Notes

CHAPTER I

1. New Cambridge Modern History (NCMH), VIII, 714.

2. Lefebvre, Georges, French Revolution, I, 41.

3. Aulard, Alphonse, Christianity and the French Revolution, 36–37.

4. Ibid., 29.

5. Taine, Hippolyte, French Revolution, I, 147, 158.

6. Morley, John, Biographical Studies, 411.

7. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 42.

8. Sieyès, E.-J., What Is the Third Estate?, 51.

9. Taine, French Revolution, III, 318.

10. Pierre Gaxotte in Greenlaw, R. W., Economic Origins of the French Revolution, 43.

11. See Durant, Rousseau and Revolution, 71–77.

12. Roland, Mme., Private Memoirs.

13. Taine, The Ancient Regime, 317.

14. C. E. Labrousse in Greenlaw, 62; Lefebvre, Études sur la Révolution française, 229, 239.

15. La Bruyère, Jean de, Characters, XII, 128, 318.

16. A. Aulard in Greenlaw, 25.

17. Lefebvre, Études, 351, 435.

18. Michelet, Jules, French Revolution, I, 185; Taine, French Revolution, I, 3.

19. NCMH, VIII, 660.

20. Young, Arthur, Travels in France, 197.

21. Campan, Jeanne-Louise, Memoirs of the Private Life of Marie Antoinette, II, 216.

22. Tocqueville, Alexis de, L’Ancien Régime, 190–91.

CHAPTER II

1. Michelet, French Revolution, I, 84.

2. Rude, George, Robespierre, 123.

3. Morley, Biographical Studies, 287.

4. Michelet, I, 498.

5. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIX, 392b.

6. Lefebvre, Études, 145.

7. Aulard, French Revolution, I, 230.

8. Ibid., 309, 359; Lefebvre, Études, 145.

9. Durant, Rousseau and Revolution, 951–54.

10. Brinton, Crane, The Jacobins, 15.

11. Mathiez, Albert, French Revolution, 44.

12. Ibid.

13. Mirabeau, speech of July 9, 1789.

14. Mathiez, 46.

15. EB, III, 264d; Gramont, Sanche de, Epitaph for Kings, 378.

16. Taine, French Revolution, I, 42.

17. Campan, Memoirs, II, 59.

18. Ibid., 66.

19. Gramont, Sanche de, Epitaph for Kings, 384.

20. Gottschalk, L. R., Jean-Paul Marat, 6–8.

21. Ibid., 4.

22. MacLaurin, C., Post Mortem, 200.

23. Taine, French Revolution, III, 122.

24. Gottschalk, 117–18.

25. Ibid., 15.

26. 23.

27. Taine, French Revolution, III, 129.

28. Morris, Gouverneur, Diary and Letters, I, 143.

29. Taine, I, 73.

30. Ibid., 70–71; Mathiez, French Revolution, 50–51.

31. Robinson, James Harvey, Readings in European History, 435.

32. Mathiez, 53.

33. Robinson, 438.

34. Ibid., 440.

35. In Taine, II, 5.

36. Michelet, French Revolution, 253; Mathiez, 63.

37. Campan, II, 78.

38. Michelet, 258.

39. Taine, I, 105.

40. Herold, J. C., Mistress to an Age, 92; EB, XXI, 634.

41. Mathiez, 98.

42. Phillips, C. S., The Church in France, I, 9..

43. Ibid., 14; Taine, I, 180.

44. Ibid., 182.

45. Carlyle, French Revolution, Book VIII, Ch. 11-12.

46. Michelet, 411.

47. Mathiez, 68.

48. Campan, II, 128; Ségur, Marie Antoinette, 225.

49. Taine, I, 96.

50. Ibid., 106.

51. Campan, II, 126n.

52. Carlyle, French Revolution, I, 397.

53. Ségur, 230.

54. Vallentin, Antonina, Mirabeau, 490–91.

55. Michelet, 567–68.

56. Vallentin, 512–17.

57. Michelet, 568.

58. Ibid., 569.

59. Ségur, 237.

60. Rudé, George, The Crowd in the French Revolution, 89.

61. Acton, J. E., Lord, The French Revolution, 199.

CHAPTER III

1. Bertaut, Jules, Napoleon in His Own Words, 58, 63.

2. Alexandre de Lameth in Robinson, Readings, 452.

3. Mathiez, French Revolution, 134.

4. Brinton, The Jacobins, 39, 183, 251.

5. Rudé, Robespierre, 88.

6. Taine, French Revolution, II, 54–67.

7. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 217.

8. Roland, Mme., Private Memoirs, 273.

9. Ibid., 55.

10. 345.

11. 357.

12. Lanfrey, Pierre, History of Napoleon, I, 292.

13. Mathiez, 140–41.

14. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 217.

15. Aulard, The French Revolution, 366.

16. Robinson, Readings, 456.

17. Acton, French Revolution, 232.

18. Gottschalk, Jean-Paul Marat, 96.

19. Taine, II, 182.

20. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 238.

21. Taine, II, 179–86; Ségur, 273–76.

22. Sorel, Georges, Reflections on Violence, 194.

23. Lefebvre, Études, 77–82; French Revolution, I, 239n.

24. Belloc, Hilaire, Danton, 380.

25. Musset, Alfred de, Confessions of a Child of the Century, 21–23.

26. Belloc, 198.

27. Mathiez, 174.

28. Ibid., 184–89; Aulard, Christianity and the French Revolution, 86–90; Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 244.

29. Aulard, French Revolution, II, 141.

30. Le Bon, Gustave, The Psychology of the Revolution, 170.

31. Mathiez, 170.

32. Taine, II, 211; Lefebvre, 242.

33. Gottschalk, Marat, 120.

34. Carlyle, French Revolution, II, 174.

35. Madelin, Louis, French Revolution, 285.

36. Ibid.; Mathiez, 180.

37. Taine, II, 221.

38. Ibid., 226.

39. 227.

40. Morris, G., Diary, 583; Mathiez, 81.

41. Taine, II, 228.

42. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 243.

43. Taine, II, 229.

44. Le Bon, The Psychology of the Revolution, 188.

45. Taine, II, 214n.

46. Ibid., 218.

47. Le Bon, 98.

48. Mathiez, 183; Carlyle, II, 199.

49. Belloc, Danton, 342.

50. Taine, II, 214.

51. Ibid., 212n.

52. Mathiez, 222.

53. Brandes, Georg, Main Currents in Nineteenth Century Literature, II, 50.

CHAPTER IV

1. Mathiez, French Revolution, 195; Taine, French Revolution, II, 2n; Faÿ, B., Louis XVI, 388; Aulard, French Revolution, III, 109–11.

2. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 244.

3. Taine, II, 279.

4. Ibid., 276–82.

5. Mathiez, 211.

6. Taine, III, 155.

7. Morley, 296.

8. Mathiez, 239 ff.

9. Ibid., 275.

10. Robinson, Readings, 460.

11. Mathiez, 256.

12. Robiquel, Jean, Daily Life in the French Revolution, 91.

13. Gramont, Epitaph for Kings, 423.

14. Mathiez, 262.

15. Taine, II, 283.

16. Madelin, French Revolution, 320.

17. Gramont, 426; Rudé, Robespierre, 170.

18. Hugo, Victor, Ninety-three, 160.

19. Robiquel, Daily Life in the French Revolution, 9.

20. Taine, III, 361.

21. E. g., Lenotre, G., The Tribunal of the Terror, 119 and facing p. 22.

22. Aulard, French Revolution, III, 90.

23. Taine, III, 135.

24. Gottschalk, Marat, 159 ff.; Loomis, Stanley, Paris in the Terror, 104–5.

25. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 50.

26. Mathiez, 387 ff.

27. Taine, III, 388 ff.

28. Mathiez, 319.

29. Ibid., 322.

30. 324.

31. Carlyle, II, 332.

32. Loomis, 14, 128.

33. In Gottschalk, 92.

34. Ibid., 168.

35. 136.

36. 170.

37. Mathiez, 344; MacLaurin, Post Mortem, 206.

38. Mathiez, 344.

39. Loomis, 138, 143.

40. Mathiez, 343.

41. Loomis, 149.

42. Belloc, Danton, 234.

43. Palmer, R. R., Twelve Who Died, 55.

44. Morley, 324.

45. Palmer, 58, 160.

46. Taine, III, 313.

47. Palmer, 110.

48. Lefebvre, Études, 139.

49. Taine, II, 51.

50. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, III, 282.

51. Ibid., 283 ff.

52. Rudé, Robespierre, 55.

53. Palmer, 58.

54. In Kropotkin, Peter, The Great French Revolution, 502 ff.

55. Palmer, 52; Mathiez, 366.

56. Palmer, 47.

57. Mathiez, 403.

58. Ségur, 293.

59. Ibid., 304.

60. 309.

61. Lenotre, 151.

62. Lamartine, Alphonse de, Histoire des Girondins, III, 36–37.

63. Roland, Mme., Private Memoirs, 105.

64. Ibid., 114.

65. 288.

66. Carlyle, II, 356.

67. Madelin, French Revolution, 377; Taine, III, 207, 297.

68. Madelin, 374.

69. Taine, III, 209–10.

70. Ibid., 299; Madelin, 375; Mathièz, 402.

71. Taine, III, 211.

72. Madelin, 376.

73. Palmer, 150.

74. Zweig, Stefan, Joseph Fouché, xv.

75. Ibid., 37.

76. Palmer, 156.

77. Zweig, 57.

78. Ibid., 167; Palmer, 167.

79. Ibid., 169

80. 180.

81. Taine, III, 39.

82. Palmer, 175.

83. Rudé, Robespierre, 8; NCMH, IX, 280.

84. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 120.

85. Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in Spain, I, 593.

86. Zweig, Fouché, 39 ff.

87. Palmer, 142 ff.

88. Taine, III, 175; Madelin, 389; Mathiez, 412; Carlyle, II, 371; Becker, Carl, Heavenly City of the 18th Century Philosophers, 156.

89. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 119.

90. Ibid., 78.

91. Palmer, 143.

92. Morley, 319; translation slightly improved.

93. Ibid., 321.

94. 311.

95. Carlyle, II, 229.

96. Taine, III, 380–81.

97. Soboul, Albert, The Parisian Sansculottes and the French Revolution, 28.

98. Robinson, Readings, 467.

99. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 88; Madelin, 395.

100. Morley, 332.

101. Madelin, 395.

102. Ibid., 397; Taine, III, 142.

103. Madelin, 397.

104. Lenotre, The Tribunal of the Terror, 137.

105. Ibid., 138.

106. Madelin, 398.

107. Brockway and Winer, Second Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 273.

108. Morley, 333.

109. Madelin, 399.

110. Morley, 338.

111. Aulard, French Revolution, II, 286; Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 124; Palmer, 365.

112. Taine, III, 299.

113. Lefebvre, II, 125.

114. Mathiez, 499.

115. Rudé, Robespierre, 9; Soboul in Kafker and Laux, The French Revolution: Conflicting Interpretations, 293.

116. Madelin, 408.

117. Stephens, H. Morse, Principal Speeches… of the French Revolution, II, 143–63.

118. Madelin, 420.

119. Belloc, Danton, 330.

120. Madelin, 422.

121. Mathiez, 508; Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 135; Palmer, 379.

122. Mathiez, 509.

123. Ibid., 510.

124. Robiquel, Daily Life in the French Revolution, 202.

125. Palmer, 389.

126. Aulard, III, 247–48.

127. Lefebvre, II, 161.

128. Aulard, III, 291.

129. Ibid., 319.

CHAPTER V

1. Madelin, 489; Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 173.

2. Lacroix, Paul, Directoire, Consulat et Empire, 120.

3. Aulard, IV, 40.

4. Ibid., 41.

5. 42.

