Notes

CHAPTER I

1. Froude, Reign of Elizabeth, I, II.

2. Neale, Queen Elizabeth, 26.

3. Ibid., 37.

4. Froude, I, Introd., vii.

5. Read, C, Mr. Secretary Cecil and Queen Elizabeth, 32.

6. Ibid., 119.

7. Hughes, P., The Reformation in England, III, 46.

8. Froude, Elizabeth, III, 306.

9. Froude, I, 448.

10. Barnes, H. E., Economic History of the Western World, 205.

11. Hallam, Constitutional History of England, I, 245.

12. Lingard, J., History of England, VI, 324.

13. Christopher Hatton in Shakespeare’s England, I, 80.

14. Neale, 61.

15. Ibid., 75–6.

16. Shakespeare’s England, I, 5.

17. Neale, 386.

18. Froude, I, 120.

19. Cambridge Modern History, III, 289.

20. Froude, IV, 62.

21. Thornton, Table Talk from Ben Jonson to Leigh Hunt, 9.

22. Hallam, I, 133.

23. Neale, 80.

24. Read, 363.

25. Froude, II, 84.

26. Camb. Mod. History, II, 582,

27. Froude, I, 300.

28. Ibid., 103.

29. Ibid., 491.

30. Creighton, Queen Elizabeth, 254.

31. Church, R. W., Spenser, 116.

32. Lingard, VI, 321.

33. Aubrey, Brief Lives, 305.

34. Chute, Shakespeare of London, 145.

35. Bacon, Fr., Philosophical Works, 869; Apophthegm 55.

36. Froude, V, 206.

37. Sir John Hayward in Muir, K., Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose, I.

38. Chute, Ben Jonson, 164.

39. Froude, I, 8, 14.

40. Ibid, and 145; II, 338; Allen, J. W., History of Political Thought in the Sixteenth Century, 199–200.

41. Ascham, The Scholemaster, 81.

42. Froude, III, 4.

43. Taine, English Literature, 160.

44. Smith, Preserved, The Age of the Reformation, 634.

45. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Free-thought, II, 5, 6.

46. Bradbrook, The School of Night, 7; Boas, Marlowe and His Circle, 90; and the ed. of Love’s Labour’s Lost by A. T. Quiller Couch and J. Dover Wilson, London, 1923.

47. Bradbrook, 39.

48. Ibid., 12.

49. Robertson, Freethought, II, 10.

50. Green, J. R., Short History of the English People, ch. vii, sect. 3.

51. Froude, I, 183; IV, 65; V, 228.

52. Ibid., IV, 385–6.

53. Camb. Mod. History, II, 562.

54. Chute, Ben Jonson, 79.

55. Roeder, Catherine de’ Medici, 492.

56. Froude, IV, 119; Neale, 215.

57. Payne, E. A., The Anabaptists of the 16th Century, 19; Lingard, VI, 170.

58. Pastor, History of the Popes, XVI 250.

59. McCabe, Candid History of the Jesuits, 150.

60. Froude, I, 329.

61. Ibid., II, 345; Hughes, III, 159.

62. Macaulay, Critical and Historical Essays, I, 6; Camb. Mod. History, III, 349.

63. Lingard, VI, 122.

64. Hughes, III, 289.

65. Pastor, XIX, 441–2.

66. Ibid.

67. McCabe, Candid History, 148.

68. Ibid., 150.

69. Froude, IV, 284.

70. Ibid., 294–5.

71. Lngard, VI, 165; Froude, IV, 297.

72. Pastor, XIX, 458.

73. Hughes, III, 325–6.

74. Neale, 265.

75. Hughes, III, 363; Williams, F. B., Elizabethan England, 10.

76. Froude, V, 238.

77. Hughes, III, 380; Neale, 299.

78. Hallam, I, 169; Lingard, VI, 257.

79. Hughes, III, 392–6.

80. Allen, J. W., History of Political Thought in the Sixteenth Century, 216–7; Hallam, I, 190.

81. Hallam, I, 198.

82. Hughes, III, 408.

83. Lea, H. C., Studies in Church History, 508.

84. Neale, 178.

85. Hallam, I, 205.

86. Camb. Mod. History, III, 345.

87. Walton, Izaak, Life of Richard Hooker, in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies of the World, 556.

88. Hooker, Richard, Works: Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, I, x, 4, 8.

89. Ibid., VIII, vi, II.

90. Ibid., I, i, I.

91. Froude, IV, 237.

92. Ibid., 191.

93. D’Alton, E. A., History of Ireland, III, 199.

94. Froude, IV, 233, 236.

95. Ibid., 233.

96. Froude, II, 466.

97. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th ed., XV, 778b.

98. Froude, II, 211.

99. Nussbaum, F. L., History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 122; Froude, II, 468.

100. Barnes, Economic History, 265.

101. Acton, J. E., Lectures on Modern History, 152; Davies, E. Trevor, The Golden Age of Spain, 212; Froude, III, 309; V, 37.

102. Froude, V, 344.

103. Ibid., 400.

104. Michelet, Jules, Histoire de France, IV, 4.

105. Froude, V, 413.

106. Ibid., 430–1.

107. Spedding, J., Life and Times of Francis Bacon, I, 56.

108. Strachey, Elizabeth and Essex, 173.

109. In Eddy, Sherwood, The Challenge of Europe, 205n.

110. Strachey, Elizabeth and Essex, 6.

111. Clarendon, Robert Devereux and George Villiers, in Clark, Great Short Biographies, 603.

112. Spedding, I, 21.

113. Ibid., 179.

114. Ibid., 56.

115. Strachey, 65.

116. Spedding, I, 231.

117. Spedding, note to Rawley’s Life of Bacon, in Bacon, Philosophical Works, 3.

118. Strachey, 172; Spedding, Life of Bacon, I, 227; Creighton, Queen Elizabeth, 279.

119. Holzknecht, Backgrounds of Shakespeare’s Plays, 301; Chambers, E. K., William Shakespeare, I, 354; Strachey, 241.

120. Spedding, I, 343–8.

121. Strachey, 264–5.

122. Creighton, 295.

123. Strachey, 279.

124. In Muir, Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose, 39.

125. Ibid., 40.

126. Hamlet, III, iii, 15–23.

127. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, Preface to the King.

128. Henry VIII, V, v, 18.

CHAPTER II

1. A phrase of unknown origin, as old as 1300—Mencken, H. L., New Dictionary of Quotations, 343.

2. Bernai, Science in History, 284; Wolf, A., History of Science in the Eighteenth Century, 630.

3. Trevelyan, English Social History, 191.

4. Rogers, Economic Interpretation of History, 38; Traill, Social England, III, 365; Froude, Henry VIII, I, 19; Lipson, Growth of English Society, 157f.

5. Shakespeare’s England, I, 320.

6. Rogers, Economic Interpretation, 37; Rogers, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 84, 88, 100.

7. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 94; Shakespeare’s England, I, 331.

8. Creighton in Traill, III, 373.

9. Gasquet, Henry VIII and the English Monasteries, II, 515n.

10. Smith, P, Age of the Reformation, 476.

11. Beard, Chas., Toward Civilization, 227.

12. Trevelyan, Social History, 160–1.

13. Wolf, History of Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 614.

14. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages, 497.

15. See, H., Modern Capitalism, 55.

16. Trevelyan, Social History, 120.

17. Sarton, G., Introduction to the History of Science, IIIa, 324.

18. Addison, J. D., Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages, 26.

19. Froude, Elizabeth, II, 88.

20. Chute, Shakespeare of London, 63.

21. Ascham, Scholemaster, 71–8 and end.

22. Einstein, Lewis, Italian Renaissance in England, 160.

23. Hughes, III, 137.

24. Goethe, Faust, Part II, lines 616–18, quoted in Haydn, H., The Counter-Renaissance, 362.

25. Camb. Mod. History, III, 362.

26. Chute, Ben Jonson, 41.

27. Trend, J. B., Civilization of Spain, 110.

28. Hughes, III, 144.

29. Shakespeare’s England, I, 416.

30. Froude, Elizabeth, V, 462.

31. Trevelyan, Social History, 140.

32. Lingard, VI, 323.

33. King Lear, IV, vi.

34. Lingard, VI, 323.

35. Hallam, I, 35.

36. Shakespeare’s England, I, 398.

37. Froude, Elizabeth, IV, 122–3; Shakespeare’s England, I, 400.

38. Hallam, I, 234; Spenser, E., Poetical Works, Introd., xxiii.

39. Browne, Sir Thos., Religio Medici, Introd., x.

40. Garrison, History of Medicine, 819.

41. Bacon, Essay “Of Gardens,” in Philosophical Works, 791.

42. Merchant of Venice, I, ii.

43. Much Ado about Nothing, III, iv.

44. Holzknecht, 44.

45. Philip Stubbs in James, B. B., Women of England, 250.

46. Wright, Thomas, Womankind in Western Europe, 334.

47. Merchant of Venice, III, ii, 89.

48. Shakespeare’s England, II, 94.

49. Wright, Thomas, History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments in England, 456.

50. James I, A Counterblast to Tobacco (1604), in Muir, 89.

51. McKinney and Anderson, Music in History, 278.

52. Oxford History of Music, II, 221.

53. Ibid., 208.

54. Haydn, H., The Portable Elizabethan Reader, 666.

55. Burney, C., General History of Music, II, 306.

56. In the National Portrait Gallery, London.

57. Blomfield, R., Short History of Renaissance Architecture in England, 37.

58. Bishop, A. T., Renaissance Architecture of England, 34; Blomfield, 86.

59. Ibid.

60. Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 13.

