1Sheldon, Henry Davidson, The History and Pedagogy of American Student Societies (New York: D. Appleton, 1901), p. 175.

2McLachlan, James, “The Choice of Hercules, American Student Societies in the Early Nineteenth Century,” in Lawrence Stone, ed., The University in Society Volume II Europe, Scotland and the United States from the 16th to the 20th Century (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974), p. 459.


1Roberts, J. M., The Mythology of Secret Societies (London: Watkins, 2008), pp. 25–27.

2Gist, Noel P., “Secret Societies: A Cultural Study of Fraternalism in the United States,” The University of Missouri Studies, Vol. XV, No. 4 (October 1, 1940), p. 20.

3Huizinga, Johan, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture (London, Boston, Mass., and Henley-on-Thames, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1955), pp. 4–19.

4McWilliams, Wilson Carey, The Idea of Fraternity in America (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1973), pp. 22–23.

5Simmel, Georg, “The Sociology of Secrecy and Secret Societies,” trans. Albion W. Small, American Journal of Sociology, XI (January 1906), pp. 444–452, 464; Goethe, Johan Wolfgang von, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, translated by Thomas Carlyle (New York: Collier, 1962; 1968), pp. 490–491.

6Gist, op. cit., p. 9; Roberts, op. cit., pp. 32–33.

7Dumenil, Lynn, Freemasonry and American Culture 1880–1930 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984), p. 4; Roberts, op. cit., pp. 34–36, 47; Lipson, Dorothy, Freemasonry in Federalist Connecticut (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977), pp. 17–25; on the London lodges and the 1659 oath, Jacob, Margaret C., Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe (New York and Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 87–88.

8Allen, Devere, “Substitutes for Brotherhood,” World Tomorrow, Vol. VII (1924), p. 74; Lipson, op. cit., p. 1. In an essay in the Decennial Record of the Class of 1896, Yale College (New York: DeVinne Press, 1907, p. 13), Henry Selden Johnston wrote: “A comment on the American people has been frequently made that they are inordinately given to forming a multiplicity of secret orders and associations. Certainly in colleges this propensity has developed to a high degree, and Yale has indulged in due proportion.”

9Rothblatt, Sheldon, The Modern University and its Discontents: The Fate of Newman’s Legacies in Britain and America (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 106–178; Rothblatt, “The Student Sub-culture and Examination System in Early 19th Century Oxbridge,” The University in Society, ed. Lawrence Stone, 2 vols. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974), Vol. 1, pp. 252–256.

10Lubenow, W. C., The Cambridge Apostles, 1820–1914: Liberalism, Imagination and Friendship in British Intellectual and Professional Life (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 28–29; Kant, Immanuel, “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?” in Kleingeld, Pauline, ed., Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 17 (the Latin phrase is found in Horace’s Epistles, 1.2.40, and was a recognized motto in Enlightenment circles).

11McWilliams, op. cit., pp. 170–171.

12On the Moral Society, Gabriel, Ralph Henry, Religion and Learning at Yale: The Church of Christ in the College and University, 1757–1957 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1958), pp. 72–77; on Harvard’s Spy Club, Lane, William Coolidge, “The Telltale, 1721,” Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Transactions, XII (January 1909), pp. 225–228.

13“first effective agency,” Rudolph, Frederick, The American College and University: A History (New York: Vintage, 1962), p. 137; Adams quoted in Morison, Samuel Eliot, Three Centuries of Harvard 1636–1936 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936), p. 61; vita activa, McLachlan, James, “The Choice of Hercules, American Student Societies in the Early Nineteenth Century, in Stone, op. cit., p. 483.

14McLachlan, op. cit., pp. 486–487. The Yale Illustrated Horoscope for May 1889 was still writing of the senior society men as “Yale’s choice literatti” [sic].

15On Crotonia, or perhaps Critonia, Supplement to the Ninth Record of the Class of 1852 (Montelier, Vt.: Argus and Patriot Press, 1900), p. 23; on Linonia and Brothers in Unity, Elliot, Henry B., “The Two Oldest College Societies,” College Courant, January 27 and February 10, 1872; Harding, Thomas S., College Literary Societies Their Contributions to Higher Education in the United States 1815–1876 (New York: Pageant Press International Corp., 1971), p. 35.

16Sheldon, Henry D., Student Life and Customs (New York: D. Appleton, 1901), pp. 89–95, 125–129; Rudolph, op. cit., pp. 141–144; de Tocqueville, Alexis, Democracy in America (New York: Knopf, 1945), vol. 1, p. 303; Bledstein, Burton J., The Culture of Professionalism: The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America (New York: W. W. Norton, 1976), p. 198.

17Craigie, William and James Hurlburt, A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles (Chicago, Ill.: 1938), IV, p. 2065; Clay, Henry, “The American System” (1832), Works, ed. Calvin Colton (New York, 1904), VIII, p. 464; Howe, Daniel Walker, Making the American Self: Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), pp. 136–137.

18Chamberlain, Daniel, “The Value of Literary Societies in American Education,” University Quarterly, Vol. 3, April 1861, pp. 356, 359.

19Lubenow, op. cit., p. 35.

20Gist, op. cit., p. 80. “A simple promise is not enough; the obligation ordinarily states the conditions of secrecy: the candidate must not write, print, or impart verbally any of the secrets related to passwords, ritual or other secret features. These are the supreme taboos of secret fraternalism.” Ibid., p. 93.

21Jacob, op. cit., pp. 153–154.

22Linonia Society, Constitution and By-laws of the Linonian Society, of Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: Morehouse & Taylor, 1859), p. 3, Article I, Section II; “hundred boys,” Garrison, Lloyd M., “Social Life at American Colleges,” Outlook, vol. L (1894), p. 257; “intellectual free-trade territory,” Richards, Jeffrey, “‘Passing the Love of Women’: Manly Love and Victorian Society,” in Mangan, J. A. and James Walvin, eds., Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1849 (Manchester, England: University of Manchester Press, 1987), pp. 95–98.

23Lubenow, op. cit., p. 25; Lewis, C. S., The Four Loves (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1960), pp. 87–127; McWilliams, op. cit., pp. 28–29, 59.

24Rudolph, Frederick, Mark Hopkins and the Log: Williams College, 1836–1872 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1956), p. 104.

25Dwight, Timothy, Memories of Yale Life and Men (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1903), pp. 69–70.

26Lubenow, op. cit., pp. 25–26; Reminiscences of Scenes and Characters in College: By a Graduate of Yale of the Class of 1821 (New Haven, Conn.: A Maltby, 1847, p. 25, and to the same effect is Professor Benjamin Silliman, in Address Delivered Before the Association of the Alumni in Yale College in New Haven, August 17, 1842 (New Haven, Conn.: B. L. Hamlen, 1842), p. 12, who also added that “not a few” of the departures were “from the operations of the rules of discipline, which show no favor to the indolent, negligent, apathetic or vicious youth.” In college and fraternity catalogues, death has always been denoted by an asterisk. Baird, William R., American College Fraternities, Fifth Edition (New York: published by the author, 1898), p. 21.

27Forster, E.M. Howards End, Chapter 22 (London: Edwin Arnold, 1910): “Only connect! That was the whole of her sermon. Only connect the prose and the passion, and both will be exalted, and human love will be seen at its height.”

28Lubenow, op. cit., p. 27; Levy, Paul, Moore: G. E. Moore and the Cambridge Apostles (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1979), pp. 65–66; Deacon, Richard, The Cambridge Apostles (London: Robert Royce Limited, 1985), pp. viii–ix, 2–3.

29Lubenow, op. cit., pp. 30–31, 42–43; Deacon, op. cit., pp. 6–7.

30Printed in McAlister, Edith F. B., Sir Donald MacAlister of Tarbert (London: Macmillan, 1953), pp. 127–128. The Apostles were also fortified by generations of family ties (the way Yale senior societies sometimes developed over the college generations) among the Quaker family “intellectual aristocracy” of the Darwin-Wedgewood-Reverat-Stephen clans: see the discussion and genealogical charts in Levy, op. cit., pp. 19–25. The Apostles did not elect a female member until 1970.

31Rudolph, Frederick, Mark Hopkinsop. cit., p. 105; Winterer, Caroline, The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780–1910 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), pp. 62–66, 81–83. On Chi Delta Theta, Yale Literary Magazine, February 1884, p. 150, and Yale News, March 16, 1887.

32Founder Charles Clark Young’s account in A Record of the Members of the Kappa Alpha Fraternity (New York: A. H. Kellogg, 1892), pp. 7–8.

33Syrett, Nicholas, The Company He Keeps: A History of White College Fraternities (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009), pp. 29–31; Simmel, Sociologyop. cit., pp. 330–376, 347–348; Kett, Joseph E., Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 1977), pp. 29–31, 42.

34On Phi Beta Kappa, Johnson, Clyde Sanfred, Fraternities in Our Colleges (New York: National Interfraternity Foundation, 1972), p. 12; Porter, Noah, The American Colleges and the American Public (New Haven, Conn.: C. Chatfield & Co., 1879), p. 200.

35The Laws of Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: Baldwin & Treadway, 1832), p. 3.

36Rudolph, op. cit., p. 104.

37“two elements,” Sheldon, Student Lifeop. cit., pp. 187–188; “general resemblance,” Piper, P. F., “College Fraternities,” Cosmopolitan, Vol. XXII, No. 6, April 1897, p. 646; “Secret Societies at Yale,” Harper’s, February 7, 1874, pp. 125–126.

38Syrett, op. cit., p. 38.

39Ibid., p. 38. “This rivalry has become traditional, and where these fraternities meet a life-long contest for supremacy exists.” Piper, op. cit., pp. 642–643.

40Kappa Alpha Record (Clinton, Mass.: Colonial Press, 1941), p. 101.

41Constitution of Alpha Delta Phi, Section 6, Article II, Alpha Delta Phi Records, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University; Constitution of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity, article III, section 1, Delta Kappa Epsilon Records, vol. 3 (1888–1958, Constitution), University of North Carolina.

42Rudolph, op. cit., p. 101; Voorhees, Oscar M., The History of Phi Beta Kappa (New York: Crown, 1945), pp. 128–129, 182–183 (the original Union application for a chapter is at Yale); Syrett, op. cit., pp. 13 and 310–311, note 2.

43“middle-class equivalent,” Kett, op. cit., p. 260; Syrett, op. cit., pp. 14–15.

44Jonathan Pearson diary, entries for December 3, 1832, and December 11, 1833, Union College; Hislop, Codman, Eliphlet Nott (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1971), pp. 389–390.

45Flanagan, Caitlin, “The Dark Power of Fraternities,” Atlantic, March 2014, pp. 72–91; Syrett, op. cit.passim.

46All quotations from Johnson, Fraternitiesop. cit., p. 19–20.


1.Initiation ritual described in Voorhees, op. cit., p. 9; “Yale Phi Beta Kappa: Alpha of Connecticut Chapter History,” http://pbk.yalecollege.yale.edu/information/alpha-connecticut-chapter-history, accessed February 27, 2014; letter of William Short, second President of Phi Beta Kappa at William and Mary, to Edward Everett, July 8, 1831 (the “Short Letter”), reprinted in Hastings, William T., Phi Beta Kappa as a Secret Society with Its Relations to Freemasonry and Antimasonry (Washington, D.C.: United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa, 1965), p. 84.

2.Current, Richard Nelson, Phi Beta Kappa in American Life: The First Two Hundred Years (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 8.

