

8. Voltaire’s estimate, in Works, XXIa, 250.

9. Mark xvi, 16.

10. Smith, P., Modern Culture, II, 555.

11. Ibid., 556.

12. 550.

13. Putnam, G. H., Censorship of the Church of Rome, II, 255.

14. Wilson, A., Diderot, 121–22.

15. Brandes, II, 107.

16. Bertrand, D’Alembert, 92.

17. Brandes, II, 50.

18. Mornet, Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution française, 258.

19. Cf. Catholic Enc., III, 189.

20. Voltaire, Notebooks, II, 351.

21. Faguet, Literary History of France, 361, 516.

22. Smith, P., II, 268.

23. Schweitzer, A., Quest of the Historical Jesus, 23.

24. Quoted in Lovejoy, Essays in the History of Ideas, 103.

25. Ibid., 103 f.

26. Hsin-hai Chang, in private correspondence with the authors.

27. In Lovejoy, Essays, 105.

28. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 455.

29. In Lovejoy, 105–6.

30. Maverick, L. A., China, a Model for Europe, 126.

31. Fülop-Miller, R., Power and Secret of the Jesuits, 485.

32. Reichwin, A., China and Europe, 124.

33. Voltaire, Works, VIIIa, 176.

34. Pinot, V., La Chine et la formation de l’esprit philosophique en France, 425.

35. Ibid., 315, 281.

36. Maverick, 242.

37. Ibid., 113.

38. Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Glory,” in Works, Va, 208.

39. Works, XVIa, 119; XVIIIb, 278.

40. XIIIa, 29.

41. Montesquíeu, Persian Letters,XLVI.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Buckle, I, 660n.

2. Fuss, N., in Smith, D. E., History of Mathematics, I, 522.

3. Bell, E. T., Men of Mathematics, 148.

4. Ibid., 156.

5. 159.

6. Wolf, History of Science, 70.

7. Whitehead, A. N., Science and the Modern World, 91.

8. Bell, 170.

9. Ibid.

10. 171.

11. 185.

12. Whitehead, 90.

13. In Crocker, Age of Crisis, 8.

14. Bertrand, D’Alembert, 32.

15. Morley, J., Diderot, I, 123.

16. Bertrand, 143, 153, 164; Ségur, Julie de Lespinasse, 113–14.

17. Wolf, 217.

18. Williams, History of Science, II, 275.

19. Smith, P., Modern Culture, II, 73.

20. Williams, II, 286.

21. Ibid., 289.

22. 290.

23. 295; Wolf, 232.

24. Gibbon, Essai sur l’étude de la littérature, in Miscellaneous Writings, 2.

25. Williams, IV, 11.

26. Scheele, Treatise on Fire and Air, in Wolf, 358.

27. Ibid., 359.

28. Enc. Brit., XX, 62c.

29. Ibid., 62b.

30. Moore, F. J., History of Chemistry, 37–38.

31. French, S. J., Torch and Crucible: The Life and Death of Antoine Lavoisier, 80.

32. In Wolf, 353.

33. Moore, 44.

34. Ibid., 42.

35. Huxley, T. H., Science and Education, 23.

36. In Willey, Eighteenth-Century Background, 177.

37. Priestley, Jos., Essay on the First Principles of Government, in Willey, 195.

38. Priestley, History of the Corruptions of Christianity, in Willey, 170.

39. Essay on the First Principles of Government, in Huxley, 27.

40. Ibid., in Willey, 197.

41. Schuster, M. Lincoln, Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 187.

42. French, S. J., 215.

43. Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Régime in France, 166.

44. Moore, 49.

45. McKie, Antoine Lavoisier, 225.

46. Ibid., 293.

47. 325.

48. 319.

49. 412 f.

50. 404.

51. 407.

52. French, 267.

53. Williams, III, 11.

54. Langer, W. L., Encyclopedia of World History, 435.

55. Berry, Short History of Astronomy, 325.

56. Burney, Fanny, Diary, 161 (Dec. 30, 1786).

57. Williams, III, 21.

58. Enc. Brit., XI, 520d.

59. Bertrand, D’Alembert, 45.

60. Martin, H., XV, 397.

61. Bell, Men of Mathematics, 173.

62. Ibid.

63. 172.

64. Laplace, Système du monde, V, vi, in Berry, 322.

65. Laplace, Théorie analytique des probabilités, preface, in Nagel, Structure of Science, 282.

66. Quoted by Cajori in Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 677.

67. Sedgwick and Tyler, Short History of Science, 332.

68. Mousnier and Labrousse, Dix-huitième Siècle, 31.

69. In Bell, 182.

70. Berry, 307.

71. Wolf, 299.

72. Buffon, Oeuvres, IX, 455.

73. Ibid., 388.

74. XI, 454.

75. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 269.

