Adams, Charles Edward. Blockton: The History of an Alabama Coal Mining Town. Brierfield, Ala: Cahaba Trace Commission, 2001.

Allen, Ivan. Atlanta from the Ashes. Atlanta: Ruralist Press, 1928.

Armes, Ethel. The Story of Coal and Iron in Alabama. Birmingham: Chamber of Commerce, 1910. Reprint, Cambridge, Mass.: University Press.

Atchison, Ray M., and G. Benton Towry. Richard Hopkins Pratt and the Six Mile Academy. Birmingham: Banner, 1965.

Bauerlein, Mark. Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906. San Francisco: Encounter, 2001.

Bayor, Ronald H. Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Bennett, James R. Old Tannehill: A History of the Pioneer Ironworks in Roupes Valley (1829-1865). Published by the Jefferson County Historical Commission in cooperation with the Birmingham-Jefferson Historical Society and the Tannehill Furnace and Foundry Commission, Birmingham, Ala., 1986.

—–Tannehill and the Growth of the Alabama Iron Industry, Including the Civil War in West Alabama. Published by the Alabama Historic Ironworks Commission in cooperation with the Appalachian Regional Commission, the West Alabama Planning and Development Council, the Jefferson County Historical Commission, and the Birmingham-Jefferson Historical Society. Printed in McCalla, Ala., 1999.

Berney, Saffold. Hand Book of Alabama: A Complete Index to the State, with Map. Birmingham: Roberts and Son, 1892.

Bibliography of Birmingham, Alabama, 1872-1972. Birmingham: Oxmoor, 1973.

Biddle, Francis. A Casual Past: The Reminiscences of a Former Attorney General of the United States. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961.

—–In Brief Authority. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1962.

—–The World's Best Hope: A Discussion of the Role of the United States in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.

Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Bond, Horace Mann. Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994.

Botkin, B. A. Lay My Burden Down: A Folk History of Slavery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945.

Bradford, Phillips Verner, and Harvey Blume. Ota: The Pygmy in the Zoo. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Brands, H. W. The Reckless Decade: America in the 1890s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Buck, Paul H. The Road to Reunion, 1865-1900. Boston: Little, Brown, 1937.

Burns, Robert E. I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997.

Cable, George W. Bonaventure: A Tale of Louisiana. New York: International Association of Newspapers and Authors, 1901.

—–The Silent South: Together with The Freedman's Case in Equity and the Convict Lease System. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1885.

Carr, Robert K. Federal Protection of Civil Rights: Quest for a Sword. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1947.

Chace, James. 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft & Debs—the Election That Changed the Country. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.

Chernow, Ron. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990.

Childers, James Saxon. Erskine Ramsey: His Life and Achievements. New York: Cartwright & Ewing, 1942.

Cobb, James C. The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Cohen, William. At Freedom's Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861–1915. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991.

Coulter, E. Merton. James Monroe Smith: Georgia Planter: Before Death and After. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1961.

Curtin, Mary Ellen. Black Prisoners and Their World, Alabama, 1865–1900. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000.

D’Angelo, Raymond. The American Civil Rights Movement: Readings and Interpretations. Guilford, Conn.: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2001.

Daniel, Pete. The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901–1969. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972.

Diouf, Sylviane A. Dreams of Africa in Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda and the Story of the Last Africans Brought to America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Dixon, Thomas, Jr. The Clansman. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1905.

——-. The Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1902.

——-. The Southerner: A Romance of the Real Lincoln. New York: D. Appleton, 1913.

Dray, Philip. At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America. New York: Random House, 2002.

DuBois, W. E. B. The Autobiography of W. E. B. Du Bois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century. New York: International Publishers, 1968.

——-. Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 1999.

——-. The Quest of the Silver Fleece. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1911.

——-. The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Repr. New York: Dover, 1994.

Ellison, Rhoda Coleman. Bibb County, Alabama: The First Hundred Years, 1818–1918. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1984.