3.Tyler, Lyon G., “Brief Personal Sketches,” The William and Mary College Quarterly, April 1896, pp. 245–254; Voorhees, op. cit., pp. 105–106.

4.Porter, John Addison, “College Fraternities,” Century, Vol. XXXVI, May 1884, p. 750.

5.The records of the mother chapter from 1776 to 1781 are preserved at William and Mary, were originally published in the William and Mary Quarterly for April 1896, and are reprinted in Hastings, op. cit., at pp. 52–82 (“Hastings Minutes”).

6.Hale, Edward Everett, “A Fossil From the Tertiary,” Atlantic, July 1879.

7.Hastings Minutes, p. 71.

8.Short Letter, p. 84.

9.Hastings, op. cit., pp. 4–5, correcting Voorhees, op. cit., pp. 10–11; Current, op. cit., pp. 10–11.

10.Short Letter, p. 84.

11.Hastings Minutes, p. 74.

12.Voorhees, op. cit., pp. 20–22.

13.Form of Charter Party in Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, p. 2, reproduced in facsimile in Voorhees following p. 116. The “Form of Initiation” in the Yale chapter records, even after the deletion of the phrase which made the oath one to “the Supreme Being,” required the initiate to “promise that you will be true and faithful to the Society . . . and will preserve honorably the secrets of the same.” Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

14.Crawford, Albert Beecher, Phi Beta Kappa Men of Yale 1789–1959, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1968), p. 15.

15.Voorhees, op. cit., p. 27.

16.Crawford, op. cit., pp. 10–11; Voorhees, op. cit., p. 34

17.Voorhees, ibid., p. 183.

18.Hastings Minutes, pp. 80–81.

19.Hale, op. cit., p. 24.

20.Voorhees, op. cit., p. 38.

21.Ibid., pp. 3–4.

22.Voorhees, op. cit., p. 357.

23.Hale, op. cit., p. 3.

24.Transcribed in Voorhees, op. cit., pp. 31–32, from an untitled manuscript written by Jonathan Leavitt, Yale Class of 1785, in the Yale Alpha records now in Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, RU 58, Box 4, Folder 238, there catalogued as “Constitution,” and again in Box 4, Folder 240, there supplied the title “The Origin and Progress of the ΦΒΚ Society,” the title used by Hastings in his reprinting of (only) the first few pages as Appendix III to his history at pp. 86–89. The second theft, in June 1787, which required the picking of three locks, is described by Leavitt at p. 3 of his manuscript, quoted by Voohees at his p. 32. The “small trunk” containing the society’s seal and letters were delivered in 1837 to William H. Russell, class of 1833 and secretary of the Alpha of Connecticut that year, tutor in Yale College in 1835–36, and primary founder of Skull and Bones in 1832. On the second theft and eventual restoration, see Voorhees, op. cit., p. 32; Crawford, op. cit., p. 17.

25.Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, quoted in Hastings, op.cit., p. 13. Interestingly for a letter of that date, Nash called the Dartmouth chapter’s antagonists “Antis.”

26.Lane, William Coolidge, Catalogue of the Harvard Chapter (Cambridge, Mass.: Phi Beta Kappa, 1912), p. 121.

27.Ibid., p. 120.

28.As summarized in Hastings, op. cit., p. 44; Bemis, Samuel Flagg, John Quincy Adams and the Union (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956), p. 77, and on Morgan’s murder, pp. 276–277; Dumenil, op. cit., pp. 5–7; Lipson, op. cit., pp. 3, 269–282; Holt, Michael F., “The Antimasonic and Know Nothing Parties,” in Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., History of U.S. Political Parties (New York: Chelsea House, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 575–592.

29.On the “sign” and the “grip,” see Lewis, A. N., ed., Supplement to the Ninth Record of the Yale Class of 1852 (Montpelier, Vt.: Argus and Patriot Press, 1900), p. 24. The mysterious Allyn is most fully described in Hastings, op. cit., Appendix VI, pp. 96–104. On his not being a member of Phi Beta Kappa, see Voorhees, op. cit., pp. 184–185.

30.Allyn, Avery, A Ritual of Freemasonry, Illustrated by Numerous Engravings; With Notes and Remarks, to which is added a Key to the Phi Beta Kappa (Boston, Mass.: L. Fitzgerald, 1831), pp. 296–297. Allyn published an earlier edition, in New York, with no reference to Phi Beta Kappa, in 1828, with publisher William Gowan.

31.Ibid., pp. 296–297. The Bavarian Illuminati were an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on May 1, 1776, by the Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt, who was the first lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt in Upper Bavaria. In his reply to the Antimasons in The Genius of Masonry (1828), Dartmouth PBK member Samuel Knapp had praised Phi Beta Kappa by saying it was a branch of the Illuminati, brought by Jefferson. Current, op. cit., pp. 54–55. On the Illuminati, whose founder had tried to join a Masonic lodge in 1774 but found the fees too high and the secrets already too well known, see Roberts, op. cit., pp. 133–144. The purported connection of Skull and Bones with the Illuminati is also cited in: Robbins, Alexandra, Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, The Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power (New York: Little Brown, 2002), pp. 82–83; Sutton, Antony C., America’s Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones (n.p.: Trine Day, 2002), pp. 77–80; Rosenbaum, Ron, The Secret Parts of Fortune: Three Decades of Intense Investigations and Edgy Enthusiasms (New York: Random House, 2000), pp. 160–162; and in New York magazine for November 25, 2013, p. 35. No true connection between the Illuminati and Phi Beta Kappa has been traced by the PBK society’s historians Voorhees and Hastings, and the improbability of the connection is well expressed in his Cyclopedia of Fraternities(New York: E. B. Treat, 1907) by Albert Stevens, at p. 345: “The Illuminati was founded in 1776, and it is hardly likely that a few boys at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, in those days of extremely infrequent letter-writing and trans-Atlantic voyages, were inspired in their formation of a Greek-letter society by the illustrious foreigner whose name is linked to an order which for a short time was grafted upon Freemasonry and then disappeared forever.”

32.Allyn, op. cit., pp. 297–299 Allyn’s limitation of “one third” of the class being elected may be a silent reference to the rule at Yale, enacted in the revision of the constitution in 1787, to limit election to “not more than one third of a class.” According to computations by Voorhees, op. cit. at p. 56, the figures for Phi Beta Kappa membership as a percentage of the class in these decades are Yale, 36%; Harvard, 31%; and Dartmouth, 33% (although Crawford, op. cit. at p. 13, gives cogent reasons why these figures are probably mildly inflated due to deaths or dropouts of members after election but before graduation).

33.Reminiscencesop. cit., p. 106.

34.Lane, op. cit., p. 152.

35.Voorhees, op. cit., pp. 188–191; Hastings, op. cit., pp. 48–50; Current, op. cit., pp. 55–57.

36.Lane, op. cit., p. 152.

37.Allyn, op. cit., second edition, New York, 1831, p. 259.

38.Before the publication of the Boston edition of Allyn’s book, Edward Everett, in addition to Chancellor Kent, had been invited to be orator at the Yale chapter’s anniversary meeting for 1831, in September 1830, and when Kent accepted for the 1831 meeting, Everett agreed to speak at the anniversary in 1832. Letters from Everett to Alpha of Connecticut corresponding secretary A. N. Skinner, September 14, 1830 and October 9, 1830, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

39.Quoted in Coxe, Macgrane, Chancellor Kent at Yale 1771–1781: A Paper Written for the Yale Law School (New York: privately printed, 1909), p. 30.

40.Tracy, Charles, Yale College: Sketches from Memory, (New York: Yale Alumni Association of New York, 1874), reprinted in the New-York Evening Post for January, 12–13, 1874. The secrecy “taken back” was with respect to the election of new members, since those rejected, “ought never to know the manner in which their claioms have been discussed.” Current, op. cit., p. 57.

41.In the inside margin of the minute book, the secretary has written of the motion which was passed in an asterisked addition: “The original words were these: Voted that the injunction of secrecy in regard to the constitution, laws & proceedings of this Alpha of this Phi Beta Kappa be dissolved, & that the same be no longer regarded as obligatory upon it, present members, or imposed upon those who may be hereafter admitted.” Minutes of Alpha Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, September 13, 1831 (“Alpha of Connecticut Minutes”).

42.Alpha of Connecticut Minutes, February 27, 1832, June 7, 1832, and June 11, 1832. The minutes do not record names of candidates who were not chosen, nor explain why there were two sets of elections for the Class of 1833. The source of the oft-cited tale that Skull and Bones was founded in some occasion of “disappointment” over Phi Beta Kappa elections this year is Lyman Bagg’s Four Years at Yale (By a Graduate of ’69) (New Haven, Conn.: Charles C. Chatfield, 1871), p. 146, since repeated in many journalistic and book accounts which followed (e.g. George Plimpton in his Harvard Lampoon article of November 11, 1949, “The Yale Secret Societies,” p. 11, and even in the most recent history of Phi Beta Kappa [1990], Current, op. cit., p. 62).

43.Something similar—elimination of secrecy for Phi Beta Kappa, followed by student dissatisfaction leading to the formation of a new group—happened far from New Haven and roughly at the same time as Bones was founded. The “History” in The Twelfth General Catalogue of the Psi Upsilon (n.p.: Executive Council of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity, 1917), records (at pp. xvi–xvii) that “With both its mystery and its social motive gone, Phi Beta Kappa had lost its charm and its attractiveness to the undergraduate mind, and the students saw that new societies to be organized by them must be founded upon entirely different ideals,” and so on November 24, 1833, the Psi Upsilon Fraternity was founded at Union College in Schenectady, New York, by members of the classes of 1836 (three being members of Phi Beta Kappa) and 1837, beginning as a secret society.

44.Catalogue of Members Yale Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa Alpha of Connecticut (New Haven, Conn.: The Price, Lee and Adkins, 1905), pp. 95–97 for class of 1833.

45.Bagg, op. cit., p. 178 (at an earlier date than Bagg’s history, in a newspaper article by William Stocking, class of 1865, “Presentation Week at Yale,” Hartford Courant, June 26, 1866, the senior societies are styled “the greater quindecimviri”).


1.Bagg, op. cit. at p. 146, seems to have been the first to suggest in print that Bones was founded for that reason: “Some injustice in the conferring of Phi Beta Kappa elections seems to have led to its establishment, and apparently it was for some time regarded throughout college as a sort of burlesque convivial club.” Elections for the class of 1833 resulted in a number of new members, thirty-four, that exceeded the Phi Beta Kappa constitutional limit of a third of the college class’s size, which would have been thirty-one; holding two elections suggests that a second intake round was required to soothe hurt feelings, resulting in the plentiful number. However, for six Brothers of Phi Beta Kappa (made up of initiates from both votes) to then found a new group in protest, as the core of the first fourteen-member club of Skull and Bones, without giving up membership in the old organization while Russell served as senior undergraduate officer, makes no social or political sense.

2.Morison, Elting E., Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), p. 33.

3.Kingsbury, Frederick D. (class of 1846), “Early Memories of New Haven,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 27, 1910, pp. 892–894; Dexter, Franklin B., “Historical Sketch,” paper read December 7, 1913, in Witherspoon, Alexander M., The Club: The Story of Its First One Hundred Twenty-Five Years 1838–1963 (New Haven, Conn.: printed for members of the club, 1964), pp. 8–9.