76. Buffon, Oeuvres, IX, 454.

77. Trattner, Architects of Ideas, 66.

78. Gourlie, Prince of Botanists: Carl Linnaeus, 3.

79. Ibid., 34.

80. In Hazard, European Thought in the 18th Century, 354.

81. Locy, Biology and Its Makers, 122.

82. Sainte-Beuve, II, 263.

83. Lecky, History ofRationalism, II, 16.

84. Osborn, H. F., From the Greeks to Darwin, 130.

85. Bearne, A Court Painter and his Circle, 272.

86. Rousseau, letter of Sept. 21, 1771.

87. Gourlie, 270.

88. Wolf, 455.

89. Ibid., 456.

90. 457.

91. Enc. Brit., XVIII 3a.

92. Locy, 399.

93. Wolf, 349.

94. Ibid., 450.

95. Jardine, Wm., The Naturalist’s Library, 24.

96. Ibid., 321.

97. Sainte-Beuve, II, 264.

98. Osborn, 136.

99. In Butterfield, Origins of Modern Science, 175.

100. Buffon, Discours sur la nature les animaux, in Martin, H., XVI, 37.

101. Goncourts, Madame de Pompadour, 145.

102. Osborn, H. F., Men of the Old Stone Age, 3.

103. Osborn, From the Greeks to Darwin, 134, and Martin, K., Rise of French Liberal Thought, 99–100.

104. In Smith, P., II, 518.

105. In Buffon, Oeuvres complètes, I, introd., xxii.

106. Rousseau, letter of Nov. 4, 1764.

107. Sainte-Beuve, II, 208.

108. Buffon, I, introd., xviii.

109. Ibid., XII, 324–30.

110. Ibid., 324n.

111. Hazard, 144.

112. Voltaire, letter to Helvétius, Oct. 27, 1740.

113. Sainte-Beuve, II, 254.

114. Jardine, 32.

115. Ibid., 29.

116. In Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, 588n.

117. Garrison, F., History of Medicine, 334.

118. Lovejoy, A., The Great Chain of Being, 233.

119. Réaumur, Mémoires, in Smith, P., Modern Culture, II, 101.

120. Vartanian, A., Diderot and Descartes, 176.

121. Osborn, From the Greeks to Darwin, 118.

122. Maupertuis in Crocker, Age of Crisis, 81.

123. Osborn, 114–15.

124. Ibid., 122.

125. Lovejoy, Essays in the History of Ideas, 147.

126. Turberville, A. S., ed., Johnson’s England, II, 245.

127. Osborn, 119.

128. Ibid., 145.

129. 146.

130. Ibid.

131. 149.

132. Brett, G. S., History of Psychology, 423.

133. Condillac, Traité des sensations, 38

134. Ibid.

135. Ibid., 70.

136. Wolf, 689.

CHAPTER XVII

1. Osler, Evolution of Modern Medicine, 187.

2. Sigerist, Great Doctors, 235.

3. Castiglioni, A., History of Medicine, 602.

4. Williams, H. S., History of Science, IV, 78.

5. Garrison, History of Medicine, 346.

6. Ibid.

7. Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 270.

8. Wolf, 263.

9. Locy, Growth of Biology, 443.

10. Castiglioni, 613.

11. Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Good.”

12. Garrison, 402.

13. Besant, London, 380.

14. Himes, Medical History of Contraception, 187.

15. Ibid., 191.

16. 198.

17. Chesterfield, Letters, Feb. 5, 1750.

18. Voltaire, Works, XIXb, 24.

19. Goncourts, The Woman of the 18th Century, 11.

20. Sée, Economic and Social Conditions in France in the 18th Century, 42.

21. Garrison, 321.

22. Traill, Social England, V, 425.

23. Chamousset in Lacroix, Eighteenth Century in France, 272.

24. Ibid,

25. Garrison, 400.

26. Ibid.

27. Castiglioni, 657.

28. Ducros, French Society in the 18th Century, 179.

29. Ercole, Gay Court Life, 421.

30. Harding, T. S., Fads, Frauds, and Physicians, 151.

31. Castiglioni, 641.

32. Traill, V, 51.

33. Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters, I, 308.

34. Halsband, Life of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, III.

35. White, A. D., Warfare of Science with Theology, II, 55.

36. Ibid., 57; Garrison, 373.

37. Voltaire, Works, XIXb, 20.

38. Garrison, 351.

39. Besant, 377–78.

40. Garrison, 343.

41. Ibid., 110.

42. La Mettrie, Man a Machine, dedication.

43. Phil. Dict., art. “Physicians.”

44. Ford, Boris, ed., From Dryden to Johnson, 211.

45. Havens, The Age of Ideas, 345.

46. Garrison, 353; Sigerist, 237.

47. Aldis, Madame Geoffrin, 191; Herold, The Swiss without Halos, 85.

48. Brandes, Voltaire, II, III.

49. Mme. d’Épinay, Memoirs, III, 200.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Pappas, J. N., Berthier’s Journal de Trévoux and the Philosophes, 122.

