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The Age of Napoleon: A History of European Civilization from 1789 to 1815

The Age of Napoleon: A History of European Civilization from 1789 to 1815

The Age of Napoleon surveys the amazing chain of events that wrenched Europe out of the Enlightenment and into the Age of Democracy:
* The French Revolution---from the storming of the Bastille to the guillotining of the King
* The revolution's leaders Danton, Desmoulins, Robespierre, Saint-Just---all cut down by the reign of terror they inaugurated.
* Napoleon's meteoric rise---from the provincial Corsican military student to the Emperor commanding the largest army in history
* Napoleon's fall---his army's destruction in the snows of Russia, his exile to Elba, escape and reconquest of the throne, and ultimate defeat at Waterloo by the combined forces of Europe.
* The birth of romanticism and the dawning of a new age of active democracy and a rising middle class, laying the foundation for our own era.

Book I: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: 1789–99

Chapter I. THE BACKGROUND OF REVOLUTION: 1774–89

I. The French People

II. The Government

Chapter II. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: May 4, 1789-September 30, 1791

I. The States-General

II. The Bastille

III. Enter Marat: 1789

IV. Renunciation: August 4–5, 1789

V. To Versailles: October 5, 1789

VI. The Revolutionary Constitution: 1790

VII. Mirabeau Pays His Debts: April 2, 1791

VIII. To Varennes: June 20, 1791

Chapter III. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY: October 1, 1791-September 20, 1792