Evans, Matthew S. The Soil Runs Red. Chicago: Van Kampen, 1948.

Fierce, Milfred C. Slavery Revisited: Blacks and the Southern Convict Lease System, 1865–1933. New York: African Studies Research Center, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, 1994.

Flynt, Wayne. Poor but Proud: Alabama's Poor Whites. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Franklin, John Hope. Reconstruction: After the Civil War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss Jr. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. Seventh edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Fredrickson, George M. The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965.

Freeman, Gregory A. Lay This Body Down: The 1921 Murders of Eleven Plantation Slaves. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1999.

Freese, Barbara. Coal: A Human History. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus, 2003.

Friedman, Lawrence J. The White Savage: Racial Fantasies in the Postbellum South. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., and Cornel West. The African American Century: How Black Americans Have Shaped Our Country. New York: Free Press, 2000.

Hale, Grace Elizabeth. Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890–1940. New York: Pantheon, 1998.

Hart, Albert Bushnell. The Southern South. New York: D. Appleton, 1910.

Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.

Hodgson, Joseph, ed. The Alabama Manual and Statistical Register for 1869. Montgomery: Montgomery Daily Mail, 1869.

Hoole, William Stanley. Alias Simon Suggs: The Life and Times of Johnson Jones Hooper. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1952.

Hooper, Johnson Jones. Adventures of Captain Simon Suggs, Late of the Tallapoosa Volunteers. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1845.

Jones, James Pickett. Yankee Blitzkrieg: Wilson's Raid Through Alabama and Georgia. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976.

Kelly, Brian. Race, Class, and Power in the Alabama Coalfields, 1908–21. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

Kennedy, Stetson. Southern Exposure. New York: Country Life Press, 1946.

Kolchin, Peter, First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama's Blacks to Emancipation and Reconstruction.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972.

Langston, Fern, ed. Echoes of Six Mile. Privately published collection of genealogical histories and documents.

Larson, Erik. The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair That Changed America. New York: Vintage, 2004.

Lewis, David Levering. W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919. New York: Henry Holt, 2003.

——-. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919–1963. New York: Henry Holt, 2000.

Lewis, David Levering, and Deborah Willis. A Small Nation of People: W. E. B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

Lewis, W. David. Sloss Furnaces and the Rise of the Birmingham District: An Industrial Epic. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994.

Lichtenstein, Alex. Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South. London: Verso, 1996.

Link, Arthur. Wilson: The Road to the White House. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947.

Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Malcomson, Scott L. One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000.

Mancini, Matthew J. One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866–1928. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

Maunder, Elwood, and Estelle McGowin Larson. James Greely McGowin—South Alabama Lumberman: The Recollections of His Family. Santa Cruz, Calif.: Forest History Society, 1977.

McKiven, Henry M., Jr. Iron and Steel: Class, Race, and Community in Birmingham, Alabama, 1875–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

McPherson, James M. The Most Fearful Ordeal: The Original Coverage of the Civil War by Writers and Reporters of The New York Times. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2004.

McWhorter, Diane. Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Modern Library, 2002.

Myers, Martha A. Race, Labor, and Punishment in the New South. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998.

Nevins, Allan. Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1936.

Norrell, Robert J. James Bowron: The Autobiography of a New South Industrialist. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Novak, Daniel E. The Wheel of Servitude: Black Forced Labor After Slavery. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1978.

Olmsted, Frederick Law. The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller's Observations on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slave States. New York: Mason Brothers, 1862.

——-. A Journey in the Back Country. New York: Mason Brothers, 1860.

O’Neill, William L., ed. Echoes of Revolt: The Masses, 1911–1917. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1966.

Oney, Steve. And the Dead Shall Rise: The Murder of Mary Phagan and the Lynching of Leo Frank. New York: Pantheon, 2003.