2. Helvétius, De l’Esprit, Eng. translation, 414.

3. D’Alembert, Mélanges de littérature, d’histoire, et de philosophie (1759), in Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 3; Frankel, Faith of Reason, 7–8.

4. In Wolf, 39.

5. Duclos, Considérations sur les moeurs, 27.

6. Mornet, Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution française, 55.

7. Ibid., 54.

8. Taine, Ancient Regime, 288.

9. Ibid.

10. In Martin, K., Rise of French Liberal Thought, 122.

11. Morley, Diderot, I, 169.

12. Mornet, 52.

13. Meslier, Jean, Superstition in All Ages, or Last Will and Testament, 30.

14. Ibid., Sec. CXXXV.

15. CVIII.

16. LXVI, CLXXXII-III, and CLX.

17. CLX.

18. LII.

19. II.

20. XXXII.

21. XC.

22. CLX.

23. XL.

24. XII.

25. CXII.

26. CLXI.

27. CLIII.

28. CXLIX.

29. CLV.

30. Preface, p. 37.

31. CVII.

32. CXLI.

33. CLXVI.

34. CLXII.

35. Preface, pp. 42–43.

36. CCIV.

37. Ibid.

38. CLV.

39. Preface, p. 41.

40. In Martin, K., 240.

41. Ibid., 242.

42. 241–42.

43. Hazard, European Thought in the 18th Century, 56.

44. La Mettrie, Man a Machine, 4.

45. Walt Whitman’s formula for war.

46. La Mettrie, 99.

47. Ibid., 100.

48. 94.

49. 134.

50. 128.

51. In Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, II, 305.

52. Ibid., 316.

53. La Mettrie, 146.

54. Ibid.

55. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, II, 316.

56. La Mettrie, 103.

57. Fellows and Torrey, II, 307.

58. La Mettrie, 122.

59. Ibid., 129.

60. 149.

61. In Hazard, 128.

62. La Mettrie, 92.

63. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XV, 397.

64. La Mettrie, 119; Lange, F. A., History of Materialism, II, 86 f.

65. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 15.

66. Desnoiresterres, IV, 198–200.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Crocker, L. G., Embattled Philosopher, 5.

2. Ibid., 8.

3. 38.

4. Diderot, Pensées philosophiques, in Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, 264.

5. Crocker, 65

6. Diderot, penséeXXVI.

7. In Crocker, 68.

8. Wilson, A. M., Diderot: The Testing Years, 86.

9. Cru, R. L., Diderot as a Disciple of English Thought, 189; Wilson, A. M., 90.

10. Diderot, Lettre sur les aveugles, in Oeuvres, 601.

11. Ibid., 608.

12. 629.

13. 631–32.

14. 650.

15. 617–22.

16. Crocker, 102–3.

17. Havens, Age of Ideas, 289.

18. Crocker, 77.

19. Ibid., 83.

20. 87.

21. Brunetière, Évolution des genres dans l’histoire de la littérature (Paris, 1890), 210, in Wilson, Diderot, 169.

22. Diderot, art. “Encyclopedia.”

23. Aldis, Madame Geoffrm, 91.

24. Hazard, 199.

25. Morley, Life of Voltaire, 198.

26. Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, 316; Lanfrey, L’Église et les philosophes, 165.

27. Lévy-Bruhl, History of Modem Philosophy in France, 212.

28. Fellows and Torrey, 319.

29. Ibid., 320.

30. Ortega y Gasset, Toward a Philosophy of History, 77.

31. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 133.

32. Lough, K., ed., The Encyclopédie: Selected Articles, 6.

33. Pappas, Berthier’s Journal de Trévoux, 181–82.

34. Wilson, 162.

35. Ibid., 163.

36. Pappas, 185.

37. Wilson, 160.

38. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 235; Wilson, 165.

39. Wilson, 169.

40. Becker, C , Heavenly City of the 18th-century Philosophers, 119.

41. Wilson, 283.

42. Ibid., 288.

43. Naves, Voltaire et l’Encyclopédie, 52.

44. Wilson, 288–89.

45. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, II, 175.

46. Wilson, 312.

47. Ibid.

48. 358.

49. 339; Crocker, Embattled Philos., 237.

50. Wilson, 339.

51. Crocker, 239.

52. Green, F. C., in Diderot, Writings on the Theater, 12.

53. See Hazard, 202, and Naves, 98.

54. In Lough, Selected Articles, 180–83.

55. Diderot, art. “Philosophy.”

56. Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 23.