6. Acton, French Revolution, 5.

7. Nietzsche, Will to Power, 877.

8. Source lost.

9. Napoleon, Letter of June 12, 1789, in Letters, 33.

10. In Lanfrey, I, 4.

11. Chuquet in Bourguignon, Jean, Napoléon Bonaparte, I, 4.

12. Kircheisen, F. M., Memoirs of Napoleon I, 11.

13. Ibid., 10.

14. Las Cases, Memoirs of Napoleon, under May 29, 1816, in Taine, The Modern Regime, I, 200.

15. Bourguignon, I, 22.

16. Kircheisen, 11.

17. Ibid., 24; Bourguignon, I, 23.

18. Kircheisen, 18.

19. Rémusat, Mme. de, Memoirs, 10.

20. Ibid., 102–3.

21. Rose, J. Holland, The Personality of Napoleon, 17.

22. Rémusat, 102.

23. Bourguignon, I, 28.

24. Rose, 57.

25. Plato, The Republic, paragraphs 338–44.

26. Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, 201 and 53.

27. Mistler, Jean, ed., Napoléon et l’Empire, I, 36.

28. Kircheisen, 34–35.

29. Ibid., 41.

30. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 2n.

31. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 185.

32. Mossiker, Frances, Napoleon and Josephine, 65–66.

33. Ibid., 72; Mistler, I, 49.

34. G. Lenotre in Bourguignon, I, 91.

35. Mossiker, 89.

36. Ibid., 49.

37. 86–90.

38. Kircheisen, 47.

39. Lanfrey, I, 58; Mossiker, 92–95.

40. Mossiker, 34.

41. G. Lenotre in Bourguignon, I, 91.

42. Ibid., 93.

43. J. Godechot in Bourguignon, I, 96.

44. Napoleon, Letters, 45.

45. Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte, I, 24.

46. Lanfrey, I, 71.

47. Mossiker, 23.

48. Ibid., 119.

49. 28.

50. Napoleon, Letters, 51.

51. Lanfrey, I, 87.

52. Ibid.; Bourguignon, I, 108; Mistler, I, 270.

53. Lanfrey, I, 84.

54. Mossiker, 29.

55. Bourguignon, I, 112.

56. EB, IX, 920d.

57. Mossiker, 128.

58. Kircheisen, 71.

59. Napoleon, Letters, 62.

60. Vandal, Albert, L’Avènement de Bonaparte, I, 13–15.

61. Staël, Mme. de, Memoirs, in Bourguignon, I, 137.

62. Ibid., 138.

63. Napoleon, Letters, 72.

64. Rémusat, Memoirs, 99.

65. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 219.

66. Talleyrand, Memoirs, I, 332.

67. CMH, VIII, 598.

68. Bourguignon, 148.

69. Kircheisen, 75.

70. Herold, J. C, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, 51.

71. Rémusat, Memoirs, 99, slightly rearranged.

72. Napoleon, Letters, 75.

73. Ibid., Oct. 23, 1798.

74. Herold, Bonaparte in Egypt, 276; CMH, VIII, 609.

75. Kircheisen, 42.

76. Rémusat, 99.

77. Kircheisen, 91.

78. Bourrienne, I, 212.

79. Las Cases, III, 200.

80. Mistler, I, 73; Méneval, Memoirs, I, 25–34; Madelin, French Revolution, 605.

81. Bourguignon, I, 172.

82. Méneval, I, 24; Mistler, I, 74.

83. CMH, VIII, 494.

84. Vandal, Avènement, 10.

85. Madelin, Talleyrand, 61.

86. CMH, VIII, 493.

87. Madelin, French Revolution, 559.

88. Taine, French Revolution, III, 455.

89. Ibid., 469.

90. Vandal, I, 70.

91. Taine, III, 467n.

92. Talleyrand, Memoirs, I, 207.

93. Madelin, 584.

94. Taine, III, 426–27.

95. Vandal, I, 233.

96. Aulard, IV, 139.

97. Fournier, Napoleon the First, I, 182.

98. Mossiker, 190–91.

99. Ibid., 202.

100. Bourrienne, II, 12n.; Vandal, I, 245; Mossiker, 205.

101. Aulard, IV, 139.

102. Madelin, French Revolution, 611.

103. Vandal, I, 274.

104. Ibid., 297–98.

105. Mistler, I, 76.

106. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 255.

107. Vandal, I, 314.

108. Ibid., 316–17.

109. 368.

110. 370.

111. Bourrienne, I, 272.

112. Vandal, I, 386.

113. Bourrienne, I, 284.

CHAPTER VI

1. EB, IX, 755; X, 343; NCMH, VIII, 714.

2. Barnes, H. E., Economic History of the Western World, 351.

3. Lefebvre, French Revolution, I, 114.

4. Palmer, R. R., Twelve Who Died, 240.

5. Mathiez, 267.

6. Macaulay, T. B., Critical, Historical, and Miscellaneous Essays, II, 70.

7. Taine, French Revolution, II, 291.

8. Aulard, French Revolution, IV, 108.

9. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 287.

10. Taine, III, 84.

11. Aulard, II, 282.

12. Ibid., III, 373, 387, 391.

13. Ibid., 392; Lacroix, Directoire, Consulat et Empire, 298.

14. Roland, Mme., Memoirs, 105.

15. Lacroix, 123; Carlyle, French Revolution, 382; Palmer, 65.

16. In Soboul, The Parisian Sansculottes in the French Revolution, 244.

17. CMH, VIII, 744.

18. Ibid., 750.

19. 752.

20. Robiquel, Daily Life in the French Revolution, 149 ff.

21. EB, X, 1019d.

22. Le Bon, G., Psychology of Revolution, 217.

23. Robiquel, 126.

24. EB, XIX, 868c.

25. Palmer, 65.

26. Robiquel, 74.

27. Soboul, 246; Madelin, French Revolution, 553.

28. Marcel Lachiver in London Times Literary Supplement, March 3, 1972, p. 243.

29. Taine, III, 82n.

30. Madelin, French Revolution, 554.

31. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 175.

32. Aulard, I, 232.

33. Lefebvre, French Revolution, II, 267.

34. Herold, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, 13.

35. Taine, French Revolution, III, 346.

36. Aulard, III, 241; Soboul, 229.

37. Taine, French Revolution, III, 88n.

38. Lacroix, Directoire, Consulat et Empire, 81, 34.

39. Robiquel, 54.

40. Ibid., 89.

41. Lacroix, 70.

42. Ibid., 80.

43. Robiquel, 88.

44. Madelin, French Revolution, 546.

45. Junot, Mme., Memoirs, I, 144.

46. Madelin, 428.

47. Lang, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 787.

48. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, I, 614.

49. Mantzius, K., History of Theatrical Art, VI, 153 f.

50. Hauser, A., The Social History of Art, II, 635.

51. Muther, R., History of Modern Painting, I, 103.

52. Livy, History of Rome, 1, 24.

53. Turner and Baker, Stories of the French Artists, 291.

54. Durant, Age of Voltaire, 536.

55. Brett, G. S., History of Psychology, 460.

56. Überweg, F., History of Philosophy, tr. Morris, II, 339.

57. CMH, VIII, 724.

58. Lamartine, History of the Girondists, III, 418.

59. Van Laun, H., History of French Literature, III, 166.

60. Stevens, Abel, Mme. de Staël, I, 54.

61. Herold, J. C, Mistress to an Age, 30.

62. Ibid., 62.

63. 95.

64. 103.

65. 108.

66. 113–14.

67. 117.

68. Pierre Lacretelle in Stevens, I, 145.

69. Herold, Mistress to an Age, 125.

70. In Bourguignon, I, 137.

71. Herold, 181.

CHAPTER VII

1. Bourrienne, Memoirs, I, 290.

2. Madelin, The Consulate and the Empire, I, 46.

3. Ibid., 37.

4. Fournier, Napoleon, 180.

5. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 3.

6. Thiers, L. A., History of the Consulate and the Empire, I, 55.

7. Ibid., 57.

8. Las Cases, II, 330.

9. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 17.

10. EB, XIII, 717b.

11. Napoleon, Letters, 80.

12. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 84.

13. Ibid.; Taine, Modern Regime, I, 152; Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 56.

14. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 86.

15. Bourrienne, I, 289n.

16. Talleyrand, Memoirs, introduction by the Duc de Brogue, xxi.

17. Ibid., xxii.

18. viii-ix.

19. Talleyrand, Memoirs, I, 170–71.

20. Madelin, Talleyrand, 48, 83.

21. Rémusat, Memoirs, 85.

22. Ibid., 106.

23. Madelin, Talleyrand, 23.

24. Thiers, I, 61; Herold, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, 72.

25. Canton, Gustave, Napoléon antimilitariste, 34.

26. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 89.

27. Ibid., 88; Taine, V, 141n.

28. Lefebvre, I, 74.

29. Bourrienne, I, 370.

30. Ibid., 372.

31. Jacques Bainville in Geyl, Peter, Napoleon: For and Against, 345.

32. Ibid., 344.

33. Bourrienne, I, 413.

34. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 93.

35. Napoleon, Letters, 84.

36. Thiers, I, 295.

37. Bourrienne, I, 419.

38. Ibid., II, 2.

39. 3.

40. Thiers, I, 236.

41. Ibid., 247.

42. 248.

43. Napoleon, Letters, 87.

44. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 100.

45. Bourrienne, II, 22.

46. Ibid., I, 414.

47. Napoleon, Letters, 90.

48. Thiers, I, 322.

49. Bourrienne, I, 345; Méneval, Memoirs, I, 69; Thiers, I, 332.

50. Bourrienne, I, 351n.

51. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 108.

52. Morris, Gouverneur, Diary, 92.

53. Madelin, I, 113.

54. Las Cases, IV, 103.

55. Ibid.

56. Madelin, I, 150.

57. EB, VII, 12c.

58. Rose, J. H., Personality of Napoleon, 169.

59. In Geyl, 330.

60. Guérard, A. L., French Civilization in the 19th Century, 67.

61. Cardinal Consalvi in Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 19.

62. Taine, French Revolution, III, 474.

63. Las Cases, II, 253.

64. Bourrienne, II, 236.

65. CMH, IX, 186.

66. Staël, Mme. de, Considérations sur les principaux événements de la Révolution française, 376; Canton, 44; Herold, The Mind of Napoleon, 107.

67. Canton, 30–34.

68. Méneval, I, 188.

69. Canton, 37.

70. Ibid., I-3.

71. Bourrienne, II, 299.

72. Thiers, II, 302.

73. Bourrienne, II, 151.

74. This phrase had been applied to Frederick II of Sicily; see Durant, The Age of Faith, 714.

75. Morris, Diary, 115–16.

76. Ibid., 117; Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 176.

77. Bourrienne, II, 226; Lefebvre, I, 169.

78. Fouché, Joseph, Memoirs, I, 256–57.

79. Lefebvre, I, 180; Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 192; Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon, I, 107.

80. CMH, IX, 29.

81. Lefebvre, I, 180–81.

82. Las Cases, IV, 186; Madelin, I, 193.

83. Rémusat, 39; Madelin, I, 193.

84. Kircheisen, 108.

85. Mistler, I, 120.

86. Lefebvre, I, 180–81; Méneval, I, 234.

87. Caulaincourt, Armand de, With Napoleon in Russia, 314.

88. Ibid., 317.

89. Lefebvre, I, 182; Madelin, I, 208.

90. Méneval, I, 249.

91. Madelin, Talleyrand, III.

92. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 218.