Oshinsky, David M. “Worse Than Slavery”: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Free Press, 1996.

Packard, Jerrold M. American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2002.

Page, Thomas Nelson. The Negro: The Southerner's Problem. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904.

——-. The Old Gentleman of the Black Stock. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900.

——-. Red Rock: A Chronicle of Reconstruction. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899.

Poe, Clarence H. A Southerner in Europe. Raleigh, N.C.: Mutual Publishing Company, 1908.

Powell, J. C. The American Siberia: Or, Fourteen Years’ Experience in a Southern Convict Camp. Chicago: Homewood, 1893.

Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association of the United States Held at Cincinnati, September 25–30, 1890. Pittsburgh: Shaw Brothers Printers, 1891.

Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association of the United States Held at Nashville, November 16–20, 1889. Chicago: Knight & Leonard Co., 1890.

Reed, John. Ten Days That Shook the World. New York: Boni & Liveright, 1919.

Reynolds, John N. Twin Hells. Chicago: M. A. Donahue & Co., 1890.

Rosengarten, Theodore. All God's Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974.

Royce, Edward. The Origins of Southern Sharecropping. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Sapiro, Karin A. A New South Rebellion: The Battle Against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields, 1871–1896. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Shelby County: Historical Images—The Early Years. Presented by the Shelby County Reporter with the Shelby County Historical Society. Piedmont Publishing, 2005.

Sinclair, William A. The Aftermath of Slavery. Boston: Small, Maynard & Company, 1905.

Smith, Lillian. Strange Fruit. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1944.

Spivak, John L. Georgia Nigger. New York: Brewer, Warren & Putnam, 1932.

Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956.

Steiner, Jesse F., and Roy M. Brown. The University of North Carolina Social Study Series: The North Carolina Chain Gang.Westport, Conn.: Negro University Press, 1970.

Originally published in 1927 by the University of North Carolina Press. Stuart, Ruth McEnery. The River's Children. New York: Century, 1904.

Suitts, Steve. Hugo Black of Alabama: How His Roots and Early Career Shaped the Great Champion of the Constitution. Montgomery: NewSouth Books, 2005.

Sullivan, Larry E., ed. Bandits and Bibles: Convict Literature in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Akashic, 2003.

Tarbell, Ida M. The Life of Elbert H. Gary: The Story of Steel. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.

Thomas, William Hannibal. The American Negro. New York: Macmillan, 1901.

Thompson, Stith. One Hundred Favorite Folktales. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974.

Tourgee, Albion W. Bricks Without Straw. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert, 1880.

——-. A Fool's Errand and the Invisible Empire. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert, 1880.

Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971.

Walker, Donald R. Penology for Profit: A History of the Texas Prison System, 1867–1912. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1988.

Ward, Robert David, and William Warren Rogers. Convicts, Coal, and the Banner Mine Tragedy. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1987.

Warren, Kenneth. Big Steel: The First Century of the United States Steel Corporation, 1901–2001. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001.

Warren, Louis S. Buffalo Bill's America: William Cody and the Wild West Show. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

Wharton, Vernon Lane. The Negro in Mississippi, 1865–1890. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

White, Marjorie Longenecker. The Birmingham District: An Industrial History and Guide. Birmingham: Birmingham Publishing, 1981.

Wilson, Bobby M. America's Johannesburg: Industrialization and Racial Transformation in Birmingham. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

——-. Race and Place in Birmingham: The Civil Rights and Neighborhood Movements. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

Wilson, Walter. Forced Labor in the United States. New York: International Publishers, 1933.

Wilson, Woodrow. Division and Reunion, 1829–1889. New York: Longmans, Green, 1893.

Winik, Jay. April 1865: The Month That Saved America. New York: Harper- Collins, 2001.

Wood, Forrest G. Black Scare: The Racist Response to Emancipation and Reconstruction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

Woodward, C. Vann. The Burden of Southern History. New York: Vintage, 1960.