57. Art. “Philosophy.”

58. Art. “Political Authority.”

59. Ibid.

60. Lough, 43.

61. Morley, Diderot, I, 216.

62. Ibid., 172.

63. Article “Privileges.”

64. Article “Art.”

65. Smith, Adam, Wealth of Nations, I, 5.

66. Diderot, Prospectus, in Havens, 307.

67. Wilson, 136.

68. Grimm, Correspondance, VII, 146.

69. Lough, introd., xiv.

70. Art. “Encyclopedia.”

CHAPTER XX

1. Enc. Brit., XVII, 614.

2. Cru, Diderot, 234.

3. Ibid., 395.

4. Dupee, F. W., Great French Short Novels, 8.

5. Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 115.

6. Pensées sur l’interprétation de la nature, Sec. LVIII, in Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, 276, and Wilson, Diderot, 194.

7. Faguet, Dix-huitième siècle, 334.

8. Letter of Sept. 2, 1769, to Sophie Volland.

9. Letter of Sept. 11, 1769.

10. Letter of Sept. 2, 1769.

11. Diderot, Dialogues, 34–35.

12. Ibid., 43.

13. 53.

14. 57.

15. 69.

16. 79–80.

17. 93.

18. 96.

19. 105.

20. 110.

21. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, II, 322.

22. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher, 318.

23. Ibid., 320.

24. Ibid., 409; Crocker, Age of Crisis, 124.

25. Letter to Damilaville, 1766, in Morley, Diderot, I, 20.

26. Cru, 65.

27. Diderot, Jacques the Fatalist, 125.

28. Diderot, Plan for a University, in La Fontainerie, French Liberalism and Education in the 18th Century, 279.

29. Enc. Brit., IV, 419a.

30. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 319.

31. Cru, 417.

32. Grimm, Correspondance, 1770, in Diderot, Oeuvres, 957–59.

33. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, I, 67.

34. Ibid., 68.

35. These passages are listed in Diderot, Jacques the Fatalist, 271–73.

36. Ibid., 8.

37. 166.

38. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 268.

39. Neveu de Rameau, in Diderot, Oeuvres, 249.

40. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, I, 143 f.

41. Oeuvres, 191.

42. G. B. Shaw’s phrase.

43. Oeuvres, 262, 270.

44. Ibid., 222.

45. 218.

46. 268.

47. 220.

48. Dialogues, 119–20.

49. Ibid., 146.

50. 140–41.

51. 154.

52. “Essay on Women,” in Dialogues, 186.

53. Crocker, Age of Crisis, 101.

54. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 340.

55. Crocker, Age of Crisis, 209.

56. Ibid., 274.

57. Neveu de Rameau, in Crocker, Age of Crisis, 209.

58. Ibid., 105.

59. 104.

60. Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville, in Dialogues, 157.

61. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 343.

62. Articles “Civil Liberty” and “Representatives.”

63. Diderot, Oeuvres, Édition Assézat et Tourneux (Paris, 1875–77), IX, 16.

64. Ibid., II, 412, in Morley, Diderot, II, 242–43.

65. Cru, 135.

66. Ellis, Havelock, The New Spirit, 62.

67. Havens, Age of Ideas, 341.

68. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 398.

69. Ibid., 393.

70. Diderot, Salons, I, I.

71. Ibid., 79.

72. Faguet, Dix-huitième Siècle, 230.

73. Diderot, Salons, I, 188.

74. Crocker, 176.

75. Ibid., 196.

76. Chambers, F. P., History of Taste, 146.

77. Ibid., 140 f.

78. Hauser, Arnold, Social History of Art, II, 533.

79. Salons, I, 418.

80. Morley, Diderot, II, 79.

81. Crocker, 19.

82. Cru, 287.

83. Wilson, 273.

84. Crocker, 243.

85. Wilson, 326.

86. Voltaire, Phil. Dict., article “Rhyme.”

87. Wilson, 237.

88. Sime, Lessing, I, 209.

89. Diderot, Paradox of Acting, 14, 18.

90. Cru, 328.

91. Hamlet, III, ii.

92. Lee Strasberg, in Diderot, Paradox of Acting, introd., x.

93. Wordsworth’s phrase.

94. Ellis, The New Spirit, 56.

95. Hazard, 383.

96. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 232–33.

97. Michelet, V, 408n.

98. Morley, Diderot, I, 30.

99. Mme. d’Épinay, Memoirs, II, 73.

100. Taine, Ancient Regime, 266.

101. Diderot, Oeuvres, 143.

102. Crocker, 26.

103. Salons, II, 354.

104. Crocker, 147.

105. Ibid.

106. Letter of July 14, 1762.

107. Crocker, 297.

108. Ibid., 213–15.

109. 220.

110. “Regrets sur ma vieille robe de chambre,” in Oeuvres, 733.

111. Crocker, 301.

112. Morley, I, 262.

113. Crocker, 302.

114. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 360.

