Notes

CHAPTER I

1. Motteville, Mme. de, Memoirs, I, 79.

2. Retz, Cardinal de, Memoirs, 103.

3. Motteville, I, 81.

4. Retz, 103.

5. Motteville, III, 232.

6. History Today, July 1959, p. 461.

7. Bishop, M., Life and Adventures of La Rochefoucauld, 149.

8. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 36.

9. Retz, 281.

10. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the Seventeenth Century, I, 335.

11. Retz, 55, 73.

12. Voltaire, Louis XIV, 67.

13. Michelet, Histoire de France, IV, 388; Acton, Lectures on Modern History, 235.

14. Motteville, III, 237.

15. Palmer, Molière, 15.

16. Saint-Simon, Memoirs, II, 361.

17. Sainte-Beuve, I, 422.

18. Ibid., 417.

19. History Today, March 1954, p. 149.

20. Voltaire, 256.

21. Ibid., 69.

22. Rea, Lilian, Countess of La Fayette, 170.

23. Ferval, Louise de La Vallière, 55.

24. Saint-Simon, II, 369.

25. Sainte-Beuve, I, 413.

26. Saint-Simon, II, 361.

27. Sainte-Beuve, I, 423.

28. Louiv XIV, Mémoires, 35.

29. In Sainte-Beuve, I, 417.

30. Boulenger, Seventeenth Century, 178.

31. Motteville, III, 248.

32. Lewis, W. H., Splendid Century, 30.

33. Voltaire, 257.

34. Barine, La Grande Mademoiselle, 117.

35. Louis XIV, 76.

36. Martin, H., Age of Louis XIV, I, 63–65; Michelet, IV, 424–27.

37. Guizot, History of Civilization, I, 260.

38. Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture, I, 533.

39. Louis XIV, 96.

40. King, J. E., Science and Rationalism in the Government of Louis XIV, 87.

41. Saint-Simon, II, 34.

42. Louis XIV, 68.

43. King, 95.

44. Saint-Simon, II, 106, 370.

45. Guérard, Life and Death of an Ideal, 153.

46. Louis XIV, 70.

47. France, Anatole, Nicolas Fouquet, 258.

48. Voltaire, 262.

49. Martin, H., I, 23, quoting de Choisi.

50. Louis XIV, 74.

51. Martin, I, 22.

52. Sée, Henri, Economic and Social Conditions in France during the 18th Century, 93.

53. Martin, I, 34.

54. Ibid., 33f.; Michelet, IV, 410.

55. Boulenger, 356.

56. Mousnier, R., Histoire générale des civilisations, IV, 148.

57. Voltaire, 324; Martin, I, 79.

58. Michelet, IV, 428.

59. Mousnier, IV, 148.

60. Voltaire, 273; Martin, I, 86.

61. Boulenger, 357; Lewis, Splendid Century, 81.

62. History Today, March 1954, p. 155.

63. Mousnier, IV, 252.

64. Nussbaum, Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 154.

65. Mousnier, IV, 250; Cambridge Modern History, V, 11.

66. Boulenger, 355.

67. Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières et de l’industrie en France avant 1789, 1, 394.

68. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 366.

69. In Acton, Lectures, 326.

70. Martin, I, 489–90, 496.

71. Voltaire, 323.

72. Martin, I, 558.

73. Barine, 13.

74. Saint-Simon, I, 383; Voltaire, 288.

75. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIII, 778c; Brereton, Jean Racine, 245–52.

76. Molière, Théâtre: École des femmes, I, i.

77. Sainte-Beuve, I, 250; Day, Lillian, Ninon, 34.

78. Sévigné, Mme. de, Letters, I, 98, April 1, 1671.

79. Day, Ninon, 141.

80. Parton, Life of Voltaire, I, 133.

81. Saint-Simon, I, 344.

82. Sévigné, I, 105, April 8, 1671; Day, Ninon, 242.

83. Ibid., 80.

84. Saint-Simon, I, 344.

85. Day, 246.

86. Ibid., 185.

87. Saint-Simon, I, 345.

88. Day, 260.

89. Sainte-Beuve, II, 199.

90. Boissier, Mme. de Sévignê, 109.

91. Michelet, V, 118.

92. Bourgeois, Le Grand Siècle, 74.

93. Boulenger, 349.

94. Bourgeois, 77; Guizot, History of France, IV, 587.

95. La Bruyère, Characters, chap. “Of the Gifts of Fortune.”

96. Voltaire, 278.

97. Saint-Simon, II, 11.

98. Fülop-Miller, Power and Secret of the Jesuits, 415.

99. Martin, 1, 172.

100. Ibid., 171.

101. Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain, III, 942.

102. Day, Ninon, 163.

103. Cartwright, Madame; A Life of Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans, 89.

104. Racine, Oeuvres: Andromaque, Dedication.

105. Michelet, IV, 405.

106. Ibid., V, 158.

107. Cartwright, 371; Voltaire, 284; Martin, 1, 312.

108. Ferval, La Vallière, 67.

109. Ibid., 302.

110. Voltaire, 282.

111. Michelet, IV, 437.

112. Saint-Simon, 1, 391.

113. Boulenger, 192.

114. Cruttwell, Mme. de Maintenon, 29.

115. Ibid., 46.

116. Ibid., 53.

117. Michelet, V, 69; Martin, I, 535.

118. Saint-Amand, Court of Louis XIV, 46.

119. Cruttwell, 89; Martin, I, 530.

120. Boulenger, 195; Michelet, IV, 490; Cruttwell, 118–19.

121. Saint-Simon, 11, 381.

122. Ibid., III, 15.

123. Acton, 236; Ogg, Europe in the 17th Century, 231.

124. Louis XIV, 122–25.

125. Martin, I, 417.

126. Voltaire, 260; Martin, I, 40n.; Ene. Brit., XII, 682c; Acton, 243.

127. Camb. Mod. History, V, 77.

128. Lewis, Splendid Century, 239.

CHAPTER II

1. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 393; Guérard, 186–90.

2. Mesnard, Pascal, 99.

3. Campbell, The Jesuits, 259; Fülop-Miller, 195.

4. Voltaire, 430.

5. Saint-Simon, II, 84.

6. Ibid., Ill, 37.

7. Louis XIV, 119.

8. Ranke, History of the Popes, II, 420.

9. Fülop-Miller, 105.

10. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, I, 74f.

11. Ibid., 83; Beard, Charles, Port Royal, II, 30.

12. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, I, 89.

13. Beard, Charles, I. 30.

14. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, I, 90.

15. Ibid., II, 407n.

16. Beard, C., I, 52.

17. Sainte-Beauve, Port-Royal, I, 94.

18. Pascal, Provincial Letters, Introd., 97, and 421n.

19. Voltaire, 419; Beard, C., I, 260.

20. Pascal, Letters, Introd., 109.

21. Mesnard, Pascal, 12.

22. Mornet, Daniel, Short History of French Literature, 75.

23. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, II, 379; Mesnard, 40.

24. Owen, John, Skeptics of the French Renaissance, 748.

25. Pascal, Pensées, Havet ed. Introd., p. civ.

26. Mesnard, 57.

27. Ibid., 209.

28. Pascal, Pensées, Introd., p. cxxiii.

29. Pascal, Provincial Letters, 197.

30. Ibid., 417.

31. Ibid., 465; Pensées, II, 118.

32. McCabe, Candid History of the Jesuits, 235.

33. Mesnard, 92.

34. Voltaire, 424.

35. In Pascal, Provincial Letters, 127n.

36. Fülop-Miller, 195.

37. Voltaire, 424, 358.

38. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, I, 118.

39. Voltaire, 359.

40. Sainte-Beuve, III, 173f., Beard, C., I, 84.

41. Pascal, Pensées, Introd., xxviii; Mesnard, 137–38.

42. Cf. Rabelais, Book III, Ch. xiii.

43. Pensées, Introd., p. xxv; text, 17bis.

44. Ibid., text, i, 1.

45. Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, 174.

46. Pensées, Everyman’s Library, No. 82.

47. Pensées, Havet ed., Book III, No. 18.

48. Everyman ed., No. 4.

49. Havet ed., XVI, p. 1bis.

50. Ibid., XX, p. 19.

51. Ibid., I, p. 1.

52. Everyman ed., No. 349.

53. Ibid., No. 418.

54. Havet ed., VIII, p. 1.

55. Ibid., II, p. 8.

56. Ibid., VI, p. 51; Everyman ed., No. 451.

57. Havet, IV, p. 1.

58. Ibid., II, pp. 6, 2bis., 3.

59. Everyman, No. 402.

60. Ibid., No. 397; Havet, I, p. 3.

61. Havet, I, p. 6; Everyman, No. 347.

62. Everyman, No. 277.

63. Havet, XXIV, p. 52.

64. Ibid., X, p. 1; Everyman, No. 233.

65. Everyman, No. 233.

66. Havet, II, p. 8.

67. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, II, 508.

68. Havet, IV, 7.

69. Ibid., XIV, 2.

70. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 124.

71. Owen, 800.

72. Ibid., 775.

73. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, III, 320.

74. Beard, C., II, 75.

75. Provincial Letters, 59.

76. Pensées, Havet, Introd., exit.

77. Beard, C., II, 352.

78. Disraeli, Isaac, Curiosities of Literature, I, 97.

79. Saint-Simon, II, 12.

80. Boulenger, 284.

81. Michelet, V, 298.

82. In Martin, H., I, 231.

83. Lewis, Splendid Century, 108.

84. Sanders, Bossuet, 53.

85. Camb. Mod. History, V, 22.

86. Martin, I, 529.

87. Ibid.

88. Ibid., 532.

89. Michelet, IV, 520.

90. Guizot, History of France, V, 23.

91. Camb. Mod. History, V, 23.

92. Ibid.

93. Boulenger, 263.

94. Martin, I, 552.

95. Ogg, Seventeenth Century, 305.

96. Martin, II, 33.

97. Ibid., 43.

98. Buckle, H. T., History of Civilization, Ib, 492n., quoting Benoist, Élie, Histoire de l’Édit de Nantes (1695), V, 887f.

99. Michelet, IV, 507.

100. Voltaire, 409.

101. Martin, II, 44.

102. Robertson, J. M., II, 142.

103. Saint-Simon, III, 14.

104. Beard, Miriam, 373.

105. Bacon, “Of Unity in Religion,” in Essays.

106. Sanders, Bossuet, 46.

107. Bossuet, Oraisons funèbres et sermons, 69.

108. Ibid., 108.

109. Eccles. xvii, 14.

110. no. Romans XIII, 1.

111. Isaiah xiv, 1.

112. Sanders, 213.

113. Bossuet, in Ogg, 202.

114. Sanders, 260.

115. Buckle, Ib, 569.

116. Faguet, Literary History of France, 446.

117. Michelet, IV, 517.

118. Martin, II, 268.

119. Sanders, 280; Michelet, IV, 412.

120. Fénelon, Télémaque, end of Book IX.

121. Ibid., Book XIII.

122. Faguet, Literary History, 446.

123. Hazard, The European Mind: The Critical Years, 208.

124. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, II, 191.

125. Bayle, Philosophical Commentary on . . . “Let Them Come in,” in Robinson, H., Bayle the Sceptic, 73.

126. Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique, s.v. “Xénophanes.”

127. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, III, 302.

128. Mornet, Les Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution française, 24.

129. Meyer, R. W., Leibniz and the 17th-Century Revolution, 35.

CHAPTER III

1. Pradel, L’Art au siècle de Louis XIV, 101.

2. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 376.