CHAPTER III

1. Burton, Robert, Anatomy of Melancholy, 7.

2. Shakespeare’s England, II, 183.

3. Putnam, G. H., Censorship of the Church of Rome, II, 258.

4. Shakespeare’s England, II, 217.

5. Cambridge History of English Literature, III, 369.

6. Garnett and Gosse, English Literature, II, 68.

7. Camb. History of English Literature, III, 372.

8. Ascham, Scholemaster, 17–23.

9. Haydn, Portable Elizabethan Reader, 183.

10. Lyly, Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit, 33.

11. Greene, Robert, A Groats-worth of Wit Bought with a Million of Repentance, in Taine, English Literature, 168.

12. In Muir, 28.

13. Symonds, J. A., Shakespeare’s Predecessors, 435.

14. Saintsbury, History of Elizabethan Literature, 233.

15. Bourne, Sir Philip Sidney, 75.

16. Aubrey’s Brief Lives, 278.

17. Bourne, 115.

18. Ibid., 27–30.

19. Ibid., 277.

20. Sidney, Philip, Works: Defense of Poetry, 9.

21. Sidney, Works, III, 14.

22. Ibid., I, 7.

23. Ibid., I, 16.

24. Defense of Poetry, 41.

25. Sidney, Sonnet xxxi.

26. Bourne, 326.

27. In Haydn, Elizabethan Reader, 394.

28. Bourne, 349.

29. Spenser, Poetical Works, 559.

30. Prefatory Letter to Raleigh, in Poetical Works, 407.

31. Faerie Queene, II, xii, 78.

32. Thornton, Table Talk, I.

33. Van Doren, Anthology of World Poetry, 1026.

34. Aristotle, Poetics, 1449–50.

35. Defense of Poetry, 38.

36. Mantzius, History of Theatrical Art, III, II.

37. Shakespeare’s England, II, 241.

38. Chambers, E. K., The Elizabethan Stage, I, 255•

39. Holzknecht, 110.

40. Chambers, Elizabethan Stage, I, 258.

41. Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, II, iii.

42. Pericles, IV, ii.

43. Chambers, Elizabethan Stage, IV, 273–5.

44. Henry V, I, i, 13.

45. Hamlet, III, ii, 10.

46. Holzknecht, 153.

47. Shakespeare’s England, II, 277.

48. Hamlet, II, ii, 354.

49. Mantzius, III, 228.

50. Marlowe, Works, Appendix, 428–30.

51. Bakeless, John, Tragicall History of Christopher Marlowe, 112.

52. Symonds, Shakespeare’s Predecessors, 437.

53. Bakeless, 113.

54. Marlowe, Tamburlane, Part I, Act II, vii.

55. France, A., The Gods Are Athirst, 57.

56. Ecclesinstes, i, 18.

57. Marlowe, F austus, I, i.

58. The Jew of Malta, II, iii.

59. Ibid., I, i.

60. Ibid., II, i.

61. Tamburlane, Part I, Act I, i.

62. Bakeless, 156; Esquire Magazine, December 1954.

CHAPTER IV

1. Chambers, William Shakespeare, II, 264.

2. Ibid., 257.

3. Lee, Sidney, Life of William Shakespeare, 22.

4. Chambers, Shakespeare, II, 188.

5. Ibid., 189.

6. Ibid., 259, 265.

7. Shakespeare, Sonnet xxix.

8. Sonnet CX.

9. Chute, Shakespeare, 269.

10. Sonnet CLII.

11. Lee, 68.

12. Raleigh, W., Shakespeare, 150.

13. Chambers, Shakespeare, I, 434.

14. As You Like It, II, vii.

15. King Lear, IV, vi, 120.

16. Timon of Athens, IV, i, 35.

17. Ibid., IV, iii, 54.

18. Ibid., IV, iii, 151f.

19. Troilus and Cressida, II, ii, 166.

20. Coriolanus, I, iv, 57.

21. Thornton, Table Talk, 5.

22. Encycl. Brit., Ill, 781b.

23. Two Gentlemen of Verona, I, i, 71.

24. The Tempest, I, ii, 129.

25. Midsummer Night’s Dream, II, iii, 61.

26. Hamlet, II, ii, 310.

27. Romeo and Juliet, I, ii, 139

28. Julius Caesar, I, ii, 139.

29. Tempest, II, i, 47.

30. Hauser, A., Social History of Art, I, 422.

31. Love’s Labour’s Lost, I, i, 166.

32. Richard II, I, i, I.

33. Ibid., I, i, 24.

34. 2 Henry IV, IV, iv.

35. I Henry IV, III, i.

36. Much Ado about Nothing, II, iii.

37. 2 Henry IV, III, i.

38. King John, IV, ii.

39. Troilus and Cressida, III, iii.

40. Midsummer Night’s Dream, I, iii.

41. Merchant of Venice, I, iii.

42. Twelfth Night, III, iv.

43. Mid. Night’s Dream, I, i.

44. Othello, I, i.

45. King Lear, IV, vi.

46. Hamlet, I, iv.

47. Ibid., II, ii.

48. Mid. Night’s Dream, II, i.

49. Two Gentlemen of Verona, IV, ii.

50. Cymbeline, II, iii.

51. Measure for Measure, IV, ii.

52. Mid. Night’s Dream, V, i, 7.

53. Examples in Chambers, Shakespeare, 228–30.

54. Comedy of Errors, III, i, 76.

55. Tempest, IV, i, 199.

56. As You Like It, III, ii.

57. Shaw, Bernard, Man and Superman, Preface, xxviii.

58. Hamlet, I, v.

59. Much Ado about Nothing, V, i.

60. Hamlet, III, iv, 88.

61. Ibid., II, ii.

62. Coriolanus, IV, vii.

63. Hamlet, I, iv, 25.

64. Richard III, V, iii.

65. Richard 11, III, iii.

66. I Henry IV, III, i; cf. Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 602f.

67. Troilus and Cressida, I, iii.

68. King Lear, V, ii, 9.

69. Twelfth Night, II, iii.

70. King Lear, IV, vi, 112f.

71. Pericles, II, i.

72. Tempest, II, i, 147–64.

73. Hamlet, IV, iv, 35.

74. Raleigh, Shakespeare, 61.

75. King John, III, i.

76. Henry VIII, II, ii; Romeo and Juliet, IV, ii.

77. King Lear, IV, i, 36.

78. Ibid., V, iii, 169.

79. V, ii, 10.

80. King John, III, iv, 108.

81. Hamlet, I, iii, 126–28.

82. Macbeth, V, v, 23.

83. Merchant of Venice, V, i.

84. Measure for Measure, III, i, 118.

85. Hamlet, I, iv, 67.

86. Chambers, Shakespeare, II, 194.

87. In Lee, Shakespeare, 179.

88. Jonson, Timber, in Chute, Ben Jonson, 340.

89. Lee, 177.

90. Ibid., 178.

91. Aubrey, 275.

92. Jonson, Timber, in Lee, 277.

93. Chambers, Shakespeare, I, 84.

94. Lee, 203.

95. Aubrey, 275.

96. Ibid., 85.

97. Tempest, I, ii, 5.

98. Ibid., IV, i, 148.

99. V, i, 48.

100. V, i, 181.

101. Chambers, Shakespeare, I, 89.

102. Holzknecht, 380–1.

103. Voltaire, Letter of July 19, 1776, in Denoiresterres, G., Voltaire et la société française au xviiime siècle, VIII, 108.

104. In Croce, B., Ariosto, Shakespeare, and Corneille, 284.

105. Voltaire, article on Dramatic, Art, in Holzknecht, 387.

106. Goethe, Wilhelm Meister, Book II, chs. xiii-xvi.

CHAPTER V

1. Brantôme, Book of the Ladies, 92.

2. Ibid., 124.

3. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 6.

4. Pastor, XVI, 283.

5. Lingard, VI, 12.

6. Book of Discipline, Heads I and III, in Knox, History of the Reformation in Scotland, II, 281–3.

7. Knox, History, II, 321–2.

8. In National Portrait Gallery, London, and in Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

9. Lang, Andrew, Mystery of Mary Stuart, 13, 61.

10. Knox, History, II, 10; Froude, Elizabeth, I, 255.

11. Knox, II, 8.

12. Ibid., 12.

13. Ibid., 13f.

14. Lang, History of Scotland, II, 107.

15. Ibid.

16. Muir, Edwin, John Knox, 240.

17. Knox, History, II, 29.

18. Lang, History, II, 110.

19. Fosdick, Great Voices of the Reformation, xxix.

20. Knox, History, II, 44–6.

21. Lang, History, II, 126.

22. Knox, II, 71–7; Lang, II, 127; Muir, Knox, 253.

23. Knox, II, 81.

24. Ibid., 83.

25. Ibid., 93.

26. Zweig, Mary Queen of Scots, 108.

27. Neale, Queen Elizabeth, 141.

28. Lang, History, II, 160.

29. Ibid.; Froude, Elizabeth, II, 50.

30. Lang, II, 162.

31. Camb. Mod. History, III, 272.

32. Lang, Mystery, 75.

33. Ibid., 108–11.

34. Camb. Mod. History, III, 273.

35. Lang, History, II, 171; Lingard, VI, 67.

36. Lang, II, 170–2.

37. Ibid.; Knox, History, lxxiii.

38. Zweig, 158.

39. Lang, Mystery, 236.

40. Acton, Lectures, 150–2; Lang, Mystery, 295, 353, 362.

41. Ibid., 133.

42. Lang, History, II, 188.

43. Neale, 161.

44. Lang, Mystery, 194.

45. Froude, Elizabeth, II, 307, 310.

46. Brockway and Winer, Second Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 112.

47. Hallam, I, 167.

48. Froude, Elizabeth, II, 407.

49. Ibid., 404; Lang, II, 200.

50. Lang, II, 203.

51. Lang, Mystery, 286.

52. Lingard, VI, 97.

53. Froude, III, 110.

54. Muir, Knox, 282.

55. Knox, History, I, vii.

56. Lingard, VI, 126.

57. Ibid., 128; Hughes, III, 278.

58. Roeder, Catherine de’ Medici, 491.

59. Neale, 263.

60. Pastor, XIX, 450–2.

61. Lingard, VI, 187.

62. Ibid., 205–6; Pastor, XXI, 7–19.

63. Ibid., 25; Froude, V, 259–61.

64. Williams, Chas., James I, 76, 80–3; Froude, V, 294.

65. Zweig, 291.

CHAPTER VI

1. Fontenoy in Froude, V, 74.

2. Lang, History, 276, 294–6, 305, 395; Lingard, VI, 183.

3. Lea, Studies in Church History, 502–8.

4. Ibid., 500.

5. Lang, History, II, 243.

6. James I, Basilikon Doron, in Gooch, English Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century, 41.

7. Lang, History, II, 278.

8. History Today, March 1956, 159.

9. Buckle, History of Civilization, II a, 199.

10. Williams, James I, 132.

11. Encẏcl. Brit., IV, 310.

12. Allen, J. W., History of Political Thought, 339–40; cf. Carlyle, R. W., History Of Medieval Political Theory, 332f; Figgis, J. N., From Gerson to Grotius, 167–72.