93. Bourrienne, II, 280.

94. Madelin, I, 210.

95. Las Cases, II, 67.

96. Rémusat, 137, 167.

97. Bourrienne, II, 264.

98. Las Cases, IV, 192.

99. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 227.

100. Rémusat, 108.

101. Mossiker, 271.

102. Madelin, I, 97.

103. Méneval, I, 278.

104. Madelin, I, 212.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Rose, Personality of Napoleon, 191.

2. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 240.

3. Las Cases, II, 133.

4. EB, XIII, 89c.

5. Masson, Frédéric, Napoleon and His Coronation, 229.

6. Pinoteau, Hervé, ed., Le Sacre de S. M. l’empereur Napoléon, p. xii.

7. Las Cases, III, 130; Madelin, Consulate and Empire, 244.

8. Masson, Coronation, 236.

9. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 151.

10. Rémusat, Memoirs, 249; Napoleon, Letters, 112.

11. Rémusat, 251.

12. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 203; Madelin, I, 252 f.

13. Ibid., 235.

14. Rémusat, 293.

15. Bourrienne, III, 3.

16. Ibid.

17. Thiers, IV, 64.

18. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 269.

19. Wilson, P. W., William Pitt, 335.

20. Bourrienne, III, 52n.

21. Rémusat, 324.

22. Bourrienne, III, 47; Madelin, I, 300.

23. Ibid., 297.

24. Méneval, I, 405.

25. Rémusat, 442.

26. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 255.

27. Madelin, I, 318.

28. Ibid., 316.

29. Rémusat, 453.

30. Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 296.

31. CMH, IX, 279.

32. Robinson, Readings, 489.

33. Georg Brandes in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies of the World, 1080.

34. Rémusat, 459.

35. Méneval, II, 449.

36. Ibid., 463.

37. Vandal, Napoléon et Alexandre Ier, I, 65.

38. Bertaut, Napoleon in His Own Words, 8,9.

39. Rémusat, 534.

CHAPTER IX

1. Morris, Gouverneur, Diary, 98–99.

2. Las Cases, II, 192.

3. Mistler, Jean, ed., Napoléon et l’Empire, I, 145.

4. Ibid.; Stacton, David, The Bonapartes, 13.

5. Las Cases, II, 190; Mistler, I, 145.

6. Stacton, 16.

7. Las Cases, III, 321.

8. Rémusat, 323n.

9. Goodrich, F. B., The Court of Napoleon, 290–93.

10. Bourrienne, II, 110.

11. Napoleon, Letters, 190.

12. Ibid., 123.

13. Stendhal, La Chartreuse de Parme, 450.

14. Napoleon, Letters, 107.

15. Goodrich, 207.

16. Rose, Personality of Napoleon, 32.

17. In Goodrich, 271; Caulaincourt, With Napoleon in Russia, 14.

18. Talleyrand, Memoirs, I, 261.

19. Caulaincourt, 23.

20. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 19.

21. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 410.

22. Ibid., 411.

23. Talleyrand, Memoirs, I, 310–13.

24. Ibid., 316.

25. 328; Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 416.

26. Talleyrand, I, 337.

27. Madelin, Talleyrand, 78, 134.

28. Brandes, G., Goethe, II, 264.

29. Talleyrand, I, 318.

30. Lewes, George, Life of Goethe, II, 312.

31. Talleyrand, I, 326.

32. Ibid., 331.

33. 333.

34. Lewes, II, 313.

35. Las Cases, II, 134.

36. Méneval, II, 553.

37. Rose, Personality, 495.

38. Madelin, I, 425.

39. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 57.

40. Ibid.

41. Méneval, II, 563; Madelin, I, 436; Mistler, I, 150.

42. Herold, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, 175.

43. Lefebvre, II, 52.

44. Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 328.

45. Rémusat, 376.

46. Ibid., 375.

47. Herold, The Mind of Napoleon, 22.

48. Bourrienne, II, 117; Méneval, II, 423.

49. Herold, 16.

50. Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 151.

51. Las Cases, II, May 19, 1816.

52. Madelin, II, 15.

53. Ibid., 17.

54. Taine, The Modern Regime, I, 79n.

55. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 149.

56. Méneval, II, 615.

57. Napoleon, Letters to Josephine, 222.

58. Las Cases, II, 185.

59. Ibid., 21.

60. Ibid., III, 275.

CHAPTER X

1. EB, X, 941d.

2. Rémusat, 47.

3. Las Cases, III, 258.

4. Mistler, I, 137.

5. Ross, E. A., Social Control, 276.

6. Auction Magazine, November 1971, p. 35.

7. Bourrienne, I, 311.

8. Méneval, I, 108.

9. Cronin, Vincent, Napoleon Bonaparte, 182.

10. Méneval, I, 416.

11. Ed.’s note to Bourrienne, I, 312.

12. Masson, F., Napoleon at Home, I, 90.

13. Méneval, I, 411.

14. MacLaurin, C., Post Mortem, 220; Howarth, David, Waterloo, 52 ff.

15. Las Cases, II, 252; MacLaurin, 222; Friedrich Kircheisen in New York Times, Feb. 26, 1931.

16. Méneval, I, 412.

17. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 44.

18. Rosebury, Theodor, Microbes and Morals, 158.

19. Las Cases, III, 146; I, 236.

20. Ibid., III, 391.

21. I, 392.

22. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 68.

23. Ibid., 69.

24. Ibid.

25. Bourrienne, I, 294.

26. Méneval, I, 346, 415.

27. Bourrienne, I, 309.

28. Las Cases, III, 346.

29. Herold, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, xvii.

30. Méneval, I, 353.

31. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 18 ff.

32. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 30.

33. Source lost.

34. Taine, I, 19; Madelin, 1,30.

35. Bourrienne, I, 315; Méneval, I, 356; Taine, I, 54.

36. Bourrienne, I, 310.

37. Las Cases, I, 251.

38. Napoleon, Letters, 68 (Oct. 7, 1797).

39. Sorel, Albert, Europe and the French Revolution, VI, 205, in Geyl, 251.

40. Fouché, Memoirs, II, 52.

41. Brandes, Main Currents, I, 29.

42. Lewes, Life of Goethe, II, 312.

43. Las Cases, I, 311.

44. Bourrienne, II, 102.

45. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 60.

46. Herold, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, 256.

47. Ibid., No. XXXVI.

48. Taine, I, 35.

49. Napoleon, Letters, III (Dec. 12, 1804).

50. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 66.

51. Rémusat, 95.

52. Herold, 43.

53. Breed, Lewis, The Opinions and Reflections of Napoleon, 114.

54. Fouché, Memoirs, II, 18; Rémusat, 370.

55. Las Cases, I, 379; Lefebvre, I, 64.

56. Caulaincourt, 71.

57. Las Cases, III, 318.

58. Rose, Personality of Napoleon, 29.

59. Rémusat, 60.

60. Masson, Napoleon at Home, I, 163.

61. Bourrienne, I, 317.

62. Ibid., 328.

63. Méneval, I, 128.

64. Taine, Modern Regime, II, 45.

65. Las Cases, IV, 154–61.

66. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 64.

67. Constant, Véry, Memoirs, I, 6 and xii.

68. Rémusat, 102.

69. Caulaincourt, 27.

70. Goodrich, Court of Napoleon, 375.

71. Ibid., 371.

72. Staël, Mme. de, Considérations, 334.

73. Méneval, I, 221.

74. Masson, Napoleon at Home, 168.

75. Méneval, I, 350; Las Cases, III, 345.

76. Méneval, I, 353.

77. Las Cases, III, 330.

78. In Rose, Personality, 119.

79. Bertaut, Napoleon in His Own Words, 125–26.

80. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 211.

81. Las Cases, II, 244.

82. Rose, 86.

83. Ibid., 200.

84. Bourrienne, III, 95.

85. Bertaut, 126.

86. Herold, 211.

87. Méneval, II, 534.

88. Rose, Personality, 119.

89. Herold, 217.

90. Rose, 110.

91. Herold, 217; Las Cases, II, 26.

92. Emerson, Representative Men, 254.

93. Canton, Napoléon antimilitariste, 146.

94. Bertaut, 122; Rose, Personality, 347; Guérard, French Civilization in the 19th Century, 62.

95. Bourrienne, I, 314.

96. Las Cases, II, 12.

97. CMH, IX, 114.

98. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 227.

99. Canton, 214.

100. Herold, 206.

101. Quoted in Gooch, G. P., History and Historians in the 19th Century, 2d ed., 259.

102. Herold, 276–77.

103. Las Cases, IV, 37.

104. Ibid., II, 384.

105. Rémusat, 451.

106. Las Cases, I, 181.

107. Bourguignon, I, introduction, p. ii.

108. Rémusat, 71, 319; Taine, Modern Regime, I, 70; Las Cases, IV, 163.

109. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 162.

110. Ibid., 9.

111. 162.

112. Bourrienne, I, 237.

113. Herold, 172.

114. Ibid., 171.

115. Bourguignon, I, 38.

116. Herold, 92.

117. Bourrienne, I, 380.

118. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 134a, 480.

119. Herold, 162.

120. Las Cases, III, 256.

121. Bourrienne, I, 325 notes, 293, 367a, 327a; Taine, I, 193.

122. Bertaut, 79.

123. Herold, 255.

124. Ibid., 30–31.

125. Bourrienne, I, 327.

126. Herold, 30; Bertaut, 107–8.

127. Las Cases, II, 253.

128. Taine, II, 3–4.

129. Herold, 32.

130. Bertaut, 11.

131. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 166.

132. Herold, 33.

133. Kircheisen, 160.

134. Aulard in Geyl, 323; Herold, 105.

135. Bertaut, 112–13; Taine, II, 5.

136. Bertaut, 114.

137. Taine, II, 6.

138. Bertaut, 32.

139. Herold, 20.

140. Bertaut, 28.

141. Herold, 21.

142. Kircheisen, 154.

143. Bertaut, 32–33.

144. Herold, 23.

145. Kircheisen, 153.

146. Ibid., 152.

147. Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 301.

148. Napoleon, Letters, 180.

149. Bertaut, 5.

150. Ibid., 146.

151. Herold, 73.

152. Bertaut, 1.

153. Ibid., 46.

154. 54.

155. Las Cases, III, 241.

156. Ibid., I, 400.

157. Bertaut, 65.

158. Las Cases, III, 242.

159. Ibid., IV, 104; Bourrienne, II, 218.

160. Herold, 40–41.

161. Mossiker, 34.

162. Ibid., 20.

163. Levy, M., Private Life of Napoleon, I, 274.

164. Bertaut, 9.

165. Herold, 40.

166. Ibid., 36.

167. 40.

168. Rémusat, 535.

169. Bertaut, 142.

170. Herold, 179.

171. Las Cases, II, 325.

172. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 59.

CHAPTER XI

1. Las Cases, II, 389.

2. Letter to Lucien Bonaparte, Dec. 25, 1799, in Letters, 82.

3. Las Cases, III, 23.

4. Letter to Roederer, in Taine, Modern Regime, I, 265.

5. Breed, The Opinions and Reflections of Napoleon, 121.

6. Lacroix, Directoire, Consulat et Empire, 10.

7. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 291.

8. Mistler, ed., Napoléon et l’Empire, I, 196.

9. Lacroix, 540.

10. Las Cases, III, 94, 340; Rémusat, 345–46; Madelin, I, 294–97.

11. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 190.

12. CMH, IX, 375–76.

13. Guillemin, Henri, Napoléon tel quel, 120–21.

14. Guérard, French Civilization, 77.

15. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 213.