3. Ibid., 325.

4. Wingfield-Stratford, History of British Civilization, 583.

5. Pradel, 96.

6. Ibid., 99.

7. Boulenger, 365.

8. Fergusson, History of the Modern Styles of Architecture, 236–8.

9. Saint-Simon, I, 186.

10. Martin, II, 212; Blomfield, Three Hundred Years of French Architecture, 86.

11. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

12. Dillon, Glass, 210.

13. Guizot, History of France, IV, 566.

14. Stranahan, History of French Painting, 50.

15. Louvre.

16. Dimier, Louis, Histoire de la peinture française (Paris, 1927), II, 45.

17. Versailles.

18. Benoist, Coysevox, 115; the bust is in the Louvre.

19. Louvre.

20. Louvre.

21. Louvre.

22. Louvre.

23. Louvre.

CHAPTER IV

1. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 258.

2. Palmer, Molière, 46.

3. Mantzius, Karl, History of Theatrical Art, IV, 42.

4. Molière, Le Misanthrope, II, v, 71 if.

5. Lucretius, De rerum natura, iv, 1155f.

6. Martin, I, 160; Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, II, 95–97.

7. Palmer, 59.

8. Voltaire, Life of Molière, in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies of the World, 628.

9. Palmer, 147.

10. Les Précieuses ridicules, scene iv, in Molière, Plays, Everyman’s Library ed.

11. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, III, 271.

12. Palmer, 145.

13. Les Précieuses ridicules (Everyman ed.), scene ix.

14. L’École des maris (Everyman), I, i.

15. L’Impromptu de Versailles (Everyman), I, i.

16. L’École des femmes, I, i.

17. L’École des femmes (Everyman) I, i.

18. Critique de l’École des Femmes, vi.

19. Ibid.

20. Michelet, IV, 419.

21. Molière, Théâtre, II, 40.

22. Palmer, 335.

23. Tartuffe (Everyman), I, vi.

24. Ibid., III, ii.

25. III, vii.

26. IV, v.

27. Le Festin de pierre (Everyman), I, i.

28. Ibid., III, i.

29. IV, ii.

30. Palmer, 38of.

31. As in the Everyman’s Library edition.

32. Le Festin de pierre (Everyman), III, i.

33. Garrison, History of Medicine, 296.

34. L’Amour médecin (Everyman), II, v.

35. Palmer, 410.

36. Le Misanthrope (Everyman), II, i.

37. Le Misanthrope, I, i.

38. Ibid., Classiques Larousse ed., 97–98.

39. In Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, II, 126–27.

40. L’Avare, II, vi.

41. Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (Everyman), II, iv.

42. Guizot, History of France, IV, 560.

43. Michelet, IV, 421.

44. Le Malade imaginaire (Everyman), III, iii.

45. Edwards, Idols of the French Stage, I, 40.

46. Ibid., 45.

47. Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (Everyman), I, i.

48. Critique de l’École des femmes (Everyman), vi.

49. Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, II, 140.

50. Guérard, Life and Death of an Ideal, 204.

CHAPTER V

1. Martin, I, 142; Boulenger, 360; Comb. Mod. History, V, 152; Bourgeois, Le Grand Siècle, 93.

2. Guizot, History of Civilization, II, 231; Hauser, Social History of Art, I, 470.

3. Desnoiresterres, Voltaire et la société française au xviii e siècle, III, 404.

4. Van Laun, History of French Literature, II, 184.

5. Enc. Brit., VI, 441b.

6. Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, II, 293; Brereton, Racine, 29.

7. Racine, Louis, Mémoires sur la vie . . . de Jean Racine, in Racine, Jean, Oeuvres, I, 42.

8. Brereton, 29.

9. Guizot, History of France, IV, 539.

10. Racine, Andromaque, I, iii.

11. Brereton, 154; Martin, I, 170.

12. Suetonius, De vita Caesarum: Divus Titus, VII, 2.

13. Racine, Bérénice, I, v.

14. Desnoiresterres, VI, 96.

15. Guizot, France, IV, 541.

16. Smith, Adam, Theory of Moral Sentiments, I, 255.

17. Racine, Oeuvres, I, 765.

18. Brereton, Racine, 245–52.

19. Ibid., 19.

20. 2 Kings XI; 2 Chronicles XII.

21. Racine, Athalie, IV, iii.

22. Parton, Voltaire, I, 591; Mme. du Deffand, in Strachey, Books and Characters, 99; Guizot, France, IV, 546; Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, VI, 147; Faguet, Dix-septième Siècle, 314.

23. Guizot, France, IV, 548.

24. Racine, Louis, Mémoires, in Racine, Oeuvres, I, p. iii.

25. Saint-Simon, I, 155; Guizot, France, IV, 548–49; Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, VI, 153; Faguet, Dix-septième Siècle, 303.

26. Guizot, IV, 548.

27. Ibid.

28. Racine, L., Mémoires, in Racine, Oeuvres, I, 113.

29. Babbitt, Irving, The Spanish Character, 98.

30. Brereton, 143.

31. Sévigné, Mme. de, Letters, II, 210 (Mar. 16, 1672).

32. Desnoiresterres, VI, 102, 281.

33. Hume, “Of Civil Liberty,” in Essays, 52.

34. La Fontaine, Choix de contes, 15f.

35. Fables, Preface.

36. Rea, Life of . . . Countess of La Fayette, 230.

37. Guizot, IV, 552.

38. Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, II, 148.

39. Guizot, IV, 553.

40. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, V, 24.

41. Ibid.

42. Faguet, Dix-septième Siècle, 238.

43. Boileau, Satire 1, in Poètes français, VII, 21.

44. Satire IX.

45. Poètes français, VII, 182–85; Enc. Brit., III, 79od.

46. Day, Ninon, 211.

47. Boileau, L’Art poétique, 1, ll. 75–76.

48. Ibid., ll. 171–74.

49. IV, 59–60.

50. IV, 125–26.

51. III, 45–46.

52. III, 391–94.

53. In Fischer, Descartes and His School, 511.

54. Guizot, France, IV, 551.

55. Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, II, 261.

56. Lewis, Splendid Century, 268.

57. Guizot, IV, 519.

58. La Fayette, Mme. de, La Princesse de Clèves, 104.

59. Rea, Countess of La Fayette, 284.

60. Bishop, La Rochefoucauld, 266.

61. Boissier, Mme. de Sévigné, 27.

62. Sévigné, Letters, I, 170 (June 10, 1671).

63. Letter of Jan. 20, 1672.

64. In Boissier, 145.

65. Ibid., 145–47.

66. Letters, Introd., xxxviii.

67. Letter of July 5, 1761.

68. Apr. 8, 1761.

69. Boissier, 201; Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal, I, 232.

70. Apr. 10, 1671.

71. Guizot, IV, 516.

72. Bishop, La Rochefoucauld, 128.

73. Moral Maxims and Reflections, 84.

74. Ibid., 150.

75. 84.

76. 122.

77. 178.

78. 11.

79. 471.

80. 9.

81. 219.

82. 82, 465.

83. In Bishop, 68.

84. Moral Maxims, 15.

85. Ibid., 77.

86. 138.

87. 140.

88. 74.

89. 367.

90. 436.

91. Preface to the first edition.

92. In Bishop, 244.

93. Moral Maxims, 688.

94. Ibid., 70.

95. Ibid., 658–59.

96. In Sainte-Beuve, Seventeenth Century, I, 380.

97. Moral Maxims, 476.

98. Rea, Countess of La Fayette, 265.

99. Sainte-Beuve, loc. cit.

100. Faguet, Dix-septième Siècle, 395.

101. La Bruyère, Characters, p. 273, Ch. xii, 7.

102. Ibid., p. 492, Ch. xii, 7.

103. E.g., Ch. xi, 35, and Ch. xvii, 28, in La Bruyère, pp. 267, 469.

104. Guizot, France, IV, 528.

105. Motteville, Memoirs, I, 150.

106. French text in Fellows and Torrey, The Age of the Enlightenment, 35–39.

107. Hazard, The Critical Years, 127.

108. Saint-Évremond, Letter to de Créqui, in King, J., Science and Rationalism, 26.

109. Frederick II to Voltaire, Sept. 19, 1774, in Voltaire and Frederick the Great, Letters.

110. Lewis, Splendid Century, 282.

111. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 1.

CHAPTER VI

1. A good example in Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

2. Vienna.

3. Dresden.

4. Madrid.

5. Louvre.

6. Wolf, History of Science . . . in the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries, 626.

7. Beard, Miriam, 305.

8. Day, Clive, History of Commerce, 194; Marx, Capital, I, 826.

9. Camb. Mod. History, V, 12.

10. Adam Smith, in Nussbaum, History of Economic Institutions, 72.

11. Clark, G. N., Seventeenth Century, 44.

12. Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Ch. xx.

13. Pepys, Diary, May 14, 1660.

14. Hazard, Critical Years, 93.

15. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, V. 20.

16. Hazard, 88.

17. Vienna.

18. The Hague.

19. New York.

20. Baron Thyssen Collection.

21. The Hague.

22. Mather, F. J., Western European Painting of the Renaissance, 549.

23. Czernin Collection, Vienna.

24. The Hague.

25. Edinburgh.

26. Frick Gallery, New York.

27. London.

28. Dresden.

29. Louvre.

30. New York.

31. Washington.

32. Chicago.

33. Budapest.

34. Frick Gallery.

35. Brussels.

36. Berlin.

37. London.

38. Louvre.

39. The Hague.

40. Amsterdam.

41. Dresden.

42. New York.

43. Mather, 590.

44. In Beard, Miriam, 288.

45. In Browne, Sir Thomas, Religio Medici, 19.

46. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 94; Martin, Louis XIV, 1, 333.

47. Voltaire, 93.

48. Bowen, Marjorie, William Prince of Orange, 196.

49. Martin, I, 347.

50. Bowen, 92.

51. Camb. Mod. History, V, 158.

52. Burnet, Bishop, History of His Own Times, 117.

53. Camb. Mod. History, V, 160; Acton, Lectures, 228.

54. Kronenberger, Marlborough’s Duchess, 30.

CHAPTER VII

1. Firth, Oliver Cromwell, 228.

2. Ibid., 230.

3. Trevor-Roper, Historical Essays, 218–219.

4. Firth, 244.

5. Gooch, English Democratic Ideas in the 17th Century, 168.

6. Trevelyan, England under the Stuarts, 294.

7. Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell, I, 427.

8. Ibid., 428; Gardiner, S.R., History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, I, 48.

9. Gooch, 183–84; Bowie, Western Political Thought, 343.

10. Gooch, 189–90.

11. D’Alton, History of Ireland, IV, 308.

12. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 533.

13. Carlyle, Cromwell, I, 458.

14. Ibid.

15. Firth, 255.

16. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 538.

17. Firth, 259.

18. Lingard, History of England, VIII, 178.

19. Churchill, Winston, History of the English-speaking Peoples, II, 235.

20. Lingard, VIII, 146.

21. Lang, Andrew, History of Scotland, III, 233.

22. Morley, John, Oliver Cromwell, 319.

23. Gooch, 165.

24. Lingard, VIII, 194–95.

25. Firth, 312; Hallam, Constitutional History of England, II, 229–30.

26. Gardiner, History of the Commonwealth, II, 208–10; History Today, October 1953, p. 690.

27. Morley, Cromwell, 336.

28. Firth, 319.

29. Hume, David, History of England, IV, 55 m.

30. Churchill, II, 245.

31. Guizot, History of Civilization, I, 240–1.

32. Lingard, VIII, 207.

33. Ibid., 211; Trevor-Roper, 188.

34. Morley, Cromwell, 427.

35. Firth, 445.

36. Hume, D., History, IV, 578.

37. Walpole, Horace, Anecdotes of Painting in England, I, 425.

38. Lingard, VIII, 271.

39. Hallam, Constitutional History, II, 241–243; Morley, Cromwell, 390.

40. Morley, 400.

41. Plato, Republic, §§556–65.

42. Evelyn, Diary, I, 331.

43. Morley, Cromwell, 413.

44. Macaulay, History of England, I, 128.

45. Lingard, VIII, 203.

46. Firth, 355; Morley, 412.

47. Hume, D., History, V, 45.

48. Churchill, II, 248.

49. Firth, 344.

50. In Masson, David, Life of John Milton, V, 23.

51. Fox, George, Journal, 34.

52. Ibid., 4–5.

53. 8–9.