4.Class division names, The Laws of Yale College, 1832, p. 11; the “class” and Dwight’s opinion, Mendenhall, Thomas, The Harvard–Yale Boat Race 1852–1945 and the Coming of Sport to the American College (Mystic, Conn.: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1993), p. 9; Porter, American Collegesop. cit., pp. 191–192; Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz, Campus Life: Undergraduate Cultures from the End of the Eighteenth Century to the Present (New York: Knopf, 1987), p. 38; “applause,” Sheldon, Student Lifeop. cit., p. 123.

5.Deming, Clarence, Yale Yesterdays (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1915), p. 14; Third Record on the Class of 1833 in Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: 1870), p. 7.

6.“judgment of men,” Sheldon, Student Lifeop. cit., p. 124, quoting practically verbatim from, and citing Martin, Edward S., “Undergraduate Life at Harvard,” Scribner’s Magazine, May 1897, pp. 534–535, but attributing the activity to all colleges of this era; “relative rank,” Porter, Noah, “Additional Notices-Instructions and Discipline,” in Kingsley, William, Yale College: A Sketch of Its History, 2 vols. (New York: Henry Holt, 1879), pp. 504–505.

7.On admission age, The Laws of Yale College, 1832, p. 3. The demographic calculations are made from the statistical summary, identifying the place of birth of 101 members of the class of 1833 (not all of whom graduated), in Third Record of the Class of 1833 in Yale College (New Haven, Conn., 1870), pp. 132–133. On New Haven vs. Boston, Allmendinger, David F. Jr., Paupers and Scholars: The Transformation of Student Life in Nineteenth Century New England (New York: St. Martin’s, 1975), p. 25; Martin, Edward S., “Undergraduate Life at Harvard,” Scribner’s Magazine, May, 1897, p. 533.

8.Hall, Peter, The Organization of American Culture, 1700–1900: Private Institutions, Elites, and the Origins of American Nationality (New York: New York University Press, 1982), pp. 162, 311.

9.Sturtevant, Julian Morson, Jr., ed. Julian M. Sturtevant: An Autobiography (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1896), pp. 79–80.

10.Dexter, “On Some Social Distinctions at Yale and Harvard before the Revolution,” A Selectionop. cit., pp. 203–22; “farmers, store-keepers,” Shipton, Clifford K., “Ye Mystery of Ye Ages Solved, or How Placing Worked at Colonial Harvard & Yale,” Harvard Alumni Bulletin 57 (1954–55): 258–263; “appraisals,” Kelley, op. cit., pp. 75–78.

11.Avery quoted in “Yale College One Hundred Years Ago,” Hours at Home, February 1870, p. 333.

12.Mendenhall, op. cit., p. 6.

13.Horowitz, op. cit., p. 28.

14.Sheldon, op. cit., pp. 132–133; half-holiday, Yale News, March 1, 1887.

15.Steiner, Bernard C., The History of Education in Connecticut (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1893), pp. 154–155, 189; “Yale College,” Scribner’s Monthly, April 1876, p. 776; Allmendinger, op. cit., p. 87; Leonard, Lewis Alexander, Life of Alphonso Taft (New York: Hawke Publishing, 1920), pp. 33–34.

16.McLachan in Stone, op. cit., p. 466.

17.Meyer, D. H., The Instructed Conscience: The Shaping of the American National Ethic (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972), p. 68; McBride, Mary Gorton, Randall Lee Gibson (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997), pp. 39–40; “The Yale Report of 1828,” reprinted in Hofstadter and Wilson, American Higher Education: A Documentary History(Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1961), pp. 278 et seq. It is said that Yale with this report was “far more influential than provincial Harvard where Unitarianism and the absence of a missionary impulse were encouraging a climate of self-satisfied isolation.” Rudolph, op. cit., p. 151.

18.Morison, Samuel Eliot, op. cit., p. 260; Sturtevant, op. cit., pp. 84–85, 90–91.

19.Hocmuth, Marie, and Richard Murphy, “Rhetoric and Elocutionary Training in Nineteenth Century Colleges,” in Wallace, Karl, ed., History of Speech Education in America (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1954), p. 156; Records of the Yale Corporation, October 23, 1776, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

20.Kelley, Brooks Mather, Yale: A History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974), p. 158; Potter, David, Debating in the Colonial Chartered Colleges: A Historical Survey 1642–1900 (New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1942), pp. 82–83. For Emerson on and to his brother, Charles Chauncy Emerson, July 15, 1828, see Rusk, Ralph, ed., The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939), vol. 1, pp. 238–240.

21.“Eloquence and Eloquent Men,” New-England Magazine, II (February, 1832), pp. 93–100.

22.debaters in a section, Dexter, Frankln B., A Selection from the Miscellaneous Historical Papers of Fifty Years (New Haven, Conn.: Privately printed, 1918), pp. 386–387; Schwab, J. L., “The Yale College Curriculum, 1701–1901” Educational Review, Vol. XXII, June 1901, p. 4.

23.Dexter, Franklin B., editor, The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles (New York: Scribner’s, 1901), vol. III, p. 30; Yale Report, p. 11; Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Yale College, November 1822.

24.Aaron Dutton, in “A dissertation of the manner of rendering the exercises of the Linonian Society pleasing and useful” (Orations and Dissertations of the Linonian Society, 1772–1802, pp. 39–40, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University), puts it thusly: “Extempore disputation requires as much study as written composition, & perhaps more. . . . [But] very many, who dispute extempore, pay little or no attention to the question, till they come into the society, & depend principally upon the arguments & observations, which the occasion shall suggest.” On business sessions, Porman, George B., “Rhetorical Practice in Colonial America,” in Wallace, Karl, op. cit., p. 77.

25.On the programming of the “debates” at Linonia and Brothers, Harding, op. cit., p. 47, and Beers, H. A., The Ways of Yale in the Consulship of Plancus (New York: Henry Holt, 1895), pp. 7–8, 144–145; on the Philagorian, see Constitution and Records of the Philagorian Society 1828–1830, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, and Stokes, op. cit., on Porter, vol. 1, pp. 330–331.

26.College Courant, June 25, 1870, p. 434; Allmendinger, op. cit., p. 87; Baldwin, Ebenezer, Annals of Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: B. & W. Noyes, 1834), pp. 229–230; Mendenhall, op. cit., pp. 7–8; Deming, op. cit., pp. 8–14; on Silliman, Mack, op. cit., p. 24.

27.No sports, Sherwood, John, “Reminiscences of ’39 at Yale,” University Magazine, Vol. III, No. 11, November 1890, p. 26; Warren, op. cit., p. 5; and Kelley, op. cit., p. 213; Chamberlain, Daniel, op. cit., p. 355; “rank in honor with valedictorian,” Elliott, Ellsworth, Jr., Yale in the Civil War(New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1932), p. 61.

28.Hall, Peter, Organizationop. cit., pp. 172–173, 175.

29.Baldwin, op. cit., pp. 234–235; Johnston, W. C., “The Literary Societies of Yale College,” University Quarterly, Vol. 1, January 1860, pp. 116, 118. In Professor Edward Coe’s essay on “The Literary Societies” in Kingsley, op. cit., vol. 1, at p. 328, he writes: “Both were secret, so far as the names of their officers and the details of their transactions were concerned. Long after they had become distinctively ‘open societies,’ the ancient pledge still exacted the promise to be ‘true to the secrets,’ and this promise was for many years required even of candidates before whom the character and advantages of each [of Linonia and of Brothers] were displayed, to aid them in their decision.”

30.Mack, op. cit. pp. 5–6. This information was derived by computing the number of Bones names in the lists of honors-holders by Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 360, 365, 502–504, as supplemented by the unpublished minute books and published registers of Phi Beta Kappa, the programs of commencement and the Junior Exhibition, Catalogue of the Graduate Members of the Linonian Society of Yale College During One Hundred Years, From Its Foundation in September, 1753 (New Haven, Conn.: published by the society, 1853), and Catalogue of the Society of Brothers in Unity, Yale College, Founded A.D. 1768 (New Haven, Conn.: published by the society, 1854), in Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

31.Johnson, Owen, “The Social Usurpation of Our Colleges III—Yale,” Collier’s, June 8, 1912, p. 13.

32.“no office,” Johnston, op. cit., p. 124; Yale News, March 5, 1878.

33.“Where Officers Were Trained for the Union Army,” New Haven Register Magazine, October 15, 1961; Record of the Class of 1833, pp. 87, 130.

34.Catalogue 2003 (n.p.: The Russell Trust Association, 2003), pp. 417–418.

35.Taft, William Howard, “President Taft’s Speech,” Yale Alumni Weekly, March 26, 1909, p. 662.

36.Wood, George Ingersoll, “Reminiscences Pertaining to the Origin of the Club,” June 11, 1885, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library (emphasis in original manuscript).

37.Crapo, William L., “Linonia and the Brothers.” Yale Literary Magazine, February 1886, p. 199.

38.Bristed, Charles Astor, Five Years in an English University (G. P. Putnam: New York, 1852, pp. 100–101.

39.Sheldon, op. cit., pp. 136–138; Bristed, op. cit., pp. 467–471.

40.Kingsley, op. cit., pp. 315–320; Andrews, John William, History of the Founding of Wolf’s Head (Lancaster, Penn.: Lancaster Press, 1934), p. 19.

41.The only agenda item for the Yale faculty meeting of November 13, 1832, was the voted decision that “Robertson of the senior class be suspended for the remainder of the term, having been the leader in his class . . . in shouting, groaning, and various outrageous and detestable noises in front of the [Commons] Hall.” Faculty Records, 1817–1850, Yale College, p. 118, 13 November 1832, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

42.Bristed’s Five Years in an English University devotes several pages to the Apostles, contrasting them favorably with Yale societies: “These men did not make any parade of mystery, or aim at notoriety by any device to attract attention; they did not have special chambers for meeting, with skeletons in the corner, and assemble in them with the secrecy of conspirators; nor did they wear breastpins with initials of bad Greek sentences, or other symbolic nonsense on them, as our young [American] Collegians do.” Bristed, op. cit., pp. 166–168.

43.Sturtevant, op. cit., p. 102, writing of Yale in 1826 on the “top fifteens” chosen by the Yale faculty; “hierarchical,” Horowitz, Helen, op. cit., p. 13.

44.Third Record of the Class of 1833, pp. 132–133 on place of birth, and pp. 133–136 on roommates for four years of college course; members of Phi Beta Kappa for that class given in Catalogue of Members Yale Chapter, op. cit., pp. 95–97.

45.Tutors, Bagg, op. cit., p. 116. The Yale News for March 11, 1878, in criticizing the Bones society condemned the behavior of such graduates: “how the younger tutors cling to their old customs, boarding together and endeavoring to be as exclusive as possible.”

46.Dwight, op. cit., pp. 222–223.

47.On Waite and Evarts, Yale Courant, June 19, 1875. On Evarts and William Howard Taft, see Taft, Helen Herron, Recollections of Full Years (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1914), pp. 25–26.

48.Third Record of the Class of 1833, pp. 75–77; Robbins, op. cit., skull plate following p. 88.

49.The plate is reproduced as the frontispiece to Hastings, op. cit.

50.Porter, American Collegesop. cit., pp. 168–169.

51.Belden, Ezekiel Porter, Sketches of Yale College with Numerous Anecdotes, and Embellished with More Than Thirty Engravings. By a Member of That Institution (New York: Saxton & Miles, 1843), pp. 127–128.

52.Bagg, op. cit., p. 153; The Fall of Skull and Bones Compiled from the Minutes of the 76th Regular Meeting of the Order of the File and Claw (New Haven, Conn.: Published by the Order, 1876), p. 6.