——-. Origins of the New South, 1877–1913.

Volume 9. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1951.

——-. Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.

——-. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Work, John W. American Negro Songs and Spirituals. New York: Crown, 1940.


The Peonage Files of the U.S. Department of Justice, 1901–1945. Department of Justice, Record Group 60, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Booker T. Washington Papers, Volumes 1–14. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972,


Abernathy, C. A. “The Birth of Calcis: Founding of Calcis, Turner Brothers, Justice Store, and Our ‘Historical’ House: The Community, Its Historical Importance, and Our Family Ties to It.” Unpublished typescript, Nov. 1, 1992. Author's collection.

Allen, Alvaran Snow. “The Story of a Lie: By Convict No. 2939, Himself 15 Years in Prison.” Pamphlet printed by Mission Printing Company, Tulsa, c. 1926. Author's collection.

Armes, Ethel. “The Ironmasters of Alabama.” Advance Magazine 3, no. 15 (November 17, 1906). Blackmon, Douglas. A. “Hard Time: From Alabama's Past, Capitalism and Racism in a Cruel Partnership.” Wall Street Journal, July 16, 2001, p. 1.

——-. “Silent Partner: How the South's Fight to Uphold Segregation Was Funded Up North.” Wall Street Journal, June 11, 1999.

Bunn, J. Michael. “Slavery in the Shelby Iron Works During the Civil War.” Shelby County Historical Quarterly, March 2003.

Carper, N. Gordon. “Martin Tabert, Martyr of an Era.” Florida Historical Quarterly 52 (October 1973). Carter, Catherine McRee. “History of Kinderlou, Georgia, 1860–1940.” Unpublished typescript, Dec. 1940. Author's collection.

Cohen, William. “Negro Involuntary Servitude in the South, 1865–1940: A Preliminary Analysis.” Journal of Southern History, February 1976.

Collins, Donald E., ed. “A Georgian's View of Alabama in 1836.” Alabama Review, January 1972.

Cory, Marielou Armstrong. “History of the Ladies Memorial Association,” 1902,

Cottingham, Anna Blanche. The Cottingham's of Bibb County: Vol. 1. Ada, Okla.: Pontotoc County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1970.

Drobney, Jeffrey A. “Where Palm and Pine Are Blowing: Convict Labor in the North Florida Turpentine Industry, 1877–1923.” Florida Historical Quarterly 72, no. 4 (1994), pp. 411–34.

Ellis, R. H. “The Calhoun School, Miss Charlotte Thorn's ‘Lighthouse on the Hill’ in Lowndes County, Alabama.” Alabama Review 37, no. 3 (1984). Goluboff, Risa L. “The Thirteenth Amendment and the Lost Origins of Civil Rights.” Duke Law Journal 50, no. 6 (2001). Graves, John Temple, ed. “Bibb County History,” in The Book of Alabama and the South. Birmingham: Protective Life Insurance Co., 1933.

Grossman, Jonathan. “Black Studies in the Department of Labor, 1897–1907.” Monthly Labor Review, June 1974.

Harrison, Shelby M. “A Cash-Nexus for Crime”; “The Human Side of Large Outputs, Steel and Steel Workers in Six American States, Part IV, Birmingham District: Labor Conservation.” The Survey, Jan. 6, 1912. “Keystone Lime Company.” Columbiana Sentinel, Sept. 7, 1905.

SCHS. Langston, Cirrenia. “Childhood Memories of the War Between the States.” Centreville Press, March 14, 1934.

Logan, Eugenia Wallace. Copy of typescript of oral history, 1935. Author's collection.

MacKnight, J. A. “Columbiana: The Gem of the Hills.” Published by the Shelby County Sentinel, c. 1907.

SCHS. McNeill, Mary Ann (Cobb) Johnson. “Cobb History and Stories.” Unpublished manuscript, n.d., “The New Slavery in the South, an Autobiography.” Independent, Feb. 25, 1904.