54. 11.

55. 12.

56. 20.

57. 22.

58. 27.

59. 36.

60. 43.

61. 51.

62. 105–6.

63. Firth, 357.

64. Lingard, VIII, 243–44.

65. Beard, Miriam, 397; Firth, 392.

66. Beard, 396.

67. Churchill, II, 249.

68. Hume, D., History, IV, 592.

69. Firth, 433.

70. Harding, T. S., Fads, Frauds, and Physicians, 118.

71. Lingard, VIII, 267.

72. Ibid., 268.

73. Macaulay, History, I, 152.

74. Enc. Brit., VI, 745d.

75. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 542.

76. Masson, Milton, V, 619.

77. Bowle, Western Political Thought, 337.

78. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 554; Bryant, Sir Arthur, Charles II, 58.

79. Lingard, VIII, 236.

80. Hallam, II, 328.

81. Ibid., 329.

82. Bryant, 60.

83. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 66.

84. Bryant, 64.

85. Lingard, VIII, 304.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Allen, J. W., English Political Thought, 268.

2. Walton, Izaak, Complete Angler, 15.

3. Palgrave, Golden Treasury, 67.

4. Bunyan, Grace Abounding, No. 2, in Entire Works, I, 5–6.

5. Ibid., No. 4.

6. No. 8.

7. In Froude, Bunyan, p. 8.

8. Bunyan, Grace Abounding, No. 14.

9. Ibid., No. 97.

10. No. 96.

11. No. 104.

12. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, I, p. 20.

13. Grace Abounding, No. 116.

14. Froude, Bunyan, p. 59.

15. Ibid., 65.

16. 72.

17. 74–82.

18. Pilgrim’s Progress, 7.

19. Acts XVI, 31.

20. Pilgrim’s Progress, 169–71.

21. Ibid., 193.

22. 196.

23. 11.

24. Camb. History of English Literature, VII, 197–98.

25. Froude, Bunyan, 86.

26. Milton, Defensio Secunda, in Areopagitica and Other Works, 291.

27. Johnson, Samuel, Lives of the Poets, I, 57.

28. Saintsbury, History of English Literature, 159.

29. Milton, Reason of Church Government, in Areopagitica, etc., 305.

30. Milton, Poetical Works, 46.

31. Comus, II. 768f.

32. Defensio Secunda, loc. cit., 293.

33. Reason of Church Government, loc. cit., 301.

34. “Letter to Mr. Hartlib,” in Areopagitica, etc., 46.

35. Johnson, Lives, I, 63.

36. Milton, “Letter to Mr. Hartlib,” loc. cit., 48.

37. As indicated in Apology for Smectymnuus, in Areopagitica, etc., 113.

38. Masson, Milton, II, 215.

39. Milton, “Of Reformation,” in Areopagitica, etc., 58.

40. Ibid., 102.

41. 103.

42. Masson, II, 257.

43. Ibid., 390, 396.

44. Milton, in Areopagitica, etc., 123.

45. Ibid., 121.

46. 124.

47. 304.

48. Reason of Church Government, in Masson, II, 371.

49. Areopagitica, etc., 302.

50. Ibid., 303.

51. 304.

52. 146.

53. Masson, II, 487.

54. Aubrey, Brief Lives, 201.

55. Milton, Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, in Taine, History of English Literature, 281.

56. Pattison, Mark, Milton, 58.

57. Areopagitica, etc., 198.

58. Ibid., 225.

59. 195.

60. Masson, III, 320–21.

61. Ibid., 269.

62. Areopagitica, 4–5.

63. Ibid., 21.

64. 13.

65. 35.

66. 36.

67. 38.

68. 34.

69. Masson, IV, 64.

70. Ibid., 92.

71. Areopagitica, etc., 4.

72. Masson, IV, 45n.

73. In Areopagitica, etc., 289.

74. Masson, IV, 168.

75. Ibid., 255–58.

76. 261.

77. 263–67.

78. Johnson, Lives, I, 69.

79. Masson, IV, 520.

80. Defensio Secunda, in Johnson, I, 72.

81. Masson, IV, 455–56.

82. Ibid., 457.

83. Ibid., 458.

84. Disraeli, Curiosities, I, 154.

85. Masson, IV, 627.

86. Ibid., 582.

87. 588.

88. 605.

89. 612–15.

90. 609.

91. 610.

92. Ibid.

93. Masson, V, 206.

94. Ibid., 215.

95. 369–70.

96. 573.

97. Ready and Easy Way, in Areopagitica, etc., 166–69.

98. Ibid., 186.

99. 181.

100. Masson, V, 603.

101. Aubrey, 202.

102. Masson, VI, 447, 649; Johnson, Lives, I, 87.

103. Pattison, Milton, 148.

104. Masson, VI, 476.

105. Aubrey, 201.

106. Paradise Lost, VII, 26.

107. Hutchinson, F. E., Milton and the English Mind, 118.

108. Johnson, I, 85.

109. Ibid., 102, 108.

110. Paradise Lost, 1, 11. 106f., 105–40.

111. Ibid., 1, 253–55.

112. IV, 800.

113. IV, 515f.

114. IX, 703–8.

115. VIII, 66f.

116. IV, 738f.

117. IX, 1051f.

118. X, 884, 888f.

119. Cf. IV, 634–38.

120. Samson Agonistes, 1053–60.

121. Masson, VI, p. 830.

122. Paradise Lost, III, 1. 183; Masson, VI, p. 831.

123. Masson, 818.

124. De Doctrina Christiana, Ch. xxx, in Willey, Seventeenth-Century Background, 71–72.

125. Masson, VI, 827.

126. John Toland in Hutchinson, 152.

127. Johnson, I, 192.

128. Masson, VI, 683; Hutchinson, 104.

129. Aubrey, 201.

130. Masson, II, 473.

131. Ibid., I, 312.

132. Johnson, I, 60.

133. De Doctrina Christiana, in Masson, VI, 837.

134. Paradise Lost, 1, l. 496; IV, 765f.

135. Masson, VI, p. 654.

136. Paradise Regained, 11, ll. 352f.

137. Ibid., IV, 338.

138. IV, 606.

139. Masson, VI, p. 655.

140. Johnson, I, 88.

141. Samson Agonistes, ll. 68–72, 80–82.

142. Ibid., 1034–60.

143. Ibid., 597–98.

144. Masson, VI, p. 727.

145. Johnson, I, 92.

146. Dryden, Essays, 108.

147. The Spectator, Jan. 5–May 3, 1712.

CHAPTER IX

1. Evelyn, Diary, I, 341.

2. Bryant, Charles II, 85.

3. Gooch, English Democratic Ideas in the 17th Century, 271.

4. Taine, English Literature, 314.

5. Hume, History of England, V, 61.

6. Bryant, 90.

7. Ibid., 89; Churchill, II, 264.

8. Cf. his speech in Peterson, H., Treasury of the World’s Great Speeches, 96.

9. Pepys, Diary, Oct. 13, 1660.

10. Evelyn, Diary, I, 350.

11. As by Macaulay, History of England, I 135; cf. Bryant, 128.

12. Burnet, History of His Own Times, 71.

13. Bryant, 133.

14. Ibid., 159.

15. Pepys, July 27, 1667.

16. Burnet, 101.

17. Grammont Memoirs, 115n.

18. Ibid., 116.

19. Pepys, May 19, 1668.

20. Bryant, 238.

21. Evelyn, Oct. 4, 1683.

22. Taine, English Literature, 314.

23. Bishop, A. T., Renaissance Architecture of England, 43.

24. Burnet, 103.

25. Evelyn, Feb. 4, 1685.

26. Grammont Memoirs, 350.

27. Ibid., 356.

28. Aubrey, 288.

29. Bryant, 168.

30. Burnet, 33.

31. Bryant, 82.

32. Robertson, J. M., Freethought, II, 84.

33. Buckle, la, 261n.

34. In Robinson, J. H., Readings in European History, 363.

35. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 137.

36. Hallam, Constitutional History, II, 327.

37. Ibid.

38. Burnet, 41.

39. Dick, O. L., Introd. to Aubrey, Lives, lxxviii.

40. Besant, Walter, London in the Time of the Stuarts, 87; Lecky, W. E., History of . . . the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, II, 66.

41. Burnet, 45–46; Ure, Peter, Seventeenth-Century Prose, 136–38.

42. Burnet, 45.

43. Quoted on title page of Toland’s Christianity Not Mysterious.

44. In Allen, J. W., English Political Thought, 297.

45. Markun, Leo, Mrs. Grundy: A History of Four Centuries of Morals, 122.

46. Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 158–9.

47. Macaulay, History, I, 377–79.

48. Besant, London in the Time of the Stuarts, 152; Green, J. R., Short History of the English People, III, 1338.

49. Ibid.

50. Aubrey, 234; Enc. Brit., XVII, 473d.

51. Buckle, la, 301n.

52. Churchill, II, 271.

53. Bryant, Charles II, 162n.

54. Fülop-Miller, The Jesuits, 344; Macaulay (History, III, 261) estimated the Catholics as 2 per cent of the population of England in 1690.

55. History Today, March 1954, p. 150.

56. Trevelyan, English Social History, 276; Clark, G. N., Seventeenth Century, 5; Macaulay, History, I, 221.

57. Toynbee, A. J., Study of History, ed. Somervell, 237.

58. Trevelyan, Social History, 322; Marx, Capital, 300n.

59. Nussbaum, Economic Institutions, 216.

60. Wolf, History of Science . . . in the 16th and 17th Centuries, 616.

61. Macaulay, History, I, 320.

62. Besant, London in the Time of the Stuarts, 287.

63. Macaulay, I, 324.

64. Mousnier, Histoire générale, 146.

65. Rogers, J. E. T., Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 267.

66. Rogers, Economic Interpretation of History, 267.

67. Nussbaum, 108.

68. Wingfield-Stratford, 579.

69. Ibid., 577.

70. Lipson, E., Growth of English Society, 176–7.

71. Ibid., 182.

72. Hume, History, V, 429; Cunningham, W. C., Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, II, 216; Lecky, England in the 18th Century, I, 194.

73. Bryant, Charles II, 278.

74. Besant, 184.

75. Camb. Mod. History, V, 206.

76. Rogers, Economic Interpretation of History, 212.

77. Besant, 122.

78. Ure, Seventeenth-Century Prose, 47; Los Angeles Times, Dec. 21, 1958.

79. Howard Kennedy in Los Angeles Times, March 2, 1958.

80. Besant, 223.

81. Defoe, Journal of the Plague Year, 7–8.

82. Evelyn, Feb. 7, 1666; cf. Pepys, Sept. 2, 1666.

83. Pepys, Sept. 2, 1666; Evelyn, Sept. 7, 1666; Lingard, IX, 65; Churchill, II, 277.

84. Besant, 251.

85. Ibid., 245.

86. Summerson, Sir Christopher Wren, 55.

87. Ibid., 134.

88. Fergusson, History of Modern Styles of Architecture, 294.

89. In Wingfield-Stratford, 605, where Riley is handsomely restored.

90. Duke of Marlborough Collection.

91. Pepys, Mar. 25, 1667.

92. Ibid., Oct. 20, 1662.

93. London, National Portrait Gallery.

94. In Hampton Court Palace.

95. Pepys, Sept. 2, 1666.

96. Ibid., Jan. 16, Feb. 3, Mar. 5, Apr. 9, 1660, etc.

97. Jan. 16, 1660.

98. Brockway and Weinstock, The Opera, 32.

99. Burney, Charles, General History of Music, II, 383.

100. Ibid., 399.

101. Rowse, A. L., The Early Churchills, 98.

102. Hallam, Constitutional History, II, 344n.

103. Pepys, Mar. 26, 1666.

104. In Grammont Memoirs, 90; Macaulay, History, I, 561.

105. Taine, English Literature, 315.

106. Grammont Memoirs, 281f.

107. Pepys, Aug. 31, 1661; Nov. 9, 1663.

108. Pope, Essay on Criticism, ll. 536–43, in Collected Poems, p. 71.

109. Grammont Memoirs, 112.

110. Ibid., 284n.

111. Evelyn, I, 366.

112. Ure, 36.

113. Markun, Mrs. Grundy, 127.

114. History Today, October 1958, p. 672.

115. Trevelyan, Social History, 313.

116. History Today, loc. cit., 668.

117. Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture, I, 529.