16. Ibid., 216–17.

17. Bourrienne, III, 32.

18. Méneval, II, 595.

19. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 226.

20. Las Cases, II, 36.

21. Ibid., IV, 61.

22. Taine, II, 138.

23. Ibid., 140–41.

24. CMH, IX, 127.

25. Bourrienne, II, 359.

26. Napoleon, Letters, 115.

27. CMH, IX, 127.

28. Rose, Personality of Napoleon, 177; Taine, II, 153.

29. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, II, 275.

30. Taine, I, 67.

31. Ibid., 262.

32. Sainte-Beuve, Monday Chats, 207.

33. Méneval, I, 499.

34. Taine, I, 233.

35. CMH, IX, 114.

36. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 227.

37. CMH, IX, 115.

38. Taine, I, 90; Guérard, French Civilization, 64.

39. Lefebvre, I, 227.

40. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 208.

41. Bertaut, Napoleon in His Own Words, 5.

42. Ibid., 57.

43. Ibid.

44. Musset, Confessions of a Child of the Century, 3.

45. Bourrienne, II, 132.

46. Taine’s phrases. Cf. The Modern Regime, I. 250.

47. Thiers, II, 266–78.

48. Taine, I, 271; Herold, 212.

49. Fouché, Memoirs, I, 296.

50. Goodrich, Court of Napoleon, 157; Las Cases, III, 397.

51. Bertaut, 62.

52. Las Cases, II, 315.

53. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 242.

54. Bertaut, 48.

55. Ibid., 111.

56. Lacroix, 45.

57. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 7.

58. Las Cases, II, 198.

59. Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 272; Rémusat, 227.

60. Ibid., 7; Herold, Mistress to an Age, 287.

61. Rémusat, 53; Herold, Mistress, 290.

62. David’s Mme. Récamier is in the Louvre; Gérard’s is in the Musée de la Ville.

63. Rémusat, 33–37.

64. Herold, Mistress, 288.

65. Junot, Mme., Memoirs, II, 60.

66. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, V, 482.

67. Ibid.

68. 491; CMH, IX, 205.

69. Graetz, V, 492.

70. Ibid., 494.

71. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 186; CMH, IX, 205.

72. Lefebvre, 187.

73. Graetz, V, 500.

CHAPTER XII

1. Masson, F., Napoleon at Home, II, 74.

2. Lacroix, Directoire, Consulat et Empire, 494.

3. Las Cases, III, 97.

4. Grout, D. J., Short History of Opera, 326.

5. Dijon Museum.

6. Goodrich, Court of Napoleon, 299.

7. Muther, R., History of Modem Painting, I, 111.

8. Bertaut, Napoleon in His Own Words, 55.

9. Stranahan, C. H., History of French Painting, 129.

10. Las Cases, I, 368.

11. Mantzius, K., History of Theatrical Art, VI, 164.

12. Ibid., 163.

13. Goodrich, 118.

14. In Lacroix, 188.

15. Goodrich, 390.

16. Dumas père, Alexandre, Mes Mémoires, IV, 27, in Mantzius, VI, 178.

17. Rémusat, 58–62.

18. Lacroix, 189.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 156.

2. Mistler, ed., Napoléon et l’Empire, I, 231.

3. Méneval, I, 185.

4. Herold, 121.

5. Time Magazine, Oct. 19, 1970, p. 43.

6. Mistler, I, 232.

7. Herold, Mind of Napoleon, 132.

8. Goodrich, Court of Napoleon, 249.

9. Ibid., 250.

10. Taine, Modern Regime, II, 200.

11. Ibid.

12. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 19.

13. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of Celebrated Women, 224.

14. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 77.

15. Bourrienne, II, 364–66.

16. Staël, Mme. de, Corinne, introduction, xvi.

17. Brandes, G., Main Currents in 19th Century Literature, I, 94.

18. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 25.

19. Ibid., 74.

20. Stevens, Abel, Mme. de Staël, II, 263.

21. Las Cases, IV, 7.

22. Taine, Modern Regime, I, 29n.

23. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 150.

24. Herold, Mistress to an Age, 186.

25. In Brandes, Main Currents, I, 94.

26. Staël, Mme. de, Considérations, 97.

27. Ibid., I.

28. Staël, Mme. de, De la Littérature, II.

29. In Herold, Mistress, 210.

30. Ibid., 211.

31. 233.

32. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 8.

33. In Herold, 259.

34. Source illegible.

35. Herold, 263.

36. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 105.

37. Stevens, Abel, Mme. de Staël, I, 32.

38. Herold, 293.

39. Madelin, I, 368.

40. Herold, 342.

41. Ibid., 343.

42. Corinne, 37–38.

43. Ibid., 18–20.

44. Herold, 344.

45. Ibid., 363.

46. 369.

47. Brockway and Winer, Second Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 315.

48. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 38.

49. Ibid., 34, 84.

50. 34.

51. 31.

52. 42.

53. 90–93.

54. De la Littérature, 21.

55. Germany, I, 114.

56. Ibid., II, 84.

57. II, 187.

58. 297.

59. Corinne, 125.

60. Germany, I, 36.

61. E.g., Germany, II, 188; cf. Stevens, II, 26.

62. Stevens, 218.

63. Ten Years’ Exile, 246n.

64. Ibid., 304.

65. Source lost.

66. Staël, Mme. de, Considérations, 432.

67. Ibid.

68. 430.

69. Stevens, II, 313.

70. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of Celebrated Women, 204.

71. Stevens, I, 4.

72. Bertaut, Napoleon in His Own Words, 77–78; Las Cases, IV, 7.

73. Constant, B., The Red Notebook, 112.

74. Ibid., 123.

75. 133.

76. Herold, Mistress, 151.

77. Nicholson, H., Benjamin Constant, 140.

78. Herold, 240, 246.

79. Ibid., 248.

80. Constant, B., Journal intime, 155.

81. Ibid., 155–65.

82. 172.

83. 242.

84. Ibid.

85. Herold, 463.

86. In Nicholson, 255.

87. Ibid., 273.

88. Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand et son groupe littéraire, I, 13.

89. Faguet, Émile, Dix-septième Siècle: Études et portraits littéraires, 70.

90. Chateaubriand, Memoirs, ed. Baldick, preface, xx.

91. Ibid., 5.

92. 39.

93. 39.

94. 46–47.

95. 47.

96. 56.

97. 122.

98. In Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, I, 128.

99. Ibid., 203 ff

100. Memoirs, ed. Baldick, 150.

101. Lanson, Histoire de la littérature française, 887n.

102. Memoirs, 157.

103. Ibid., 191.

104. Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, I, 149.

105. In Faguet, Dix-neuvième Siècle: Études littéraires, 14.

106. Sainte-Beuve, I, 175.

107. In Faguet, 14.

108. Chateaubriand, Atala and René, 72 ff.

109. Ibid., 87.

110. Lemaître, Jules, Chateaubriand, 146.

111. Chateaubriand, The Genius of Christianity, 190.

112. Lemaître, 138.

113. The Genius of Christianity, 148.

114. Lemaître, 150.

115. Ibid., 326–27.

116. 321.

117. Atala and René, 135.

118. Brandes, Main Currents, I, 29.

119. Bertaut, 76.

120. Memoirs, 208.

121. Ibid., 216.

122. Ibid., preface, xiv.

123. 218.

124. 231.

125. Mémoires d’outre-tombe, volume on Napoleon, 391.

126. Memoirs, ed. Baldick, 244.

127. Ibid., 153.

128. In Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, I, 149n.

129. Mémoires, appendix, 457.

130. Ibid., 463.

131. 481.

132. 497–509.

133. Memoirs, ed. Baldick, 261.

CHAPTER XIV

1. NCMH, IX, 124.

2. Bernal, Science in History, 381.

3. EB, IX, 667a.

4. NCMH, IX, 133.

5. Berry, Short History of Astronomy, 307. Repeated from The Age of Voltaire, 549.

5a. Bertrand, Napoleon at St. Helena, 168; Castiglione, History of Medicine, 714; letter of Dr. Elmer Belt.

6. Sigerist, H. E., The Great Doctors, 240, 274.

7. Ibid., 276.

8. Garrison, F., History of Medicine, 412.

9. Castiglione, Arturo, History of Medicine, 701.

10. Hippocrates, Works, VI, “Decorum.”

11. Williams, H. S., History of Science, III, 78 ff.

12. Ibid., IV, 104–6.

13. Locy, W. A., Biology and Its Makers, 382.

14. EB, XIII, 614–17.

15. Ibid.

16. Destutt de Tracy in Boas, George, French Philosophers of the Romantic Period, 25.

17. Ibid.

18. Taine, Modern Regime, II.

19. Taine, Les Philosophes classiques du XIXe siècle en France, 55.

20. John Knox’s phrase. See The Age of Reason Begins, 115.

21. Maine de Biran, The Influence of Habit on the Faculty of Thinking, 115.

22. Ibid., 122.

23. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, I, 365.

24. Phillips, C. S., The Church in France, I, 192–93.

25. Maistre, Soirées de Saint-Pétersbourg, I, 149.

26. Maistre, Works, 57.

27. Ibid., 52.

28. 86.

29. 196.

30. 74.

31. Soirées, I, 10.

32. Ibid., II, 222.

33. I, 24.

34. 182.

35. 31.

36. II, 64.

37. II 254.

38. Ibid.

39. Works, 62.

40. Soirées, II, 24.

41. Works, 163, 177.

42. Ibid., 166.

CHAPTER XV

1. Bertrand, Henri, Napoleon at St. Helena, 148.

2. Hobsbawn, E. J., The Pelican Economic History of Britain, 10.

3. Kropotkin, Modern Science and Anarchism, 84, 87.

4. Quennell, History of Everyday Things in England, 198.

5. Heilbroner, R. L., The Worldly Philosophers, 67, 85.

6. Watson, J. S., The Reign of George III, 517.

7. Owen, Robert, A New View of Society, 120.

8. Ibid., 123.

9. Halévy, Élie, History of the English People in 1815, 245.

10. Watson, 530.

11. Kropotkin, Modern Science and Anarchism, 33.

12. Rogers, J. E. Thorold, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, III.

13. Watson, 526.

14. Kropotkin, 33.

15. EB, XVIII, 494.

16. Kropotkin, 80n.

17. Rogers, 110.

18. Tocqueville, Journeys to England and Wales, 107, in Hobsbawn.

19. Rudé, G., The Crowd in History, 238.

20. Heilbroner, 98.

21. Malthus, Essay on Population (1798), 14.

22. Malthus, Essay (1803), 106.

23. Heilbroner, 90.

24. Carlyle, Latter-Day Pamphlets, No. 1 (1850).

25. Heilbroner, 95.

26. Owen, A New View of Society, “Catechism,” 172.

27. Owen, New View, 86.

28. Heilbroner, 98; Russell, Bertrand, Understanding History, 24.

29. Owen, address at New Lanark, in A New View of Society, 95.

30. Ibid., 65.

31. Title page of first edition of A New View of Society.

32. New View, 20.

33. Ibid., 98.

34. 35.

35. 52–53.

36. 112.

37. 83.

38. 68.

39. 162–69.

40. 140–47.

41. 246.

42. 86.

43. III.

44. EB, XVI, 1174b.

45. Cole, G. D. H., Robert Owen, 187.

46. Ibid., 91.

47. 231.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Beard, Charles, Introduction to the English Historians, 520.