13. Allen, op. cit., 342.

14. Quoted by Oliver Dick in Introduction to Aubrey’s Brief Lives, xxx.

15. In Chute, Ben Jonson, 249.

16. Ibid., 268.

17. Ibid., 217.

18. Bowen, C. D., The Lion and the Throne, 315.

19. Aubrey, 67.

20. In Robinson, J. H., Readings in European History, 349; Allen, 254; Dunning, W. A., History of Political Theories, II, 217.

21. Allen, J. W., English Political Thought, 26.

22. Ibid., 124.

23. Lingard, VII, 17.

24. Allen, English Political Thought, 223.

25. Williams, James 1, 192–3.

26. Lingard, VII, 19–22.

27. Ibid., 29.

28. Ibid., 40–3.

29. Ibid., 46–8.

30. Ibid., 50, 96.

31. McCabe, Candid History of the Jesuits, 198.

32. Lang, History, II, 508.

33. Aubrey, 21.

34. Hallam, H., Literature of Europe, III, 324.

35. Webster, The White Devil, in Webster and Ford, Plays, p. 91.

36. Webster, Duchess of Malfy, in Webster and Ford, p. 145.

37. Ibid., IV, ii.

38. Thornton, Table Talk, 15.

39. Thomas Fuller in Chute, Ben Jonson, 37.

40. Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour, Induction.

41. Thornton, 7.

42. Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour, Induction.

43. Thornton, 8.

44. Chute, Ben Jonson, 161.

45. Jonson, The Alchemist, II, i.

46. Baskerville, Read, etc., Elizabethan and Stuart Plays, 1077.

47. Herrick, Poems, 241.

48. Chute, Ben Jonson, 310.

49. Williams, James I, 189.

50. Introduction to Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, p. x.

51. Ibid.

52. Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, 8.

53. Ibid., 3.

54. Ibid., 79–80.

55. Donne, Poems, 83.

56. Ibid., 26.

57. Elegy XIII; Elegy II.

58. Poems, 182.

59. Ibid., 180.

60. Thornton, 4.

61. Poems, 253.

62. In Peterson, Treasury of the World’s Great Speeches, 91.

63. Ibid., 92.

64. Walton, Life of Dr. Donne, in Peterson, 95.

65. Hallam, Constitutional History, I, 347; Encycl. Brit., XVIII, 961b; Lingard, VII, 7.

66. Text in Schuster, M. L., Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 82–4.

67. Raleigh, Sir Walter, Selections, 61.

68. Ibid., 117.

69. Lingard, VII, 101.

70. Spedding, Life of Fr. Bacon, II, 288–9; Wallace, Sir Walter Raleigh, 261f.

71. Lingard, VII, 102.

72. Encycl. Brit., XVIII, 961b.

73. Wallace, Raleigh, 315.

74. Raleigh, Selections, Introduction, 28.

75. Lingard, VII, 117.

76. Williams, James I, 258.

77. Hallam, Constitutional History, 109.

78. Ibid., 122.

79. MacLaurin, G, Mere Mortals, 137.

CHAPTER VII

1. Browne, Sir Thomas, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, in Works, Vols. II and III.

2. Thorndike, Lynn, History of Magic and Experimental Science, VI, 548–9.

3. Lecky, Rationalism in Europe, I, 38n; Williams, James I, 106–10.

4. Lang, History, II, 434.

5. Hughes, Reformation, II, 286n.

6. Ibid., 285.

7. Thorndike, VI, 550; Chute, Ben Jonson, 229.

8. Trevelyan, English Social History, 232.

9. Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture, I, 97.

10. Ibid., 95.

11. Robertson, History of Freethought, II,

12. Huntington Library Bulletin, April 1934, P. 99.

13. Wolf, History of Science, I, 292.

14. Ibid., 426.

15. John, Evan, King Charles I, 153; Kellogg, The New Dietetics, 847.

16. Garrison, History of Medicine, 248.

17. Sigerist, The Great Doctors, 141.

18. Harvey, Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis, in Hammerton, Great Books, 273.

19. Walsh, J. J., The Popes and Science, 396.

20. Aubrey, 131.

21. Prinzmetal, Heart Attack, 121–2.

22. Aubrey, 128.

23. Ibid., 130.

24. Ibid., 11.

25. Gardiner, S. R., in Garnett and Gosse, English Literature, II, 12.

26. Spedding, Life of Bacon, I, 542.

27. Aubrey, 9.

28. Macaulay, Critical and Historical Essays, II, 326–8.

29. Bowen, The Lion and the Throne, 428; Camb. Mod. History, III, 571.

30. Spedding, Life, II, 463.

31. Ibid., 633.

32. Ibid., I, 563.

33. Ibid., 569.

34. Bacon, Philosophical Works, 241.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid., 244.

37. Ibid., 247.

38. Aubrey, 130.

39. Bacon, Phil. Works, 167.

40. Ibid., 76, 78; De Augmentis scientiarum, Preface.

41. Philosophical Works, 76.

42. Advancement of Learning, ch. 8.

43. Bacon, Works, ed. Spedding and Ellis, VII, 241.

44. Novum organum, i, 97.

45. Ibid., i, 82; and “Plan of the Work” in Philosophical Works, 250.

46. Novum organum, ii, 13, 17.

47. Philosophical Works, 144.

48. Ibid., 77.

49. Ibid., 50.

50. Spedding, Life, I, III.

51. Novum organum, ii, 2.

52. Ibid., ii, 8.

53. Ibid.

54. De Augmentis, iv, 3.

55. Novum organum, i, 66.

56. De Augmentis, end.

57. Essay “Of Atheism.”

58. Ibid.; Advancement of Learning, in Philosophical Works, 45; De Augmentis, iii, 2.

59. Essay “Of Atheism.”

60. Valerius Terminus, ch. i, in Philosophical Works, 186.

61. Rawley’s Life, in Phil. Works, 9.

62. De Augmentis, ix, 1.

63. Essay “Of Goodness.”

64. Ibid.

65. “Of Marriage and Single Life.”

66. Essays “Of Empire” and “Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms.”

67. De Augmentis, viii, 3, in Phil. Works, 610–11.

68. “Of Vicissitude of Things.”

69. “Of Seditions and Troubles.”

70. Phil. Works, 727.

71. History of Henry VII, in Works, VI, 238–45.

72. In Nichol, J., Fr. Bacon, II, 4.

73. Pope’s Essay on Man, line 282.

74. Thema coeli, in Phil. Works, 705; Descriptio globi intellectualis, ibid., 685.

75. In Friedell, Cultural History of the Modern Age, I, 335.

76. The Advancement of Learning, in Phil. Works, 167.

77. Wolf, Science in the Sixteenth Century, 640; Bernal, Science in History, 305.

78. Hallam, Literature of Europe, III, 72.

79. Nichol, J., II, 235.

80. Novum organum, i, 49.

81. Ibid., i. 26, 05.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Rogers, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 103.

2. Ibid., table at p. 73.

3. John, Charles I, 167.

4. French, Allen, Charles I and the Puritan Upheaval, 100–2.

5. Robertson, J. M., Freethought, II, 24.

6. Ibid., 77.

7. Ibid., 76.

8. Ibid.

9. Aubrey, 135.

10. Belloc, H., Richelieu, 49.

11. McCabe, Candid History, 202.

12. Toynbee, A., Study of History, IX, 178.

13. Allen, English Political Thought, 237.

14. Ibid., 242.

15. Ibid.

16. Taine, English Literature, 259–62.

17. Hume, D., History of England, IV, 183.

18. Gardiner, S. R., History of England 1603–42, VII, 302.

19. French, Charles I, 281.

20. Lingard, VII, 181; Taine, English Literature, 265.

21. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 279.

22. Allen, English Thought, 194.

23. Carlyle, T., Oliver Cromwell, I, 93.

24. French, 306.

25. Schaff, History of the Christian Church: The German Reformation, I, 79.

26. Allen, English Thought, 283.

27. French, 281.

28. Markun, L., Mrs. Grundy, 114.

29. Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic, 177.

30. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 387.

31. Allen, English Thought, 279f; Lingard, VIII, 190.

32. Ibid., 191n.

33. Thornton, Table Talk, 72, 106.

34. Browne, Religio Medici, 77.

35. Browne, Works, II, 226.

36. Religio Medici, 70, 34.

37. Singer, Studies in the History of Science, 222.

38. Religio Medici, 82.

39. Ibid., ι.

40. Ibid., 18.

41. Ibid., 25.

42. Ibid., 10.

43. Ibid., 179.

44. Ibid., 60.

45. Ibid., 92.

46. Herrick, Poems, 181.

47. Ibid., 178.

48. Ibid., 398.

49. Aubrey, 287.

50. Ibid., 289.

51. Ibid., 192.

52. Lovelace, Poems, 78.

53. Ibid., 18.

54. MacLaurin, Mere Mortals, 143–4; John, Charles I, 4; French, 16.

55. Bishop, Renaissance Architecture, 25.

56. John, Charles I, 65.

57. Ibid., 66.

58. Ibid., 133; Lingard, VII, 164.

59. Gardiner, S. R., History of England 1603–42, VII, I.

60. Ibid., 41–3.

61. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, 173.

62. Ibid., 174; Allen, English Thought, 360.

63. Rickard, Man and Metals, II, 799.

64. Clarendon, History of the Rebellion, I, 323.

65. Ibid., 188f.

66. Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell, I, 94.

67. Lang, History of Scotland, III, 71.

68. John, Charles I, 207.

69. Morley, Oliver Cromwell, 72.

70. Clarendon, passim; Hume, D., History of England, IV, 174, 401.

71. Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell; Firth, Oliver Cromwell; Buchan, Oliver Cromwell.

72. Morley, Cromwell, 9.

73. Carlyle, Cromwell, I, 98.

74. Ibid., 108.

75. Clarendon, I, 300; Gardiner, History of England, IX, 230.

76. Thornton, Table Talk, 108.

77. Gardiner, IX, 251–2.

78. Allen, English Thought, 346f.

79. Morley, Cromwell, 91; Hallam, Constitutional History, II, 119; Allen, 354.

80. Clarendon, I, 452.

81. Ibid., 466.

82. Firth, Cromwell, 61.

83. Clarendon, II, 49 f.

84. Allen, English Thought, 313, 403–4.

85. Robinson, J. H., Readings, 356.

86. Schaff, History of the Christian Church: The Swiss Reformation, II, 565.

87. Firth, 149; Bury, J. B., History of Freedom of Thought, 86; Robertson, J. M., Freethought, II, 76.

88. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 312.

