Photographs

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FIG. 1—PORTRAIT AFTER NICOLAS DE LARGILLIÈRE: Voltaire as a Young Man. Château de Versailles PAGE 3

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FIG. 2—MICHEL CORNEILLE: Philippe d’Orléans, Regent. Château de Versailles PAGE 6

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FIG. 3—UNKNOWN ARTIST: The Rue Quincampoix in 1718. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 12

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FIG. 4—Regency Wall Paneling. Château de Versailles PAGE 24

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FIG. 5—ALLAN RAMSAY: The Fourth Earl of Chesterfield. National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 81

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FIG. 6—PORTRAIT ATTRIBUTED TO JEAN MARC NATTIER: Prince Charles Edward Stuart (The Young Pretender). National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 109

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FIG. 7—ANTONIO CANALETTO: View of the Thames from Richmond House. The Good-wood Estate (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 60

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FIG. 8—ALLAN RAMSAY: David Hume. Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh PAGE 140

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FIG. 9—W. HAMILTON: John Wesley. National Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 128

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FIG. 10—JACOPO AMIGONI: Caroline of Ansbach. Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 94

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FIG. 11—ANTOINE WATTEAU: The Embarkation for Cythera. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 26

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FIG. 12—CHALK PORTRAIT ATTRIBUTED TO WILLIAM HOARE: Alexander Pope. National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 164

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FIG. 13—PORTRAIT FROM THE STUDIO OF RICHARD BROMPTON: William Pitt the Elder. National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 113

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FIG. 14—JOSEPH HIGHMORE: Samuel Richardson. National Portrait Gallery, London PAGE 188

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FIG. 15—SIR GODFREY KNELLER: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Reproduced by permission of the Marquess of Bute and the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh PAGE 205

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FIG. 16—ENGRAVING BASED ON A SKETCH BY WILLIAM HOGARTH: Henry Fielding. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 193

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FIG. 17—UNKNOWN ITALIAN ARTIST: Tobias Smollett. National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 199

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FIG. 18—WILLIAM HOGARTH: Scene from Marriage à la Mode. Tate Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 220

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FIG. 19—WILLIAM HOGARTH: The Shrimp Girl National Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 218

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FIG. 20—WILLIAM HOGARTH: self portrait. National Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 217

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FIG. 21—WILLIAM HOGARTH: Engraving, The Sleeping Congregation. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 217

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FIG. 22—TBOMAS HUDSON; George Frederick Handel. Staatsbibliothek, Hamburg (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 226

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FIG. 23—JACQUES ANDRÉ AVED: Jean Philippe Rameau. Musée Dijon (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 295

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FIG. 24—The Tuileries Palace and Gardens. From an engraving in the Albertina Museum, Vienna (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 295

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FIG. 25–HYACINTHE RIGAUD: Louis XV at the Age of Six. Château de Versailles (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 272

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FIG. 26–MAURICE QUENTIN DE LA TOUR: Louis XV. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 320

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FIG. 27–HYACINTHE RIGAUD: Cardinal Fleury. Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 269

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FIG. 28–CARLE VANLOO: Marie Leszczyńska. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 2

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FIG. 29–FRANÇOIS BOUCHER: Madame de Pompadour. Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection, London PAGE 279

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FIG. 30– MAURICE QUENTIN DE LA TOUR: Madame de Pompadour. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 322

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FIG. 31–JEAN MARC NATTIER: Madame de Châteauroux. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Marseilles PAGE 275

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FIG. 32–Interior Decoration, Louis Quinze Style: Drawing Room in the Hôtel de Ludre, Paris. From French Art of the 18th Century, Ed. Stéphane Faniel (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957) PAGE 304

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FIG. 33–Faïence Soup Tureen from Lunéville in Lorraine, Period of King Stanislas. Nicolier Collection (reproduced from French Art of the 18th Century, ed. Faniel) PAGE 305

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FIG. 34–JACQUES CAFFIÉRI AND A. R. GAUDREAU: Commode. Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 304