2. Watson, George, III, 335; Hobsbawn, 95.

3. Halévy, History of the English People in 1815, 195.

4. Bertrand, H., Napoleon at St. Helena, 77.

5. Further details in Rousseau and Revolution, 684.

6. Dicey, Law and Public Opinion in England during the 19th Century, 116.

7. Halévy, 293.

8. Blackstone in Halévy, 101.

9. Las Cases, II, 366.

10. Plumb, J. H., The First Four Georges, 147.

11. Burke, Thomas, English Night Life, passim; Thackeray, The Four Georges, 84.

12. Thackeray, The Four Georges, 93; Plumb, 138, 101.

13. Markun, Leo, Mrs. Grundy: A History of Four Centuries of Morals, 219.

14. EB, X, 212b.

15. Trevelyan, G. M., English Social History, 493.

16. Mill, J. S., On Bentham and Coleridge, 134 f.

17. NCMH, IX, 177.

18. Markun, 251.

19. Sorel, Albert, Europe and the French Revolution, I, 352.

20. Halévy, 370.

21. Corti, E. C, Rise of the House of Rothschild, Ch. II, III, IV; Finkelstein, Louis, ed., The Jews, I, 266.

22. Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, Book V, Ch. XIII.

23. Ibid., Book VIII, Ch. x.

24. Halévy, 464.

25. Trevelyan, English Social History, 459.

26. Monroe, Paul, Text-book in the History of Education, 724; EB, VII, 996c; Halévy, 463.

27. Hirsh, Diana, The World of Turner, 100.

28. Plumb, J. H., The First Four Georges, 180.

29. Trevelyan, 491.

30. Dicey, Law and Public Opinion, 371–73.

31. EB, X, 518 d.

32. Wollstonecraft, Mary, Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 154.

33. Ibid., 142.

34. 47, 139.

35. 80.

36. 44.

37. 46, 83, 128.

38. 75.

39. 69.

40. 5.

41. 83.

42. 64.

43. EB, X, 519c.

44. Vindication, 196.

45. Ibid., 157.

46. Van Doren, Dorothy, The Lost Art: Letters of Seven Famous Women, 137–78.

47. Markun, Mrs. Grundy, 235.

48. Dicey, 87; Watson, 446; Halévy, 10.

49. Trevelyan, 499.

50. EB, XX, 635a.

51. Traill, H. D., Social England, V, 495.

52. Watson, 548.

53. Traill, Social England, V, 499.

54. Wright, Raymond, Prose of the Romantic Period, 41.

55. Ibid.; Markun, 232.

56. Austen, Jane, Mansfield Park, Ch. XXI.

57. In Fruman, Coleridge, the Damaged Archangel, 372.

58. Burke, Thomas, English Night Life, 103.

59. EB, XX, 478d.

60. Mantzius, Karl, History of Theatrical Art, VI, 30.

61. Burke, Night Life, 84; Mantzius, VI, 56.

62. Mantzius, VI, 79.

63. Burke, 81.

64. EB, XIII, 263.

65. Mantzius, VI, 94.

66. Halévy, 8.

67. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 84.

CHAPTER XVII

1. In the Victoria and Albert Museum.

2. Ibid.

3. EB, VIII, 280d.

4. Plumb, The First Four Georges, 164.

5. Hirsh, The World of Turner, 56.

6. Mistler, Napoléon et l’Empire, I, 234.

7. EB, X, 419.

8. Pelican Guide to English Literature, V, 258.

9. New York Evening Post, April 13, 1918.

10. Russell, A. G., The Engravings of William Blake, plates 6–7.

11. Hirsh, 123.

12. G. W. Thornbury, in Hirsh, 17. This section is especially indebted to Diana Hirsh, The World of Turner.

13. EB, XXII, 412d.

14. Hirsh, 7.

15. Ibid., 169.

16. EB, XXII, 413.

17. Hirsh, 175.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Wolf, A., History of Science, Technology and Philosophy in the 18th Century, 197.

2. Williams, H. S., History of Science, III, 216.

3. Garrison, History of Medicine, 350.

4. Moore, F. J., History of Chemistry, 68.

5. Ibid., 69.

6. Williams, H. S., III, 234.

7. EB, VII, 109b.

8. In Osborn, H. F., From the Greeks to Darwin, 146.

9. Sedgwick and Tyler, Short History of Science, 426.

10. Garrison, 375.

CHAPTER XIX

1. EB, XVII, 376.

2. Paine, Thomas, The Age of Reason, Part II, preface.

3. Ibid., 5.

4. 6.

5. 9.

6. Ibid.

7. 30.

8. 74.

9. William Paley, Natural Theology, in Wright, R., Prose of the Romantic Period, 74, 73.

10. EB, XVII, 175a.

11. Hazlitt, Lectures on the English Poets and The Spirit of the Age, 183.

12. Ibid.

13. Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, Book IV, Ch. I.

14. Ibid., VI, II.

15. IV, VII.

16. IV, VIII.

17. IV, XI.

18. IV, v.

19. XV.

20. VIII, VIII.

21. I, iv.

22. I, III.

23. VIII, v.

24. VIII, II.

25. II, v.

26. I, III.

27. V, XI; III, VII; VIII, II.

28. VIII, II.

29. IV, IV.

30. I, IV.

31. XV, XVI.

32. EB, X, 519d.

33. Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population, 4.

34. Ibid., 7, 12, 86.

35. 26–31; Heilbroner, 85.

36. Malthus, 49.

37. Ibid., 51.

38. Malthus, Second Essay on Population, 98.

39. Ibid., 101.

40. Heilbroner, 85.

41. Ibid., 71.

42. Hazlitt, Spirit of the Age, 276.

43. R. K. Wilson in Dicey, Law and Opinion, 133.

44. Bentham, Anarchical Fallacies, in Encyclopedia of Philosophy, I, 284c.

45. Benn, Alfred, History of English Rationalism, I, 295.

46. Ibid., 297.

47. Bentham, Fragment on Government, 3, 56.

48. Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 102–3.

49. Bentham, Works, X, 73, in Dicey, 133.

50. EB, XI, 913b.

51. Helvétius, De l’Esprit, 6, 17.

52. Leviticus xix, 18.

CHAPTER XX

1. Austen, Jane, Mansfield Park, in Complete Novels, 733.

2. Pride and Prejudice, 242.

3. Margoliouth, H. M., William Blake, 3; EB, III, 755d.

4. EB, III, 755d.

5. Blake, “Jerusalem,” in Selected Poems, 277.

6. Blake, Poems and Prophecies, 392.

7. Margoliouth, 7.

8. EB, 756b.

9. Margoliouth, 63.

10. Blake, Poems and Prophecies, 289.

CHAPTER XXI

1. “To a Butterfly.”

2. Moorman, Mary, William Wordsworth: The Early Years, 71.

3. Ibid., 150.

4. 153.

5. Wordsworth, The Prelude, Book IX, in Poems, 297.

6. Moorman, Early Years, 201.

7. The Prelude, XI, in Poems, 311.

8. Ibid., x, in Poems, 305.

9. Moorman, Early Years, 13, 171; Bateson, F. W., Wordsworth: A Re-interpretation, 186.

10. “Tintern Abbey,” lines 118–19.

11. Moorman, Early Years, 288.

12. Letter to Thomas Poole, in Coleridge, Selected Poetry and Prose, 528–29.

13. Thornton, J. C., Table Talk, 171.

14. Gilman, James, Life of Coleridge, 20–21, in Fruman, Coleridge, the Damaged Archangel, 65.

15. Letter of October, 1791, in Coleridge, Selected Poerty and Prose, 534–37.

16. Ibid,, 143.

17. Colmer, John, Coleridge Critic of Society, 112.

18. In White, R. J., Political Tracts of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley, p. xxxii.

19. Coleridge, Letters, I, 221 and 224, in Lowes, J. L., The Road to Xanadu, 600.

20. In Moorman, Early Years, 317.

21. The Prelude, XIV, in Wordsworth, Complete Poems, 331.

22. Gardner, Martin, ed., The Annotated Ancient Mariner, 16.

23. Wordsworth, Dorothy, Journals, 4–6.

24. Moorman, Early Years, 373.

25. Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, 147.

26. Wordsworth and Coleridge, Lyrical Ballads, 3.

27. Gardner, 172.

28. Lyrical Ballads, p. 95, line 294.

29. Ibid., p. 113, lines 36–49.

30. Lines 88–112.

31. Lines 133–42.

32. Gardner, 24; Winwar, Farewell the Banner, 265.

33. Lyrical Ballads, appendix, p. 173.

34. Letter to John Wilson, June, 1805, Bateson, 175.

35. Letter of March 25, 1801, in Selected Poetry and Prose, 591.

36. Dorothy Wordsworth, the Grasmere Journal, June 9–20, 1800; May 13–18 and July 3, 1802.

37. Journal, June 20, 1800.

38. Complete Poems, 166.

39. Journal, June 19, 1802.

40. Ibid., June 25, 1800.

41. Feb. 1, 1802.

42. June 10, 1800.

43. Dec. 11, 1801.

44. Dec. 12, 1801.

45. Dec. 22, 1801.

46. Moorman, William Wordsworth: The Later Years, 29n.

47. Journal, Sept. 1, 1800.

48. Ibid., Nov. 4, 1800.

49. Moorman, Early Years, 520.

50. Complete Poems, 173.

51. Moorman, Early Years, 573.

52. Ibid.

53. Journals, 57.

54. Colmer, Coleridge Critic of Society, 55.

55. Ibid., 78n.

56. Fruman, 264.

57. Coleridge, Selected Poetry and Prose, 115.

58. Notebooks, note 1214, in Fruman, 377.

59. Ibid., 380.

60. Fruman, 26–58.

61. Moorman, Early Years, 612.

62. Notebooks, note 2091, in Fruman, 431.

63. Moorman, Later Years, 87.

64. Gardner, 26.

65. Moorman, Later Years, 165.

66. Ibid.

67. 195.

68. Robinson, Henry Crabb, Diary, I, 207–12.

69. Winwar, 330.

70. Ibid.

71. Letter to Wordsworth, May 10, 1815.

72. White, R. J., 15–16.

73. Coleridge, Selected Poetry and Prose, 497.

74. White, R. J., 8.

75. Ibid., 17–18, 11–12.

76. 60.

77. 77, 102.

78. Coleridge, Selected Poetry and Prose, 140.

79. White, R. J., 108.

80. Ibid., 83–85; Mill, J. S., On Bentham and Coleridge, 96.

81. White, R. J., 93.

82. Coleridge in Benn, History of English Rationalism, I, 249.

83. White, R. J., 85.

84. Biographia Literaria, Ch. IX, p. 70.

85. Fruman, 70–71, 81, 101, etc.

86. Biographia, 72, 74.

87. Ibid., Ch. xxii, p. 236.

88. Moorman, Later Years, 186.

89. Pelican Guide to English Literature, V, 154.

90. Moorman, Later Years, 55.

91. EB, XXIII, 678d.

92. Moorman, Later Years, 260.

93. Hazlitt, Spirit of the Age, 256–57.

94. Moorman, Later Years, 181.

95. Thornton, Table Talk, 211.

96. Moorman, Later Years, 314–15n.

97. Winwar, 328.

98. Coleridge, Selected Poetry and Prose, 671.

99. Thornton, 177, 145.

100. Colmer, John, Coleridge Critic of Society, 157.

101. Benn, I, 285.

102. Coleridge, Selected Poetry and Prose, 469.

103. De Quincey, Collected Writings, I, 77, in Fruman, 84.

104. Thornton, 255.

105. Gardner, 33.

106. Wright, R., Prose of the Romantic Period, 26.

107. Hazlitt, Lectures on the English Poets, 163.

108. Moorman, Later Years, 580 81.

109. Ibid., 115.

110. 36.