115. Morley, Diderot, I, 41.

116. Crocker, 292.

117. Wilson, 8.

118. Morley, I, 10.

119. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, I, ix.

120. Letter to King Stanislas Poniatowski in Aldis, Madame Geoffrin, 185.

121. Fellows and Torrey, Diderot Studies, I, vii.

CHAPTER XXI

1. Cumming, Ian, Helvétius, 36.

2. Ibid., 57.

3. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 258.

4. Cumming, 137.

5. Parton, Voltaire, II, 302.

6. Helvétius, Treatise on Man (De l’Homme), Vol. II, p. 480.

7. Grimm, Corresp., II, 262.

8. Helvétius, Treatise on Man, Section II, Ch. iii.

9. Helvétius, De l’Esprit, p. 11.

10. Ibid., in Grossman, Philosophy of Helvétius, 88.

11. Helvétius, De l’Esprit, 175, 222, 277.

12. Treatise on Man, IV, i.

13. Ibid., III, ii and iv.

14. IV, xxiii.

15. IV, iii and i.

16. VI, i.

17. De l’Esprit, p. 489.

18. Treatise, VII, iv.

19. Ibid., I, iii.

20. II, xxi.

21. I, ix.

22. II, xxii.

23. I, iii.

24. I, x.

25. VII, i.

26. I, ii.

27. VII, i.

28. De l’Esprit, p. 174.

29. Treatise, IX, xxxi.

30. Ibid., IV, xxi.

31. I, xiv.

32. I, xiii-xiv.

33. VII, xii.

34. VII, iii and iv.

35. Mordecai Grossman in Horowitz, Claude Helvétius, p. 18.

36. Treatise, V, iii-x.

37. Ibid., VI, viii.

38. V, iii-iv.

39. V, iii.

40. De l’Esprit, p. 279; Cumming, 79.

41. Treatise, VI, i.

42. De l’Esprit, pp. 6, 17.

43. In Martin, K., p. 180.

44. Treatise, II, vii.

45. De l’Esprit, p. 269.

46. Ibid., 47; Grossman, Philosophy of Helvétius, 96.

47. De l’Esprit, 29.

48. Ibid., 184, 144.

49. Treatise, IV, ii.

50. Horowitz, p. 100.

51. Ibid., 121.

52. Treatise, VI, v and x.

53. Ibid., VI, xv.

54. VI, vii and xi.

55. VIII, iii and v.

56. Brunetière, Essays in French Literature, p. 327.

57. Buckle, I, 624n.

58. Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 64.

59. Crocker, Age of Crisis, 123.

60. In Grossman, Philosophy of Helvétius, 147.

61. Crocker, Embattled Philos., 408.

62. Victor Cousin, Histoire de la philosophie, III, 201, in Buckle, I, 624n.

63. Money, Diderot, II, 141.

64. Cumming, 218.

65. Morley, II, 142.

66. Grossman, 169.

67. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 258.

68. Cumming, 139.

69. De l’Esprit, 87; Morley, II, 157.

70. D’Alembert, Éléments de philosophie, in Cassirer, Enlightenment, 4.

71. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 105.

72. Wickwar, Baron d’Holbach, 86.

73. Ibid., 59–60; Mornet, Origines, 107.

74. Gooch, Catherine the Great and Other Studies, 192.

75. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 256.

76. Morley, Life of Voltaire, 215.

77. Morley, Diderot, II, 193.

78. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Free-thought, II, 254.

79. Morley, Diderot, II, 194.

80. Rousseau, Confessions, 139.

81. Robertson, J. M., II, 254.

82. Morley, Diderot, II, 215.

83. Wickwar, 22.

84. Ibid., 23, 27.

85. Diderot, letter of May 10, 1759.

86. Marmontel, I, 351.

87. Ibid.

88. Wickwar, 39; Burton, Life of Hume, II, 220.

89. Gibbon, Memoirs, in Mossner, Life of David Hume, 485.

90. Priestley, Memoirs, I, 74, in Buckle, I, 62m.

91. Wickwar, 25.

92. Ibid., 38.

93. Mme. d’Épinay, Memoirs, II, 169.

94. Ibid., 130.

95. Wickwar, 109.

96. Robertson, J. M., II, 272.

97. Grimm, Corresp., Aug. 10, 1789.

98. Ibid.

99. Wickwar, 86.

100. D’Holbach, Le Christianisme dévoilé, in Pomeau, La Religion de Voltaire, 293.

101. Wickwar, 126.

102. Ibid., 135.

103. 127.

104. Phil. Dict., art. “God,” Sec. 4.

105. Morley, Diderot, II, p. 159.

106. D’Holbach, System of Nature, preface, pp. viii-x.

107. Ibid., Vol. I, Ch. ii.

108. I, i.

109. I, ii and viii.

110. I, xiii.

111. I, ix.

112. Morley, Diderot, II, p. 74.

113. D’Holbach, System, I, Ch. xi.

114. Ibid., I, i.

115. Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Régime, p. 16.