Official Programme of Daily Events, Cotton States and International Exposition, Dec. 30, 1895 (Atlanta: C. P. Byrd). Author's collection. Roosevelt, Theodore. “Expansion of the White Races.” Speech to Methodist Episcopal Church celebration of the African Diamond Jubilee, Washington, D.C., Jan. 18, 1909.

Seales, Bobby Joe. “Shelby Iron Company: Brief History of Shelby Iron Co.” Shelby County Historical Society Quarterly 7, no. 2 (May 1980),

——-. “Siluria Cotton Mill Company.” SCHS, Smith, Robert Crew. “The Coming of the Railroad.” Privately published compilation of family historical material, n.d., Goodwater, Ala., Goodwater Public Library, Genealogy Section.

Teague, E. B. “Sketches of the History of Shelby County.” Typescript, 84 pp. SCHS.

Vandiver, Frank E. “Josiah Gorgas and the Brierfield Iron Works.” Alabama Review, January 1950.

——-. “The Shelby Iron Company in the Civil War: A Study of a Confederate Industry.” Alabama Review, January 1948.

Wallace, Reynolds E., Jr. “Recollections of Wesley Chapel.” Copy of unpublished manuscript, 1996. Author's collection.

Walthall Family History. Typescript, 16 pp. SCHS. Washington, Booker T. “To the Colored Citizens of Alabama,” Tuskegee Student, Feb. 28, 1895, p. 2, BTW Papers.

Wells, Ida B. “The Convict Lease System”; “Lynch Law.” Chapters in The Reason Why the Colored American Is Not in the World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago, 1893.


Carter, Dan T. “Prisons, Politics and Business: The Convict Lease System in the Post–Civil War South.” M.A. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1964.

Day, James Sanders. “Diamonds in the Rough: A History of Alabama's Cahaba Coal Field.” Ph.D. diss., Auburn University, 2002.

Fuller, Justin. “History of the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, 1852–1907.” Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1966.

Nolen, David L. “Wilson's Raid on the Coal and Iron Industry in Shelby County.” Thesis, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Spring 1988.


Agreement Entered into by J. Craig Smith, President of the Board of Convict Inspectors of the State of Alabama and Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, Nov. 26, 1907. Author's collection.

Annual Report, Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company, Reports to Board of Directors, Dec. 19, 1892.

Letterbooks of Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad, 1893–1895, A. S. Williams Collection, Eufaula Athenaeum, Eufaula, Ala.

Mechanical Mining Handbook. Tennessee Coal and Iron Division, United States Steel Corp., 1956. Author's collection.

Pocket Companion Information and Tables for Engineers and Designers and Other Data Pertaining to Structural Steel. Pittsburgh, Penn., and Chicago, Ill.: Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation, 1936. Birmingham, Ala.: Tennesse Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, 1936. San Francisco, Calif.: Columbia Steel Company, 1936.

Rules and Regulations, Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company. Ensley Works, May 1921. Author's collection.

Sixth Annual Report of the United States Steel Corporation, for the Fiscal Year ended Dec. 31, 1907.

Steel Making at Birmingham, Ala. Fairfield, Ala.: Published by Tennessee Coal & Iron Division of United States Steel Corp., 1954. An official company history.

Story of Tennessee Coal, Iron Railroad Company. As told in Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, Aug. 1939. Author's collection.

“Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company.” U.S. Steel News, Aug. 1937. Author's collection.

Wiebel, A. V. Biography of a Business. Tennessee Coal & Iron Division. United States Steel Corporation, 1960.


Administrative Correspondence, 1881–1897, Dawson Letter Books. Correspondence of the Inspectors of the Penitentiary, Department of Corrections. ADAH.

Annual Report of the Inspectors of the Alabama Penitentiary, for the Year Ending Sept. 30, 1877. Montgomery: Barrett & Brown, 1878. ADAH.