89. Firth, 147.

90. Ibid.

91. Macaulay, History of England, I, 100.

92. Gooch, English Democratic Ideas, 119, 179.

93. Ibid., 124.

94. Ibid., 128.

95. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 345.

96. Firth, 175.

97. Morley, Cromwell, 240.

98. Lingard, VIII, 110.

99. Morley, 267.

100. John, Charles I, 294.

101. Hume, History, IV, 485.

102. Churchill, W. S., History of the English-Speaking Peoples, II, 223.

103. Robinson, Readings, 359.

CHAPTER IX

1. Evelyn, Diary, I, 225.

2. Ibid., 87.

3. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 631.

4. Molmenti, Venice, lb, 218.

5. Ranke, History of the Popes, II, 119.

6. Funk, Manual of Church History, II, 147.

7. Hazlitt, W. C, The Venetian Republic, II, 221; Encycl. Brit., XIX, 1002.

8. Symonds, J. A., The Catholic Reaction, II, 105.

9. On the inaccuracies of both historians cf. Ranke, Popes, III, 106–38.

10. Montaigne, Diary, 93; Shakespeare’s England, I, 216.

11. Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto IV, line 2.

12. Molmenti, lb, 181.

13. Winckelmann, History of Ancient Art, II, 316.

14. Taine, Italy: Rome and Naples, 232.

15. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, II, 231.

16. Ruskin, Modern Painters, II, i, 7, 13.

17. Evelyn, I, 160.

18. Ogg, Europe in the Seventeenth Century, 387.

19. Sitwell, Southern Baroque Art, 43.

20. Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain, III, 893.

21. Justi, Velazquez, 343.

22. Byron, Don Juan, xiv, 71.

23. Pastor, XVIII, 121, 125.

24. Ranke, Popes, I, 286.

25. Ibid., 273.

26. Pastor, XVII, 172.

27. Lea, H. C, Inquisition in Spain, II, 77.

28. Ranke, Popes, I, 322.

29. Montaigne, Diary, 125.

30. Bacon, Fr., Apophthegm 60, in Phil. Works, 869.

31. Sully, Memoirs, I, 218n.

32. Ranke, Popes, I, 341.

33. Pastor, XXI, 83.

34. Ranke, I, 342.

35. Lecky, History of European Morals, II, 97.

36. Sully, Memoirs, III, 29.

37. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 687.

38. Graves, F. P., History of Education, 219.

39. Monroe, Paul, Text-Book in the History of Education, 422.

40. Bacon, De Augmentis, vi, 4, in Phil. Works, 559.

41. Ranke, Popes, II, 90.

42. McCabe, Candid History, 97.

43. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, II, 121.

44. Campbell, Thos., The Jesuits, 394.

45. Filmer, Patriar cha, in Locke, Two Treatises on Government, 253.

46. Campbell, 271.

47. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, I, 218; McCabe, Candid History, 184.

48. McCabe, 191.

49. Fülop-Miller, Power and Secret of the Jesuits, 285.

50. Ibid., 290.

51. Ibid., 300–1.

52. McCabe, 299.

53. In Campbell, 445.

54. Montaigne, Diary, 141.

55. Ibid., 159.

56. Molmenti, Venice, lib, 27.

57. Montaigne, Diary, 151.

58. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, I, 268–74. The Cenci, by F. D. Guerrazzi (Milan, 1872), is a novel.

59. Evelyn, I, 172.

60. Ibid., 161.

61. Ibid., Nov. 8, 1644.

62. Burney, History of Music, II, 510; Grove’s Dictionary of Music, III, 591; Brockway and Weinstock, The Opera, 1–3.

63. McKinney and Anderson, Music in History, 321.

64. Ibid., 334.

65. Garnett, Richard, Italian Literature, 269.

66. Ranke, Popes, I, 369.

67. Encycl. Brit., Ill, 132b.

68. Johnson, S., Lives of the Poets, I, 176.

69. Guarini, The Faithful Shepherd, p. 64.

70. Ibid., 177.

71. Hallam, Literature, II, 181.

72. Symonds, Italian Literature, II, 243.

73. Tr. by Leigh Hunt, in Van Doren, Anthology, 590.

74. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, I, 367.

75. Boulting, Tasso, 172–3.

76. Ibid., 183, 174.

77. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, II, 35; Encycl. Brit., XXI, 831a.

78. Symonds, I, 369.

79. Boulting, 212.

80. Smith, History of Culture, I, 552.

81. Boulting, 259.

82. Tasso, Gerusalemme liberata, xx, 1087.

83. Galileo, Opere, ed. nazionale, IX, 69, in Smith, P., History of Culture, I, 552.

84. Disraeli, Isaac, Curiosities of Literature, II, 444.

85. Burckhardt, J., Recollections of Rubens, 8.

86. Pastor, XXII, 309.

87. Justi, Velazquez, 350.

88. Wittkower, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 197.

89. Ibid., 2.

CHAPTER X

1. El Greco, Phaidon ed., 7.

2. Weisbach, Spanish Baroque Art, 35.

3. Robertson, Freethought, II, 38; Hume, M., Spanish People, 416.

4. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, III, 441.

5. Prescott, Philip II, II, 498.

6. Lea, Inquisition, IV, 253.

7. Cf. Cervantes, Don Quixote, Part I, ch. 28; Vol. I, 223.

8. Stirling-Maxwell, I, 45.

9. Lang, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 267.

10. Calvert, A. F., The Escorial, 7.

11. Ibid., 65; Calvert, Royal Palaces of Spain, 4–6; El Greco, Phaidon ed., II.

12. Stirling-Maxwell, I, 209.

13. Davies, Golden Age of Spain, 120.

14. Froude, Elizabeth, I, 375.

15. Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic, I, 125.

16. Encycl. Brit., XVII, 722c.

17. Motley, I, 125.

18. Hume, M., The Spanish People, 382; Motley, II, 12.

19. Trend, The Civilization of Spain, 128.

20. Motley, I, 125.

21. Voltaire, Works, XlVb, 278.

22. Mariana, General History of Spain, Supplement, p. 30.

23. Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands, II, 289, 119; cf. En. Br., XVII, 722.

24. Cf. Robinson, Readings, 321; Armstrong, Emperor Charles V, II, 376; Hume, M., Spain: Its Greatness and Decay, 150.

25. Prescott, Philip II, II, 431.

26. Davies, Golden Age of Spain, 150.

27. Prescott, Philip II, II, 451.

28. Altamira, History of Spain, 384.

29. Madariaga, Spain, 36; Davies, Golden Age, 194.

30. Ibid., 198; History Today, June 1954, p. 427.

31. Ibid.; Lea, Inquisition in Spain, IV, 254–272.

32. Trevor-Roper, Historical Essays, 269; Altamira, History of Spanish Civilization, 133.

33. Davies, Golden Age, 121.

34. En. Br., XXI, 132.

35. Prescott, Philip II, I, 68, 210; II, 26.

36. Ogg, 170.

37. Davies, 230.

38. Ibid., 233.

39. Hume, M., Court of Philip IV, 24; Spain, 211; Camb. Mod. History, III, 542.

40. Don Quixote, Part II, ch. 54.

41. Ximencs, Juan, Life and Virtues of … Juan de Ribera, in Buckle, History of Civilization, II, 46.

42. Lea, Inquisition, III, 397, 407–8; Ogg, 364; Hume, M., Spain, 212.

43. Lea, III, 410.

44. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 634.

45. Justi, Velázquez, 105.

46. Portrait in Hispanic Society of America, New York.

47. Rooses, Rubens, 486.

48. Stephens, H. M., Story of Portugal, 249.

49. Camõcs, Lusiads, Introd., xvii.

50. Penrose, Travel and Discovery, 72.

51. Camões, Lusiads, ix, 83.

52. Ibid., 89.

53. Bell, Aubrey, Portuguese Literature, 183.

54. Camões, Introd. xxix.

CHAPTER XI

1. Preface to Galatea.

2. Hallam, Literature, I, 53.

3. Schevill, R., Cervantes, 7.

4. Altamira, History of Spanish Civilization, 143.

5. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, History of Spanish Literature, 338.

6. Gracian, Art of Worldly Wisdom, 20.

7. Ibid., 29.

8. 32.

9. 36.

10. 49.

11. 71.

12. 144.

13. 150.

14. In Davies, Golden Age, 282.

15. Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature, III, 150; cf. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, History, 274.

16. In Smith, P., History of Modern Culture, I, 552.

17. Bell, Aubrey, Cervantes, 54; Ticknor, II, 58.

18. Ellis, H., Soul of Spain, 233.

19. Schevill, Cervantes, 134.

20. Lockhart, J. G., Introd. to Everyman’s Library ed. of Don Quixote, p. xx.

21. Don Quixote, Part I, ch. xii.

22. I, xi.

23. I, xiii.

24. II, xxxii.

25. I, iv.

26. II, xxxii.

27. II, xix; I, xx; II, iv.

28. I, xxxix.

29. I, xxxvi.

30. Cervantes, Exemplary Novels, 5.

31. Ibid., 3.

32. Don Quixote, II, xlv.

33. Schevill, Cervantes, 353.

34. Powys, J. C, Enjoyment of Literature, 174.

35. Ticknor, II, 42.

36. Don Quixote, I, xxi; Bell, Cervantes, 27.

37. Tr. by E. Churton in Fitzmaurice-Kelly, History of Spanish Literature, 281.

38. Quevedo, The Dog and the Fever, 52.

39. Tr. by John Masefield in Van Doren, Anthology, 645.

40. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, History, 254.

41. Id., Some Masters of Spanish Verse, 98.

42. Id., History, 249–50.

43. Ford, J. D., Main Currents of Spanish Literature, 129.

44. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Some Masters, 43.

45. Lope de Vega, The Star of Seville, in Matthews, B., Chief European Dramatists, 171.

46. Lewes, G. N., Lope de Vega, in Clark, Great Short Biographies, 596; Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Some Masters, 25.

47. Shelley, Poetical Works, 645.

48. Calderón, Life Is a Dream, II, ii, tr. D. F. McCarthy, in Matthews, 219.

CHAPTER XII

1. Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain, I, 349.