53.Wood, op. cit; Hoskowitz, Mickey, Duty, Honor, Country (Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill, 2003), pp. 31–32.

54.Bagg, op. cit., p. 182; on the imitators, Kellogg, H. L., College Secret Societies: Their Customs, Character, and the Efforts for their Suppression (Chicago, Ill.: Ezra A. Cook: 1874), p. 8. Time magazine, in its May 31, 1926 issue, published its own list of Yale senior society imitators: “At the University of Virginia there is the famed Raven, dedicated to the dark memory of Edgar Allen Poe. At Colgate there are weird Skull and Scroll, and Gorgon’s Head. University of California has its Skull and Key and its Golden Bear. Other famed senior societies: Owl and Serpent (Chicago), Iron Cross (Wisconsin), Skull and Snakes (Leland Stanford), Iron Wedge (Minnesota), Quill and Dagger (Cornell), Innocents (Nebraska), Mystical Seven and Skull and Serpent (Wesleyan).”

55.Johnson, Samuel, A Dictionary of the English Language, Eighth Edition (London: 1799), vol. II, not paginated (Webster’s marked copy of this Johnson edition is in the Rare Book Division, New York Public Library); Webster, Noah, An American Dictionary of the English Language(Springfield, Mass.: George and Charles Merriam, 1850), pp. 994, 1038.

56.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 454–456; Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 309.

57.See “Genealogical Chart of General, Greek-Letter, College Fraternities in the United States,” Stevens, op. cit., p. 330.

58.Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 358.

59.Yale Banner, dated issues as named, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

60.History of the Class of 1834 in Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, Printers, 1875), p. 15.

61.Syrett, op. cit., pp. 98–99.

62.The original Alpha of Williamsburg medal is shown next to the Alpha of Connecticut medal in the illustrations in Voorhees, op. cit., following p. 116. The Chi Delta Theta badge is described in Belden, op. cit., p. 127.

63.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 144–145. Belden of the class of 1844 in his Sketches of Yale College, op. cit., pp. 127–128, writes that “the symbols of the badge are unknown; they are probably not so death-like as the badge itself. . . . The badge is worn as a square, gold, breast-pin.” A drawing of the square Bones badge, surrounded on all four sides with a narrow border of (acanthus?) leaves, is to be found in an illustration of all the junior and senior society badges in the Yale Banner for October 8, 1847. By that date, the Bones badges were gold. The Yale Courant for October 24, 1866, contains an interview with an unnamed Bones member of the class of 1838, describing “a pin that was worn at the time which consisted of a plain gold plate with a Skull and Cross Bones engraved upon it. This pin was imitated by a rival Society, being the same in shape but different in engraving.”

64.Bagg, op. cit., 143; Yale Courant, November 15, 1873, p. 104; Peterfreund, Diana, Secret Society Girl (New York; Delacorte Press, 2006), p. 151. Yale’s badge fetish was merely part of a national phenomenon, as evidenced by an article from a Kenyon College contributor: “No one who has ever been associated with a College, can have failed to notice the self-consequential air which Freshmen assume, when they exhibit for the first time their newly-donned Secret Society badges.” Lathrop, W. W., “College Secret Societies,” University Quarterly, vol. 3, April 1861, p. 277. On fraternity badges generally, see Syrett, op. cit., p. 98, and Slosson, Edward, Great American Universities (New York: Macmillan, 1910), p. 337.

65.Roberts, op. cit., pp. 27–42; Mack, op. cit., pp. 41–42.

66.Hughes, Rupert, “Secret Societies at Yale,” Munsey’s, June 1894. Horoscope for May 1883 (p. 4) described a Bones prospect as “practicing talking with a match in his mouth while undressing in order to prepare for the ‘Crab,’” and noted of another that “the ‘Crab’ will look well on his nightdress.”

67.Plimpton, op. cit., p. 93.

68.Sweezy, Paul M. and Leo Huberman, eds., F. O. Matthiessen (1902–1950): A Collective Portrait (New York: Henry Schuman, 1950), pp. ix–x.

69.Frazier, George, “Yale’s Secret Societies,” Esquire, September 1955, p. 106. However, according to Sweezy, op. cit., p. 91, Matthiessen left his Bones pin in his hotel room.

70.Elliot, op. cit., pp. 24, 42; Catalogue of Psi Upsilon Fraternity (n.p.: Executive Council of the Ps Upsilon Fraternity, 1917), p. 88. In July 1918, a Major Denig wrote to the widow of 2nd Lieut. John Williams Overton, Bones 1913, who had asked that “a certain pin” be sent to his mother if he got hit during the battle at Soissons, and his badge was found on his body and returned as requested.

71.“William Henry Vanderbilt,” Yale News, May 24, 1892, and Yale Alumni Weekly, May 24, 1892; “Skip Gould and Vanderbilt,” New York Herald, May 24, 1901; Vanderbilt, Arthur, II, Fortune’s Children: The Fall of the House of Vanderbilt (London: Michael Joseph, 1989), p. 202. On Vanderbilt’s badge, see Mack, op. cit., p. 220, citing the New York World for May 25 and 27, 1892, and New York Herald, May 28, 1892; on Vanderbilt Hall, see Pinnell, Patrick, The Campus Guide Yale University Second Edition (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2013), pp. 40–41. Comparative dormitory room costs, Yale University v. Town of New Haven, 43 L.R.A. 190 (1899), 71 Conn. 316, 42 A. 87, p. 93.

72.Printed catalogues for Phi Beta Kappa commenced in 1806 at Harvard and Dartmouth, producing the first Greek-letter fraternity catalogues to be printed in the United States, while Yale used manuscript rolls from the beginning through 1808, Voorhees, pp. 51, 101–104.

73.Bagg, op. cit., p. 150–151.

74.Ibid., pp. 146–147, 151.

75.Idem., p. 154.

76.Gist, op. cit., p. 70.

77.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 150, 152; Plimpton, op. cit., p. 93. See also Robbins, op. cit., p. 128 on “Skull and Bones Time.” Although rarely noticed, the pendulum on the tall case-clock in the second floor main lounge at the Yale Club in New York City is engraved with the legend “S.B.T.”

78.Robbins, op. cit., p. 129; Bagg, op. cit., p. 153, while acknowledging the nomenclature, cannot bring himself to write the actual words. The word “Patriarch” is the signature to a letter from the society to the Yale News of March 26, 1878, and the author writes of himself as among “the few who were blessed with the Eulogian mysteries.”

79.E.g., “Eulogians” in Yale Review, March 1857, p. 89; Catholic Encyclopedia, www.catholic.org/encyclopedia/view.php?id=4418, accessed May 29, 2013. (New York: Robert Appleton, 1913). Yale News for May 24, 1878, in reporting on elections, writes of a man accepting “the Eulogian pledge.”

80.The Greek barberoi is regularly translated as “foreigners.” Thuycidides, History of the Peloponnesian War (New York: Penguin, 1972), translated by Rex Warner, p. 37, n. 3. “Barbarian” was an onomatopoeic rendering of what sounded to the Greek ear as their inane babbling (“bar bar”), and “barbarian” was taken up in due course by the Romans to identify those savage unfortunates who resided outside their empire and did not speak Latin. Cannadine, David, The Undivided Past: Humanity Beyond Our Differences (New York: Knopf, 2013), p. 221.

81.The Laws of Yale College, 1832, op. cit., p. 3; “tenacious attachment,” Winterer, op. cit., p. 62; Osterweis, Rollin G., Romanticism and Nationalism in the Old South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1971), pp. 27–28.

82.On Greece and New Haven, Osterweis, Rollin G., Three Centuries of New Haven (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1953), pp. 233, 268, 459, 463; on Graeca Majora and Yale, Winterer, op. cit., pp. 32–35; “chef d’oeuvre,” Woolsey, T. D., “Address Commemorative of Chauncey Allen Goodrich,” quoted in Hocmuth and Murphy, op. cit., p. 163. On the statue, Steiner, op. cit., p. 167.

83.Robbins, op. cit., p. 130, quoting with translation but without citation to Bagg, op. cit., p. 151.

84.Pierson, George Wilson, Yale: The University College 1921–1937 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1955), pp. 315–321.

85.Bagg, op. cit., p. 153; Robbins, op. cit., pp. 90, 125–127; Brinkley, Alan, The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010), p. 73. On McGeorge Bundy’s Bones name, Preston, Andrew, The War Council: McGeorge Bundy, the NSC, and Vietnam(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006), p. 2, and Goldstein, Gordon M., Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam (New York: Henry Holt, 2008), p. 9; on George W. Bush, Smith, Jean Edward, Bush (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2016), p. 15. William F. Buckley Jr., knight errant of conservatism, chose “Cheevy,” after Edward Arlington Robinson’s “Miniver Cheevy,” whose deluded hero pines for the age of chivalry and regrets that he was born too late. Tanenhaus, Sam, “William F. Buckley: the founder,” Yale Alumni Magazine, May/June 2008.

86.Belden, op. cit., pp. 128–130.

87.Deming, op. cit., p. 92, reprinted from Yale Alumni Weekly, May 10, 1910.

88.A Graduate of the Seventies, “Discussion of ‘Tap Day’,” Yale Alumni Weekly, June 24, 1905, p. 759; “Forerunners of Tap Day,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 20, 1910, p. 867.

89.Mack, op. cit., pp. 183, 251.

90.Ibid., pp. 1, 12, for 1842, for the Bones election that precipitated Scroll and Key; Bagg, op. cit., pp. 147–148, for 1869; “Forerunners of Tap Day,” op. cit.

91.Historical Register of Yale University 1701–1937 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1939), p. 13; The Songs of Yale (New Haven, Conn.: Thomas W. Pease, 1860), pp. vi–viii; Belden, op. cit., p. 131; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 221–222.

92.Kelley, op. cit., p. 221; Moseley, Laura Hadley, ed., Diary 1843–1852 of James Hadley (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1951), p. x. On Taft’s “store clothes,” Matthiessen, “Alphonso Taft, Class of 1833: Lawyer and Statesman,” in French, Robert Dudley, The Memorial Quadrangle (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1929), p. 307.

93.The Townsend Prizes were founded by Yale Law professor Isaac H. Townsend (Yale 1822) with a gift of $1,000, the income to be distributed annually in five premiums of $12 each to seniors preparing the “best specimens of English composition.” The DeForest Prize was endowed by a wealthy New Havener for a gold medal worth $100, “to be given annually to the scholar of the Senior Class who shall write and pronounce and English Oration in the best manner, the President and Professors being the judges.” In 1853, “[t]o save two separate trials, one for the Townsend Premiums, and one for the DeForest Medal, six instead of five Townsend prizes are awarded, and then the six pronounce their orations in the Chapel, when the ‘DeForest’ is given by the vote of the Faculty.” University Quarterly, Vol. 3, January 1861, pp. 208–209; Yale News, May 5, 1887.

94.Yale is the first college in the United States at which there is evidence of a real marking system (President Ezra Stiles ranked students by four Latin characterizations in 1782), but Yale did not have grades until 1813, setting a scale of 1 to 4 (4.0 on a decimal system, or later 400 points), a system never used at Harvard, as described in Smallwood, M. L., An Historical Study of Examinations and Grading Systems in Early American Universities (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935), pp. 42–43, 45–47, On the “biennial,” Chamberlain, Joshua L., Universities and Their Sons (Boston, Mass.: R. Herndon Company, 1900), section on Yale by C. H. Smith, p. 89. On the 2.50 benchmark, “The Junior Appointments,” Yale News, January 13, 1888. On the “2 average” and “rustication,” Smallwood, op. cit., p. 47, citing Belden, op. cit.