Annual Report of the Inspectors of the Alabama Penitentiary, October 1, 1873, to September 30, 1874. Montgomery: W. W. Screws, 1874. Author's collection.

Bibb County Commission Minutes, BCCH.

Biennial Report of the Adjutant-General of Alabama, to Thos. G. Jones, Governor and Commander-in-Chief. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1894.

Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, 1880–1882. Montgomery: Barrett & Brown, 1882. ADAH.

“Circular No. 3591, Re: Involuntary Servitude, Slavery, and Peonage.” Francis Biddle to All United States Attorneys, Dec. 12, 1941, File 50-821, Record Group 60, Department of Justice, National Archives.

Commissioner of Labor. Twentieth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor 1905: Convict Labor.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1906.

“Contract on Confession of Judgment Record, 1903–1913.” SCHS.

Convict Legislation and Rules, 1882–1883, Alabama Department of Corrections. ADAH.

Convict Record, Autauga County Probate Clerks Office, Prattville, Ala.

Convict Record, undated, Barbour County. Sheriff R. B. Teal, Barbour County Courthouse, Clayton, Ala.

Convicts at Hard Labor for the County in the State of Alabama on the First Day of March 1883, microfiche. ADAH.

Dawson, R. H. Diary of Reginald Heber Dawson, 1883–1906. ADAH.

Deed of Purchase by the Confederate States of America of Bibb County Iron Co., Sept. 7, 1863, BCC. Docket of A. M. Elliott, Justice of the Peace, 1878–1880, SCHS.

Feeding Accounts, 1908, Shelby County. SCHS.

Fifth Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1902, to August 31, 1904. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1904. ADAH.

First Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1894, to August 31, 1896. Montgomery: Roemer Printing, 1896. ADAH.

First Biennial Report of the Inspectors of Convicts, October 1, 1884, to October 1, 1886. Montgomery: Barrett & Co., 1886. ADAH.

Fourth Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1900, to August 31, 1902. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1902. ADAH.

Hart, Hastings H. Social Problems of Alabama: A Study of the Social Institutions and Agencies of the State of Alabama as Related to Its War Activities. Montgomery: Russell Sage Foundation, 1918.

Henry County Convict Record, Henry County Courthouse, Abbeville, Ala.

History of the Penitentiary. Special Message of Gov. Cobb, 1882. ADAH.

Jail Record, May 1888 to December 1890, Shelby County. SCHS.

Jail Register, 1907, Shelby County. SCHS.

“Jefferson County Circuit Court Convict Docket, 1902–1903.” Birmingham Public Library Archives.

Jefferson County Coroner's Record, Preliminary Investigation Reports, Record of B. L. Brasher, Coroner, Office of Coroner/Medical Examiner, Jefferson County.

Kilby, Thomas E. “Message Relative to Convict Lease System.” Jan. 10, 1923.

Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1923. Author's collection.

——-. “Message Relative to Feeding of Prisoners.” January 15, 1923.

Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1923. Author's collection.

Kolb, R. F. Annual Report of Department of Agriculture and Industries for the Fiscal Year 1912–1913. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1913.

Land Atlas and Plat Book, Bibb County, Alabama. Rockford, Ill.: Rockford Map Publishers, 1989.

Lee, A. Frank. “Historical Review of the Alabama Prison System.” Department of Corrections. Montgomery, 1960. ADAH.

Message of Thos. E. Kilby, Governor, Relative to Feeding of Prisoners, Legislative Document No. 3, Alabama Legislature, Jan. 15, 1923 (Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1923). Author's collection.

Milner, John T. “Report to the Governor of Alabama on the Alabama Central Railroad.” Montgomery: Advertiser Book and Job Steam Press Print, 1859. ADAH.

Minutes of the Board of Inspectors, 1883–1913, Department of Corrections. ADAH.