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FIG. 35–Andirons, Period of Louis XV. Château de Versailles PAGE 306

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FIG. 36–Mantel Clock, Period of Louis XV. Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection, London PAGE 306

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FIG. 37–Tapestry, Period of Louis XV. Thiérard Collection (reproduced from French Art of the 18th Century, ed. Faniel) PAGE 305

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FIG. 38– ROSLIN: François Boucher. Château de Versailles PAGE 313

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FIG. 39– JEAN LAMOUR: Iron Gates of the Place Stanislas, Nancy. From Max Osborn, Die Kunst des Rokoko (Berlin: Propyläen-Verlag, 1926) PAGE 308

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FIG. 40–FRANÇOIS BOUCHER: The Luncheon from Italian Scenes Tapestries. The Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California PAGE 315

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FIG. 41– GUILLAUME COUSTOU I: One of the Horses of Marly, Place de la Concorde, Paris. Photograph courtesy of Roger Viollet (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 308

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FIG. 42–JEAN BAPTISTE CHARDIN: Le Bénédicité. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 318

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FIG. 43–JEAN BAPTISTE CHARDIN: The Artist’s Second Wife. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 318

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FIG. 44–JEAN BAPTISTE CHARDIN: Self-Portrait. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 316

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FIG. 45–FRANÇOIS BOUCHER: The Rape of Europa. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 314

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FIG. 46—UNKNOWN ARTIST OF THE FRENCH 18th-CENTURY SCHOOL: Voltaire. Château de Versailles PAGE 361

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FIG. 47–ENGRAVING AFTER A PAINTING BY DEVERIA: Montesquieu. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 340

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FIG. 48–NICOLAS DE LARGILLIÈRE: Madame du Châtelet. Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus, Ohio (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 365

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FIG. 49—FRANÇOIS BOUCHER: Le Coucher du Soleil (Sunset). Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 316

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FIG. 50—MATTHÄUS DANIEL PÖPPELMANN: The Zwinger Palace, Dresden (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 399

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FIG. 51–JOHANN MICHAEL FISCHER: The Abbey Church (Klosterkirche) of the Benedictine Monastery at Ottobeuren. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 406

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FIG. 52–BALTHASAR NEUMANN: Staircase of the Prince-Bishop’s Residenz, Würzburg. From Werner Weisbach, Die Kunst des Barock (Berlin: Propyläen-Verlag, 1924) PAGE 405

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FIG. 53—JAKOB PRANDTAUER: The Cloister at Melk. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 432

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FIG. 54—LORENZO MATTIELLI: Neptune Fountain, Dresden (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 405

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FIG. 55—BALTHASAR PERMOSER: St. Ambrose. Museum, Bautzen, Germany (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 405

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FIG. 56—E. G. HAUSSMANN: Johann Sebastian Bach. Thomasschule, Leipzig (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 412

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FIG. 57–ENGRAVING AFTER A PAINTING BY ANTOINE PESNE: Frederick the Great as a Child of Three, with His Sister Wilhelmine. Formerly in the Berlin Museum (Bettmann Archive) PAGES 404, 439

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FIG. 58—ENGRAVING AFTER A PAINTING BY CARLE VANLOO: Frederick the Great. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 439

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FIG. 59—GEORG WENZESLAUS VON KNOBELSDORFF: Sanssouci Palace, Potsdam (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 406

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FIG. 60—JOHANN LUKAS VON HILDEBRANDT: Upper Belvedere Palace, Vienna (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 433

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FIG. 61–JOHANN BERNHARD FISCHER VON ERLACH AND OTHERS: Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna. Photograph courtesy of the Austrian State Tourist Office PAGE 433

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FIG. 62–Maria Theresa Monument, Vienna. Photograph by O. V. W. Hubmann, courtesy of the Austrian State Tourist Office PAGE 431

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FIG. 63–JOHANN BERNHARD FISCHER VON ERLACH AND HIS SON JOSEF EMANUEL: Karls-kirche (Church of St. Charles), Vienna (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 432