2. Dieulafoy, Art in Spain and Portugal, 243.

3. Mâle, Emile, Religious Art from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century, 170.

4. In the Escorial.

5. In Calvert, Seville, 108.

6. Lassaigne, J., Spanish Painting from the Catalan Frescoes to El Greco, 131.

7. En. Br., XXII, 69.

8. Naples.

9. Lassaigne, 106; Guinard, El Greco, 54.

10. Goldscheider, El Greco, 10.

11. Caffin, C. H., Story of Spanish Painting,

12. Guinard, 121.

13. Meier-Graefc, The Spanish Journey, 145.

14. Pacheco, in Guinard, 22.

15. Johnson in Prologue to Addison’s Cato.

16. Soria, M. S., The Paintings of Zurbarán, 30.

17. In Justi, Vel á zquez, 83.

18. Duke of Wellington Collection, London.

19. Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

20. National Gallery, London.

21. Justi, 445.

22. Rouen.

23. New York; Frankfurt.

24. Dresden Gallery.

25. Modena.

26. Earl of Radnor Collection.

27. Stirling-Maxwell, III, 847.

28. Justi, 360.

29. Cheney, World History of Art, 619.

30. Vienna.

31. Washington.

32. Wallace Collection, London.

33. Vienna.

34. Calvert and Hartley, Velazquez, 176.

35. Ellis, H., Soul of Spain, 153.

36. Meier-Graefe, 151, 200–5.

37. Stirling-Maxwell, III, 946.

38. Guinard and Baticle, Histoire de la peinture espagnole, 170.

39. Louvre.

40. Dresden.

41. Pliny, Natural History, xxxv, 36.

42. Stirling-Maxwell, III, 1003.

43. Prado, Seville, Cádiz, Louvre, Leningrad.

44. Dulwich.

45. Rome, Galleria Nazionale.

46. Prado.

47. London.

48. Leningrad.

49. Altamira, History of Spanish Civilization, 1 37f.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Roeder, Catherine de’Medici and the Lost Revolution, 170.

2. Sée, Modern Capitalism, 49.

3. Roeder, 250.

4. Guizot, History of France, III, 319.

5. Acton, Lectures, 156.

6. Michelet, Histoire de France, III, 483.

7. Thieme, Women of Modern France, 38.

8. Roeder, 309.

9. La Tour, Origines de la Réforme, IV, 255f.

10. Hearnshaw, Social and Political Ideas of … the Renaissance and the Reformation, 29.

11. Walker, W., John Calvin, 381.

12. Guizot, France, III, 303.

13. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici and the French Reformation, in.

14. Ibid., 24.

15. Brantôme, Book of the Ladies, 51.

16. Michelet, Histoire, III, 490.

17. Sichel, 10.

18. Brantôme, 59.

19. Sichel, The Later Years of Catherine de’Medici, 116.

20. Sainte-Beuve in Brantôme, 88.

21. Roeder, 361.

22. Ibid., 386.

23. Allen, Political Thought, 295.

24. Roeder, 254–6.

25. Ranke, Civil Wars … in France, I, 278–80.

26. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici, 119.

27. Pastor, History of the Popes, XVI, 179.

28. Batiffol, The Century of the Renaissance, 201.

29. Ibid., 198; Pastor, XVI, 167; Camb. Mod. History, II, 300.

30. Pastor, XVI, 179.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 180–1.

33. Allen, Political Thought, 305.

34. Sichel, 191, 196–7.

35. Lea, Studies in Church History, 496.

36. Pastor, XVI, 172.

37. Michelet, IV, 418; Batiffol, 203.

38. Guizot, History, III, 334.

39. Ibid., 335.

40. Batiffol, 211; Sichel, 224.

41. Froude, Elizabeth, I, 346.

42. Ranke, Civil Wars, I, 336; Batiffol, 215; Roeder, 366–9; Sichel, The Later Years, 19; Pastor, XVI, 203.

43. Guizot, III, 328.

44. Ibid., 330; Pastor, XVIII, 116.

45. Guizot, III, 331.

46. Pastor, XVIII, 154.

47. Froude, Elizabeth, II, 446.

48. Sedgwick, H. D., Henry of Navarre, 34;

49. Ibid., 90.

50. Batiffol, 241; Belloc, Richelieu, 139n.

51. Pastor, XVI, 195–6.

52. Roeder, 428.

53. Guizot, III, 380.

54. Janssen, J., History of the German People, VIII, 114.

55. Ibid.

56. Guizot, III, 384.

57. Ibid.

58. Camb. Mod. History, III, 18.

59. Ibid., 19; Pastor, XIX, 485.

60. Michelet, III, 458.

61. Batiffol, 227.

62. Sichel, The Later Years, 160.

63. Michelet, III, 462.

64. Sichel, The Later Years, 162.

65. Ibid., 164.

66. Ibid., 161.

67. Ibid.; Roeder, 453.

68. Batiffol, 229; Sichel, The Later Years, 164.

69. Ibid., 167; Batiffol, 230.

70. Ibid.

71. De Thou in Robinson, Readings, 331; Sichel, Later Years, 180.

72. Michelet, III, 468; Roeder, 473.

73. Michelet, III, 476.

74. Ibid.

75. Acton, 160; Roeder, 463.

76. Ibid., 477.

77. Ibid., 479.

78. Ibid., 489.

79. Pastor, XIX, 488.

80. Michelet, III, 478.

81. Acton, 162; Pastor, XIX, 489.

82. Michelet, III, 483.

83. Pastor, XIX, 509.

84. Roeder, 464.

85. Batiffol, 236; Sichel, The Later Years, 194.

86. Pastor, XIX, 507; Froude, Elizabeth, in, 417.

87. Pastor, XIX, 500–12.

88. Froude, Elizabeth, III, 419.

89. Roeder, 506.

90. Sichel, Later Years, 205.

91. Guizot, III, 415.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Lacroix, History of Prostitution, I, 1170–1, 1276–91.

2. Sedgwick, Henry of Navarre, 83.

3. In Brantôme, Book of the Ladies, 212.

4. Brutus, Junius, Vindiciae contra tyrannos, 97, 109, 169; Carlyle, R. W., History of Medieval Political Theory, VI, 335; Coker, Readings in Political Philosophy, 351f; Allen, Political Thought, 331.

5. Ibid., 377.

6. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 397.

7. Ranke, Civil Wars, I, 163.

8. Allen, Political Thought, 347–50; Figgis, From Gerson to Grotius, 180.

9. Notes to Sully, Memoirs, I, 207.

10. Michelet, IV, 41.

11. Ibid., 42.

12. Sedgwick, Henry, 223.

13. Michelet, IV, 60.

14. Maulde La Clavière, Women of the Renaissance, 469.

15. Sully, I, 299, 311–14; Michelet, III, 463; Guizot, III, 521.

16. Ibid., 522.

17. Michelet, IV, 60.

18. Satyre Ménippée, 59–73.

19. Guizot, III, 556; Campbell, The Jesuits, 217; Ranke, Popes, II, 55; Sully, I, 447; Fülop-Miller, Jesuits, 317.

20. Sully, I, 2.

21. Kirby, Engineering in History, 141.

22. Guérard, Life and Death of an Ideal, 119.

23. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, II, 699.

24. Laski, H., in Brutus, Vindiciae contra tyrannos, 9, 35.

25. Lowie, R. H., Are We Civilized?, 241.

26. Tallement des Réaux, Miniature Fortraits, 9.

27. Ibid., 5.

28. Sedgwick, 274.

29. Batiffol, 287.

30. Sully, IV, 128n.

31. Sully, III, 365; Michelet, IV, 86.

32. Sedgwick, 130–5.

33. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1306.

34. Ibid., 1300.

35. Sully, III, 31–2.

36. Sedgwick, 255.

37. Ackerman, Phyllis, Tapestry, 262.

38. Davis, Golden Age, 237.

39. Sully, II, 404–10.

40. Camb. Mod. History, III, 682, 684.

41. Janssen, History of the German People, X, 439n.

42. Sedgwick, 288–9.

43. Fülop-Miller, Jesuits, 127; Gooch, English Democratic Ideas, 23.

44. Sedgwick, 306.

CHAPTER XV

1. Barine, La Grande Mademoiselle, 279.

2. Ibid., 278.

3. Sanders, Bossuet, 54.

4. Michelet, IV, 197; Batiffol, 404.

5. Michelet, IV, 370.

6. Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV, 437.

7. Jackson, C. C., Old Paris, 45.

8. Belloc, Paris, 311.

9. Boulenger, Seventeenth Century, 49.

10. Michelet, IV, 200.

11. Acton, Lectures, 171.

12. Buckle, lb, 399–406.

13. Ibid., 399.

14. 405.

15. 403.

16. Boulenger, 37; Barine, 15.

17. Jackson, 56.

18. Richelieu, Oeuvres, 18.

19. Michelet, IV, 156.

20. In Guizot, IV, 131.

21. Ibid., 46.

22. 63.

23. Richelieu, 173.

24. Guizot, IV, 79.

25. Michelet, IV, 295.

26. Schoenhof, History of Money and Prices, 186.

27. Nussbaum, History of Economic Institutions, 108.

28. In Acton, 179.

29. Michelet, IV, 327.

30. Guizot, IV, 173.

31. Richelieu, 152, 201.

32. Guérard, Life and Death of an Ideal, 123.

33. Tallement des Réaux, 63.

34. Belloc, Richelieu, 90.

35. Michelet, IV, 286; Boulenger, 35.

36. Retz, Secret Memoirs, 97.

37. Hefele, K. J., Life and Times of Cardinal Ximenes, 565.

38. Chesterfield, Letters, 28 (Oct. 16, 1747).

39. Lodge, Richelieu, 229.

40. Richelieu, Memoirs, 168.

41. Ibid., 125.

42. 181, 40.

43. 182.

44. 168.

45. 32.

46. 19.

47. 30.

48. 35.

49. Motteville, Mme. de, Memoirs, I, 67.

50. Tallement des Réaux, 27.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Charron, De la Sagesse, I, 24, in Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 569.

2. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici, 6; Lacroix, History of Prostitution, II, 1159.