118. James, B. B., Women of England, 295.

119. Camb. Mod. History, V, 213.

120. Besant, 345.

121. Macaulay, I, 327.

122. Saintsbury, Dryden, 182.

123. Bryant, 119; Camb. Mod. History, IV, 265.

124. Macaulay, I, 240; II, 426.

125. Hallam, II, 377.

126. Trevelyan, England under the Stuarts, 376.

127. Camb. Mod. History, V, 218.

128. Pepys, Nov. 2, 1663.

129. Ibid., Aug. 18, 1664.

130. Besant, 303.

131. Day, Ninon, 182.

132. Traill, H. D., Social England, IV, 489.

133. Ashton, J., Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne, 163.

134. Pepys, Sept. 25, 1666.

135. Camb. Mod. History, V, 108.

136. Pepys, June 1, 1667.

137. Camb. Mod. History, V, 202.

138. Ibid.; Lingard, IX, 85.

139. Text in Lingard, IX, Appendix; cf. Bryant, 168; Acton, Lectures, 210; Camb. Mod. History, V, 204.

140. Ibid., 226; Lecky, History of England, I, 18.

141. Bryant, 183.

142. Burnet, 34.

143. Trevelyan, England under the Stuarts, 347.

144. Macaulay, I, 183.

145. Camb. Mod. History, V, 220.

146. Enc. Brit., XVI, 662c.

147. Hallam, II, 413.

148. Macaulay, I, 186.

149. Trevelyan, Stuarts, 400–2.

150. Macaulay, I, 186; Bryant, 225.

151. Hume, History, V, 320.

152. Trevelyan, Stuarts, 387–88.

153. Hallam, II, 421.

154. Acton, 215.

155. Churchill, II, 298.

156. Acton, 215; Hume, V, 320.

157. Enc. Brit., XX, 616b; Guizot, History of Civilization, I, 258.

158. Macaulay, Essays, I, 63; Wingfield-Stratford, 622; Lecky, History of England, III, 53.

159. Bryant, 270.

160. Mencken, H. L., New Dictionary of Quotations, 481.

161. Bryant, 283.

162. Ibid., 282.

163. Turner, E. S., Call the Doctor, in Time, Dec. 8, 1958, p. 63.

164. Macaulay, History, I, 335; Bryant, 294.

165. Macaulay, I, 337; Bryant, 296.

166. Macaulay, I, 338.

CHAPTER X

1. Turin Gallery.

2. London National Gallery.

3. Macaulay, History, I, 560–64.

4. Burnet, 65.

5. Camb. Mod. History, V, 265, 268.

6. Macaulay, II, 387.

7. Rowse, Early Churchills, 152; Lingard, X, 90.

8. Hume, History, V, 359; Macaulay, I, 496.

9. Acton, 221; Camb. Mod. History, V, 233.

10. Hume, V, 345.

11. Lecky, History of England, I, 21.

12. Macaulay, I, 359, 525.

13. Camb. Mod. History, V, 239.

14. Hearnshaw, F. J., Social and Political Ideas of Some English Thinkers of the Augustan Age, 61.

15. Lingard, X, 128.

16. Macaulay, III, 170.

17. Lord Dartmouth’s notes to Burnet’s History, in Lingard, X, 136n.

18. Burnet, 251.

19. Lingard, X, 136.

20. Ibid., 131.

21. Trevelyan, Stuarts, 441.

22. Camb. Mod. History, V, 243.

23. Shrewsbury, Duke of, Correspondence, 4.

24. Churchill, Marlborough, I, 263.

25. Robinson, J. H., Readings, 367–69.

26. Mantoux, Industrial Revolution, 97.

27. Macaulay detailed these in his essay on Hallam (1828), and countered them in his History of England (1848), end of Ch. X.

28. Halifax, Thoughts and Reflexions, in Hearnshaw, Social and Political Ideas of . . . the Augustan Age, 10.

29. Ibid.

30. Ure, Seventeenth-Century Prose, 72.

31. Hearnshaw, 60.

32. Halifax, Character of a Trimmer, in Trevor-Roper, 255.

33. Hearnshaw, 53.

34. Livy, History of Rome, v, 47.

35. Buckle, la, 297.

36. Ibid., 298.

37. Bowen, William Prince of Orange, 277–8.

38. Burnet, 306.

39. Lecky, England, I, 275.

40. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 141.

41. Camb. Mod. History, V, 317.

42. Ibid., 321; Lecky, I, 279–80; D’Alton, Ireland, 467; Wingfield-Stratford, 665.

43. Camb. Mod. History, V, 323.

44. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 95.

45. Day, History of Commerce, 162.

46. Groom, History of Money, 41–46.

47. Ibid.

48. Camb. Mod. History, V, 249.

49. Macaulay, III, 418–19; Churchill, Marlborough, I, 302.

50. Ibid., 348.

51. Rowse, 134.

52. Goldsmith, Life of Bolingbroke, in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies, 1032.

53. Ibid.; cf. Chesterfield, Letters, I, 261 (Dec. 22, 1749).

54. Lecky, England, I, 128.

55. Enc. Brit., XXIII, 725.

56. Kronenberger, Marlborough’s Duchess, 247.

57. Churchill, English-speaking Peoples, III, 76.

58. Rowse, 270.

CHAPTER XI

1. Mousnier, 308.

2. Desnoiresterres, I, 212.

3. Swift, Journal to Stella, Aug. 7, 1712.

4. Theater History Exhibition, New York Public Library, Sept. 28, 1956.

5. Johnson, Lives, I, 201.

6. Besant, Stuarts, 323.

7. Holzknecht, Background of Shakespeare’s Plays, 417.

8. Besant, 321.

9. Hume, History, V, 436; Camb. History of English Literature, VIII, 209.

10. Farquhar, Beaux’ Stratagem, I, i, in Gosse, A Volume of Restoration Plays.

11. Congreve, Way of the World, II, iv, in Gosse, 185.

12. Macaulay, Essays, II, 426.

13. Gosse, 161.

14. Vanbrugh, The Relapse, III, in Gosse.

15. Ibid., IV, i.

16. Vanbrugh, Provoked Wife, I, i.

17. Ibid., I, ii.

18. Enc. Brit., XVI, 574b.

19. Johnson, Lives, II, 2.

20. Macaulay, Essays, II, 446.

21. Enc. Brit., VI, 255d.

22. Congreve, Way of the World, II, v.

23. Ibid., IV, v.

24. Macaulay, Essays, II, 449.

25. Thackeray, English Humorists, 139.

26. Lecky, England, I, 539.

27. Dryden, Preface to Fables, Ancient and Modern, in Essays, 290.,

28. Pepys, Feb. 23, 1663.

29. Nettleton, G. H., English Drama of the Restoration, 5.

30. Dryden, All for Love, IV, i, in Gosse.

31. Camb. Mod. History, V, 134.

32. Dryden, Poems, 75.

33. Ibid., 78.

34. Ibid., 89.

35. Pepys, Feb. 3, 1664.

36. Scott, The Pirate, 147–49.

37. Macaulay, History, I, 285.

38. Johnson, Lives, I, 187.

39. Ibid., 219; Camb. History of English Literature, VIII, 231–32.

40. Johnson, I, 216.

41. As Macaulay believed (History, I, 657).

42. Dryden, The Hind and the Panther, in Poems, 123.

43. Butler, Samuel, Hudibras, 3–9.

44. Pepys, Dec. 10, 1663.

45. Camb. History of English Literature, VIII, 68.

46. An excellent edition, Brief Lives, appeared in 1957, with a lively and learned introduction by O. L. Dick.

47. Camb. History of English Literature, IX, 151.

48. A good example in Brockway and Winer, Second Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 131.

49. Macaulay, Essays, I, 195.

50. Temple, Sir William in Taine, English Literature, 333.

51. Evelyn, I, 229f. The passage on his son is under Jan. 27, 1658.

52. Pepys, June 13, 1662; June 17, 1663.

53. Ibid., July 16, 1660.

54. Jan. 23, (1670).

55. Apr. 5, 1664.

56. Dec. 19, 1664.

57. Aug. 18, 1667.

58. Sept. 6, 1664.

59. July 15, 1660.

60. Aug. 23, 1663.

61. May 21, 1662.

62. July 30, 1663.

63. Sept. 4, 1660.

64. Sept. 24, 1663.

65. Feb. 28, 1662.

66. Enc. Brit., VII, 139.

67. Defoe, Moll Flanders, 295.

68. Steele, Tatler, No. 151.

69. Thackeray, English Humorists, 183.

70. Steele, Tatler, No. 95.

71. Johnson, Lives, I, 330; Macaulay, Essays, II, 465.

72. Ibid., 486; Johnson, I, 328.

73. Addison, Spectator, No. 4.

74. Ibid.

75. No. 112.

76. Macaulay, Essays, II, 499; Enc. Br. I, ibid.

77. Thackeray, 157n.

78. Voltaire, Works, XIXb, 137.

79. Stephen, Leslie, Swift, 82.

80. Id., Alexander Pope, 60.

81. Id., Swift, 15.

82. Hardy, Evelyn, The Conjured Spirit: Swift, 40.

83. Ibid., 62.

84. Stephen, Swift, 52.

85. Ibid., 37.

86. Swift, Tale of a Tub, etc., 56.

87. Ibid., 72.

88. 77.

89. 78.

90. 81.

91. 121.

92. 103.

93. 105.

94. 106.

95. 109.

96. 110.

97. Stephen, Swift, 42.

98. Rowse, 269.

99. Hardy, Conjured Spirit, 148.

100. Swift, “A Critical Essay upon the Faculties of the Mind,” in Tale of a Tub, etc., 192.

101. In Stephen, Swift, 47.

102. Ibid., 161.

103. Ibid., 57.

104. Hardy, 125.

105. In Trevelyan, Social History, 444.

106. In Rowse, 265.

107. Ibid., 266.

108. Ibid., 269.

109. Stephen, Swift, 103.

110. Ibid., 102.

111. Swift, Journal to Stella, Letters XXVII and XXXIII.

112. Ibid., 172 (Letter XXIII) .

113. Ibid., 203 (Letter XXVII).

114. Stephen, Swift, 143.

115. Hardy, 57.

116. Swift, “Strephron and Chloe,” in Hardy, 59.

117. In Hardy, 176.

118. Stephen, Swift, 120.

119. Journal to Stella, Letter XVI.

120. Swift to Pope, Sept. 29, 1725, in Thackeray, English Humorists, 218n.

121. Stephen, Swift, 108.

122. Hardy, 164.

123. Ibid., 157.

124. Stephen, 131.

125. Johnson, II, 258; Hardy, 174f; Stephen, I33f.

126. Hardy, 219.

127. Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, Book II, Ch. vi, p. 120.