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FIG. 64—GEORG RAPHAEL DONNER: Andromeda Fountain, Vienna (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 434

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FIG. 65–JOHANN BERNHARD FISCHER VON ERLACH AND HIS SON JOSEF EMANUEL: Central Hall, National Library, Vienna (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 433

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FIG. 66–DANIEL GRAN: Cupola Frescoes in the National Library, Vienna (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 434

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FIG. 67–GEORG WENZESLAUS VON KNOBELSDORFF: The Golden Gallery in the Schloss Charlottenburg. From Max Osborn, Die Kunst des Rokoko (Berlin: Propyläen-Verlag, 1926) PAGE 404

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FIG. 68—GEORG RAPHAEL DONNER: St. Martin and the Beggar, Pressburg (now Bratislava) Cathedral (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 434

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FIG. 69—Voltaire’s Villa Les Délices, Geneva, now the Institut et Musée Voltaire (Photograph by Jean Arlaud) PAGE 472

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FIG. 70—GEORG RAPHAEL DONNER: Marble relief, Hagar in the Wilderness, Barockmuseum, Vienna PAGE 434

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FIG. 71—JACQUES ANDRÉ NAIGEON: Pierre Simon Laplace. From E. T. Bell, Men of Mathematics (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1937) PAGE 546

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FIG. 72—JAMES SHARPLES: Joseph Priestley. National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 526

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FIG. 73—UNKNOWN ARTIST: Leonard Euler. From E. T. Bell, Men of Mathematics (Simon and Schuster, 1937) PAGE 509

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FIG. 74—ENGRAVING FROM A BUST IN THE LIBRARY OF THE INSTITUT DE FRANCE: Joseph Louis Lagrange. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 510

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FIG. 75—LEMUEL FRANCIS ABBOTT: William Herschel. National Portrait Gallery, London (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 541

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FIG. 76—ENGRAVING AFTER A PAINTING BY HUBERT DROUAIS IN THE INSTITUT DE FRANCE: Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 569

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FIG. 77—JACQUES LOUIS DAVID: Lavoisier and His Wife. Rockefeller Foundation, New York (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 531

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FIG. 78—C. TROOST: Hermann Boerhaave. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 507

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FIG. 79—ANGELICA KAUFFMANN: Giovanni Battista Morgagni. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 586

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FIG. 80—M. HOFFMAN: Carl Linnaeus in Lapp Dress. (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 561

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FIG. 81—SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS: John Hunter. Royal College of Surgeons of England, London PAGE 587

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FIG. 82—GIULIO MONTEVERDE: Edward Jenner Vaccinating a Child. Palazzo Bianco, Genoa (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 596

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FIG. 83—UNKNOWN ARTIST: Julien Offroy de La Mettrie. From La Mettrie, Man A Machine (Chicago: Open Court Publishing Co., 1912) PAGE 617

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FIG. 84—EBERLEIN: Albrecht von Holler. (Bettmann Archive) PAGES 477, 588

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FIG. 85—JEAN HONORÉ FRAGONARD: Denis Diderot. Louvre, Paris (Bettmann Archive) PAGE 623

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FIG. 86—ENGRAVING AFTER A PAINTING BY LA TOUR: D’Alembert. (Bettmann Archive) PAGES 515, 635

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FIG. 87—CARMONTELLE: Baron d’Holbach. Musée Condé, Chantilly (Photographie Giraudon, Paris) PAGE 695

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FIG. 88—ENGRAVING AFTER MICHEL VANLOO: Claude Adrien Helvétius. National Library, Vienna PAGE 680

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FIG. 89—CHARLES NICOLAS COCHIN II: Frontispiece of the “Encyclopédie.” Albertina Museum, Vienna PAGE 635

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FIG. 90—JEAN ANTOINE HOUDON: Voltaire in Old Age. Château de Versailles (Bettmann Archive)

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