116. Martin, K., 175.

117. D’Holbach, System, II, Ch. vi.

118. Ibid., II, v.

119. I, xiii.

120. Ibid.

121. II, iv.

122. II, v.

123. II, xii.

124. System, appendix, Ch. xxiii.

125. System, I, xiii.

126. Ibid., I, vii.

127. D’Holbach, Morale universelle, Vol. I, Ch. i, in Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, p. 362.

128. Ibid., 363.

129. System of Nature, I, xv.

130. Ibid., appendix, xix.

131. System, I, xiv.

132. D’Holbach, Politique naturelle, Part IV, Ch. xxvii, in Wickwar, 182.

133. Éthocratie, Ch. x, in Hazard, 264.

134. Politique naturelle, Part VI, Ch. xiv.

135. Cumming, 112.

136. Politique naturelle, in Martin, K., 188.

137. Ibid., 189.

138. Wickwar, 178.

139. Martin, K., 189.

140. Wickwar, 178.

141. System of Nature, Vol. I, Ch. xiv.

142. Politique naturelle, Part VI, Ch. xxxix, in Wickwar, 212–13.

143. Système social, Vol. II, 151, in Cobban, In Search of Humanity, 166.

144. System of Nature, I, xiv.

145. D’Holbach, Contagion sacrée, 145, in Wickwar, 141.

146. In Mornet, Origines, 103.

147. System of Nature, I, ix.

148. Système social, II, ii, in Cassirer, The Question of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 68.

149. Politique naturelle, Part I, Ch. vi, in Frankel, The Faith of Reason, 71.

150. Mornet, 103.

151. Lanfrey, L’Église et les philosophes, 331.

152. Phil. Dict., art. “God.”

153. Wickwar, 89.

154. Morley, Diderot, 183.

155. Faguet, Literary History of France, 497.

156. Wickwar, 111.

157. Hearnshaw, Social and Political Ideas of… the Age of Reason, 213.

158. Wickwar, 113.

CHAPTER XXII

1. This is what Faguet forgot in one of the most biased essays in French literature; see, e.g., Dix-huitième Siècle, 210.

2. Wade, Studies in Voltaire, 67.

3. Phil. Dict., art. “Emblems.”

4. Noyes, Voltaire, 487.

5. Phil. Dict., art, “God.”

6. Desnoiresterres, V, 167.

7. Pomeau, Religion de Voltaire, 422.

8. Voltaire, Works, VIIb, 82.

9. Mornet, Origines, 82; Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 254, 283.

10. Phil. Dict., in Works, VIIa, 62.

11. In Pomeau, 400, and Crocker, Age of Crisis, 385.

12. Parton, Voltaire, II, 432.

13. Pomeau, 159, 183.

14. Lévy-Bruhl, 185–86.

15. Letter of May 20, 1738, in Voltaire and Frederick the Great, Letters, 115.

16. Voltaire, Notebooks, I, 402.

17. Traité de métaphysique, Ch. ix.

18. La Loi naturelle, in Works, Xb, 25–26.

19. Ibid.; Fellows and Torrey, Age of Enlightenment, 424.

20. Bottiglia, Voltaire’s Candide, 108; Mowat, Age of Reason, 36.

21. Letter of Oct., 1753, to d’Alembert, in Desnoiresterres, V, 163.

22. In Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 87.

23. Letters of May 24 and Dec. 22, 1757.

24. Voltaire, Oeuvres, ed. Moland, XXXIX, 363. See also Pomeau, 301; Naves, Voltaire et l’Encyclopédie, 53.

25. Naves, 54–57.

26. Ibid., 62–63; Pomeau, 302.

27. Campbell, The Jesuits, 453.

28. Nicolson, H., Age of Reason, 81.

29. In Smith, P., II, 540.

30. Pope, Essay on Man.

31. Parton, II, 215.

32. Voltaire, Romans, I, 165, 169.

33. Ibid., 233.

34. 237.

35. 257.

36. Bottiglia, 249.

37. Pomeau, 318.

38. Martin, H., Histoire de France, IX, 127.

39. Pomeau, 319–21.

40. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Eng. tr., I, 360.

41. Parton, II, 356.

42. Desnoiresterres, VI, 160.

43. “Essay on toleration,” in Voltaire, Selected Works, 78; Pomeau, 325.