3. Sedgwick, Henry of Navarre, 55.

4. Brantôme, Lives of Gallant Ladies, 131–2.

5. Now in the museum of the Château d’Azay-le-Rideau.

6. Michelet, IV, 222.

7. Tallement, 132.

8. Sanger, Wm., History of Prostitution, 119.

9. Ibid.; Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1350.

10. Montaigne, Diary, 6.

11. Sully, Memoirs, I, 482, 507.

12. Brantôme, Book of the Ladies, 79.

13. Wright, Womankind in Western Europe, 305.

14. Lacroix, Arts of the Middle Ages, 164.

15. Wright, Womankind, 302.

16. Montaigne, Essays, II, 12.

17. Lowie, Are We Civilized?, 34.

18. Burney, Charles, General History of Music, II, 217.

19. Ibid., 466.

20. Montaigne, Essays, III, 365.

21. Ibid., I, xxv, 185.

22. I, xxv.

23. Ill, xii, 300.

24. Ill, xii, 292.

25. I, xxxviii, 252.

26. I, xxv, 165.

27. Ibid., 163.

28. Ibid., 166, 172.

29. Ill, xiii, 324.

30. II, vi, 48.

31. Dowden, Michel de Montaigne, 45.

32. I, xxvii, 201.

33. Ibid.

34. Gide, A., The Living Thoughts of Montaigne, 14.

35. I, xxvii, 207.

36. III, x, 265.

37. III, v, 119.

38. Ibid., 105.

39. 73.

40. Cf. his paean to Paris in III, ix, 216.

41. III, v, 76.

42. II, viii, 71.

43. Gide, 12.

44. III, ix, 213.

45. III, iii, 49.

46. I, xxxviii, 253–6.

47. I, xxv, 149.

48. II, xxxii, 448.

49. Sellery, G. C, The Renaissance, 47.

50. Pater, Plato and Platonism, 174.

51. In Dowden, Montaigne, 240.

52. II, iii, 35.

53. II, xvii, 385.

54. III, v, 107.

55. III, ii, 24.

56. II, xxxvi, 523.

57. Ibid., 495.

58. III, xiii, 354.

59. Diary, 259.

60. II, xii, 256; Cicero, De vertiate, 11.

61. III, xii, 291.

62. III, xiii, 379.

63. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, II, 440.

64. II, xii, 306.

65. Ibid., 317.

66. In Spencer, Theodore, Shakespeare and the Nature of Man, 36.

67. II, xii, 237.

68. Ibid., 285–7.

69. 312.

70. 202.

71. 250.

72. 324.

73. 325.

74. Sichel, E., Montaigne, 54.

75. II, xvii, 371.

76. II, xii, 180.

77. I, xl, 269; Camb. Mod. History, II, 711.

78. II, v.

79. II, viii, 72.

80. I, xxx, 219.

81. II, xii, 198, 250.

82. I, xxx, 229.

83. In Dowden, Montaigne, 63.

84. III, vi, 144.

85. III, ix, 201; v, 105.

86. II, xii.

87. II, xii, 204.

88. Ibid., 251.

89. 225, 266.

90. I, xix, 90.

91. III, v, 78.

92. III, xi, 285.

93. II, xii, 130.

94. Ibid., 217.

95. 133.

96. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, II, 428.

97. I, liv, 354; Tilley, A., Studies in the French Renaissance, 280.

98. II, xii, 225.

99. III, xi.

100. Ill, ix, 198.

101. Ill, viii, 173.

102. Ill, ix, 191.

103. Ill, xii, 301; ii, 26.

104. II, xi, 121.

105. Ill, x, 263.

106. Diary, 14.

107. Ibid., 17.

108. 49.

109. 107. no. 150.

110. 150

111. Cf. Diary, 166–9.

112. Ibid., 123.

113. Essays, III, iv, 59.

114. III, xiii, 368.

115. II, i, 8.

116. Jonson, Volpone, III, ii.

117. Mme. du Deffand, Lettres à Voltaire, 41; Jan. 28, 1759.

118. Malebranche, De la Recherche de la vérité, III, v; p. 264.

119. In Gide, 3.

120. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, II, 379–453.

121. In Frame, Montaigne, 139.

122. Guizot, IV, 194.

123. Van Laun, History of French Literature, II, 181.

124. Disraeli, I., Curiosities of Literature, I, 451.

125. Malherbe, in Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the Seventeenth Century, II, 47.

126. Boileau in Malherbe, Racan, Maynard, Poésies choisies, 9n.

127. Ibid., 24–7.

128. Winegarten, French Lyric Poetry in the Age of Malherbe, 8, 18.

129. Boulenger, Seventeenth Century, 122.

130. Faguet, Literary History of France, 341.

131. Régnier, De Viau, etc., Poésies choisies, 50.

132. Guizot, Corneille and His Times, 148.

133. Corneille, Le Cid, V, i.

134. Guizot, Corneille, 168.

135. Livy, T. L., History of Rome, i, 25.

136. Corneille, Horace, I, i.

137. Ibid., II, viii.

138. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, I, 124.

139. Evelyn, Diary, I, 48.

140. Blomfield, History of French Architecture, II, 134.

141. Bupal, Bernard Palissy, 43.

142. In Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici, 318; Michelet, Histoire de France, IV, 51.

143. Guizot, Histoire, IV, 571.

144. Sutro, E., Nicolas Poussin, 77.

145. Desjardins, Poussin, 71.

146. Mousnier, Histoire générale des civilisations, IV, 218.

147. Ruskin, Modem Painters, II, ii, 1.8.

148. Craven, Treasury of Art Masterpieces, 172; Stranahan, History of French Painting, 45.

149. Ruskin, Modern Painters, II, i, 7.5; IX, v.

CHAPTER XVII

1. Geyl, Revolt of the Netherlands, 16.

2. Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism, 65; Sée, Modern Capitalism, 31.

3. Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic, I, 217; Janssen, History of the German People, VIII, 13.

4. Motley, I, 217.

5. Janssen, VIII, 14f.

6. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, ch. cxxxvi, in Works, XIVb.

7. Motley, I, 207.

8. Ibid., 206.

9. Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands, III, II; Motley, I, 375f

10. Ibid., 283.

11. Geyl, 78.

12. Ibid., 86.

13. Janssen, VIII, 19.

14. Cambridge Modern History, III, 200.

15. Acton, Lectures, 144.

16. Motley, I, 453–4.

17. Ibid., 465–8.

18. Camb. Mod. History, III, 207–8.

19. Motley, I, 478f.

20. Janssen, VIII, 23.

21. Motley, I, 526.

22. Janssen, VIII, 25.

23. Prescott, Philip II, II, 161.

24. Blok, III, 42.

25. Pastor, History of the Popes, XVIII, 97.

26. Blok, III, 51.

27. Pastor, XVIII, 101.

28. Motley, I, 628; Janssen, VIII, 123.

29. Camb. Mod. History, III, 232.

30. Motley, II, 72–4.

31. Geyl, 128; Lacroix, Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages, 440.

32. Motley, II, 40.

33. Ibid., 101.

34. Voltaire, Essai, ch. cxxxvi; Works, p. 294; Hume, M., The Spanish People, 372.

35. Pastor, Popes, XX, 3.

36. Motley, II, 151.

37. Ibid., 169.

38. 515.

39. Geyl, 165.

40. Ibid., 130.

41. 128.