111. Wright, 35.

112. NCMH, IX, 109.

113. Moorman, Later Years, 239.

114. Marchand, L. A., Byron, I, 412.

115. Ibid., 421.

116. Hazlitt, Spirit of the Age, 258.

117. Moorman, Later Years, 292, 452.

118. Wright, 50.

CHAPTER XXII

1. Marchand, Byron, I, 4.

2. Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto IV, line 10.

3. Marchand, I, 36.

4. Ibid., 94.

5. EB, IV, 509c.

6. Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, I, 205; III, 98.

7. Marchand, I, 235.

8. Byron, Works, 205, note 1; Marchand, I, 238.

9. Ibid., 263.

10. 286.

11. 401.

12. Works, p. xxii.

13. Marchand, I, 437.

14. Ibid., 360.

15. 334.

16. 333.

17. 360.

18. Mayne, Life and Letters of Anna Isabella, Lady Noel Byron, 48–49.

19. EB, IV, 510a.

20. Marchand, I, 403.

21. Ibid., 446.

22. 429.

23. 465–69.

24. II, 479, 485.

25. 479.

26. Mayne, 154.

27. Marchand, II, 510.

28. Mayne, 161; Marchand, II, 510.

29. Mayne, 161.

30. Ibid., 162.

31. Mayne, 165; Marchand, II, 513.

32. Marchand, II, 527.

33. Ibid., 547.

34. Mayne, 190; Marchand, II, 544.

35. Marchand, II, 549.

36. Ibid., 551–52.

37. 555.

38. 556.

39. 563; Mayne, 203.

40. Marchand, II, 570.

41. Mayne, 209; Marchand, II, 572.

42. Marchand, II, 576–77.

43. Dowden, Life of Shelley, I, 4n.

44. Cameron, The Young Shelley, 3.

45. In Hancock, A. E., The French Revolution and the English Poets, 53.

46. Byron, Letter to Hogg, Jan. 2, 1811, in Cameron, 15.

47. Ibid., 125.

48. Dowden, I, 73.

49. T. J. Hogg, Life of Shelley, in Dowden, I, 45–46.

50. Dowden, I, 118; Cameron, 24.

51. Cameron, 91.

52. 93.

53. Dowden, I, 175.

54. Cameron, 102.

55. Ibid., 97.

56. Dowden, I, 211.

57. Ibid., 215.

58. 218.

59. 260–61.

60. Shelley, Poems, note to Queen Mab, in Complete Poems of Keats and Shelley, Part II, 853.

61. Queen Mab, Canto III, line 33.

62. Ibid., lines 174–77.

63. v, lines 79, 177, 189.

64. VII, line 13.

65. VIII, lines 106–60.

66. Cameron, 274.

67. Dowden, I, 287.

68. Mrs. Shelley, in Shelley, Poems (Complete Poems of Keats and Shelley, Part II, p. v).

69. Dowden, I, 258.

70. Wright, R., Prose Works of the Romantic Period, 138–39.

71. In Cameron, 229.

72. Shelley, Lost Letters to Harriet, 22.

73. T. L. Peacock, Memoirs of Shelley, 336, in Dowden, I, 433.

74. Dowden, I, 424.

75. 425, 429.

76. Shelley, Letters, ed. F. L. Jones, I, 389.

77. Ibid., 421.

78. 391.

79. Marchand, II, 630.

80. Brandes, G., Main Currents, IV, 303.

81. Dowden, II, 30.

82. Brandes, IV, 214.

83. Shelley, Poems, 570.

84. Brandes, IV, 319.

85. Marchand, II, 699.

86. Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, IV, line 25.

87. Marchand, II, 747.

88. Ibid., 681, 740.

89. Prometheus Unbound, Act II, line 305.

90. Ibid., I, 144.

91. II, 523.

92. Poems, 616.

93. Ibid., 464–77.

94. Dowden, II, 381.

95. Ibid., 411.

96. A donais, lines 151–52.

97. Stanzas lii, liii, lv.

98. Keats, “Ode to a Nightingale.”

99. Dowden, II, 235; Marchand, II, 757; Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, iv, lines 172–84.

100. Marchand, II, 772.

101. Brandes, IV, 325.

102. In Hirsh, The World of Turner, 109.

103. Marchand, II, 816.

104. Eckermann, J. P., Conversations with Goethe, 261.

105. Marchand, II, 905.

106. Shelley, Letters, II, 316.

107. Marchand, III, 949.

108. Byron, letter of Nov. 10, 1813, in Marchand, I, 420.

109. In Arnold, Matthew, Essays in Criticism, 375.

110. Childe Harold, 1, line 29.

111. Marchand, I, 308; III, 1104, 1108.

112. Ibid., II, 937.

113. 955.

114. Ill, 1126–27.

115. Childe Harold, III, line 55.

116. Ibid., VIII, lines 50–51.

117. Marchand, II, 917.

118. Guiccioli, Countess, My Recollections of Lord Byron.

119. Eckermann, 265.

120. Dowden, II, 389.

121. Ibid., 233.

122. Marchand, III, 1018.

123. Dowden, II, 377.

124. Notes to Prometheus Unbound, in Poems, 295.

125. White, R. J., Political Tracts of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley, 227.

126. Ibid., 236–39.

127. 214.

128. 243.

129. 230–31.

130. 245, 235.

131. Declaration of Rights, No. 18, in Woods, Watt, and Anderson, The Literature of England, II, 319.

132. White, R. J., 247–49.

133. “Defence of Poetry,” in White, R. J., 206.

134. Shelley, Poems, 227.

135. In Dowden, II, 384.

136. “Defence of Poetry,” in White, R. J., 205.

137. Ibid., 204.

138. Cameron, The Young Shelley, 119.

139. Dowden, II, 459.

140. Ibid., 452.

141. 504.

142. Mrs. Shelley, Notes on Poems of 1822, in Shelley, Poems, 716.

143. Dowden, II, 510, 513.

144. Ibid., 507.

145. 518.

146. Mrs. Shelley’s preface to the ed. of 1839, Poems, p. viii.

147. Marchand, III, 1018.

148. Dowden, II, 529.

149. Marchand, III, 1023.

150. Ibid., 1052.

151. Ibid.

152. 1074.

153. 1147.

154. 1212.

155. 1217, 1224.

156. 1232–33

157. 1246.

158. 1261.

159. Maurois, Byron, 547.

160. Mayne, Life of … Lady Byron, 240.

161. Maurois, 546.

162. Marchand, III, 1243n.

163. Maurois, 554.

164. Marchand, III, 1245.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Halévy, History of the English People in 1815, 103; EB, XX, 56b.

2. Scott, Walter, The Heart of Midlothian, 106–7.

3. Halévy, 469.

4. Ibid., 482.

5. On Reid see Rousseau and Revolution, 764; on Hartley see The Age of Voltaire, 581.

6. Wright, R., Prose of the Romantic Period, 86.

7. Scott, Poems, 114.

8. Leslie Stephen in Benn, History of English Rationalism, I, 312.

9. Moorman, William Wordsworth: The Later Years, 463.

10. See Longford, Wellington, 30n.

11. Watson, Reign of George III, 388.

12. Ibid.

13. Cameron, The Young Shelley, 158.

14. Halévy, 419.

15. Lecky, History of England in the 18th Century, VIII, 394 ff.; Rosebery, Lord, Pitt, 189, 193.

16. Petersen, H., Treasury of the World’s Great Speeches, 311.

CHAPTER XXIV

1. Green, J. R., Short History of the English People, III, 1750.

2. Hawkins, Sir John, Life of Samuel Johnson, 198.

3. Petersen, 240.

4. Ibid., 241.

5. Morley, John, Burke, in Biographical Studies, 15.

6. Ibid., 87.

7. Letter to T. Allsop.

8. Paine, Thomas, The Rights of Man, 135.

9. Green, J. R., Ill, 1764.

10. CMH, VIII, 300.

11. Ibid., 304.

12. Southey, Life of Nelson, 42.

13. Ibid., 169.

14. Bowen, Marjorie, Patriotic Lady: Emma, Lady Hamilton, 143.

15. Howarth, David, Trafalgar, 31.

16. Southey, Nelson, 140, 322–23.

17. From a copy in the collection of Sir Douglas Fairbanks. The original is in the British Museum.

18. Nelson, Letters, 462.

19. Howarth, Trafalgar, 132.

20. Southey, Nelson, 274.

21. Howarth, 209–10.

22. Ibid., 239.

23. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 131.

CHAPTER XXV

1. CMH, VIII, 783.

2. Stephens, H. M., The Story of Portugal, 385.

3. Ibid., 395.

4. Borrow, George, The Bible in Spain, 211.

5. Caulaincourt, With Napoleon in Russia, 307.

6. Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, I, line 33.

7. Altamira, R., History of Spanish Civilization, 177–79.

8. Marchand, Byron, I, 194.

9. Borrow, 330–31.

10. Sorel, Albert, Europe and the French Revolution, I, 364.

11. Altamira, Spanish Civilization, 177.

12. Altamira, History of Spain, 536b.

13. Longford, Elizabeth, Wellington: The Years of the Sword, 17.

14. Ibid., 16.

15. 19.

16. EB, XXIII, 395b.

17. Longford, 120.

18. Wingfield-Stratford, Esme, History of British Civilization, 853.

19. Marx and Engels, The Revolution in Spain, 8.

20. Ibid., 30–31.

21. CMH, IX, 449.

22. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 95.

23. Ibid., 94.

24. Longford, 290.

CHAPTER XXVI

1. Sorel, Albert, Europe and the French Revolution, I, 382.

2. Ibid., 381.

3. McCabe, Joseph, Crises in the History of the Papacy, 17.

4. CMH, VIII, 778.

5. McCabe, Crises, 370.

6. Southey, Life of Nelson, 225–28.

7. Méneval, Memoirs, II, 493.

8. Bertrand, H., Napoleon at St. Helena, 41.

9. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 221–22; CMH, IX, 404–6; EB, XV, 1182.

10. EB, XVII, 247b.

11. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, 211.

12. Ibid., 313.

13. Taine, Modern Regime, II, 11.

14. Madelin, 381.

15. McCabe, Crises, 386.

16. Phillips, C. S., The Church in France, 149.

17. CMH, IX, 402.

18. Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 110.

19. McCabe, Crises, 388.

20. Ibid., 389.

21. Marchand, Byron, II, 679.

22. Rémusat, 259.

23. Staël, Mme. de, Corinne, 22.

24. McCabe, 388.

25. More on Alfieri in Rousseau and Revolution, 336–40.

26. Marchand, II, 818.

27. Canova, Antonio, Works, edited by Countess Albruzzi and Count Cicognara, plates 70–71.

28. EB, IV, 800c.

29. Canova, II, 3.

30. Balcarres, Lord, Evolution of Italian Sculpture, 340.

31. Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, IV, line 55.

32. EB, XVI, 246b.

33. Bourrienne, II, 381.

34. Las Cases, III, 255.

CHAPTER XXVII

1. EB, X, 311a.

2. Brion, Marcel, Daily Life in the Vienna of Mozart and Schubert, 37; Rémusat, 309; Fouché, Memoirs, I, 343.

3. Palmer, Alan, Metternich, 11.

4. Ibid., 36.

5. Palmer, Metternich, 48.

6. Vandal, Napoléon et Alexandre, III, 14.

7. Brion, 237.

8. Ibid., 228.

9. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, V, 414.

10. Brion, 239.

11. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, 1,64.

12. Thayer, Life of Ludwig van Beethoven, I, 253.

13. Ibid., 183.

14. Brion, 90.

15. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 67.