128. Ibid., III, viii, p. 183.

129. Ill, x, pp. i98f.

130. IV, vii, p. 240.

131. IV, v, p. 250.

132. IV, xi, pp. 272–73.

133. Stephen, 168.

134. Hardy, 230.

135. Stephen, 160.

136. In Taine, English Literature, 436.

137. Ibid.

138. Stephen, 184.

139. Ibid., 195.

140. In Woods, George, etc., The Literature of England, I, 813.

141. Stephen, 195.

CHAPTER XII

1. Morton, J. B., Sobieski, 41.

2. Ibid., 57.

3. Cambridge History of Poland, I, 520.

4. Morton, 47.

5. Camb. History of Poland, I, 521.

6. Ibid., 537.

7. Morton, 5.

8. Camb. History of Poland, I, 545.

9. Ibid., 547.

10. Ibid., 556.

11. Ogg, Europe in the 17th Century, 499.

12. Schoenfeld, H., Women of the Teutonic Nations, 263; Michelet, V, 154.

13. Kluchevsky, V., History of Russia, III, 334.

14. Ibid., 282.

15. Ibid., 367.

16. Waliszewski, Peter the Great, 63.

17. Ibid., 75.

18. Florinsky, M. T., Russia: History and an Interpretation, I, 321.

19. Schuyler, E., Peter the Great, I, 350.

20. Waliszewski, 87.

21. Ibid., 91.

22. Schuyler, I, 358.

23. Ibid., 374.

24. Macaulay, History, IV, 374.

25. Voltaire, Charles XII, 37.

26. Camb. Mod. History, V, 595.

27. Ibid.; Schuyler, II, 85.

28. Camb. Mod. History, V, 596.

29. Waliszewski, 322.

30. Voltaire, Charles XII, 163; Schuyler, II, 138; Camb. Mod. History, V, 600.

31. Schuyler, II, 160.

32. Ibid., 162.

CHAPTER XIII

1. In Buckle, History of Civilization, Ib, 580.

2. Frederick to Voltaire, Mar. 6, 1737, in Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 55.

3. Florinsky, I, 327, 334.

4. Schuyler, I, 374.

5. Waliszewski, Peter the Great, 105.

6. Ibid., 143.

7. 133.

8. 137.

9. 218.

10. 152–53, 161–63; Florinsky, I, 319; Schuyler, I, 422.

11. Schuyler, II, 405.

12. Rambaud, History of Russia, I, 104.

13. Réau, L., L’Art russe, II, 18n.

14. Semple, Ellen, Geography of the Mediterranean Region, 348.

15. Robinson, J.H., Readings, 390.

16. Schuyler, I, 412.

17. Waliszewski, 448f.

18. Ogg, 511.

19. Schuyler, II, 192.

20. Rambaud, I, 94.

21. Pokrovsky, M., History of Russia, 279.

22. New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 319.

23. Pokrovsky, 287; Florinsky, I, 380.

24. Mavor, Economic History of Russia, I, p. xxxi; New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 319.

25. Pokrovsky, 285; Schuyler, II, 471.

26. Schuyler, II, 453; Florinsky, I, 382.

27. Waliszewski, 436.

28. Rambaud, I, 99.

29. Schuyler, II, 609–10.

30. Ibid., 283.

31. Ibid., 338.

32. Waliszewski, 517.

33. Ibid., 518.

34. Schuyler, II, 345.

35. Ibid., 410.

36. Waliszewski, 534.

37. Ibid., 538.

38. Toynbee, A., Study of History, VIII, 269.

39. Pokrovsky, 330; Florinsky, II, 334.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Westermarck, History of Human Marriage, III, 51; Bebel, Woman under Socialism, 71.

2. Rocker, Nationalism and Culture, 125.

3. New Camb. Mod. History, VII, 293.

4. Camb. Mod. History, IV, 426.

5. Acton, Lectures, 286.

6. Quennell, Caroline of England, 5–7.

7. Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters.

8. Francke, K., History of German Literature, 175.

9. Richard, E., History of German Civilization, 332.

10. Thieme, Women of Modern France, 199.

11. Wormeley, Correspondence of Mme. Princess Palatine, letter of Nov. 22, 1714.

12. Hürlimann, Germany, 232; La Farge, H., Lost Treasures of Europe, 33.

13. Dresden.

14. Spitta, K., Bach, I, 257. The walking is doubtful.

15. Morton, Sobieski, 130.

16. Ibid., 132.

17. Camb. Mod. History, V, 355.

18. Ibid., 355–56; Ogg, 490.

19. Ogg, 488.

20. Lane-Poole, S., Story of Turkey, 226.

21. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 165.

22. Coxe, W., History of the House of Austria, II, 445.

23. Morton, 202; Coxe, II, 447.

24. Ogg, 496.

CHAPTER XV

1. Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in Spain, IV, 53–54.

2. Ibid., 49.

3. Ibid., 57. Lea adds, “I cannot but regard this as a truthful report.”

4. Ranke, History of the Popes, II, 381n.

5. Ibid., 380; III, Appendix, 145.

6. Ranke, II, 325.

7. Funk, Manual of Church History, II, 148.

8. Ranke, II, 330.

9. Ibid., 333; Funk, II, 177.

10. Ranke, II, 418.

11. Funk, II, 178.

12. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 135.

13. Churchill, English-speaking Peoples, II, 317.

14. Acton, 226.

15. Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics, 789.

16. Bonacossi Collection, Florence.

17. Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Conn.

18. Dresden and Rome.

19. Wallace Collection.

20. Dresden.

21. Vatican.

22. Rome, Santa Maria in Vallicella.

23. Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain, III, 1152.

24. Ibid., 1154.

25. Ibid., 1101.

26. Enc. Brit., X, 361b.

27. Ibid.

28. Garnett, History of Italian Literature, 283.

29. Ibid., 284.

30. Hallam, Literature of Europe, IV, 213.

31. Bain, F. W., Christina, Queen of Sweden, 253.

32. Motteville, Memoirs, III, 104.

33. Ibid., 106–8.

34. Ibid., 109–10.

35. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 60.

36. Motteville, III, 110.

37. Day, Ninon, 149.

38. Bain, 321.

39. In Voltaire, 405.

40. Bain, 339.

41. Grove’s Dictionary of Music, V, 154.

42. Burney, General History of Music, II, 437.

43. Ibid., 575; Grove’s, V, 149.

44. Brockway and Weinstock, Opera, 11; Burney, II, 552.

45. Olschki, Genius of Italy, 423.

46. Brockway and Weinstock, Opera, 12.

47. Hazard, The Critical Years, 382.

48. Kirkpatrick, R., Domenico Scarlatti, 38.

49. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, III, 584.

50. Bell, Aubrey, Portuguese Literature, 267.

51. Catholic Encyclopedia, XV, 416b.

52. Buckle, IIa, 54.

53. Camb. Mod. History, V, 375.

54. Stirling-Maxwell, III, 1143–44.

55. Baron, S. W., Social and Religious History of the Jews, II, 7; Lea, Inquisition in Spain, III, 306.

56. Ticknor, G., History of Spanish Literature, III, 206; Hume, Martin, Spain: Its Greatness and Decay, 304; Ogg, 380.

57. Lea, I, 511.

58. Madrid, Church of the Incarnation.

59. Calvert, A., Sculpture in Spain, 115.

60. Still in the Escorial.

61. Stirling-Maxwell, III, 1200; Justi, C., Diego Velazquez, 137.

62. Seville Museum.

63. Stirling-Maxwell, III, 1069.

64. Altamira, R., History of Spanish Civilization, 142.

65. Id., History of Spain, tr. Muna Lee, 398.

66. Ticknor, III, 203; Buckle, la, 60; Camb. Mod. History, V, 376.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Obadiah III, 20.

2. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, III. 236; Baron, Social and Religious History of the Jews, II, 68.

3. Lea, III, 298; Graetz, History of the Jews, V, 91, III.

4. Roth, Cecil, History of the Marranos, 75.

5. Ibid., 150.

6. Le, III, 273.

7. Brockelmann, C., History of the Islamic Peoples, 317; Finkelstein, L., The Jews, I, 247.

8. Roth, Marranos, 214.

9. Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism, 69.

10. Brinton, The Gonzaga, 227.

11. Ibid.

12. Pastor, L., History of the Popes, XVII, 334; Graetz, IV, 590.

13. McCabe, Crises in the History of the Papacy, 343.

14. Montaigne, Diary, 154.

15. Sombart, 17.

16. Ibid., 18.

17. Graetz, V, 176.

18. Sombart, 56.

19. As by Sombart, 14.

20. Roth, Marranos, 242.

21. Ibid., 244.

22. Graetz, V, 205.

23. Roth, 244.

24. Graetz, V, 205.

25. Ibid.

26. Roth, 247.

27. Graetz, V, 27.

28. Modder, M. F., The Jews in the Literature of England, 24f.

29. Jewish Encyclopedia, VIII, 182.

30. Sombart, 250.

31. Graetz, V, 34.

32. Sombart, 54.

33. Graetz, V, 45.

34. Modder, 35–6.

35. Graetz, V, 49.

36. Sombart, 51.

37. Abbott, G. F., Israel in Europe, 229–31.

38. Schoenfeld, H., Women of the Teutonic Nations, 251.

39. Browne, Lewis, Wisdom of Israel, 638.

40. Dubnow, S. M., History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, I, 66.

41. Ibid., 89.

42. Rabbi Nathan Hannover, in Dubnow, I, 116.

43. Ibid., 145.

44. Baron, II, 169.

45. Dubnow, I, 164.

46. Ibid., 165.

47. 161, 166.

48. 243.

49. 246.

50. Sombart, 178.

51. Nussbaum, History of Economic Institutions, 140.

52. Sombart, 172.

53. Ibid., 65; Roth, C., Jewish Contributions to Civilization, 238–9.

54. Finkelstein, I, 258; Roth, Jewish Contributions, 229.

55. Baron, II, 127.

56. Dubnow, I, 133.

57. Graetz, V, 52.

58. The following account merely summarizes Graetz, V, 119–66.

59. Ibid., 139.

60. Dubnow, I, 205.

61. Proverbs II, 19.

62. Dubnow, 133–34.

63. Wolfson, H., Philosophy of Spinoza, II, 323.

64. Jewish Encyclopedia, I, 168a.

65. Ibid.

66. Graetz, V, 64.

67. Ibid., 63.

68. Zangwill, I, Dreamers of the Ghetto, 112.

69. Graetz, V, 64.

70. The life of Acosta was made into a play by Karl Gutzkow (1846), and into a fictionalized story by Israel Zangwill in Dreamers of the Ghetto (1898).

CHAPTER XVII

1. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 271.

2. Brewster, Sir David, Memoirs of . . . Sir Isaac Newton, II, 375.

3. Hazard, Critical Years, 177.

4. lbid.

5. Bain, Christina, 144.

6. Lecky, Rationalism, I, 45.

7. Ibid., 43.

8. Smith, P., History of Modem Culture, I, 457.

9. Lang, Andrew, History of Scotland, III, 205.

10. Lecky, Rationalism, I, 44.

11. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 355.

12. Putnam, G. H., Censorship of the Church of Rome, II, 264–65.

13. Smith, P., Culture, I, 491.

14. In Lecky, Rationalism, II, 28.

15. Enc. Brit., XVI, 335d.

16. Parton, Voltaire, I, 71.

17. Camb. History of English Literature, IX, 454.

18. Smith, P., Culture, I, 344.

19. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XIV, 304.

20. Macaulay, History, I, 304.

21. Swift, “Of the Education of Girls,” in Hardy, Conjured Spirit, 47.

22. Woods, etc., Literature of England, I, 787.

23. The following summary is based also on Locke’s Conduct of the Understanding, published posthumously in 1706.

24. The quotations are from Monroe, Paul, Text-Book in the History of Education, 514–19, and Aaron, R. J., John Locke, 290–95.