42. Camb. Mod. History, III, 250.

43. Blok, III, 121–3.

44. Geyl, 162; Pastor, XX, 9.

45. Motley, II, 646.

46. Robinson, J. H., Readings in European History, 325; Motley, II, 637.

47. Figgis, From Gerson to Grotius, 228.

48. Camb. Mod. History, III, 258.

49. Blok, III, 179.

50. Ibid., 239.

51. Geyl, 206, 215, 231; Ranke, History of the Popes, II, 221.

52. Blok, III, 415.

53. Camb. Mod. History, III, 646.

54. Blok, III, 413.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Robinson, Readings, 556.

2. Prescott, H. F., Mary Tudor, 331.

3. Vienna.

4. Prado.

5. Brussels, Vienna, Louvre.

6. Brussels.

7. Rooses, Rubens, I, 9.

8. Pitti Gallery, Florence.

9. Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

10. Grenoble Museum.

11. Rooses, I, 638.

12. Burckhardt, Recollections of Rubens, 21.

13. Janssen, XI, 161.

14. Dresden.

15. Knackfuss, H., Van Dyck, 4.

16. Munich.

17. Lichtenstein Collection, Vienna.

18. Vienna.

19. Geneva.

20. Munich.

21. London.

22. Pitti Gallery.

23. Dresden.

24. Louvre.

25. Vienna.

26. Madrid.

27. Vienna, Madrid.

28. London.

29. Craven, Treasury of Art Masterpieces, 105.

30. Antwerp.

31. Fülop-Miller, Power and Secret of the Jesuits, 422.

32. Munich.

33. Hartford, Conn.

34. Antwerp.

35. Antwerp cathedral and Brussels Museum.

36. Vienna.

37. Vienna.

38. Sarasota, Fla.

39. Rooses, Rubens, I, 395.

40. Ibid., 417.

41. Pitti Gallery.

42. Boston.

43. Rooses, I, 414.

44. Munich.

45. Munich.

46. Hamburg.

47. Vienna.

48. Munich.

49. Munich.

50. Louvre.

51. Brussels.

52. The Hague.

53. Frick Collection, New York.

54. Windsor Castle.

55. Burckhardt, Recollections, 15.

56. Rooses, I, 600.

57. Louvre.

58. Vienna.

59. Knackfuss, 8.

60. Munich.

61. Frick Collection

62. Brussels.

63. Detroit.

64. Munich.

65. Vienna.

66. Antwerp.

67. Knackfuss, 9.

68. Pitti Gallery.

69. Wallace Collection, London.

70. Louvre.

71. Vienna.

72. Vienna.

73. Lichtenstein Gallery, Vienna.

74. Knackfuss, 76.

75. New York.

76. Ibid.

77. Frick Collection, New York.

78. Fitzwilliam Collection.

79. Dresden.

80. Munich.

81. Uffizi Gallery.

82. Blok, III, 333; Mousnier, 160.

83. Maverick, L. A., China a Model for Europe, 5.

84. Adams, Brooks, Law of Civilization and Decay, 107.

85. Nussbaum, History of Economic Institutions, 123.

86. Gooch, Democratic Ideas, 45.

87. Geyl, 211.

88. Ogg, Europe in the Seventeenth Century, 412.

89. Geyl, 238; Blok, III, 354.

90. Fischer, K., Descartes and His School, 212.

91. Taine, H., Lectures on Art, 322.

92. En. Br., X, 498d.

93. In Taine, Lectures, 183.

94. Day, Clive, History of Commerce, 200.

95. See, Modem Capitalism, 32.

96. Wilenski, R. H., Dutch Painting, 132.

97. Baedeker, K., Belgique et Hollande, 383.

98. Chute, Ben Jonson, 301.

99. Geyl, 206.

100. Honey, W. B., European Ceramic Art,

101. Wilenski, Dutch Painting, 10.

102. Taine, Lectures, 333.

103. Hauser, Social History of Art, I, 467.

104. Davies, G. S., Frans Hals, 19.

105. Amsterdam.

106. Haarlem.

107. Lord Northbrooke Collection.

108. Wallace Collection.

109. Devonshire House.

110. Haarlem.

111. Haarlem.

112. Haarlem.

113. Haarlem.

114. Amsterdam.

115. Antwerp.

116. Haarlem.

117. Berlin.

118. Louvre.

119. Cassel.

120. Mather, F. J., Western European Painting of the Renaissance, 461.

121. Chicago.

122. Berlin.

123. New York.

124. The Hague.

125. Michel, E., Rembrandt, I, 63.

126. Amsterdam.

127. The Hague.

128. The Hague.

129. The Hague.

130. Duke of Devonshire Collection.

131. Rothschild Collection.

132. Leningrad.

133. Louvre.

134. New York.

135. Brussels.

136. Amsterdam.

137. Michel, Rembrandt, II, 214.

138. Edinburgh.

139. Louvre.

140. Louvre.

141. London.

142. Berlin.

143. Cassel.

144. Berlin.

145. New York.

146. Washington.

147. Leningrad.

148. London.

149. Glasgow.

150. Cassel,

151. Still with the Six family in Amsterdam.

152. Berlin.

153. Frick Collection.

154. Wallace Collection.

155. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 316.

156. Marcus Kappel Collection, Berlin.

157. New York.

158. Louvre.

159. Amsterdam.

160. Leningrad.

161. Amsterdam.

162. Froment in Wilenski, Dutch Painting, 93.

163. Self-portrait in the Louvre.

164. New York.

165. I. de Brüyn Collection.

166. Rathenau Collection.

167. In Michel, Rembrandt, I, 259.

168. Wilenski, Dutch Painting, 93.

169. Ibid.

170. Meier-Graefe, Spanish Journey, 313.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Gade, Tycho Brake, 150.

2. Werner, Copenhagen, 3.

3. Ranke, Popes, II, 150.

4. Fletcher, C. R., Gustavus Adolphus, 15.

5. Bain, F. W., Christina, Queen of Sweden, 8.

6. Fletcher, 43.

7. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 187.

8. Wedgwood, C. V., Thirty Years’ War, 273.

9. Fletcher, 27.

10. Bain, 28.

11. Ibid., 10.

12. 42.

13. 162.

14. 96.

15. 97.

16. 95.

17. 166.

18. Pascal, Provincial Letters, introduction, 25.

19. Ranke, Popes, II, 355.

20. Ortega y Gasset, Toward a Philosophy of History, 18.

21. Horn, F. W., Literature of the Scandinavian North, 332.

22. Cf. Ranke, Popes, II, 353.

23. Bain, 358–61.

24. Ranke, II, 359; Bain, 180.

25. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 60.

26. Gustafson in Bain, xvi.

27. Bain, 360.

28. Ogg, 446.

29. Bain, 224.

30. Ibid., 229.

31. Lewinski-Corwin, Political History of Poland, 216–18; Cambridge History of Poland, I, 566.

32. Lednicki, W., Life and Culture of Poland, 125–6.

33. Ibid, 94.

34. Camb. History of Poland, I, 413; Robertson, J. M., History of Freethought, 1,426.

35. Lednicki, 102n.

36. Robertson, Freethought, II, 37.

37. Camb. History of Poland, I, 403–5, 410–11.

38. Ranke, II, 161.

39. Pokrovsky, M., History of Russia, 154.

40. Florinsky, M., Russia: a History and an Interpretation, I, 213.

41. Kluchevsky, V., History of Russia, II, ch. xiii; III, 21; Florinsky, I, 217.

42. Vernadsky, G., History of Russia, 65.

43. Réau, L, L’ Art russe, I, 285.

44. Ranke, II, 155.

45. Florinsky, I, 226.

46. E.g., Pokrovsky, 169–70.

47. Ibid., 177; Kluchevsky, III, 20; Florinsky, I, 223.

48. Rambaud, A., History of Russia, I, 320.

49. Camb. Mod. History, V, 496.

50. Florinsky, I, 227; Pokrovsky, 182.

51. Kluchevsky, III, 31.

52. Rambaud, I, 341.

CHAPTER XX

1. Tavernier, Six Voyages, ii, 7.

2. Brockelmann, C., History of the Islamic Peoples, 316.

3. Pepys, Diary, Nov. 9, 1663.

4. Arnold, T., The Preaching of Islam, in Toynbee, A., Study of History, VIII, 165.

5. Finlay, G., History of Greece, V, 29, in Toynbee, ibid., 164.

6. Tavernier, i, I.

7. Michelet, Histoire de France, IV, 444.

8. Brantôme, Lives of Gallant Ladies, 135; Landau, R., Invitation to Morocco, 64.

9. Gibb, E. J., Ottoman Literature, 3.

10. Ibid., 236.

11. Dimand, M. S, Guide to Exhibition of Islamic Miniature Painting, 4.

12. Pope, A. U., Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Early Oriental Carpets, 93–5.

13. Pastor, Popes, XVIII, 419.

14. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, ch. cxxxi, in Works, XIBb, 270.

15. Preface to Part II of Don Quixote.

16. Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic, II, 338.

17. Pastor, XVIII, 422.

18. Ibid, 427.

19. 436.

20. Lane-Poole, S, Story of Turkey, 218.

21. En. Br., XV, 969a.

22. Teixeira, P., Travels, 62–6.

23. Pope, A. U, Survey of Persian Art, II, 1406.

24. Tavernier, Six Voyages, iv, 5.

25. Ibid.

26. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 130.

27. En. Br., XII, 705. The account follows the eloquent description in Arthur Upham Pope, Survey of Persian Art, II, 1185, and the notes of my visit to Isfahan in 1948.

28. Tavernier, v, 2.

29. Browne, E. G, Literary History of Persia, IV, III.

30. Chardin, John, Travels in Persia, 134–6.

31. Ibid., 183, 167.

32. Teixeira, 114, 117.

33. Chardin, 143.

34. Ibid.

35. 146.

36. 279.

37. Tavernier, v, 14.

38. Arnold, Thomas, Painting in Islam, 89.

39. Chardin, 120.

40. Teixeira, 62.

41. Chardin, 187; Tavernier, v, 14.

42. Chardin, 191, 189.

43. Browne, E. G, Literary History, IV, 247.

44. Ibid, 287.

45. En. Br., XII, 705b.

46. Sir Bernard Eckstein Collection.

47. Boston.

48. Pope, Survey, I, 7n.

49. Gulbenkian Collection. Pope, Survey, V, 978.

50. Boston.

51. Pope, Survey, V, 549.

52. Pope, A. U., Introduction to Persian Art, 162.

53. Chardin, Travels, 273.

54. New York.

55. In Pope, Catalogue, 17.

56. Pope, Introduction, 220.

CHAPTER XXI

1. Coxe, W., History of the House of Austria, II, 29.

2. Ibid, 67–72.

3. 130.

4. 94.

5. Camb. Mod. History, III, 719.

6. Tawney, R. H., Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, 122–4.

7. Janssen, History of the German People, VIII, 297–9.

8. Robertson, J. M., Freethought, I, 420.

9. Campbell, The Jesuits, 69.

10. Lützow, Count von, Bohemia, 217.

11. Acton, Lectures, 182.

12. Clark, G. N., Seventeenth Century, 136.

13. Janssen, XV, 32, 44.

14. Ibid., 29–31.

15. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of the Later Middle Ages, 429; Rickard, Man and Metals, II, 565.

16. Janssen, XV, 148.

17. Ibid., 110.

18. 125.

19. Marx, Karl, Capital, I, 467.

20. Janssen, XIII, 147.

21. Ibid, 307.

22. 301.

23. 300.

24. Id, XII, 183.

25. X, 279.

26. XII, 96.

27. XI, 363.

28. Pastor in Janssen, XVI, 130.

29. Janssen, X, 277–8.

30. Wedgwood, Thirty Years’ War, 46.

31. Janssen, XV, 421.

32. Putnam, G. H, The Censorship of the Church of Rome, I, 51.

33. Janssen, X, II.

34. Ibid., 23, 45.

35. Id, XIII, 363f.

36. XIV, 12–14.

37. Wilenski, Dutch Painting, 61.

38. Vienna.

39. Camb. Mod. History, III, 153.

40. Schaff, The German Reformation, I, 64.

41. Janssen, X, 287f”.

42. Ibid, 303–7.

43. 262.

44. 258.

45. 257.

46. 256.

47. Inge, W. R., Christian Mysticism, 277.

48. Ibid, 278.

49. Fülop-Miller, Jesuits, 346.

50. Janssen, X, 214.

51. Ibid, 103, 110.

52. 165.

53. 32.

54. 30.

55. 24.

56. 334–41.

57. 345.

58. 386–90.

59. 215.

60. 219.

61. 589.

62. 594.

63. Wedgwood, 81.

64. Nosek, V., Spirit of Bohemia, 99f.

65. Michelet, IV, 289n.

66. Wedgwood, 171.

67. Ibid, 255.

68. Fletcher, Gustavus Adolphus, 300.

69. Robinson, Readings, 345.

70. Fletcher, 283.

71. Guizot, History, IV, 160.

72. Wedgwood, 353.

73. Ibid, 360.

74. 450.

75. 207, 256–7, 410.

76. 475.

77. 516; Camb. Mod. History, IV, 418.

78. Lützow, 311; Camb. Mod. History, IV, 418.

79. Ibid, 417.

80. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 294.

81. Jordan, G. J, The Reunion of Churches, 15.

82. Wedgwood, 412; Ogg, Europe in the Seventeenth Century, 168.

83. Wedgwood, 413.

84. Ibid, 229.

85. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 688.

CHAPTER XXII

1. Thorndike, L, History of Magic and Experimental Science, VI, 160–5, 221, 239–40, 295; IV, 247; Garrison, F., History of Medicine, 37.

2. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 18.

3. Smith, P., History of Modern Culture, I, 428.

4. Berry, A., Short History of Astronomy, 195.

5. Jackson, C, Old Paris, 25.

6. Smith, P., Modern Culture, I, 427.

7. Janssen, XII, 346.

8. Ibid, 329.

9. Los Angeles Times, July 2, 1958.

10. Janssen, XVI, 372–6, 495; XII, 325, 351.

11. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, IV, 243–4.

12. Vacandard, E., The Inquisition, 199.

13. Singer, Chas, Studies in the History of Science, I, 213.

14. Lea, IV, 235.

15. Michelet, IV, 183–6.

16. Janssen, XI, 388.

17. Id, XVI, 398, 478.

18. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, III, 549.

19. Janssen, XVI, 416.

20. Camb. Mod. History, V, 758 (not 9,000, as in IV, 423).

21. Janssen, XVI, 512, 424.

22. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, IV, 246; cf. Janssen, XVI, 506.

23. Montaigne, Essays, III, xi, 285.

24. Ibid, 286.

25. Smith, Culture, I, 453.

26. Ibid, 454; Dampier, History of Science, 157.

27. Janssen, XVI, 390.

28. Janssen, XI, 379.

29. Evelyn, Diary, I, 139.

30. Putnam, Censorship of the Church of Rome, II, 237–69.

31. In Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 531.

32. Hallam, Literature, II, 44.

33. Sandys, Sir John, Companion to Latin Studies, 855.

34. Putnam; G. H, Books and Their Makers, II, 96.

35. Masson, David, Life of John Milton, IV, 164.

36. Nosek, Spirit of Bohemia, 110.

37. Paulsen, F, German Education, 136.

38. Janssen, XIII, 277.

39. Galileo, Discoveries and Opinions, ed. Stillman Drake, 77.

40. Singer, Studies, 407.

41. Wolf, A, History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 47; Singer, Studies, 412f

42. Bell, E. T., Men of Mathematics, 55.

43. Butterfield, Origins of Modern Science,

44. Galileo, Il saggiatore, in Discoveries and Opinions, 237.

45. Cooper, Lane, Aristotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa, 14; Dampier, 143.

46. Janssen, XV, 281.

47. Wolf, 327.

48. Mumford, L, Technics and Civilization, 440.

49. Wolf, 544–5; Usher, A. P., History of Mechanical Inventions, 303.

50. Descartes, Principia philosophiae, Part IV, in Wolf, 351.

51. En. Br., I, 689d.

52. Galileo, Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Dedication, p. 3.

53. Michel, Rembrandt, I, 123.

54. Mumford, L, The Condition of Man, 213.

55. Janssen, XIV, 68.

56. Ibid, 83.

57. 80.

58. Castiglioni, History of Medicine, 561.

59. Garrison, 307.

60. Janssen, XIV, 81.

61. Montaigne, Essays, tr. E. J. Trechmann, II, 222, quoted in Craig, Hardin, The Enchanted Glass, 44.

62. Garrison, 291–2.

63. Ibid, 226.

64. Descartes, Discours de la méthode, Part VI, p. 62, in Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 18.

65. Montaigne, Essays, III, ξ, 262.

66. Putnam, Censorship, I, 128–9; Belloc, H., How the Reformation Happened, 281; Fülop-Miller, Jesuits, 399; Smith, P., Culture, I, 43.

67. Campanella, Letter to Galileo, Jan. 12, 1611, in Smith, Culture, I, 45.

68. Buckle, I, 101; Thorndike, VI, 42.

69. Gade, Tycho Brahe, 35.

70. Ibid, 187.

71. Kesten, H., Copernicus and His World, 346.

72. Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences, I, 290–3.

73. Hogben, Science for the Citizen, 207; Kesten, 353.

74. Dampier, 139.

75. Berry, 194.

76. In Inge, Christian Mysticism, 298.

77. Galileo, Dialogue concerning the Two Chief ‘World Systems, 105 (end of First Day).

78. Aristotle, De coelo, 4.2. 309, in Cooper, L., Aristotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa, 64.

79. Lucretius, De rerum natura, II, 230–1.

80. Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus, fol. 123ra, in Cooper, 69.

81. In Cooper, 47.

82. Viviani in Cooper, 26.

83. Ibid, 29–31.

84. Galileo, Two Chief World Systems, 147.

85. Galileo, Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences, 103.

86. Galileo, Il saggiatore, in Discoveries and Opinions, 274.

87. Ibid, 276–7.

88. Kesten, 348.

89. In Singer, Studies, 228.

90. Letter of Jan. 30, 1610, in Singer, 232.

91. Walsh, J. J, The Popes and Science, 393; Wolf, 29.

92. In Singer, 251.

93. Kesten, 396.

94. In Smith, Culture, I, 53.

95. Singer, 240.

96. Fülop-Miller, Jesuits, 397.

97. Singer, 240.

98. Fülop-Miller, 398.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid.

101. Kesten, 371.

102. Galileo, Discoveries and Opinions, 177.

103. Ibid, 180.

104. 183.

105. Drake in Galileo, Discoveries and Opinions, 217.

106. Singer, 252.

107. Kesten, 375.

108. Wolf, 36.

109. Kesten, 379; Singer, 258.

110. Galileo, Two Chief World Systems, 5.

111. Ibid, 460.

112. Kesten, 388.

113. Singer, 269.

114. En. Br., IX, 980b.

115. Ibid.; Wolf, 37.

116. Viviani in Singer, 279.

117. Kesten, 93.

118. Ibid, 395.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Janssen, XVI, 132–4.

2. Robertson, Freethought, 483.

3. Ibid, 484.

4. Mousnier, Histoire générale, IV, 203.

5. Ibid, 201.

6. Owen, John, Skeptics of the French Renaissance, 676.

7. Ibid, 578–9.

8. Ibid.

9. 584.

10. 580.

11. Charron, Pierre, Of Wisdom, I, 61, 74, 79–80.

12. Owen, 598.

13. Cf. Charron, in Pascal, Pensées, ed. Havet, introd. xii.

14. Bury, Freedom of Thought, 75.

15. Owen, 570.

16. Singer, D. W., Giordano Bruno, 22.

17. Ibid, 24.

18. Owen, 274.

19. Bruno, La cena de le ceneri, Dialogue IV, in Singer, D. W., 33.

20. In Owen, 274.

21. Singer, Bruno, 137.

22. Ibid, 35.

23. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, II, 53–4.

24. Owen, 125.

25. Singer, Bruno, 146.

26. In Owen, 294.

27. Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 41.

28. Bruno, Dedication to De la causa, preincipio et uno, in Singer, Bruno, 103.

29. Thorndike, Magic and Experimental Science, IV, 425–7.

30. Owen, 290–3.

31. Singer, Bruno, 161.

32. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, II, 62.

33. Kesten, 323.

34. Singer, Bruno, 166.

35. Ibid, 172.

36. 179.

37. Owen, 390.

38. Ibid, 399.

39. 400.

40. Symonds, 128; Kesten, 328.

41. Tr. J. A. Symonds in Van Doren, Anthology, 599.

42. Campanella, City of the Sun, in Ideal Commonwealths, 147.

43. Ibid, 157.

44. 164.

45. 168.

46. Murray, R. H., Erasmus and Luther, 443.

47. Ranke, Popes, II, 13.

48. Carlyle, R. W., Medieval Political Theory, VI, 341.

49. Campbell, The Jesuits, 379.

50. Mariana, The King and The Education of the King, i, 2.

51. Ibid., i, 10.

52. Ibid., Preface, p. 108.

53. Ibid., iii, 15.

54. In Laski, Political Thought in England, Locke to Bentham, 85.

55. Mariana, The King, i, I.

56. Ibid, iii, 2.

57. i, 6, pp. 144–9.

58. Ibid.

59. Bodin, Method for the Easy Comprehension of History, II.

60. Allen, Political Thought, 395.

61. Bodin, De republica, i, 4, in Allen, 408–9.

62. Ibid, 410.

63. Bodin, De republica, i, 6.

64. Ibid, i, 9.

65. Ibid, vi, 4, in Dunning, Political Theories from Luther to Montesquieu, 107.

66. Ibid, in Allen, Political Thought, 436.

67. In Allen, 406.

68. Bodin, Method for the Easy Comprehension of History, in Allen, 399.

69. Allen, 400–1.

70. Blok, III, 463.

71. Grotius, Prolegomena, in Dunning, 161.

72. Grotius, Rights of War and Peace, I, i, 10, p. 21.

73. Ibid, I, ii, I.

74. II, xxii.

75. I, xvii.

76. II, xxvi.

77. Lange, F. E., History of Materialism, I, 266.

78. France, A, Elm Tree on the Mall, 13.

79. Russell, B., History of Western Philosophy, 558.

80. Fischer, K., Descartes, 194f.

81. Discours, Part III, in Descartes, Selections, 27.

82. Ibid, p. 28.

83. Faguet, Dix-septième siècle, 6–7.

84. Descartes, Principia philosophiae, I, 71, in Meditations and Principles of Philosophy, 168.

85. Discours, Part II, in Selections, 12.

86. Descartes, Meditations, II, in Selections, 96.

87. Discours, Part IV, and Meditations, II, in Selections, 29, 99.

88. St. Augustine, De Trinitate, x, 10.

89. Meditations, II, in Selections, 106.

90. “Rules for the Direction of the Mind,” VIII, in Selections, 69.

91. Meditations, III, in Selections, 125.

92. Ibid, 154.

93. Ibid, 89.

94. Principia philosophiae, I, xxxix.

95. Meditations, IV, in Selections, 127.

96. Discours, IV, in Selections, 30.

97. En. Br., VII, 249d.

98. Ibid.

99. Lévy-Bruhl, History of Modern Philosophy in France, 29.

100. Discours, in Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 16.

101. Fischer, Descartes, 406.

102. In Smith, Culture, I, 194.

103. Smith, D. E, ed., Isaac Newton, 18.

104. Fischer, 229.

105. Garrison, History of Medicine, 258.

106. Selections, 222–47.

107. Aubrey, Brief Lives, 95.

108. Fischer, 231.

109. Fülop-Miller, Jesuits, 124.

110. Fontenelle, Digression sur les anciens et les modernes, in Fellows and Torrey, Age of the Enlightenment, 57.

111. Lévy-Bruhl, 33.

112. Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 205 and passim.

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