CHAPTER XXVIII

1. Thayer, A. W., Life of Ludwig van Beethoven, I, 57.

2. Brockway and Weinstock, Men of Music, 166.

3. Beethoven: Letters, tr. and edited by Emily Anderson, I, 4.

4. EB, 14th ed., III, 317.

5. Thayer, I, 253.

6. Ibid., 90.

7. 149.

8. Letters, I, 6.

9. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, I, 265c.

10. Thayer, I, 175.

11. Grove’s, I, 266c.

12. Thayer, I, 186.

13. Ibid., 191.

14. Grove’s, I, 276d.

15. Ibid.

16. Letters, I, 58.

17. Ibid., 292.

18. Noli, Bp. F. S., Beethoven and the French Revolution, 36 ff.

19. Grove’s I, 267b.

20. Letter to Zmeskal in Noli, 34.

21. Thayer, I, 241, 246–47; Grove’s, I, 268c.

22. Letters, I.

23. Thayer, I, 352–54.

24. Letters, I, 65.

25. Kerst, F., Beethoven in His Own Words, 45.

26. Letters, I, 73.

27. Thayer, II, 24.

28. Grove’s, I, 282d.

29. Ibid., 268b.

30. Thayer, II, 43.

31. Ibid., I, 253.

32. Letters, I, 131.

33. Ibid., 163.

34. 219.

35. Thayer, I, 326–27.

36. Ibid., II, 146.

37. Ibid., 187–89.

38. 223.

39. 227.

40. 224. Thayer damns the story with faint praise: “The story may have some foundation in truth.”

41. 224–26.

42. 364.

43. Letter of Jan. 23, 1823.

44. Láng, Paul Henry, Music in Western Civilization, 769.

45. D. F. Tovey in EB, 14th ed., III, 321b.

46. Thayer, III, 164.

47. Ibid., 164–67.

48. Sullivan, J. W. N., Beethoven: His Spiritual Development, 232–59.

49. Grove’s, I, 300c.

50. Thayer, III, 285.

51. Letters, III, 1339.

52. Ibid., 1342.

53. Thayer, III, 307,

54. Ibid., 306.

55. Grove’s, I, 371d.

CHAPTER XXIX

1. Treitschke, Heinrich von, History of Germany in the 19th Century, I, 119.

2. Sorel, Albert, Europe and the French Revolution, I, 120.

3. Fisher, H. A. L., Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany, 7.

4. Ibid., 120.

5. 196.

6. 268.

7. 53–59.

8. Treitschke, 55.

9. Ibid., 65.

10. In Fisher, H. A. L., 35.

11. Gooch, G. P., Germany and the French Revolution, 369.

12. Ibid., 518.

13. Seeley, J. R., Life and Times of Stein, I, 128; Sorel, Albert, 480.

14. Treitschke, 187.

15. Ibid., 307, 321.

16. Seeley, I, 203.

17. Ibid., 285–97.

18. 425.

CHAPTER XXX

1. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 84.

2. EB, XII, 213d.

3. Fisher, H. A. L., Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany, 13–14.

4. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 306.

5. Fisher, 13.

6. Carlyle, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, II, 59.

7. Fisher, 313,330.

8. Graetz, History of the Jews, V, 405.

9. Somewhere in Walt Whitman.

10. Gooch, Germany and the French Revolution, 363–64.

11. Ibid., 388.

12. See below, Ch. XXXII, Section I, 3.

13. Paulsen, Friedrich, German Education, 117.

14. Fisher, 283.

15. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 116.

16. Gooch, 107.

17. Treitschke, 392.

18. Bell, E. T., Men of Mathematics, 219.

19. Ibid., 220.

20. EB, X, 35b.

21. Bell, E. T., 220.

22. EB, XI, 831d.

23. Humboldt, Alexander von, Cosmos, preface, ix.

24. Thayer, Beethoven, I, 196.

25. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, I, 563n.

26. Ibid., 565.

27. 635.

28. 656.

29. Mantzius, History of Theatrical Art, pp. vi, 234.

30. Ibid., 327.

31. EB., XIII, 399b.

32. Francke, Kuno, A History of German Literature, 469.

33. Ibid., 470.

CHAPTER XXXI

1. Treitschke, 137.

2. Gooch, Germany and the French Revolution, 40.

3. Brandes, Main Currents, IV, 26.

4. Gooch, 145.

5. Ibid., 143.

6. 152.

7. Schiller, Don Carlos, Act III, Scene 6.

8. Gooch, 214.

9. Ibid., 206.

10. Treitschke, 230.

11. Brandes, IV, 35.

12. Marchand, Byron, II, 883.

13. Brandes, 24.

14. Gooch, 248–49.

15. In Carlyle, Critical Essays, II, 119.

16. Gooch, 240.

17. Rousseau and Revolution, 572 ff.

18. In Francke, 416–17.

19. Ibid., 418.

20. Pascal, Roy, The German Novel, 30.

21. Rousseau and Revolution, 519.

22. Francke, 420.

23. Brandes, IV, 69.

24. Ibid., 91.

25. Ibid.; Herold, Mistress to an Age, 271.

26. Brandes, 91.

27. Ibid., 54.

28. William Hazlitt, quoted by Francke, 151.

29. Brandes, 89.

30. Friedrich Schlegel, Gespräche über Poesie, 274, in Lewes, G. H., Life of Goethe, II, 216 f.

CHAPTER XXXII

1. EB, XX, 16d.

2. Adamson, Robert, Fichte, 15.

3. Lost in Whitman.

4. Gooch, Germany and the French Revolution, 284–85.

5. See Rousseau and Revolution, 588.

6. Gooch, 290.

7. Ibid.

8. 291.

9. Adamson, 184; Höffding, History of Modern Philosophy, II, 157.

10. Adamson, 186–88.

11. Fichte, Science of Knowledge, pp. xv and 187.

12. Adamson, 178, 204–5.

13. Ibid., 56–63; Brandes, Main Currents, IV, 88–89.

14. Ibid.

15. Adamson, 77; Gooch, 293.

16. Fichte, The Vocation of Man, 157–60.

17. Fichte, Addresses to the German Nation, 163.

18. Ibid., 28–29.

19. 27.

20. xvi, xxvii.

21. 165.

22. Adamson, 102.

23. Höffding, History of Modern Philosophy, II, 163.

24. In Brandes, 82, quoting Plitt, Aus Schellings Leben, I, 282.

25. Schelling, Of Human Freedom, 21–23.

26. Schelling, The Ages of the World, 76.

27. Of Human Freedom, 26.

28. Cf. Hirsch, E. D., Wordsworth and Schelling, passim.

29. Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, I, 104.

30. Schelling, The Ages of the World, introd. by Frederick Bolman, 8n.

31. Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Idea, II, 22.

32. Caird, Edward, Hegel, 31.

33. Kaufman, Walter, Hegel: Reinterpretation, Texts and Commentary, 61.

34. Caird, 46.

35. Hegel, The Philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Hegel, ed. Carl Friedrich, 526, 532, 539.

36. Weidman, Franz, Hegel, 38, quoting Hegel’s Briefe, I, 120; cf. Caird, 66.

37. Weidman, 64.

38. Hegel, Philosophy, 414.

39. Ibid., 402.

40. Findlay, J. N., Hegel: A Re-examination, 96.

41. Hegel, Philosophy of History, 23.

42. Ibid., 26.

43. Caird, 153.

44. Findlay, 131, 142.

45. In Caird, 195.

46. EB, XI, 300b.

47. Weidman, 76.

48. Hegel, Philosophy of Right, preface, 3.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. 6.

51. Nos. 162–63.

52. No. 170.

53. No. 166.

54. No. 174.

55. No. 270.

56. Weidman, 83, quoting Rudolf Haym, Hegel und seine Zeit, 413 ff.

57. Hegel, Philosophy of Right, No. 260.

58. Ibid., No. 278.

59. No. 281.

60. No. 273, 280.

61. No. 273.

62. Ibid., preface, 4a.

63. Hegel, Philosophy of History, 9.

64. Ibid., 15.

65. 30.

66. 26.

67. 446.

68. 456.

69. Hegel, History of Philosophy, in Hegel, Philosophy, 168.

70. Philosophy of History, 50.

71. Ibid.

72. 17.

73. 49:

74. History of Philosophy, in Hegel, Philosophy, 162.

75. Weidman, 81; Stace, W. T., The Philosophy of Hegel, 31.

76. Weidman, 119.

CHAPTER XXXIII

1. Gooch, Germany and the French Revolution, 48.

2. CMH, IX, 98.

3. Ibid., 106.

4. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 80.

5. NCMH, IX, 110.

6. Moore, F. J., History of Chemistry, 102.

7. Horn, F. W., History of the Literature of the Scandinavian North, 388.

8. CMH, IX, 46.

9. Ibid 47.

10. Our account follows Dudley Pope’s The Great Gamble.

11. CMH, IX, 298.

12. Ibid., 236, 299 ff.

13. Horn, 237.

14. EB, XXI, 1082b.

15. Cambridge History of Poland, II, 213.

16. Dubnow, S. M., History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, I, 298–305; Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 249–51.

17. NCMH, IX, 546.

CHAPTER XXXIV

1. Talleyrand, Memoirs, V, 399.

2. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 330, 310.

3. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 305.

4. Kornilov, Alexander, Modern Russian History, 26.

5. Florinsky, Michael T., Russia: A History and an Interpretation, II, 716.

6. Kornilov, 30.

7. Wiener, Leo, Anthology of Russian Literature, II, 6.

8. Florinsky, II, 701.

9. Maistre, Les Soirées de Saint-Pétersbourg, I, 2, 3.

10. Garrison, History of Medicine, 400.

11. Strakhovsky, L., Alexander I of Russia, 17; Kornilov, 56.

12. Kornilov, 54.

13. Strakhovsky, 17–19.

14. Ibid., 28.

15. Kornilov, 69.

16. Ibid., 26.

17. 81.

18. 103.

19. Caulaincourt, With Napoleon in Russia, 376.

20. Kornilov, 82.

21. Ibid., 100; Florinsky, II, 727.

22. Florinsky, II, 723–27.

23. Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, I, 341.

24. Ibid., 312, 317–20; Kornilov, 105–6.

25. Dubnow, I, 315.

26. Ibid., 343; Graetz, IV, 473.

27. Dubnow, I, 352.

28. Gilbert, O. P., Prince de Ligne, 143.

29. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 361.

30. Pope, The Great Gamble, 288.

31. Réau, Louis, L’Art russe, 90.

32. Ibid., 113.

33. Fiala, Vladimir, Russian Painting, plates 11 and 12.

34. Ibid., plate 13.

35. Staël, Mme. de, Ten Years’ Exile, 303.

36. Strakhovsky, 51.

37. Kropotkin, Peter, Ideals and Realities in Russian Literature, 33.

38. Bruckner, A., A Literary History of Russia, 150.

39. Lefebvre, Napoleon, I, 201.

40. Kornilov, 128.

41. EB, XI, 9c.

42. Kornilov, 131.

43. Lefebvre, II, 269.

44. Vandal, Napoléon et Alexandre, III, 58.

45. Ibid., II, 509.

46. In Treitschke, 45.

47. Méneval, II, 787; Vandal, II, 532.

48. Florinsky, II, 638.

CHAPTER XXXV

1. Watson, The Reign of George III, 469; Mistler, Napoléon et l’Empire, II, 66.

2. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 179.