Minutes of the Shelby County Commission, Dec. 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884.

SCHS. Oates, W. H. Report of the State Prison Inspector of Alabama, for the Period of Two Years Ending September 30th, 1916. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1917. ADAH.

Official Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Alabama, May 21–Sept. 3, 1901. Wetumpka, Ala.: 1940.

Proceedings: Joint Committee of the Senate and House to Investigate the Convict Lease System of Georgia. Vols. 1 and 2, 727 pp. GDAH.

Quadrennial Report of the Board of Control and Economy: Convict Department, 1919–1922. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1922. ADAH.

Quadrennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1906, to August 31, 1910. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1910. ADAH.

Quadrennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1910, to August 31, 1914. Montgomery, 1914. ADAH.

Quadrennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, Sept. 1, 1914, to Aug. 31, 1918. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1918. ADAH.

Record of Incorporation, Bibb Steam Mill Company, Nov. 26, 1850. BCC.

Register of Prisoners Committed to the County Jail of Shelby County. SCHS.

“Report of Persons Sentenced to Hard Labor for Shelby County.” December 1913. SCHS.

Report of the State Prison Inspector of Alabama, for the Period of Two Years Ending September 30th, 1916. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1917.

Report of the State Prison Inspector of Alabama, for the Period of Two Years Ending September 30, 1920. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1920. ADAH.

Report of the State Prison Inspector of Alabama, for the Period of Two Years Ending September 30th, 1926. Birmingham: Birmingham Printing, 1926. ADAH.

Report of the State Prison Inspector of Alabama, for the Period of Two Years Ending September 30th, 1928. Birmingham: Birmingham Printing, 1928. Author's collection.

Report of the State Prison Inspector of Alabama, for the Period of Two Years Ending September 30th, 1930. Montgomery: Wilson Printing Co., 1930. Author's collection.

Schedule of Convicts Obtained by Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. from Shelby County, 2nd Quarter 1904. SCHS.

Second Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1886: Convict Labor.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1887.

Second Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1896, to August 31, 1898. Montgomery: Roemer Printing, 1898. ADAH.

Second Biennial Report of the Inspectors of Convicts, Oct. 1, 1886, to Sept. 30, 1888. Montgomery: W. D. Brown, 1888. ADAH.

Shelby County Poll Tax Book, 1890. SCHS.

Shelby County Record of Prisoners, April 11, 1878, to October 11, 1878, SCHS. Shelby County Record of Prisoners, April 18, 1879, to October 1, 1888.SCHS.

Shelby County Record of Prisoners, Aug. 17, 1884, to May 16, 1886.SCHS.

Shelby County Record of Prisoners, Oct. 19, 1890, to Aug. 20, 1906.SCHS.

Shelby County Sheriff's Office, Loose Papers File, Columbiana, Ala., SCHS.

Sheriff's Feeding Account, 1899–1907, Shelby County. SCHS.

Sheriff's Feeding Accounts, 1907, Shelby County. SCHS.

Sheriff's Prisoners Register, 1908, Shelby County. SCHS.

Sixth Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1904, to August 31, 1906. Montgomery, 1906. ADAH.

Tallapoosa County Probate Clerk's Records, Dadeville, Ala.

Testimony Taken by the Joint Special Committee of the Session of 1880–81 to Enquire into the Condition and Treatment of Convicts of the State, Testimony of Jno. D. Goode. Montgomery, Ala., 1881. ADAH.

Third Biennial Report of the Board of Inspectors of Convicts, September 1, 1898, to August 31, 1900. Montgomery: A. Roemer, 1900. ADAH.

Third Biennial Report of the Inspectors of Convicts, Oct. 1, 1888, to Sept. 30, 1890. Montgomery: Brown Printing, 1890. ADAH.

The War of Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901.

Wilcox County Probate Clerk's Records, Camden, Ala.


Atlanta Constitution

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