44. Our account is based upon A. Coquerel’s Jean Calas et sa famille (Paris, 1858), as summarized in Parton, II, 367.

45. Letter of Mar. 1, 1765.

46. Ibid.

47. Text in Parton, II, 356.

48. Letter of Mar. 29, 1762.

49. Letter of Sept., 1762, in Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 277.

50. Brandes, Voltaire, II, 196.

51. Voltaire, Selected Works, 86.

52. Ibid., 113.

53. Parton, II, 433.

54. Mornet, Origines, 112.

55. Selected Works, 88.

56. Ibid., 100, 108.

57. Voltaire, Works, IIb, 277.

58. Brandes, II, 214.

59. Desnoiresterres, VII, 469.

60. Parton, II, 397.

61. Ibid.

62. Desnoiresterres, VI, 493.

63. Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 129.

64. Letter of Frederick the Great, Aug. 7, 1766.

65. Letter of Frederick, Sept., 1766, in Brandes, II, 231.

66. Diderot, Oeuvres, 220.

67. Chaponnière, Voltaire chez les Calvinistes, 260.

68. In Brandes, II, 232.

69. Voltaire, Correspondance, ed. Besterman, Letter 7584.

70. Pomeau, 311.

71. Phil. Dict., art. “Superstition.”

72. Letter of June 3, 1760.

73. Letter of Dec. 6, 1757.

74. Pomeau, 213; Bertrand, D’Alembert, 118.

75. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 283.

76. Parton, II, 285.

77. Letter to Damilaville, Apr. 5, 1765.

78. Frederick to Voltaire, Sept. 9, 1739.

79. Voltaire, Oeuvres complètes, XLIII, 198–200.

80. Selected Works, 59.

81. Phil. Dict., art. “Laws.”

82. J. Gaberel in Parton, II, 428.

83. Luke xxi, 27–32.

84. Questions of Zapata, No. 58, in Selected Works, 34.

85. Ibid., Nos. 65–66.

86. Ibid., No. 66.

87. Parton, 286.

88. Letter of June 4, 1767.

89. New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 152.

90. Phil. Dict., art. “God.”

91. Letter of Nov. 28, 1752.

92. Oeuvres complètes, XLI, 570, in Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 279.

93. Phil. Dict., art. “Sin.”

94. Pomeau, 373.

95. Works, Ib, 139.

96. Phil. Dict., art. “Miracles.”

97. Pomeau, 348.

98. Ibid., 374.

99. Phil. Dict., art. “Climate.”

100. Art. “Grace.”

101. Profession de foi des théistes, in Black, Art of History, 57.

102. Works, XIXa, 228.

103. Ibid., 238.

104. Traité de métaphysique.

105. Crocker, Age of Crisis, 385.

106. Ibid., 190; cf. Phil. Dict., art. “Atheism,” and art. “God,” Sec. v.

107. Art. “Hell.”

108. Art. “Fraud.”

109. Art. “Morality.”

110. Voltaire, The Ignorant Philosopher, Secs. II-III.

111. Ibid.,III-IV.

112. XIII.

113. XIV.

114. XVII, XIX.

115. XX.

116. XXIV.

117. LI.

118. Works, IIa, 312–16.

119. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 304.

120. Noyes, Voltaire, 555; Pomeau, 411.

121. Voltaire, Oeuvres complètes, XXVI, 199, in Pomeau, 438.

122. Art. “Curate.”

123. Pomeau, 439.

124. Essai sur les moeurs, Ch. cxxxix, in Ducros, French Society in the 18th Century, 199.

125. Desnoiresterres, VI, 118.

126. Ibid., 63–64; Pomeau, 431.

127. Desnoiresterres, VII, 237.

128. Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 225.

129. Desnoiresterres, VII, 228.

130. Ibid., 287.

131. Pomeau, 390.

132. Diderot, Letters to Sophie Volland, I, 29, in Pomeau, 332.

133. Grimm, Corresp., VII, 51.

134. Walpole, H., in Mossner, Bishop Butler and the Age of Reason, 175; cf. Mornet, Origines, 139, and Morley, Life of Voltaire, 88.

135. Letter to Mme. du Deffand, June 1, 1770.

136. Ignorant Philosopher, Sec. XXIV.

137. Mark IX, 45–48; Matt. XIII, 40–42; Luke XVI, 23–26.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Pomeau, 300.

2. Mornet, Origines, 206.

3. Gauchat, Lettres critiques, XV, 224, in Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 313.

4. Pomeau, 338.

5. Voltaire, letter of Dec. 8, 1776.

6. Palmer, R.R., Catholics and Unbelievers, 96.

7. Ibid., 142.

8. Our account follows John H. Pappas, Berthier’s Journal de Trévoux and the Philosophes.

9. Ibid., 38.

10. 23, 137.

11. 48.

12. 128.

13. 48.

14. 205.

15. Ibid.

16. 184.

17. 186.

18. 110.

19. 113.

20. 119.

21. 122.

22. 131.

23. Desnoiresterres, III, 389.

24. Hazard, Eighteenth Century, 78.

25. Cornou, Êlie Fréron, in Martin, K., 96.

26. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher, 240.