95.Depew, Chauncey M., My Memories of Eighty Years (New York: Scribner’s, 1922), p. 5.

96.Identification of the number of valedictorians and salutatorians is made through comparing Bones club membership to the lists for the same years in Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 502. On the ancient honors of valedictorian and salutatorian, which ended with the commencement exercises of 1894, see Deming, op. cit., pp. 80–84. On the academic sibling rivalry in the Taft family, see Goodwin, Doris Kearns, The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013), p. 27.

97.New Haven Evening Register, May 31, 1878. Horoscope for April 1884 (p. 1) noted that “Bones has a passion for valedictorians,” and in discussing the prospects for election, often identified probable valedictorians at the end of their junior year. Rudolph, op. cit., p. 289, notes that “by the turn of the century at Yale the valedictorian could count on not being elected to a senior society,” attributing the phenomenon to the fact that “what mattered for so many young men was not the course of study but the environment of friendships, social development, fraternity houses, good sportsmanship, athletic teams . . . In all of this the classroom was not very important.”

98.“The Townsend and DeForest

Prize,” Yale News, May 5, 1887. For Townsend Prize winners, Kingsley, op. cit., p. 360; Scroll and Key had twenty-four winners in the same period. Poem in Yale Review, March 1857, pp. 90–91. “Jack” and “Gill” have not been identified, but Bonesmen took three of the five Townsends that year.

99.Kingsley, op. cit.,

Vol. 1, pp. 420 ff., and Vol. II, pp. 54–175.

100.On the distinction of “philosophical

oration” appointments, Mack, op. cit., p. 6. Bones members also made up 49 of the 102 Townsend Prize winners (as against 13 for Scroll and Key). After its founding, Keys had more Class Orators and Class Poets than Bones, however, in the classes from 1842 through 1853 (six to Bones’ four). In the same run of years, Keys had three DeForest Prize winners, including the first. In his autobiography Connecticut Yankee (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1943), at p. 76, Wilbur Cross of the class of 1885, later Sterling Professor of English, dean of the Yale Graduate School, and governor of Connecticut, after whom that state’s parkway is named, was to boast that he had won “the DeForest Gold Medal against five competitors, all of whom were members of Yale’s oldest senior society.”

101.Huntington, Samuel, A History of the Class of 1863 (New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Co., 1905, p. 191; Hirsch, Mark, William C. Whitney, Modern Warwick (New York: Dodd Mead & Company, 1948), pp. 15, 17–18.

102.Dwight, op. cit., p. 30; Kelley, op. cit., p. 174. The eight ranking distinctions for the Junior Exhibition were, in descending order: philosophical orations, high orations, orations, dissertations, first disputes, second disputes, first colloquies, and second colloquies (see the list in The Yale Courant for January 6, 1866, p. 19).

103.Mack, op. cit. pp. 41–45, and, at 212, quoting I. S. Peet, class of 1845. On the thrice-a-year elections of officers in Linonia and in Brothers, Harding, op. cit., pp. 40–41; no member could be elected twice to the same office.

104.“Skull and Bones,” Time, May 20, 1940.

105.Hall, Organizationop. cit., p. 312.

106.Sharfstein, Daniel J., The Invisible Line: A Secret History of Race in America (New York: Penguin, 2001), p. 58, quoting George W. Smalley; “Randall Gibson,” DKE Quarterly 11 (1893), pp. 26–27.

107.Catalogue of the Calliopean Society, Yale College, 1839 (New Haven, Conn.: Printed by B. L. Hamlen, 1839), pp. 3–4; on Whig and Clio geographic proclivities, Wertenbaker, Thomas J., Princeton, 1746–1896 (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1946), p. 206.

108.Kelley, op. cit., p. 222; Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 320; Bagg, op. cit., pp. 221–223.

109.Pierson, op. cit., p. 64; on Southern defensiveness, see Taylor, William, Cavalier and Yankee: The Old South and the American National Character (New York: George Brazilier, 1961), pp. 96 ff.

110.Glover, Lori, “Let Us Manufacture Men: Educating Elite Boys in the Early National South,” in Thomson & Glover, eds., Southern Manhood: Perspectives in Masculinity in the Early National South (Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press, 2001), pp. 36–37; Sturtevant, op. cit., p. 100; Horowitz, Helen, op. cit., p. 28; on housing, Allmendinger, op. cit., pp. 88–89, also noting that 58% of the student body roomed in town in the 1850s.

111.Sherwood, op. cit., p. 26. On slovenly scholars and his own sartorial pride, Kentuckian and Bonesman (1852) William Preston Johnston, quoted in Shaw, Arthur Marvin, William Preston Johnston: A Transitional Figure of the Confederacy (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1943), p. 41.

112.On “honor,” Ayers, Edwin L., in Wilson & Ferris, Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolia Press, 1989), p. 1483; “tetchy,” Cash, Wilbur J., The Mind of the South (1941; rpt., New York, Vintage, 1991), p. 171; “character,” Bledstein, op. cit., p. 34.

113.Sturtevant, op. cit., p. 99; Sherwood, op. cit., p. 25. For evidence that there were conflicts even at Southern colleges where planters’ sons confronted rules invented in New England and largely maintained by New England–trained clergy, see Horowitz, Helen, op. cit., p. 28.

114.Catalogue of the Calliopean Societyop. cit.passim; on Taylor and Johnston, Hughes, Nathaniel Jr., Yale’s Confederates: A Biographical Dictionary (Chattanooga: University of Tennessee Press, 2008), pp. 112–113, 205–206, and Shaw, op. cit., p. 36.

115.Osterweis, Romanticismop. cit., pp. 94–95. Andrew Dickson White was to remember, in his college career of 1849–1852, hearing “the greatest political questions sounding in our ears; Webster, Calhoun and Clay making their final speeches.” White, “Yale in ’53,” Yale Literary magazine, February 1886, p. 217.

116.Quoted in Sharfstein, op. cit., p. 65. Gibson, the younger brother of Randall Lee Gibson (elected Class Orator for 1853), was a second president of Linonia, and won prizes for debate and declamation.

117.Osterweis, Romanticismop. cit., p. 128; Halliday, Carl, A History of Southern Literature (New York: Neale Publishing, 1906, pp. 130–134, 138–140.

118.Belden, op. cit., p. 128.

119.Yale graduates’ numbers in service and death, Thwing, Charles F., A History of Education in America (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1906), p. 367, and William Maxwell Evarts’s speech in College Courant, February 5, 1870, p. 79. Jeff Davis Legion census in Hughes, op. cit., pp. xvi, 41–42, 143.

120.Harrison, Burton N., “The Capture of Jefferson Davis,” Century, vol. 27, 1, November 1883, pp. 130–145. Harrison entered Yale from the University of Mississippi as a sophomore, and became president of Linonia, editor of the Lit., and Class Orator. For biographical sketches of Harrison, Perkins, and the other noted Yale Confederates, see Hughes, op. cit. and Davis, William C., “A Government of Our Own”: the Making of the Confederacy (New York: Free Press, 1994). William Preston Johnston, then president of Tulane in New Orleans, was to serve as chair of the committee in charge of funeral services for Jefferson Davis in 1889; the prosecutor at Davis’s trial for impeachment in 1867 was William Maxwell Evarts, another Bonesman.

121.Biographical and Historical Record of the Class of 1853 in Yale College, For the Fifty Years from the Admission of the Class to College (New Haven, Conn.: 1881), pp. 43–44.

122.On the number of generals, see Stokes, op. cit., Vol. II, pp. 294–295, who names twenty-five graduates and non-graduates as Union Army generals (omitting William Seward Pierson, Bones 1836, and Joseph Cook Jackson, Bones 1857), and six (including a law school graduate) as Confederate Army generals (omitting Henry R. Jackson, Elisha Paxton, and William Preston), which is apparently the source for Kelley, op. cit., p. 198, and that census for the Confederates is expanded and corrected by Hughes, op. cit., p. xviii. Of the 237 names of graduates in Hughes’s Yale’s Confederates from the class of 1833 onward, 29 are Bonesmen from the classes of 1835 through 1859.

123.Hughes, op. cit., pp. 16, 83, 113, 177; Lewis, op. cit., p. 107, on the returns of Johnston and Gibson; quotation from Gibson in Ellsworth, op. cit., p. 66. Gibson’s classmate Andrew Dickson White, running into him in New York City the week before the Yale commencement, persuaded Gibson to attend. The class secretary then sought Professor Thomas Thacher’s permission (he managed the alumni meetings) to have Gibson speak, “pointing out the public interests involved and urging that there was a chance that might be good fruit at the South as well as at the North,” and Thacher “took the point in a moment.” The Class of ‘Fifty-Three in Yale College, A Supplementary History (New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1894), p. 32; Sharfstein, op. cit., pp. 148–150.

124.Johnson, Owen, Stover at Yale (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1912), p. 265. Cecil Rhodes had the same idea in creating the Rhodes scholarship program, to bring college-age Americans and British Empire colonists to Oxford University for “great advantage for them in giving breadth to their view for their instruction in life and manners . . . ,” as he wrote in his will. See Richards, David Alan, “Kipling and the Rhodes Scholars,” Kipling Journal, March 2012, pp. 22–3, 27.

125.Mack, op. cit., p. 212.

126.Faculty Records, 1817–1850, Yale College, p. 128, December 25, 1833, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

127.Faculty Records, 1817–1850, Yale College, 3, 5, August 9, 1842, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University; Laws of Yale College, 1832op. cit., p. 32.

128.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 152–154.

129.Robbins, op. cit., p. 2 illustration.

130.Diary of George Sherman, Yale College class of 1839, Manuscripts & Archives, Yale University.

131.On debate format, Robbins, op. cit., pp. 133–135; “Cider-mill,” Reminiscences of Scenes and Charactersop. cit., p. 105. From the first club of 1833 through the club of 1848, Bones tapped fifteen presidents of Linonia, and twenty-eight presidents of Brothers, according to the respective societies’ catalogues, where the presidents but no other officers are noted.

132.On Taft, Yale Alumni Magazine, March/April 2013, p. 37; on Bush and Kerry, anecdote from Professor Charles Hill, the teacher of the new course, to the author. While teaching at Yale, Taft would frequently visit the Bones tomb. Wooley, Knight (Bones, 1917), In Retrospect—A very personal memoir (privately printed: 1975), p. 2.

133.“Skull & Bones Skull to Be Auctioned,” Huffington Post, March 18, 2010.

134.Crapo, op. cit., pp. 199–200.

135.Robbins, op. cit., pp. 133–134.

136.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 152–153; Duplex Family Geneology, http://nytompki.org/Genie/duplex/duplex-register/d2.htm (Second Generation, No. 7, wife Vashti Duplex Creed); “Yale Celebrates 150th Anniversary of First African American Graduate,” http;//news.yale.edu/2007/5/30/Yale-celebrates-150th-anniversary-first-african-american-graduate, accessed May 16, 2014.

137.Bagg, op. cit., p. 146.

138.Baird, William R., American College Fraternities (New York: 1898), pp. 202-204. From these parent chapters at Union and Hamilton, the Greek-letter fraternity was introduced into most of the colleges of New England and New York by 1840. In the twentieth century, Yale’s Psi Upsilon chapter renounced its national affiliation and became the Fence Club.