3. Vandal, Napoléon et Alexandre, III, 26.

4. Lefebvre, II, 109, 123–26.

5. Ibid., 127–28.

6. Mistler, II, 184–89.

7. Ibid., 185.

8. Vandal, III, 139.

9. Ibid., 34, 39, 597.

10. Kornilov, 195.

11. Caulaincourt, With Napoleon in Russia, Ch. I.

12. Méneval, Memoirs, II, 808.

13. Vandal, III, 326.

14. Ibid., 2–4.

15. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 195.

16. Letter of Dec. 19, 1811, in Napoleon, Letters, 263; Palmer, Alan, Napoleon in Russia, 31.

17. Letter of Dec. 20, 1811.

18. Guérard, French Civilization in the 19th Century, 76.

19. Édouard Driault, in Geyl, Napoleon: For and Against, 311.

20. Caulaincourt, 25.

21. Fouché, Memoirs, II, 85 f.

22. Letters of Nov. 1, 1811, in Napoleon, Letters, 259–60.

23. Kircheisen, 196.

24. Méneval, III, 894.

25. Taine, Modern Regime, 37; Vandal, III, 343.

26. Mistler, II, 202.

27. Ibid., 449.

28. 204.

29. Palmer, Alan, Napoleon in Russia, 48.

30. Letters, 270 (July 14, 1812).

31. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 314.

32. Herold, ed., The Mind of Napoleon, 205.

33. Letters, 271.

34. Ibid., note by J. M. Thompson.

35. Palmer, Alan, Napoleon in Russia, 81.

36. Kircheisen, 188.

37. Mistler, II, 207.

38. Palmer, Alan, Napoleon in Russia, 113.

39. Testimony of Napoleon’s physician in Mestivier, in Delderfield, The Retreat from Moscow, 62.

40. Caulaincourt, 152.

41. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 3.

42. Caulaincourt, 152.

43. Méneval, III, 859.

44. Strakhovsky, Alexander I of Russia, 94.

45. Las Cases, III, 167.

46. Ibid., 172.

47. EB, XV, 878c.

48. Delderfield, 82.

49. Caulaincourt, 122; Lefebvre, II, 315.

50. Letters, 273.

51. Mistler, II, 210.

52. Méneval, III, 865.

53. Caulaincourt, 132; Kircheisen, 199.

54. Palmer, Alan, Napoleon in Russia, 177.

55. Caulaincourt, 41.

56. Méneval, III, 871; Kircheisen, 200.

57. Strakhovsky, 138.

58. Caulaincourt, 192.

59. Méneval, III, 887.

60. Ibid., Ill, 373; Delderfield, 109–11.

61. Palmer, Alan, Napoleon in Russia, 221.

62. Ibid., 222.

63. Méneval, III, 874–78; Caulaincourt, 230; Mistler, II, 212.

64. Caulaincourt, 261.

65. Delderfield, 175.

66. Mistler, II, 215.

67. Caulaincourt, 325.

68. Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations, 13th ed., 399.

69. Note to Bertrand, Napoleon at St. Helena, 265.

70. Méneval, III, 888.

CHAPTER XXXVI

1. EB, XVI, 25a.

2. Strakhovsky, Alexander I of Russia, 141.

3. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, VIII, 338.

4. Francke, History of German Literature, 492.

5. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, VIII, 435–36.

6. Ibid.

7. Caulaincourt, Memoirs, II, 213, in Herold, ed., Mind of Napoleon, 195.

8. Mistler, Napoléon et l’Empire, II, 217.

9. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 329.

10. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, II, 214.

11. Ibid., 217.

12. Mistler, II, 221.

13. Ibid., 221–22; Thiers, IX, 130–40; Las Cases, III, 223–24.

14. Thiers, IX, 155; Mistler, II, 222.

15. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 203; Las Cases, III, 278.

16. Mistler, II, 225a.

17. Thiers, IX, 259.

18. Lefebvre, II, 390; Thiers, IX, 276.

19. Thiers, 283.

20. Madelin, II, 258.

21. Ibid., 266.

22. Méneval, III, 952; Madelin, II, 265; Thiers, IX, 353.

23. Thiers, 365.

24. Ibid., 369.

25. Fain, Agathon, Memoirs of the Invasion of France by the Allied Armies, 79–81.

26. Mistler, II, 236.

27. Ibid., 239.

28. Fain, 107.

29. Méneval, III, 244.

30. Thiers, X, 139.

31. Mistler, II, 245 ff.

32. Thiers, X, 138.

33. Fain, 271.

34. Bertrand, H., Napoleon at St. Helena, 53.

35. Fain, 257.

36. Mistler, II, 249.

37. Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 375.

38. Petersen, ed., Treasury of the World’s Great Speeches, 324.

39. Méneval, III, 1047; Fain, 268.

40. Ortzen, Imperial Venus, 157.

CHAPTER XXXVII

1. EB, XIV, 346d.

2. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, X, 317.

3. Ibid., 443; Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 360.

4. Brion, Daily Life in the Vienna of Mozart and Schubert, 173–78.

5. Thiers, XI, 70.

6. Ibid., 160.

7. Mistler, Napoléon et l’Empire, II, 251.

8. Ibid., 253; Rose, Personality of Napoleon, 230.

9. Mistler, II, 253.

10. Rose, 332; Goodrich, F., The Court of Napoleon, 363.

11. Rose, 336.

12. Thiers, XI, 170.

13. Ibid., 172.

14. 173.

15. Mistler, II, 260.

16. Gourgaud, Journal, Jan. 4, 1817.

17. Thiers, XI, 184.

18. Ibid., 196; Mistler, II, 261.

19. Thiers, XI, 199–201.

20. Ibid., 215.

21. Houssaye, Henri, La Première Abdication, 305.

22. Thiers, XI, 235.

23. Ibid., 268.

24. Mistler, II, 267.

25. Lefebvre, II, 363.

26. Thiers, XI, 437–38.

27. Las Cases, IV, 110.

28. Fouché, Memoirs, II, 246.

29. Madelin, Consulate and Empire, II, 412.

30. Houssaye, 1815: Waterloo, 17.

31. Las Cases, II, 5.

32. Gourgaud, Journal, I, 93.

33. Thiers, XI, 481.

34. Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, III, xxi-xxviii.

35. Houssaye, 1815: Waterloo, 80–81.

36. Mistler, II, 221.

37. Ibid.

38. Houssaye, 1815: Waterloo, 91.

39. EB, XXIII, 286.

40. Longford, Wellington, 438.

41. Howarth, Waterloo, 52, 55–56.

42. MacLaurin, C., Post Mortem, 224–25.

43. Houssaye, 1815: Waterloo, 255.

44. Mistler, II, 276.

45. Longford, 472.

46. Madelin, II, 457.

47. Howarth, Waterloo, 144.

48. Longford, 472.

49. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 223.

50. Houssaye, 1815: Waterloo, 212.

51. Ibid., 221.

52. Houssaye, 1815: La Seconde Abdication, 113.

53. Houssaye, 1815: Waterloo, 216, 224.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

1. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 225.

2. Houssaye, 1815: La Seconde Abdication.

3. Constant, Benjamin, Mémoirs sur les Cent Jours, in Houssaye, 40.

4. Letter of June 19, in Letters, 307.

5. Houssaye, 1815: La Seconde Abdication, 10.

6. Ibid., 61; Mistler, II, 282.

7. Houssaye, 199.

8. Letters, 308 (June 25, 1815).

9. Houssaye, 215, 194.

10. Las Cases, I, 15n.

11. CMH, IX, 644.

12. Houssaye, 337–41.

13. Ibid., 160–66.

14. Talleyrand, Memoirs, introd. by de Broglie, x.

15. Bartlett’s Quotations, 384.

16. Talleyrand, I, x.

17. Lefebvre, Napoleon, II, 367.

18. Houssaye, 561.

19. Mistler, II, 285.

20. Houssaye, 396.

21. From a copy of the original in the Royal Library at Windsor.

22. Las Cases, I, 26.

23. Rosebery, Napoleon: The Last Phase, Appendix I.

24. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, XII, 305.

25. Ibid., 313.

CHAPTER XXXIX

1. Kircheisen, Memoirs of Napoleon I, 260.

2. Las Cases, I, 262.

3. Ibid., 266n.

4. II, 247; III, 115.

5. Mistler, Napoléon et l’Empire, II, 292a; Rosebery, Napoleon: The Last Phase, 172.

6. Las Cases, III, 21.

7. Ibid., II, 40; Rosebery, 152.

8. Las Cases, II, 93.

9. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, XII, 334.

10. Ibid., 335.

11. Las Cases, II, 386.

12. Ibid., III, 139.

13. Rosebery, 109.

14. Ibid., 109; Las Cases, III, 158; Thiers, XII, 338.

15. Las Cases, III, 4.

16. Ibid., II, 139, 177; Rosebery, 89.

17. EB, II, 536a.

18. Bertrand, H., Napoleon at St. Helena, 201.

19. Rosebery, 49, 93.

20. Las Cases, I, 120; II, 322.

21. Rosebery, 53.

22. Mistler, II, 288c; Bertrand, 249, notes.

23. Bertrand, 248.

24. Kircheisen, 224.

25. Rosebery, 180.

26. Kircheisen, 275 (editor’s postscript).

27. Gourgaud, Journal, April 23, 1816.

28. Gourgaud, I, 415.

29. Rosebery, 175.

30. Kircheisen, 227.

31. Ibid.

32. 224.

33. Mistler, II, 8.

34. Herold, Mind of Napoleon, 248.

35. CMH, IX, 762; Herold, 66.

36. Las Cases, IV, 107.

37. Herold, 66.

38. Las Cases, IV, 75.

39. Gourgaud, II, 75; I, 567–68; III, 315; Las Cases, IV, 74.

40. Las Cases, IV, 78.

41. Ibid., II, 120.

42. Bertrand, 112.

43. Las Cases, I, 236.

44. Thiers, XII, 370.

45. Ibid., 377.

46. Mistler, II, 320.

47. Gourgaud, I, 150, and passim.

48. Herold, Mind of Napoleon, introd.

49. MacLaurin, Post Mortem, 211–14.

50. Bertrand, 130.

51. Ibid., 124.

52. Las Cases, IV, 400.

53. Ibid., 411.

54. Kircheisen, 269.

55. Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, I, 250.

56. Gourgaud, I, 440.

57. Ibid., II, 437.

58. Bertrand, 125.

59. Gourgaud, II, 405; Rosebery, 191.

60. Gourgaud, II, 431.

61. Thiers, XII, 366.

62. Ibid., 384.

63. Bertrand, 200, 210.

64. Marquis Charles de Montholon, Histoire de la captivité de Ste.-Hélène, II, 103, in Herold, Mind of Napoleon, 17.

65. Martineau, Gilbert, Napoleon’s St. Helena, 215.

66. Bertrand, 235; MacLaurin, Post Mortem, 215; Rosebery, 240.

67. MacLaurin, 216.

CHAPTER XL

1. Horne, R. H., History of Napoleon, II, 55.

2. Méneval, III, 1025.

3. EB, XV, 1004.

4. Ortzen, Imperial Venus, 69, 92.

5. Ibid., 83.

6. EB, III, 900b.

7. Thiers, History of the Consulate and the Empire, X, 411; Mossiker, Napoleon and Josephine, 399.

8. Méneval, III, 1059.

9. Mistler, Napoléon et l’Empire, II, 304.

10. In Geyl, 33.

11. O’Meara, B., Napoleon in Exile, 363, 176.

12. Las Cases, III, 179.

13. In Hutt, M., Napoleon, 77.

14. Chateaubriand, Memoirs, ed. Baldick, 300.

15. Home, Appendix 2.

16. Ibid., 16.

17. Thackeray, “The Second Funeral of Napoleon,” in Roundabout Papers.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
Previous
Page
Next
Page