27. Ibid.

28. Brandes, II, 205.

29. Ibid., 206.

30. Noyes, Voltaire, 51.

31. Ibid., 71.

32. Lanfrey, 195.

33. In Masson, La Religion de Rousseau, III, 31.

34. Crocker, Age of Crisis, 382.

35. Lichtenberger, A., Le Socialisme et la Révolution française, 6n.

36. Crocker, Emb. Philosopher, 305.

37. Toth, Woman and Rococo, 224, 234.

38. Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 305.

39. Toth, 234.

40. Letter of Jan. 10, 1758, in Naves, 53.

41. Oeuvres, 231, 239–40.

42. Ibid., 235, etc.

43. Grimm, II, 373.

44. Palmer, Catholics and Unbelievers, 7.

45. Parton, II, 334.

46. Pappas, 85.

47. Ibid., 114.

48. 117.

49. Fülop-Miller, Power and Secret of the Jesuits, 374.

50. Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 310.

51. Pappas, 129.

52. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 414.

53. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XVI, 201.

54. Lanfrey, 267; Campbell, The Jesuits, 482.

55. Ibid., 483.

56. Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV, 98a; Martin, H., XVI, 211; Ranke, History of the Popes, II, 447.

57. Campbell, 487.

58. Ibid., 485.

59. McCabe, Candid History of the Jesuits, 251.

60. Robertson, J. M., History of Freethought, II, 236.

61. Desnoiresterres, VI, 269.

62. Bertrand, D’Alembert, 132.

63. Lanfrey, 269.

64. Ibid., 270.

65. Pappas, 135.

66. Pomeau, 317.

67. Gilbert, Prince de Ligne, 138; Carlyle, Friedrich the Second, VII, 470.

68. Campbell, The Jesuits, 639.

69. La Fontainerie, French Liberalism and Education in the 18th Century, 143, 149.

70. Cumming, Helvétius, 160.

71. La Fontainerie, 80.

72. Ibid., 117.

73. Ibid., 39; Desnoiresterres, VI, 239.

74. Letter of Apr. 1, 1766.

75. Lanson, Voltaire, 183.

76. Smith, P., Modern Culture, II, 446.

77. La Fontainerie, 240.

78. Sée, H., Les idées politiques en France, 142.

79. Mornet, Origines, 177.

80. Lacroix, Eighteenth Century, 265.

81. Helvétius, Treatise on Man, Vol. II, p. 402.

82. Brunetière, Manual of French Literature, 298.

83. Hazard, 369.

84. Bury, Idea of Progress, 149.

85. Smith, P., II, 614.

86. D’Alembert, Éléments de la philosophie, Ch. iv, in Hazard, 166.

87. Hazard, 169.

88. Voltaire, Works, XIXa, 89 f.

89. Hazard, 250.

90. Rousseau, Sur le gouvernement de Pologne, in Black, Art of History, 20.

91. Source lost.

92. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XVI, 212.

93. Bury, Idea of Progress, 203; Parton, II, 433.

94. Hazard, 126.

95. Buckle, I, 620.

96. Parton, II, 507.

97. Lecky, History of. . . Rationalism, I, 125.

98. Tocqueville, L’ Ancien Régime, 165.

99. Lecky, History of England, V, 336.

100. Mornet, Origines, 214–16.

101. La Harpe in Taine, Ancient Regime, 400.

102. Walpole, H., letter of Oct. 19, 1765.

103. Id., letter of Nov. 19, 1765.

104. Mornet, 269.

105. Ibid.

106. Toth, Woman and Rococo, 234.

107. Mornet, 272.

108. Willey, Eighteenth-Century Background, 192.

109. Taine, Ancient Regime, 293.

110. Robertson, J. M., History of Freethought, II, 278.

111. Montalembert, Monks of the West, I, 86.

112. Mornet, 141.

113. Voltaire, Oeuvres complètes, XLIII, 237.

114. Letter of Nov. 9, 1764.

115. Wilson, Diderot, 286; Palmer, Catholics and Unbelievers, 17.

116. Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 133.

117. Condorcet, Progrès de l’ esprit humain, 251.

118. Mornet, 125.

119. Ibid., 273.

120. Eckermann and Soret, Conversations with Goethe, 421, 529.

121. Frederick to Voltaire, May 5, 1767.

122. Grimm, Corresp., Sept. 15, 1767.

123. Dict. Phil., art. “God.”

EPILOGUE

1. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher, 407.

2. Sade, Marquis de, Justine (1791), Juliette (1792), Philosophie dans le boudoir (1793).

3. Musset, Alfred de, Confessions of a Child of the Century, 21 f.

4. Chaponnière, Geneva, 231.

5. Phil. Dict., art. “God,” Sec. IV; art. “Polytheism.”

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