25. Montalembert, Monks of the West, I, 141.

26. Camb. History of English Literature, IX, 373.

27. Ibid., 374.

28. Pope, The Dunciad, IV, ll. 211–12.

29. Ussher, James, Annals of the Old and New Testament (1650–54), in Smith, P., I, 290.

30. Ibid., 286–87; Martin, Histoire de France, XIV, 294; Hazard, Critical Years, 182–204.

31. Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften, I, 148, in Smith, P. I, 286.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Hallam, Literature of Europe, IV, 319.

2. Smith, P., I, 170.

3. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 379.

4. Buckle, Ib, 500–504.

5. Smith, P., I, 166.

6. Wingfield-Stratford, 592.

7. Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, Book III, Ch. v.

8. Smith, P., I, 169.

9. Spinoza, Correspondence, 35.

10. Ibid., 80.

11. In Smith, P., I, 149.

12. Ibid., 156.

13. Hazard, 306.

14. Bell, E. T., Men of Mathematics, 56.

15. Clark, Seventeenth Century, 251.

16. Wolf, History of Science . . . in the 16th and 17th Centuries, 594.

17. Ibid., 609.

18. Ibid., 595.

19. Aubrey, 238.

20. Smith, P., I, 251.

21. Wolf, 82.

22. Newman, J. R., The World of Mathematics, II, 792.

23. Martin, H., Histoire, XIII, 173.

24. Brewster, Memoirs . . . of Newton, I, 312.

25. Newton, I., Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Book III, Prop. 41, (p. 521).

26. Smith, D. E., History of Mathematics, I, 405.

27. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 378.

28. Aubrey, 164.

29. Wolf, 358.

30. Mayer, Joseph, Seven Seals of Science, 109.

31. Newman, J. R., World of Mathematics, II, 794.

32. Tavernier, J. B., Six Voyages, Preface.

33. In Hazard, Critical Years, 12.

34. La Bruyère, Characters, xvii, 4.

35. Hazard, 13.

36. Ibid., 25.

37. Smith, P., I, 79.

38. History Today, May 1957, p. 324.

39. Bacon, Francis, Novum Organum, II, 21.

40. Hooke, Micrographia, in Wolf, 278.

41. Pratt, W. S., History of Music, 325.

42. Wolf, 258.

43. Enc. Brit., III, 994c.

44. Fox-Bourne, John Locke, II, 223–25.

45. Boyle, Robert, Sceptical Chymist, 1.

46. Ibid., 2.

47. Ibid., 17.

48. Butterfield, Origins of Modern Science, 105.

49. Wolf, 349.

50. Ibid., 545.

51. Kirby, R. S., Engineering in History, 154.

52. Wolf, 550.

53. Beard, Miriam, 465.

54. Wolf, 551.

55. Ibid., 552.

56. Wolf, A., History of Science . . . in the 18th Century, 611.

57. Evelyn, Diary, Nov. 7, 1651.

58. Wolf, 18th Century, 406.

59. Hamlet, II, ii.

60. Locy, W. A., Growth of Biology, 212.

61. Ibid., 214–16.

62. Ibid., 236.

63. Castiglioni, History of Medicine, 537–538.

64. Brett, G. S., History of Psychology, 337.

65. Ibid., 339; Sigerist, The Great Doctors, 184.

66. Garrison, History of Medicine, 313.

67. Dick in Aubrey,

68. Lewis, Splendid Century, 181.

69. Harding, T. S., Fads, Frauds, and Physicians, 151.

70. Macaulay, History, III, 78.

71. Sévigné, Letters, I, 106 (April 8, 1671).

72. Michelet, Histoire, V, 29.

73. Motteville, Memoirs, I, 186.

74. Castiglioni, 560.

75. Ibid., 562; Garrison, 304.

76. Dick in Aubrey, xix.

77. Garrison, 252.

78. Ibid., 253,

79. Dick in Aubrey, xix.

80. Hallam, Literature of Europe, IV, 341.

81. Wolf, 16th Century, 438.

82. Ibid.

83. Garrison, 295.

84. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 374.

85. Pepys, Nov. 14, 1666.

86. MacLaurin, C., Post Mortem, 170f.

87. Dick in Aubrey, xx.

88. Castiglioni, 566.

89. Whitehead, Alfred North, Science in the Modern World, 58.

90. Sprat, History of the Royal Society (1667), 113, in Clark, G. N., Seventeenth Century, 336.

91. Newman, World of Mathematics, I, 286.

92. Wolf, 16th Century, 668–70.

93. Enc. Brit., V, 994c.

94. In Smith, P., I, 150.

95. In Hazard, Critical Years, 316; Mousnier, Histoire générale, IV, 331.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Brewster, Newton, I, 4.

2. Ibid., 92.

3. Newton’s secretary, in Brewster, II, 96.

4. Keynes, J. M., in Newman, J. R., World of Mathematics, I, 282.

5. Smith, D. E., Isaac Newton, 207.

6. Keynes in Newman, loc. cit.

7. Brewster, II, 96–97.

8. Ibid., 93.

9. Ibid., 413.

10. Andrade, E. N., Sir Isaac Newton, 77.

11. Newton, Principia, 546.

12. Ibid., xvii, preface to first edition.

13. Newton, Opticks, Appendix “De Quadratura Curvarum,” in Wolf, 16th Century, 211.

14. Brewster, II, 24n.

15. Wolf, 217.

16. Principia, scholium to Prop. 7 of Book II.

17. Cf. ibid., 656.

18. Wolf, 266.

19. Enc. Brit., XVI, 361b.

20. Brewster, I, 96.

21. Enc. Brit., XVI, 361b.

22. In Parton, Voltaire, I, 213.

23. Ibid.

24. Brewster, I, 26.

25. Thorndike, L., History of Magic and Experimental Science, IV, 158.

26. Gilbert, W., De Mundo Nostro Sublunari Philosophia, in Whewell, Inductive Sciences, I, 394.

27. Brewster, I, 282.

28. Whewell, I, 393.

29. Brewster, I, 287.

30. Aubrey, 166.

31. Butterfield, 118.

32. Brewster, I, 293.

33. Principia, 546.

34. Brewster, I, 337,

35. Leibniz, Letter to Hartsoeker, Feb. 10, 1711.

36. Principia, 546, General Scholium.

37. Ibid., 634.

38. Cajori in Principia, 677.

39. Vartanian, A., Diderot and Descartes, 96.

40. General Scholium.

41. Principia, 547.

42. Brewster, II, 97.

43. Ibid., 84.

44. Andrade, in Newman, I, 274.

45. Robertson, Freethought, II, 112–13.

46. Clark, G. N., Seventeenth Century, 249.

47. Keynes, address at tercentennial celebration of Newton’s birth by the Royal Society, July 1946, in Newman, I, 283.

48. In Bell, E. T., Men of Mathematics, 113.

49. Brewster, II, 132–35.

50. Keynes, loc. cit.

51. Andrade, in Newman, I, 274.

52. Keynes, loc. cit.

53. Parton, Voltaire, I, 213.

54. Andrade, Newton, 121.

55. Keynes in Newman, I, 278; Locke in Brewster, II, 163.

56. Parton, I, 213.

57. Smith, D. E., History of Mathematics, I, 404.

58. Hume, History of England, V, 433.

59. Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 66.

60. Smith, D. E., Newton, 15; Brewster, I, 343.

61. S. Brodetsky in Smith, D. E., Newton, 8.

62. Andrade in Newman, I, 275.

63. Principia, First Scholium.

64. Andrade, Newton, 131.

CHAPTER XX

1. Aubrey, 157.

2. Ibid., 150.

3. Ibid., 151.

4. Hobbes, Leviathan, Ch. iv, p. 16.

5. Hobbes, De Corpore, i, 2, in The Metaphysical System of Thomas Hobbes, ed. Mary W. Calkins, p. 6.

6. Leviathan, vii, p. 31.

7. Ibid., i, p. 3.

8. Ibid.

9. Elementorum Philosophiae, in Metaphysical System, p. 119.

10. Leviathan, ii, pp. 4–5.

11. Ibid., iii, p. 8.

12. Hobbes, Elements of Law, i, 3.

13. Leviathan, ii, p. 6.

14. Ibid., vi, p. 28.

15. Elements of Law, i, 12.

16. Leviathan, xxi, P. 111.

17. Ibid., vi, p. 23.

18. Elements of Law, i, 11.

19. Leviathan, xi, p. 50.

20. Ibid., 49.

21. vi, p. 27.

22. Pp. 23–26.

23. viii, p. 35.

24. xi, p. 49.

25. Elements of Law, i, 12.

26. Leviathan, xiii, p. 65.

27. Ibid.

28. P. 64.

29. Ibid.

30. P. 65.

31. xvii, p. 89.

32. P. 90.

33. xxi, pp. 114–16.

34. xxix, p. 173.

35. P. 176.

36. xix, pp. 99, 101.

37. Elements of Law, ii, 2.

38. Leviathan, xviii, p. 93; xxix, p. 174.

39. P. 172.

40. vi, p. 26; xi, p. 54.

41. xii, pp. 54–55.

42. Ibid.

43. xii, p. 56.

44. Hobbes, De Homine, Ch. i.

45. Leviathan, xi, p. 53.

46. xxxi, p. 194.

47. xxxiv, p. 211.

48. Stephen, Hobbes, 151–52.

49. Leviathan, xii, p. 59.

50. xxix, p. 175.

51. Hobbes, De Cive, in Stephen, Hobbes, 222.

52. Leviathan, xxxi, p. 196.

53. xxxii, p. 199.

54. Bayle, Selections, article “Hobbes.”

55. Burnet, History of His Own Time, 45.

56. Aubrey, 152.

57. Bowie, Hobbes and His Critics, 152.

58. Ibid., 34.

59. Enc. Brit., XI, 613b.

60. Aubrey, 156.

61. Ibid., 153.

62. Enc. Brit., XI, 613d.

63. Aubrey, 153–55.

64. Brewster, Newton, II, 149n; Stephen, Hobbes, 68.

65. Bayle, article “Hobbes,”loc. cit.

66. Aubrey, 124.

67. Harrington, Oceana, 186.

68. Ibid., 186.

69. 187.

70. 197.

71. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 796.

72. Aubrey, 125.

73. Stephen, L., History of English Thought in the 18th Century, II, 80.

74. Robertson, J. M., Freethought, II, 87; Psalms XIV, L, LIII, L.

75. Robertson, II, 90.

76. Ibid., 91.

77. Ibid., 95; Smith, P., Modern Culture, II, 482.

78. Toland, John, Christianity Not Mysterious, 6, 37.

79. Lange, F. E., History of Materialism, I, 328–29.

80. Ibid., 325; Wolf, History of Science . . . in the 18th Century, 792.

81. Ibid.; Enc. Brit., XXII, 270b.

82. Lange, I, 325.

83. Hazard, Critical Years, 264.

84. Ibid., 152.

85. In Robertson, Freethought, II, 55.

86. Collins, Anthony, Discourse of Freethinking, 5.

87. Ibid., 88–89.

88. Ibid., 105.

89. Robertson, II, 153.

90. Willey, Seventeenth-Century Background, 87.

91. Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, p. xi.