139.Bartlett, Edward Griffin, DKE Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 1883, p. 84.

140.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 152–153; “decidedly literary,” Baird, op. cit., p. 35. The assertion of Robbins, op. cit., p. 84, that the original Bones club of 1833 “tapped the majority of its members from the junior society Alpha Delta Phi” is wrong, as Alpha Delta Phi was not started at Yale until 1836.


1.Pierson, Yale Book of Numbersop. cit., p. 50.

2.The list is in the Bones Scrapbooks in the Scroll and Key tomb, Mack, op. cit., p. 201.

3.Stevens letter, July 14, 1841, Henry Stevens Papers, Special Collections, University of Vermont Libraries.

4.Catalogue of the Alpha Delta Phiop. cit., pp. 83, 87–91; The Twelfth General Catalogue of the Psi Upslion Fraternityop. cit., pp. 67–68.

5.Mack, op. cit., p. 8. The formation of Scroll and Key was not an instance of what sociologists call “schismatic differentiation,” where fraternal orders “have been torn by internal dissensions which have culminated in the complete secession of disgruntled and dissatisfied elements.” Gist, op. cit., p. 46. Kingsley and his mates did not secede, but rather chose to form their own group, without ever having been members of the Scull and Bone. There are real parallels to schismatic differentiation, nonetheless. “These schismatic or secessionist orders bear much the same relation to the parent organizations as religious sects do to the older bodies from which they have separated. In general the secessionists have tended to take over most of the characteristic features of the original order, frequently even preserving the name with slight modifications. So far as the functional and structural patterns are concerned, the societies remain the same.” Ibid.

6.Stevens letter, August 6, 1842, Henry Stevens Papers, Special Collections, University of Vermont Libraries.

7.Mack, op. cit., pp. 11–12.

8.Ibid., pp. 12–13.

9.Idem., pp. 1, 197.

10.Record of the Class of 1843, Yale College (New York: John F. Trow, 1859), pp. 96–97.

11.Mack gives no date for the William Kingsley memoir (now in the Keys tomb), but says it was taken as dictation by his daughter Mrs. Henry Farnam in his “latter years.” Mack, op. cit., p. 202.

12.Sulloway, Frank J., Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics and Creative Lives (New York: Pantheon, 1996), p. 351 and passim; Kluger, Jeffrey, The Sibling Effect: What the Bonds Among Brothers and Sisters Reveal About Us (New York: Riverhead, 2011), pp. 71–73. See also Colt, George Henry, Brothers (New York: Scribner’s, 2012), chapter two, “Good Brother, Bad Brother: Edwin and John Wilkes Booth,” pp. 24–82, examining the title pair and a litany of “brothers so different that it seems impossible they could have the same parents”: Armand and François–Marie Arouet (Voltaire), Maximilien and Augustin Robespierre, Gansevoort and Herman Melville, and Jimmy and Billy Carter.

13.Mack, op. cit., pp. 4, 5, 200.

14.Porter, Noah, Joseph Earl Sheffield, A Commemorative Discourse (New Haven, Conn.: 1882), pp. 18–20.

15.Mack, pp. 1–2, 13, 24–25.

16.Ibid., pp. 13, 25, 204.

17.Idem., pp. 13, 25–28, 204–205, 207. The society beneath a cut of their symbol printed in a local newspaper gave public thanks “to the Fire Department and the citizens of New Haven for their prompt and energetic exertions at the late fire in Street’s Building” on December 26, 1842.

18.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 155–156, 164.

19.Mack, op. cit., p. 199.

20.Bagg, op. cit., p. 155; Rumpus, April 1997. The motif of the right hand below was also in use on the badge of Phi Beta Kappa, although that hand pointed to the stars in the upper left corner.

21.Mack, op. cit., pp. 3, 199–200.

22.Hall, B. H., A Collection of College Words and Customs (Cambridge, Mass.: John Bartlett, 1856), p. 296.

23.“Pinomania,” College Courant, July 17, 1869, p. 49.

24.Mack, op. cit., p. 14.

25.“The American Scholar,” Nature: Addresses and Lectures (Boston, Mass.: James Monroe, 1849), pp. 110–111; Nature (Boston, Mass.: James Monroe, 1836), pp. 24–25; “Over-soul,” Essays: First Series (Boston, Mass.: James Monroe, 1847), pp. 252–253.

26.White, Andrew Dickson, The Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White, 2 vols. (New York: Century Company, 1905), I, p. 29; on Emerson’s appreciation of New Haven, Tilton, Eleanor M., Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), Vol. X, 1870–1881, p. 92. Sharfstein, op. cit., p. 56.

27.Bledstein, op. cit., p. 259.

28.Ibid., pp. 206–207.

29.The Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. William Waldo Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes, 10 vols. (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1903–04), Vol. 9, p. 41.

30.Mack, op. cit., pp. 14–15, 19.

31.Ibid., pp. 29–30, 43.

32.Kingsley, op. cit., pp. 310–311; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 222–223.

33.College Courant, November 27, 1869, p. 320.

34.Bagg, op. cit., p. 156.

35.Moseley, op. cit., p. 176; Yale Review, March 1857, pp. 88–89.

36.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 148, 156–157.

37.Mack, op. cit., pp. 238–239.

38.“Who Wants to Be in Yale’s Scroll and Key? Or the Latest Prank Attempt Gone Awkward,” April 16, 2009, www.ivygateblog.com/2009/yales-scroll-key-and-the-latest-prank-attempt-gone-awkward#more_5606, accessed May 28, 2013; C.S.P 1842–1989, p. 6. Bones tomb intruders in 1876 in their pamphlet, The Fall of Skull and Bonesop. cit., pp. 4–5, reported finding a copy of the 1868 catalogue of Scroll and Key: “From the catalogue we learn that the President and Secretary of Scroll and Key are known ‘inside’ as CHILO and EUMENES, and that, as in Bones, each member had a nickname given him. Some of these are handed down from class to class, and of these Glaucus, Prasatagus and Arbaces appear to be the favorites.” A letter from a Keysman signed Arbaces is in the Yale News for March 19, 1879, and the issue for May 22, 1878 reports the return to campus to help settle an election dispute by “Eumenes, ’73, and Chilo, ’67.”

39.Giamatti, A. Bartlett, A History of Scroll and Key 1942–1972 (New Haven, Conn.: published by the society, 1978), p. 3; Bagg, op. cit., p. 157.

40.Deming, op. cit., pp. 92–93; Mack, op. cit., pp. 183, 251.

41.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 162–163.

42.Mack, op. cit., p. 206.

43.Bagg., op. cit., pp. 501–503; Pearce, John Irving, “Breaking Up the Bully System,” Yale Scientific Monthly, Vol. XVIII, October 1911, pp. 43–46; Kingsley, op. cit., vol. 2, pp. 462–477. It has been argued that the word was not, “as some suppose, of vulgar, or bovine derivations, but a corruption of the proud Greek word Βουλη, a . . . patriarch.” Yale Record, January 14, 1874, p. 203.

44.Bagg, op. cit., p. 503.

45.The Robinson song (“Air: Jeremiah”) is quoted in Robbins, op. cit., p. 148.

46.Bagg, op. cit., p. 153; Robbins, op. cit., pp. 92, 143. Peterfreund’s 2002 novel Secret Society Girl adds to the list of the treasures in “Rose and Grave,” her book’s stand-in for Bones, both a Shakespeare folio and Cold War nuclear codes, op. cit., p. 133.

47.Bagg, pp. 221–223; Kelley, op. cit., p. 222.

48.Osterweis, Three Centuriesop. cit., p. 266.

49.Robbins, op. cit., p. 83. It was described well before Robbins’s 2002 book, in 1876 in the pamphlet of The Order of the File and Clawop. cit., p. 5.

50.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 478–479.

51.Mack, op. cit., pp. 157–158.

52.Ibid., p. 211.

53.The data on the Bones clubs and Keys crowds of 1844 and 1845 are compiled from the respective societies’ Catalogues and the previously cited Catalogues of Alpha Delta Phi and Psi Upsilon.

54.Havemeyer, Loomis, “Go to Your Room.” (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1960), p. 10.

55.Yale Banger (New Haven, Conn.: 1845), Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

56.Bagg, op. cit., p. 160.

57.Mack, op. cit., p. 207; Bagg, op. cit., p. 161.

58.Havemeyer, “Go to Your Room,” p. 53, says of Sword and Crown only, “we have little information about it,” and Bagg, op. cit., p. 173, spends only two sentences on it, noting that it had fifteen members in 1843, and describing its badge.

59.Belden, op. cit., p. 131. An attempt may have been made in 1867 to revive Sword and Crown: the Yale Courant for March 20, 1867, ran a letter from a correspondent about a friend claiming to have seen at an engraver’s in New York City, “a die which he was told was being made for some fellows at Yale. . . . He thought it was a ‘crown’ combined with either a ‘sword’ or a ‘torch.’” The letter protested the thought of a fourth senior society (“there are not enough good men in a class for more than two”) and apparently nothing came of the effort.

60.Mack, op. cit., p. 210.

61.Belden, op. cit., pp. 130–131, reproducing the Dart and Star cut.

62.The New Haven Morning Courier for August 15, 1844, contains the advertisement; Yale Bangerop. cit., p. 4.

63.Havemeyer, “Go to Your Room,” p. 53. In his 1903 memoir, Memories of Yale Life and Menop. cit., p. 67, President Timothy Dwight was to note the creation (actually, the revival) of Star and Dart in his senior year of 1849, but wrote that “it passed away I scarcely know how.”

64.Quoted in Mack, op. cit., p. 207.

65.Ibid., pp. 31–37, 207, 210.

66.Dwight, op. cit., pp. 56–57.

67.Hall, op. cit., pp. 172–173.

68.Class statistics, Pierson, Yale Book of Numbers, op. cit., pp. 4–6; Cooper, Jacob, William Preston Johnston: A Character Sketch (New Haven, Conn.: prepared for the class of 1852, 1878), pp. 9–10.

69.White, op. cit., pp. 67–68; McBride, op. cit., pp. 38–39; College Courant, July 14, 1872; on Gibson’s black ancestor, Sharfstein, op. cit., pp. 20–21, 192–196. At Cornell, White’s first official faculty member, and his first professor of physics, first dean of the law school, second professor of Latin, and first chair of American history (at any U.S. college) were all members of Bones.

70.White, op. cit., p. 67.

71.John Englehardt’s letter is contained in Hofstadter and Smith, op. cit., I, pp. 466–467. On Yale and the rifles, see Kelley, op. cit. p. 219.

72.Pierson, Yale Book of Numbersop. cit., p. 60; Kelley, op. cit., p. 296.

73.Mack, op. cit., p. 44.


1.As Keys historian Mack writes (op. cit., p. 60), “the Bones structure suggested a kind of permanence to outsiders that no other society could ignore.” This was true of the American fraternity system generally: “The building of [the Delta Kappa Epsilon log cabin lodge at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, in 1855] was a great impetus to the owning of society homesteads. Before this the various chapters [of American fraternities] had been accustomed to rendezvous stealthily in college garrets, at village hostels, or anywhere that circumstances and pursuing faculties made most convenient. But when the assurance was once gained that the fraternities might own their own premises and make them permanent abiding-places, the whole system became straightway established on a lasting foundation.” Porter, John Addison, “College Fraternities,” op. cit., p. 753.

2.Seutonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars (London: George Bell & Sons, 1893), p. 91.