I. Persons of the Drama

II. War: 1792

III. Danton

IV. The Massacre: September 2–6, 1792

Chapter IV. THE CONVENTION: September 21, 1792-October 26, 1795

I. The New Republic

II. The Second Revolution: 1793

III. Exit Marat: July 13, 1793

IV. The “Great Committee”: 1793

V. The Reign of Terror: September 17, 1793-July 28, 1794

VI. The Thermidoreans: July 29, 1794-October 26, 1795

Chapter V. THE DIRECTORY: November 2, 1795-November 9, 1799

I. The New Government

II. The Young Napoleon: 1769–95

III. Josephine de Beauharnais

IV. Italian Whirlwind: March 27, 1796-December 5, 1797

V. The Coup d’État of the 18th Fructidor: September 4, 1797

VI. Oriental Fantasy: May 19, 1798-October 8, 1799

VII. The Decline of the Directory: September 4, 1797-November 9, 1799

VIII. Napoleon Takes Charge: The 18th Brumaire (November 9), 1799

Chapter VI. LIFE UNDER THE REVOLUTION: 1789–99

I. The New Classes

II. The New Morality

III. Manners

IV. Music and Drama

V. The Artists

VI. Science and Philosophy

VII. Books and Authors

VIII. Mme. de Staël and the Revolution

IX. Afterthoughts

BOOK II: NAPOLEON ASCENDANT: 1799–1811

Chapter VII. THE CONSULATE: November 11, 1799-May 18, 1804

I. The New Constitution

II. The Campaigns of the Consulate

III. Remaking France: 1802–03

IV. The Paths of Glory

V. The Great Conspiracy: 1803–04

VI. The Road to Empire: 1804

Chapter VIII. THE NEW EMPIRE: 1804–07

I. The Coronation: December 2, 1804

II. The Third Coalition: 1805

III. Austerlitz: December 2, 1805

IV. The Mapmaker: 1806–07

V. Jena, Eylau, Friedland: 1806–07

VI. Tilsit: June 25-July 9, 1807

Chapter IX. THE MORTAL REALM: 1807–11

I. The Bonapartes

II. The Peninsular War: I (October 18, 1807- August 21, 1808)

III. Constellation at Erfurt: September 27-October 14, 1808

IV. The Peninsular War: II (October 29, 1808-November 16, 1809)

V. Fouché, Talleyrand, and Austria: 1809

VI. Marriage and Politics: 1809–11

Chapter X. NAPOLEON HIMSELF

I. Body

II. Mind

III. Character

IV. The General

V. The Ruler

VI. The Philosopher

VII. What Was He?

Chapter XI. NAPOLEONIC FRANCE: 1800–1815

I. The Economy

II. The Teachers

III. The Warriors

IV. Morals and Manners

V. Mme. Récamier

VI. The Jews in France

Chapter XII. NAPOLEON AND THE ARTS

I. Music

II. Varia

III. The Painters

IV. The Theater

Chapter XIII. LITERATURE VERSUS NAPOLEON

I. The Censor

II. Mme. de Staël: 1799–1817

III. Benjamin Constant: 1767–1816

IV. Chateaubriand: 1768–1815

Chapter XIV. SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY UNDER NAPOLEON