92. In Stephen, Eighteenth-Century Thought, II, 210.

93. Camb. Mod. History, V, 750.

94. More, Henry, Philosophical Poems, in Willey, Seventeenth Century, 140.

95. In Willey, 161.

96. Disraeli, I., Curiosities of Literature, I, 210.

97. Camb. Mod. History, V, 751.

98. Cassirer, Platonic Renaissance in England, 62–64.

99. In Willey, 175.

100. Ibid., 179.

101. Ibid., 182, 193.

102. Glanvill, Vanity of Dogmatizing, in Mumford, Technics and Civilization, 58.

103. Glanvill, Sadducismus Triumphatus, in Willey, 195.

104. Fox-Bourne, Locke, I, 13.

105. Aaron, Locke, 6.

106. Ibid.

107. Fox-Bourne, I, 198.

108. Locke, Two Treatises on Government, Introd. xxxiii.

109. Macaulay, History, I, 417.

110. Aaron, 23.

111. Enc. Brit., XIV, 271d.

112. Aaron, 24.

113. Locke, Two Treatises, 3.

114. Filmer. Patriarcha, in Locke, Two Treatises, 255f.

115. Filmer, Observations upon Aristotle’s Politics, in Hearnshaw, Thinkers of the Augustan Age, 37.

116. Ibid., 39.

117. Filmer, Patriarcha, loc. cit., 278.

118. Locke, Two Treatises, 3.

119. Second Treatise, No. 119.

120. No. 85.

121. No. 94.

122. No. 40.

123. No. 36.

124. No. 138

125. Pollock, Introd. to the History of the Science of Politics, 65.

126. Locke, Second Treatise, Nos. 228–29.

127. Locke, Essay concerning Human Understanding, Epistle to the Reader, p. xx

128. Lamprecht, S.P., in Dewey, Studies in the History of Ideas, III, 217.

129. Locke, Essay, II, xii, 17.

130. Ibid., Epistle to the Reader, p. xx.

131. Essay, III, x, 5–14.

132. Ibid., II, xiii, 27.

133. II, xxi, 6.

134. III, vi, 12, 37.

135. I, II, 7.

136. II, xxxiii, 6.

137. I, iv, 8–9.

138. I, iii, 27.

139. II, i, 2.

140. II, ix, 1.

141. II, xxiii, 1–4.

142. Ibid., 5.

143. 14–15.

144. II, xxi, 47–48, 52–53.

145. IV, iii, 6.

146. II, xxvii, 26.

147. Sterne, L., Tristram Shandy, 62.

148. Voltaire, Letters on the English, in Works, XIXb, 36.

149. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 379.

150. Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 99.

151. Locke, Essay, IV, xviii, 2.

152. Ibid., 10.

153. 5.

154. 6.

155. 10.

156. IV, xix, 1.

157. Ibid., 14.

158. Locke, Reasonableness of Christianity, in Willey, 285.

159. Essay, IV, x, 12.

160. Aaron, Locke, 298.

161. Ibid., 21.

162. Spengler, O., Decline of the West, II, 308.

163. Shaftesbury, Characteristics, I, xxii.

164. Ibid., I, p. xii.

165. P. 237.

166. 263.

167. 267–70.

168. 45.

169. 239–46.

170. I, p. xxvii.

171. II, 150.

172. I, 79.

173. 75.

174. Sidgwick, History of Ethics, 186–87.

175. Shaftesbury, I, 260.

176. Ibid., I, 86.

177. Cassirer, Platonic Renaissance in England, 199.

178. Berkeley, George, Principles of Human Knowledge, No. 92, in New Theory of Vision, p. 159.

179. Locke, Essay, II, ix, 8.

180. Berkeley, New Theory of Vision, No. 41.

181. Wolf, Science . . . in the 18th Century, 672.

182. Berkeley, Principles of Human Knowledge, No. 47.

183. Ibid., Nos. 15–19.

184. 45–46.

185. 34–35; Dialogues, in New Theory of Vision, 274.

186. Principles of Human Knowledge, No. 90.

187. Ibid., No. 57.

188. Chesterfield, Letter of Sept. 27, 1748.

189. Boswell, Johnson, 285.

190. Hume, D., Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, note to No. 122.

191. Berkeley, Dialogues, pp. 268–69.

192. Ibid., p. 270.

193. Hume, Enquiries, No. 122, p. 155n.

194. Camb. History of English Literature, IX, 314.

195. Berkeley, Principles of Human Knowledge, No. 6.

CHAPTER XXI

1. Hazard, Critical Years, 330.

2. Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes, 25.

3. Mousnier, Histoire générale, IV, 309.

4. Récit de Marguerite Périer (Pascal’s niece), in Robertson, Freethought, II, 121n.

5. Day, Ninon, 211.

6. Smith, P., Modern Culture, I, 407.

7. In Vartanian, 57.

8. In Fellows and Torrey, Age of the Enlightenment, 23.

9. Malebranche, Dialogues on Metaphysics, in Robinson, D.S., Anthology of Modern Philosophy, 227–34.

10. Sévigné, Letter of August 4, 1680.

11. Faguet, Dix-septième Siècle, 77.

12. Robinson, H., Bayle, 46.

13. Ibid., 19.

14. Bayle, Pensées diverses sur la comète, Ch. 100, in Fellows and Torrey, 69.

15. Ch. 25, in Robinson, Bayle, 91.

16. Ch. 141, in Fellows and Torrey, 73.

17. Ch. 172, ibid., 75.

18. Luke xiv, 16–23.

19. Bayle, Selections, xiv.

20. In Robinson, Bayle, 83.

21. Hazard, 93.

22. Disraeli, Curiosities, II, 391–92.

23. In Robinson, Bayle, 236.

24. Disraeli, II, 393.

25. Bayle, Selections, 173 (article “Manichees.”).

26. Ibid., 8–25 (article “Adam”) and 157–83, (“Manichees”); Robinson, Bayle, 208–212.

27. Selections, 208 (article “Pyrrho”).

28. Ibid., 209.

29. 210.

30. 204 (article “Abdas”).

31. 205 (“Pyrrho”).

32. Faguet, Dix-huitième Siècle, 15.

33. Selections, 211 (“Pyrrho”).

34. Ibid., 214 (“Pyrrho”) and 177 (“Manichees”).

35. In Faguet, 18.

36. Ibid., 10.

37. Havens, Age of Ideas, 35.

38. Hazard, 444.

39. Havens, 37.

40. Selections, Introd., xx.

41. Robinson, H., Bayle, 274.

42. Selections, Introd., xxx.

43. Faguet, 6.

44. Selections, Introd., xxvii.

45. Faguet, 6.

46. Robinson, Bayle, 294.

47. Noyes, A., Voltaire, 470.

48. Faguet, 54.

49. In Fellows and Torrey, 62.

50. Fontenelle, Origine des fables.

51. Fellows and Torrey, 43.

52. Ibid., 60.

53. Ibid., 44–46.

54. Flint, History of the Philosophy of History, 215.

55. In Lanfrey, Historie politique des papes, II, 138.

56. In Bell, Men of Mathematics, p. xix.

57. Bury, J.B., The Idea of Progress, 108.

58. Desnoiresterres, III, 239.

59. In Faguet, 21.

60. Havens, 60.

61. Aldis, Mme. Geoffrin, 25.

62. Ibid., 30; Havens, 62.

CHAPTER XXII

1. Kayser, Spinoza, 41.

2. Maimonides, Guide to the Perplexed, I, Introd.; II, Props. 37–46; III, Props. 22, 30, etc.

3. Ibid., II, pp. 17f.

4. II, Prop. 2, Introd.; Zeitlin, Maimonides, 151.

5. Jewish Encyclopedia, VIII, 29.

6. Martin, H., Louis XIV, I, 403.

7. Lucas, Life of Spinoza, in Clark, Great Short Biographies, 718.

8. Ibid., 719.

9. 720.

10. Graetz, History of the Jews, V, 93.

11. Ibid.

12. Lucas, 720.

13. Graetz, V, 94.

14. Lucas, 722.

15. Wolf, A., in Spinoza, Correspondence, 49.

16. Kayser, 137.

17. Spinoza, Correspondence, 146, Letter XIX.

18. Spinoza, Ethics, Part IV, Prop. 45, Scholium II.

19. Waxman, History of Jewish Literature, II, 263.

20. Bayle, Selections, 305.

21. Spinoza, On the Improvement of the Intellect, Nos. 1–10.

22. Ibid., Nos. 13 and 41.

23. No. 16.

24. Roth, Leon, Spinoza, p. 25.

25. Brunschvigg, L., Spinoza et ses contemporains, p. 138.

26. Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Pref.

27. Ibid., Ch. ix.

28. Ch. ii, p. 33.

29. Ch. i, p. 24.

30. Ch. vi, p. 92.

31. Ch. xiv, p. 186.

32. Ibid., p. 189.

33. Ch. vii, p. 118.

34. Ch. xix, p. 245.

35. Preface, p. 5.

36. Ibid., p. 8.

37. In Kayser, 202.

38. Correspondence, 348 (Letter LXXV).

39. Tractatus, Ch. i, p. 18.

40. Kayser, 247.

41. Meyer, R. W., Leibniz and the 17th-Century Revolution, 47.

42. Ibid., 46.

43. Kayser, 168–69.

44. Ibid., 231.

45. Bayle, Selections, 305–6.

46. Brunschvigg, 140.

47. Ibid., 146.

48. Lucas, in Clark, 724.

49. Kayser, 249–51.

50. Putnam, Censorship of the Church of Rome, II, 255.

51. Correspondence, Letter XLVIII.

52. Lucas, 725.

53. Brunschvigg, 141.

54. Kayser, 262–65; Enc. Brit., XXI, 234b.

55. Lucas, 725.

56. Correspondence, Letter 1.

57. Bayle, Selections, 306.

58. Ibid., 307.

59. Spinoza, Ethics, iv, 50, scholium.

60. Correspondence, Letter LXV.

61. Letter LXVII.

62. Ibid.

63. Letter LXXVI.

64. Letter LXXIX.

65. Letter VI.

66. Letter VII.

67. Letter LXVIII.

68. Kayser, 298.

69. Bayle, Selections, 308.

70. Letter IX.

71. Ethics, i, 8; Scholium II.

72. Ibid., i; Definition IV.

73. ii, 13, scholium.

74. On the Improvement of the Intellect, Nos. 99–101.

75. Ethics, i, 15.

76. Letter LIV.

77. Tractatus, p. 65.

78. Ethics, v, 17.

79. Ibid., i, 8; Scholium 11.

80. Cf. Wolfson, H., Philosophy of Spinoza, II, 158.

81. Letter XXXII; Ethics, ii, 11, corollary.

82. Ethics, i, 17, note.

83. Ibid., i, 31.

84. Ibid., 18.

85. Letter LXXV.

86. Ethics, i, 32, Corollary 1.

87. Tractatus, pp. 44, 92.

88. Ethics, i, appendix.

89. Tractatus, p. 202.

90. Letter LIV.

91. Ethics, i, appendix.

92. Letter LXXIII.

93. Including Wolfson, H., II, 348.

94. Letter XIX.

95. Letter XXX.

96. Ethics, v, 24.

97. ii, 13.

98. iii, 2, scholium.

99. Ibid.

100. ii, 12.

101. Ibid.

102. ii, 17–18.

103. ii, 26.

104. ii, 21.

105. ii, 48, scholium; Letter 11.

106. Ethics, ii, 49.

107. iii, 2, scholium

108. ii, 49, corollary.

109. iii, Definition 1.

110. ii, 48.

111. i, appendix.

112. Letter LVIII.

113. Ethics, i, appendix.

114. iii, 6–7.

115. i, 34.

116. i, appendix.

117. iv, Definition vii.

118. v, 20, scholium.

119. iv, 20, 22, corollary.

120. iv, 18, scholium.

121. Ibid.

122. iii, 59.

123. iii, 9, scholium.

124. iv, Definition I

125. iii, appendix.

126. iii, 11, scholium; iv, 59.

127. iii, appendix.

128. Nietzsche, Antichrist, No. 2.

129. Ethics, iv, 45, scholium; iv, 50, 53–54.

130. iv, 42, 45, Scholium 11.

131. iii, Definition III.

132. iii, Introd.

133. v, 3, corollary.