3.Holden, Reuben, Yale: a Pictorial History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1967), unpaginated, Buildings of Yale: 1717–1850 (map), and illustration nos. 28, 30, 38, 40, 42, 44, 48.

4.Pinnell, op. cit., p. 53; the conjoined Latin mottoes, quoted in Bagg, op. cit., p. 152, have been translated idiomatically.

5.Bagg, op. cit., p. 145; Decrow, W. E., Yale and “The City of Elms, . . .” (Boston, Mass.: W. E. Decrow), 1885; Griguere, Joy, “The dead shall be raised”: The Egyptian Revival and 19th century American commemorative culture (PhD, University of Maine, 2009), p. 126.

6.Peterfreund, op. cit., pp. 64, 135.

7.Robbins, op. cit., p. 25; Howland, op. cit., p. 22.

8.Bagg, op. cit., p. 170; Robbins, op. cit., p. 67.

9.Peterfreund, op. cit., p. 39: “It [not walking in front of the society’s tomb] was an unwritten rule on campus: the college equivalent of refusing to walk in front of a haunted house in our childhood neighborhoods.”

10.Howland, op. cit. p. 22.

11.Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 25–27, 52–54, 131; Holden, op. cit., pp. with plates 45 through 48 and Chronological List of Buildings. The construction contract for the “Convention Hall at New Haven” specified Davis as the architect, and is signed by John Sheldon Beach (class of 1839) and Henry Baldwin Harrison (1846) for the society, and Atwater Treat as contractor: now digitized, Russell Trust Association, Inc., Yale University, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library (“Treat Contract”). In 1860, the Kappa Kappa Kappa society at Dartmouth erected a hall in Hanover, New Hampshire, on College Street, which much resembled the original block of the Bones tomb. Meacham, Scott, Halls, Tombs and Houses: Student Society Architecture at Dartmouth, http://www.dartmo.com/halls/hallscontent4.html. text accompanying notes 91–92, accessed May 21, 2015: “The original designers of these structures wished to have them declare their purpose distinctly and to proclaim to everyone in unmistakable terms that they were intended to veil something from the vulgar gaze; and not only from the vulgar gaze, but the gaze of every one except of an exclusive and selected few, who alone were to be permitted to the threshold.”

12.Commission des Sciences et Arts d’ Égypt, Description de l’Egypte, ou Recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faiteseny Egypte pendant l’expédition de l’armée franҫaise, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l’empereur Napoleon le Grand, 9 volumes text, 11 volumes plates, and an atlas (Paris, 1809–1828); Denon, Dominique Vincent, Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes du general Bonaparte, 3 volumes (Paris: P. Didot l’aîné, 1802). Austin based his design of the Grove Street cemetery gate on a mixture of the temples of Esna and Ashmunien (Hermopolis Magna), drawing on one plate from Denon’s Voyage and one from the Description: Carrott, Richard G., The Egyptian Revival: Its Sources, Monuments and Meaning (1808–1858) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), p. 205 and plates 69, 70, and 71.

13.Carrott, op. cit., pp. 50–51, 59, 138, 163, 193; Bunker Hill monument and the graves of the presidents, Giguere, op. cit., pp. 158–161, and O’Gorman, James, Henry Austin: In Every Variety of Architectural Style (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan Press, 2010), pp. 117–120; Emerson in Atkinson, Brooks, ed., The Complete Essays and Other Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York: Modern Library, 1950), p. 61.

14.Denon, op. cit., plates 12 (figure 3) (plate 66 in Carrott, op. cit.), 33, 39.

15.Pinnell, op. cit., p. 158, on Town and Davis; Jaffe, Irma B., Trumbull: Portrait Artist of the American Revolution (Boston, Mass.: New York Graphic Society, 1975), pp. 128–129, with reproduction of Town and Davis’s Pinacotheca for Colonel Trumbull’s Picture Gallery, Benjamin Franklin Collection, Yale University.

16.On the gift of, use, and repurposing of the Trumbull Gallery, see Steiner, op. cit., pp. 155–156; Sizer, Theodore, “The Trumbull Gallery,” Yale Alumni Weekly, November 4, 1932, pp. 166–168; Fulton, John H., and Elizabeth H. Thomson, Benjamin Silliman 1779–1864 Pathfinder in American Science (New York: Henry Schuman, 1947), pp. 164–172; Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 53–54.

17.William Crapo to Robert Bliss, November 21, 1851, ALS, Bliss Collection, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University. Vir is Latin for man. Dexter, op. cit., p. 304: “The undergraduates felt that he [Thacher] sympathized with them more actively and fully than any of his associates, and the graduates look to him as their closest and most direct bond of connection with the College.”

18.Treat Contract, op. cit.

19.The Fall of Skull and Bonesop. cit., pp. 1–6.

20.“Fun in College Societies,” Denver Tribune-Republican, April 25, 1886.

21.Warren, Aldice G., “History of Delta Kappa Epsilon,” Records, Gerald R. Ford Memorial Library, Delta Kappa Epsilon International Fraternity Headquarters, Ann Arbor, Mich., p. 95; Dwight, Hawes, and Hayward, Catalogue of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity (New York: published by the ΔKE Council, 1910), p. 76.

22.Dwight, Hawes, and Hayward, op. cit., p. 76; Decrow, op. cit., pp. 35–35. Holt, Henry, Garrulities of an Octogenarian Editor (Boston, Mass., and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1923), p. 43: “I advanced the money for one of the junior ‘tombs’ (halls without windows) and [had] written for its associates a blood-curdling oath of secrecy.” In Alice Dunley’s engraving Secret Society Buildings in New Haven, appearing in Harper’s Weekly for February 7, 1874, the DKE windowless hall is shown with those of Bones, Keys, and Psi Upsilon. The Alpha chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Kenyon College claims the honor of building, occupying, and owning the first hall of a college fraternity in the United States, but this was a log cabin out in a wooded ravine, the twenty by forty foot structure being ten feet high, chinked and plastered with mud and clay mortar, fitted with double-shuttered window, and its walls and roof sound-deadened with sawdust and charcoal. Warren Catalogueop. cit., pp. 92–95, and Porter, “College Fraternities,” op. cit., p. 753, with a line illustration. It was built in 1855, the year before the Bones tomb, and is long perished.

23.Stewart, Donald Ogden, By a Stroke of Luck! An Autobiography (New York: Paddington Press, 1975), p. 63.

24.Scully, op. cit., p. 119; Figure 98 in the Scully volume reproduces the front elevation described, now in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs AIA/AAF Collections, Call Number Unprocessed in PN 13 CN 2010:100.

25.College Courant, November 27, 1869, p. 329, and December 4, 1869, p. 335, and January 15, 1870, p. 31; Mack, op. cit., pp. 60–65, 227; Bagg, op. cit., p. 158; Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 152–153.

26.Bagg, op. cit., p. 158.

27.“Fun in College Societies,” op. cit.The American Architect and Building News, November 25, 1876; Mack, op. cit., pp. 65, 229.

28.Pinnell, op. cit., p. 153.

29.Baker, Paul D., Richard Morris Hunt (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980), pp. 186–189 on the Yale campus buildings, and passim.

30.Schuyler, Montgomery, “Works of the Late Richard M. Hunt,” Architectural Record, vol. V., July 1895–July 1896, p. 112; Baker, op. cit., p. 191; Schuyler, Montgomery, “The Architecture of American Colleges: Yale,” Architectural Record, vol. XXVI, December 1909, p. 416. The message to Rodman is described in the Yale News, May 3, 1878; “tea chest,” Yale News, May 22, 1878, June 7, 1878. The Keys hall is styled the “Sacred Zebra” in the Horoscope, May 23, 1881, p. 4.

31.Depew, op. cit., p. 7.

32.The Laws of Yale-College (New Haven, Conn.: T. & S. Green, 1774), p. 11; Deming, op. cit., p. 188.

33.Smith, Ronald A., Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics (New York and Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 3–4, 26–29; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 214–215; Mendenhall, op. cit., pp. 2–3, 11.

34.Yale Literary Magazine, July 1851, p. 367.

35.Mendenhall, op. cit., pp. 15–20; Thwing, op. cit., p. 385; Whiton, James, “The First Intercollegiate Regatta,” Outlook, vol. 18, no. 5 (June 1901), pp. 286–289; Hurd, R. M., “The Yale Stroke,” Outing XV (December 1889), pp. 230–231; Livermore, Charles F., “The First Harvard-Yale Boat Race,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine II (December 1893), p. 226; Smith, op. cit., pp. 33–34.

36.Holt, op. cit., p. 185: “In those days, the partiality of Yale for high-sounding names was noticeable: Harvard was content with a ‘club’ [instead of the Yale Alumni ‘Association,’ later the Yale Club of New York]. Similarly, [Harvard] was content with a ‘yard,’ while Yale had a ‘campus,’ and Harvard had a ‘boat club,’ while Yale had a ‘Navy.’”

37.Catalogue of Psi Upsilon Fraternityop. cit., pp. 82–83, 86, 88, 89; census of commodores, Bagg, op. cit., p. 423;1879 tap results and the crew, Yale News, May 23, 1879.

38.Hurd, Richard, A History of Yale Athletics: 1840–1888 (New Haven, Conn.: privately printed, 1888), p. 84; Wood, John Seymour, College Days, or Harry’s Career at Yale (New York: Outing Company, 1894), p. 82; Deming, op. cit., pp. 195–198; Bagg, op. cit., p. 314; Bushnell, Samuel, “Baseball,” in Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 365–375; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 299–300; Wood also writes (at p. 164) of the Yale-Harvard baseball game: “The rivalry of the two great universities seems to be bred in the bone—inherited from our fathers who fought on the lakes of New Hampshire and Massachusetts for aquatic supremacy. Old rows never forgiven, old sores never healed, bled afresh on these occasions.”

39.Wood, op. cit., p. 262.

40.Iconoclast, vol. I, no. 1 (all published), October 1, 1873, pp. 5–6 (emphasis supplied). In his 1873 commencement day speech to the alumni, William Maxwell Evarts said of the senior societies, including his own of Bones: “They are a curse to the college, interfering . . . with the selection of university crews and ball clubs and they have much to do with the disgraceful series of defeats which have attended Yale for several years.” Yale News, February 8, 1878, reprinting his speech from the Hartford Courant, June 26, 1873. On the Yale-Harvard baseball series, Kelley, op. cit., p. 300. On Carter’s curve ball, Yale News, January 31, 1878; on Stagg’s streak, Patton and Field, op. cit., p. 279. The presidents of the University Base Ball Club are given in Yale Pot-Pourri, Vol. XXII, 1887, p. 196. The captains of the baseball teams are given in Hurd, op. cit., pp. 104–106.

41.Hurd, op. cit., p. 53; Thwing, op. cit., p. 386; Deming, op. cit., pp. 208–213; Kelley, op. cit., p. 213.

42.Bergin, Thomas, The Game (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984), pp. 3–4, 8–9; Patton and Field, op. cit., p. 284; Smith, op. cit., p. 73; Hurd, Historyop. cit., pp. 80–82.

43.Gabriel, op. cit., pp. 146–147; Bagg, op. cit., p. 304; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 227–228, 298.

44.In the Latin: “Pereat tristitia, Pereat osores, Quivis antiburschius, Atque irrisores.” Gabriel, op. cit., p. 147; Bagg, op. cit., p. 302; Parker, Horatio William, “Music at Yale,” in Nettleton, G. H., ed., The Book of the Yale Pageant (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1916), pp. 225–226.