I. Mathematics and Physics

II. Medicine

III. Biology

IV. What Is Mind?

V. The Case for Conservatism

BOOK III: BRITAIN: 1789–1812

Chapter XV. ENGLAND AT WORK

I. A Different Revolution

II. At the Bottom

III. The Dismal Science

IV. Robert Owen: 1771–1858

Chapter XVI. ENGLISH LIFE

I. Classes

II. The Government

III. Religion

IV. Education

V. Morality

VI. Manners

VII. The English Theater

VIII. In Sum

Chapter XVII. THE ARTS IN ENGLAND

I. The Artists

II. Architecture

III. From Cartoons to Constable

IV. Turner: 1775–1851

Chapter XVIII. SCIENCE IN ENGLAND

I. Avenues of Progress

II. Physics: Rumford and Young

III. Chemistry: Dalton and Davy

IV. Biology: Erasmus Darwin 391

V. Medicine: Jenner

Chapter XIX. ENGLISH PHILOSOPHY

I. Tom Paine on Christianity

II. Godwin on Justice

III. Malthus on Population

IV. Bentham on Law

Chapter XX. LITERATURE IN TRANSITION

I. The Press

II. Books

III. Jane Austen: 1775–1817

IV. William Blake: 1757–1827

Chapter XXI. THE LAKE POETS: 1770–1850

I. Ambience

II. Wordsworth: 1770–97

III. Coleridge: 1772–94

IV. Southey: 1774–1803

V. Coleridge: 1794–97

VI. A Threesome: 1797–98

VII. Lyrical Ballads: 1798

VIII. The Wandering Scholars: 1798–99

IX. Idyl in Grasmere: 1800–03

X. Love, Labor, and Opium: 1800–10

XI. Coleridge Philosopher: 1808–17

XII. Wordsworth: Climax, 1804–14

XIII. The Sage of Highgate: 1816–34

XIV. On the Fringe

XV. Southey: 1803–43

XVI. Wordsworth Epilogue: 1815–50

Chapter XXII. THE REBEL POETS: 1788–1824

I. The Tarnished Strain: 1066–1809 454

II. The Grand Tour: Byron, 1809–11

III. The Lion of London: Byron, 1811–14

IV. Trial by Marriage: Byron, 1815–16

V. The Youth of Shelley: 1792–1811

VI. Elopement I: Shelley, 1811–12

VII. Elopement II: Shelley, 1812–16

VIII. Swiss Holiday: Byron and Shelley, 1816

IX. Decay in Venice: Byron, 1816–18

X. Shelley Pater Familias: 1816–18

XI. Shelley: Zenith, 1819–21

XII. Love and Revolution: Byron, 1818–21

XIII. Contrasts

XIV. Pisan Canto: 1821–22

XV. Immolation: Shelley, 1822

XVI. Transfiguration: Byron, 1822–24

XVII. Survivors

Chapter XXIII. ENGLANDÉS NEIGHBORS: 1789–1815

I. The Scots

II. The Irish

Chapter XXIV. PITT, NELSON, AND NAPOLEON: 1789–1812

I. Pitt and the Revolution

II. Nelson: 1758–1804

III. Trafalgar: 1805

IV. England Marks Time: 1806–12

BOOK IV: THE CHALLENGED KINGS: 1789–1812

Chapter XXV. IBERIA

I. Portugal: 1789–1808

II. Spain: 1808

III. Arthur Wellesley:1769–1807

IV. The Peninsular War: III (1808–12)

V. Results

Chapter XXVI. ITALY AND ITS CONQUERORS: 1789–1813

I. The Map in 1789

II. Italy and the French Revolution

III. Italy under Napoleon: 1800–12

IV. Emperor and Pope

V. Behind the Battles

VI. Antonio Canova: 1757–1822

VII. Vale iterum Italia

Chapter XXVII. AUSTRIA: 1780–1812

I. Enlightened Despots: 1780–92

II. Francis II

III. Metternich

IV. Vienna

V. The Arts

Chapter XXVIII. BEETHOVEN: 1770–1827

I. Youth in Bonn: 1770–92

II. Progress and Tragedy: 1792–1802

III. The Heroic Years: 1803–09

IV. The Lover

V. Beethoven and Goethe: 1792–1802

VI. The Last Victories: 1811–24

VII. Comoedia Finita: 1824–27

Chapter XXIX. GERMANY AND NAPOLEON: 1786–1811

I. The Holy Roman Empire: 1800

II. The Confederation of the Rhine: 1806

III. Napoleon’s German Provinces

IV. Saxony

V. Prussia: Frederick’s Legacy, 1786–87

VI. The Collapse of Prussia: 1797–1807

VII. Prussia Reborn: 1807–12

Chapter XXX. THE GERMAN PEOPLE: 1789–1812

I. Economics

II. Believers and Doubters

III. The German Jews

IV. Morals

V. Education

VI. Science

VII. Art

VIII. Music

IX. The Theater

X. The Dramatists

Chapter XXXI. GERMAN LITERATURE: 1789–1815

I. Revolution and Response

II. Weimar

III. The Literary Scene

IV. The Romantic Ecstasy

V. The Voices of Feeling

VI. The Brothers Schlegel

Chapter XXXII. GERMAN PHILOSOPHY: 1789–1815

I. Fichte: 1762–1814

II. Schelling: 1775–1854

III. Hegel: 1770–1831

Chapter XXXIII. AROUND THE HEARTLAND: 1789–1812

I. Switzerland

II. Sweden

III. Denmark

IV. Poland

V. Turkey in Europe

Chapter XXXIV. RUSSIA: 1796–1812

I. Milieu

II. Paul I: 1796–1801

III. The Education of an Emperor

IV. The Young Czar: 1801–04

V. The Jews under Alexander

VI. Russian Art

VII. Russian Literature

VIII. Alexander and Napoleon: 1805–12

BOOK V: FINALE: 1811–15

Chapter XXXV. TO MOSCOW: 1811–15

I. The Continental Blockade

II. France in Depression: 1811

III. Preface to War: 1811–12

IV. The Road to Moscow: June 26-September 14, 1812

V. The Burning of Moscow: September 15–19, 1812

VI. The Way Back: October 19-November 28, 1812

Chapter XXXVI. TO ELBA: 1813–14

I. To Berlin

II. To Prague

III. To the Rhine

IV. To the Breaking Point

V. To Paris

VI. To Peace

Chapter XXXVII. TO WATERLOO: 1814–15

I. Louis XVIII

II. The Congress of Vienna: September, 1814-June, 1815

III. Elba

IV. The Incredible Journey: March 1–20, 1815

V. Rebuilding

VI. The Last Campaign

Chapter XXXVIII. TO ST. HELENA

I. The Second Abdication: June 22, 1815

II. The Second Restoration: July 7, 1815

III. Surrender: July 4-August 8, 1815

Chapter XXXIX. TO THE END

I. St. Helena

II. Sir Hudson Lowe

III. The Great Companions

IV. The Great Dictator

V. The Last Battle

Chapter XL. AFTERWARD: 1815–40

I. The Family

II. Homecoming

III. Perspective

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL GUIDE

NOTES