134. Müller, Johannes, Physiologie des Menschen (1840), II, 543–48.

135. Ethics, iii, 1, corollary.

136. iii, 59, scholium.

137. iv, 7.

138. iv, 51, scholium; 58, scholium.

139. iii, 59; Definition xxvii.

140. iv, 67.

141. iii, 12, scholium.

142. v, 21.

143. v, 34, scholium.

144. v, 29, scholium.

145. v, 23.

146. v, 31, scholium.

147. v, 3.

148. v, 6.

149. iv, 26.

150. ii, end.

151. iv, 68.

152. iv, 50, scholium.

153. iv, appendix, xiii.

154. iv, 73.

155. iv, 46.

156. iv, 48, scholium.

157. E.g., Bidney, Psychology and Ethics of Spinoza, 246.

158. Ethics, iv, 14.

159. Ibid., iii, appendix, Definition VI.

160. Improvement of the Intellect, Introd.

161. Ethics, iv, 28.

162. Tractatus Politicus, i, 4.

163. Ibid., ii, 8.

164. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Ch. xvi, p. 201; Tractatus Politicus, ii, 4.

165. Ethics iv, 37, Scholium 1.

166. Tractatus Politicus, vi, 1.

167. Ethics, iv, 20, 22.

168. Ibid., 35, scholium; 73.

169. Tractatus Politicus, i, 5.

170. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Ch. xx, p. 259.

171. Tractatus Politicus, vi, 4.

172. lbid., xi, 2.

173. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Ch. xxvii.

174. Ibid.

175. Tract. Pol., xi, 4.

176. Ibid., vii, 17.

177. Ethics, iv, appendix, 17.

178. Tract. Pol., vi, 12.

179. In Bevan and Singer, Legacy of Israel, 451.

180. Wolfson, H., Spinoza, II, 233f.

181. Letter to Hugo Boxel, in Correspondence, 290.

182. Jewish Encyclopedia, XI, 517.

183. Ethics, iii, preface; v, preface.

184. Tract. Pol., x, 1; v, 7.

185. Oldenburg to Spinoza, in Correspondence, Letter III.

186. Uberweg, History of Philosophy, II, 64–74.

187. Bayle, article “Spinoza.”

188. Jewish Enc., XI, 519.

189. Ethics, v, 36.

190. Garland, Lessing, 174.

191. Brandes, G., Main Currents of 19th-Century Literature, I, 170; III, 257; IV, 75.

192. Robertson, Freethought, II, 168.

193. Hume, Treatise on Human Nature, Book I, Part iv, No. 5; Vol. I, pp. 228–29.

194. Froude, Short Studies in Great Subjects, I, 219–67.

195. Arnold, Matthew, “Spinoza,” in Essays in Criticism.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Dunning, Political Theories from Luther to Montesquieu, 321.

2. Robertson, Freethought, II, 296.

3. Ibid., 298.

4. Leibniz, New Essays on Human Understanding, Introd., pp. 52 and 93; Philosophical Writings, 154, 166.

5. Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, 192.

6. Meyer, Leibniz and the 17th-Century Revolution, 50.

7. Spengler, I, 42.

8. Mahan, A. T., Influence of Sea Power in History, 107.

9. Russell, Bertrand, Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz, 6n.; Camb. Mod. History, V, 717.

10. Ibid., 718; Meyer, 86.

11. Dampier, History of Science, 175; Camb. Mod. History, V, 717.

12. Wolf, A., in Spinoza, Correspondence, 47.

13. Enc. Brit., XIII, 885c.

14. Jordan, G. J., Reunion of the Churches: A Study of G. W. Leibnitz and His Great Attempt, 42.

15. Meyer, 162.

16. Leibniz, Theodicy, 71.

17. Jordan, 36.

18. Robertson, Freethought, II, 300.

19. Piat, in Kayser, Spinoza, 206.

20. Russell, Critical Exposition, vii.

21. Meyer, 133.

22. Ibid., 77.

23. Hazard, Critical Years, 223.

24. Jordan, 81–91.

25. Ibid., 97.

26. Hazard, 224.

27. Kesten, H., Copernicus and His World, 400.

28. Hazard, 228.

29. Ibid., 234.

30. 230; Martin, H., Histoire de France, XIV, 292.

31. Hazard, 231.

32. Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften, I, 417, in Smith, P., Modern Culture, I, 318.

33. New Essays, Preface, p. 42.

34. Locke, Essay, II, i, 2.

35. Aristotle, De anima, III, 4.

36. Leibniz, New Essays, Book II, Ch. i, p. 111.

37. Ibid.

38. Preface, p. 43.

39. I, i, pp. 71, 81.

40. Locke, Essay, II, 21.

41. Leibniz, New Essays, I, ii, pp. 88, 95.

42. Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, 16.

43. Leibniz, Monadology, Nos. 28–30; New Essays, Preface, p. 44.

44. Leibniz-Clarke, 16.

45. New Essays, I, ii, p. 94.

46. I, iii, p. 104.

47. II, i, p. III.

48. II, i, p. 117.

49. Überweg, II, 107; Meyer, 152.

50. A. G. Langley in Leibniz, New Essays. p. 101n.

51. Monadology, No. 66.

52. Leibniz, Système nouveau, in Überweg, II, 109.

53. Walt Whitman.

54. Monadology, No. 9.

55. Ibid., No. II.

56. Nos. 18, 70.

57. Letter to Christian Wolff, in Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, p. 83.

58. Monadology, No. 63.

59. Principles of Nature and Grace, No. 4.

60. Monadology, No. 72.

61. Ibid., No. 78.

62. No. 81.

63. Leibniz, Explanation of the New System, in Cassirer, 111.

64. Letter of Mar. 3, 1696, in Philosophical Writings, 115.

65. Introd. to the Theodicy, 47.

66. Monadology, No. 41; Theodicy, p. 74.

67. New Essays, Preface, p. 52; Monadology, No. 77.

68. Theodicy, p. 378.

69. Ibid.

70. Monadology, No. 69.

71. Philosophical Writings, 40.

72. Theodicy, 134.

73. Ibid., 379.

74. Principles of Nature and Grace, No. 10.

75. Letter to Bayle, 1702, in Introd. to the Theodicy, 47.

76. Couturat, Opuscules . . . de Leibniz, p. 590, in Joseph, H. W., Lectures on the Philosophy of Leibniz, 44.

77. Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, x, xiv.

78. Meyer, 97f.

79. New Essays, III, vi, p. 333.

80. Preface, 50.

81. Letter to Guhrauer in Monadology, 38.

82. Wolf, A., History of Science . . . in the 16th and 17th Centuries, 391; History of Science . . . in the 18th Century, 352.

83. Leibniz, Protogaea, in Locy, Growth of Biology, 256.

84. Ibid.

85. 257.

86. Meyer, 103.

87. Maverick, L. A., China a Model for Europe, 14.

88. Russell, B., History of Western Philosophy, 591; Newman, J. R., World of Mathematics, III, 1861.

89. Brewster, Newton, II, 215.

90. Hazard, 234.

91. Meyer, 164.

92. Ibid., 126.

93. Saw, Ruth, Leibniz, 147.

94. Meyer, 152.

95. In Robinson, Bayle, 268.

96. Hazard, 303.

97. Spengler, I, 42.

98. New Essays, II, xvi, p. 534.

99. Ibid., IV, xvi, p. 535.

100. Lecky, Rationalism, I, 148.

CHAPTER XXIV

1. Boulenger, Seventeenth Century, 242.

2. Cruttwell, Mme. de Maintenon, 189.

3. Ibid., 186.

4. Ibid., 195, quoting Lavallée, Lettres édifiantes, 149.

5. Saint-Simon, III, 12.

6. Ibid., 13.

7. Acton, Lectures, 244.

8. Martin, H., Louis XIV, I, 552; Michelet, V, 127–28.

9. Saint-Simon, III, 12.

10. Ibid., 11.

11. Macaulay, History, II, 475.

12. Martin, I, 535.

13. Ibid., II, 64.

14. Michelet, V, 16.

15. Benoist, Coysevox, 37.

16. Michelet, V, 6.

17. Boulenger, 239.

18. Martin, II, 65.

19. Voltaire, Louis XIV, 302.

20. Michelet, V, 39.

21. Clark, Seventeenth Century, 72.

22. Enc. Brit., III, 242a.

23. Voltaire, 148.

24. Ibid., 149.

25. Ogg, Europe in the 17th Century, 314.

26. Martin, II, 106.

27. Voltaire, 157.

28. Enc. Brit., XIV, 923a. Sir Winston Churchill’s gallant attempt to exonerate his ancestor is not convincing; cf. his Marlborough, II, 328, 373–86.

29. Nussbaum, Economic Institutions, 108.

30. Martin, II, 288.

31. Tocqueville, L’Ancien Régime, 179, Book III, Ch. iv.

32. Guérard, Life and Death of an Ideal, 208; Havens, The Age of Ideas, 52.

33. Cruttwell, 201.

34. Lewis, Splendid Century, 31.

35. Michelet, V, 14–15.

36. Ibid., 36–37.

37. Camb. Mod. History, V, 349.

38. Ibid., 378.

39. Ogg, 266.

40. Professor Wolfgang Michael in Camb. Mod. History, V, 393.

41. Martin, II, 314.

42. Camb. Mod. History, V, 394.

43. Ibid.

44. 395; Martin, II, 317.

45. Voltaire, 310; Camb. Mod. History, V, 396; Martin, II, 318n.

46. Chesterfield, Letter of May 31, 1752.

47. Martin, II, 325.

48. Ogg, 267; Camb. Mod. History, V, 401.

49. Boulenger, 291.

50. Voltaire, 186.

51. Mahan, 204; Ogg, 268; Camb. Mod. History, V, 398–9.

52. Camb. Mod. History, VI, 9.

53. Martin, II, 335.

54. Voltaire, 330.

55. Guizot, History of France, IV, 373.

56. Voltaire, 219.

57. Saint-Simon, I, 370.

58. Michelet, V, 86.

59. Funck - Brentano, .L’Ancien .Régime, 410; Lacroix, Paul, Eighteenth Century, 80.

60. Camb. Mod. History, V, 30.

61. Saint-Simon, I, 372.

62. Martin, II, 431.

63. Saint-Simon, II, 61.

64. Boulenger, 306.

65. Saint-Simon, II, 262.

66. Martin, II, 447.

67. Ibid., 448.

68. Voltaire, 229.

69. Ibid., 230.

70. Churchill, English-speaking Peoples, III, 68.

71. Saint-Simon, II, 68.

72. Lacroix, Eighteenth Century, 22.

73. Boulenger, 307.

74. Ibid.

75. Saint-Simon, II, 166.

76. Ibid., 67.

77. Ibid., 66.

78. Voltaire, 233; Michelet, V, 95.

79. Rowse, Early Churchills, 254.

80. Trevelyan, English Social History, 294.

81. Martin, II, 474.

82. In Hoover, H., and Gibbons, H. A., Conditions of a Lasting Peace, 33.

83. In Hazard, 437.

84. Voltaire, 306.

85. Martin, II, 493.

86. Lewis, Splendid Century, 181.

87. E.g., cf. Cruttwell, 284.

88. Saint-Amand, Court of Louis XIV, 51.

89. Martin, II, 540n.

90. Cruttwell, 347.

91. Martin, II, 539.

92. Saint-Simon, II, 354; Guizot, History of France, IV, 483.

93. Boulenger, 317.

94. Saint-Simon, II, 355.

95. Ibid., 356.

96. Boulenger, 318.

97. Michelet, V, 125.

98. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XV, 7.

99. Duclos, Secret Memoirs of the Regency, 21.

100. Voltaire, 308–9.

101. Michelet, IV, 392.

102. Quoted by Voltaire, in Works, XIXb, 99.

103. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 493.

104. Saint-Amand, 53.

105. Acton, 234.

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