45.Gabriel, op. cit., p. 147–148; Kelley, op. cit., p. 228.

46.Robbins, op. cit., pp. 57–58; Bagg, op. cit., p. 302. College Courant for 24 June 1868 recorded its aggravation at society members showing displeasure and leaving the room “if a neutral should happened to whistle or sing the air” of their societies.

47.Mack, op. cit., pp. 55–56, 225. Skull and Bones had a new marching anthem, “I shall be his Dad,” in the late 1860s. College Courant, June 24, 1868.

48.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 659–665.

49.Ibid., pp. 128, 134–136, 405–408; “more craved,” Deming, op. cit., pp. 85–87; New York Tribune, June 15, 1859; “History of Yale’s Prom,” New Haven Evening Register, January 11, 1897; Senex, Eli, “Wooden Spoon Memories,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 27, 1908; Hyde, Miles G., The One Time Wooden Spoon at Yale (New York: Albert A. Ochs, 1899), passim, with a plate of the badge, p. 9.

50.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 421–422; Deming, op. cit., pp. 89–90; Kelley, op. cit., p. 221; “Origin of the Promenade,” Yale News, February 1, 1887.

51.Bagg, op. cit., p. 614. “Many prefer the Wooden Spoon to any other college honor or prize, because it comes directly from their classmates, and hence, perhaps, the Faculty dispprove of it, considering it as a damper to ambition and college distinctions.” Hall, B. H., op. cit., p. 313.

52.Ibid., p. 423; names of the winners are set forth in Hyde, op. cit., pp. 33–34, with Bones winners in the years 1852, 1861–1865, 1868–1869, and 1871, and Keysmen for 1855–1859 and 1866.

53.Flexner, Simon, and James Thomas Flexner, William Henry Welch and the Heroic Age of American Medicine (New York: Viking, 1941), p. 175.

54.Gallinipper, vol. ?, no. ! [sic], November 9, 1853.

55.“Secret Societies among Us,” Yale Literary Magazine, December 1865, pp. 85–90.

56.Yale Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, February 1857, pp. 14–15.

57.Gallinipper, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1858.

58.Mack, op. cit., p. 153.

59.Olof Page, class of 1865, quoted by Mack, op. cit., p. 153.

60.Faculty Records, July 15, 1859 and September 14, 1859.

61.Bagg, op. cit., p. 151.

62.Linonia and Brothers, Harding, op. cit., p. 38; Mack, op. cit., pp. 46–47, 214–215.

63.Courtney, Steve, Joseph Hopkins Twichell: The Life and Times of Mark Twain’s Closest Friend (Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 2008), pp. 2–4, 39–49, 129–130; Strong, Leah, Joseph Hopkins Twichell: Mark Twain’s Friend and Pastor (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1966), pp. 12–16, 162; Mark Twain’s Letters Volume 2 1867–1868 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, p. 281.

64.Mack, op. cit., pp. 47, 215.

65.Ibid., pp. 54, 224.

66.Idem., pp. 47–50, 221–223, describing an initiation of 1848 (including Gothic arches, and dark-robed priests but for one in white sable) through quotation from Keys records for July 4, 1848; the Latin language “Form of Initiation into C.S.P.” adopted by the class of 1849 is also set forth.

67.The College Experience of Ichabod Academicus Illustrated by William T. Peters, and dedicated to their brother collegians by the editors, H.F.P. and G.M. (n.p: s.n., New Haven, Conn., 1850), p. 6.

68.Flexner and Flexner, op. cit., p. 45.

69.Mack, op. cit., pp. 54, 224. In John Wood’s 1894 novel College Days, set in the mid-1870s, Harry’s Uncle Dick is “out all night at his senior society ‘spread’” and needs to recoup with two bottles of soda water and a lemon because he feels “like a ‘biled owl,’ as Artemus Ward says” (op. cit., p. 35).

70.Bagg, op. cit., p. 150.

71.Ibid., pp. 149–150. See also the description of Bull and Stones’ harassment of the Bones initiation and the Keys tap in June 1871, College Courant, June 17, 1871, p. 294.

72.Kellogg, op. cit., p. 45.

73.College Courant, June 10, 1871, p. 274; Yale Courant, May 23, 1874.

74.Mack, op. cit., p. 183; College Courant, July 3, 1869, p. 16.

75.Bagg, op. cit., p. 148.

76.Ibid., p. 149; “Presentation Week at Yale,” Hartford Courant, June 26,1866; College Courant, July 3, 1869, p. 16. The Keys crowd of 1872 was similarly packed and forecast: College Courant, June 10, 1871, p. 274, and June 17, 1871, p. 294. The midnight election announcement is found in Duyckinck, W. C., Incidents of Our College Life Gleaned from Memorabilia and Diaries(New Haven, Conn.: June 26, 1900).

77.Harrison, op. cit., p. 271; William Howard Taft to Helen Herron Taft, July 6, 1885, William Howard Taft Papers, Library of Congress; “pillow talk,” Moore, Paul [Wolf‘s Head], Presences: A Bishop’s Life in the City (New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1997), p. 49; generally, Robbins, op. cit., pp. 154–157.

78.Morison, Elting, op. cit., pp. 34–35.

79.Robbins, op. cit., pp. 135–138; Harkness Hoot, May 1933, p. 6; “therapy groups,” Isaacson, Walter and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), p. 81.

80.Mack, op. cit., pp. 90–91.

81.Ibid., pp. 106–107.

82.The Kingsley Trust Association’s December 1871 letter of gift for the Porter Prize, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University; “Porter Prize” http://www/yale.edu/secretary/prizes/porter.

83.Steiner, op. cit., p. 228; Mack, op. cit., p. 76; Yale Illustrated Horoscope, May 1889, p. 4. The Ten Eyck evolved as a contest out of the Junior Exhibition by way of the Townsend Prizes, featuring eight competitors with no set subjects (Phelps, William Lyon, writing of the class of 1887 in his Autobiography with Letters (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1939), p. 151, also notes that “the winner was usually elected to a Senior Secret Society;” the prize thus became the award for the best oration in the junior class, a warmup for the senior year’s DeForest Prize. The author cannot forbear to note that he won the Ten Eyck Prize in 1966 and the DeForest Prize in 1967.

84.New York Times, July 10, 1918; C.S.P. Catalogueop. cit., p. 511.

85.Garver, John Anson, John William Sterling, Class of 1864, Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press under the direction of the Trustees of the Estate of John W. Sterling, 1929), pp. 4, 16, 26, and 105 (“His indebtedness to his senior society is expressed in his will . . . but, in later years, he never attended one of its formal meetings”); Earle, Walter K., Mr. Shearman and Mr. Sterling and How They Grew (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press [commissioned by Shearman & Sterling], 1963), pp. 51–52, 63, 185; MacLeish, Archibald, “New-Yale,” Fortune, vol. IX, no. 3, pp. 70–71.

86.“$15,000,000 Sterling Bequest to Yale,” New York Times, July 17, 1918; “The Sterling Bequest,” Yale Alumni Weekly, August 23, 1918, calling the gift the “greatest in the history of American universities” and the estate “one of the largest ever amassed by a man pursuing strictly a professional career.”

87.Robbins, op. cit., p. 5. In Ron Rosenbaum’s article, “The Last Secrets of Skull and Bones,” Esquire, September 1977, p. 165, the number is $15,000; in Peterfreund’s 2002 novel Secret Society Girl, the figure is an inflation-adjusted $20,000, op. cit., p. 132.

88.Garver, op. cit., pp. 110–111, 113; on Rogers’s Bones election decline, Horoscope, April 1889, p. 1.

89.On the Adams and Johnson gifts, see Yale Alumni Magazine, November/December 2013, pp, 20–21. On the Schwarzman gift, see New York Times, May 12, 2015, p. C1.

90.Pinnell, passim.

91.Bagg, op. cit., p. 164. In the newspapers of the time, the “Diggers” was a name given to an Indian tribe located in the Rocky Mountains.

92.“Best literary men.” Bagg, op. cit., p. 440; “most successful,” Mott, F. L., A History of American Magazines, 5 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1930–1968), vol. 2 (1850–1865), p. 95; “favorite . . . vehicle,” Kelley, op. cit., p. 226; “Coalitions,” Yale Review, February 1857, p. 24; generally, Bagg, op. cit., pp. 425–443, and Kingsley, op. cit., Vol. I, 338–351.

93.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 426–427, 441.

94.Catalogue of the Psi Upsilon Fraternityop. cit., p. 87.

95.Yale Literary Magazine, December 1856, pp. 86–89.

96.“Collegial Ingenuity,” Yale Literary Magazine, February 1864, Vol. XXIV, No. 4, second issue, pp. 125–128. Bagg published a history of the controversy in his book of two years later, op. cit., pp. 165–166, where he added the “worm” characterization. “Toadying and bullying” in Duyckinck, Whitehead C., Student Life at Yale Sixty Years Ago, 1861–1865: A Reminiscence (Plainfield, N.J.: prepared for the class meeting, 1925), p. 8.

97.On the Linonian Society background of the quarrel, see Mack, op. cit., pp. 154, 245, and Velsey, Donald, and John Leinenweber, A History of Spade and Grave: The Society of 1864-2014 (N.p.: Andrew Morehouse Trust Association, Inc., 2014), pp. 3–4.

98.The story of the class meeting and the seizure of the offending issues, thus “mismanaging the sacred trust confided to them [the Bones editors] by time-honored usages of Old Yale,” is given in the second issue of the February 1864 issue of the Lit. edited by the new board, at pp. 165–166. “It is enough to say that by it [the suppression] the members of that Society exhibited a degree of arrogance which forced upon the college world the alternative either of entire submission or energetic resistance. It would have been an insult to Yale manhood to doubt for an instant under what circumstances would be the decision, especially after the full vindication which the independence of the ‘Lit. Editors’ received from the class of 1864.” Duyckinck, op. cit., p. 9.

99.“Secret Societies,” Yale Literary Magazine, April 1864, pp. 235–238.

100.Bagg, op. cit., p. 166; Velsey and Leibenweber, op. cit., pp. 16–17; badge, Andrews, op. cit., p. 161.

101.“Senior Societies,” Yale Literary Magazine, November 1868. The full quotation is “Mors sceptrum ligonibus aequat,” from which the verb has been deleted. The S.L.M. cut appears in the Yale Banner for October 3, 1868.

102.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 168–169; College Courant, July 3, 1869, p. 16; January 29, 1870, p. 66; and December 1869, p. 367.

103.Yeg2 S121, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

104.The Diggers lived on in literature: John Seymour Wood’s College Days, describing the Yale College of the mid-1870s, uses “Spade and Grave” as a stand-in for Bones and “Book and Lock” as a substitute for Keys (op. cit. pp. 25, 58, 372, 396). And in Peterfreund’s 2002 novel Secret Society Girl, the colloquial name she uses for the member of her mythical senior society Rose & Grave, also a stand-in for Skull and Bones, is “Diggers,” op. cit., p. 44.

105.“Fun In College Societies,” op. cit. The text of the Yale Literary Chronicle of 1873 also describes this episode.

106.“Presentation Week at Yale,” op. cit.

107.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 171–172; New Haven Evening Register, November 11, 1872: “The following members of the Senior Class received elections to ‘Bull and Stone’ last Saturday night: L. B. Almy, H. E. Benton, A. B. Boardman, E. H. Buckinham, J. A. Clemmer, C. Dewing, J. W. Gott, F. C. Goode, D. W. Huntington, H. Meyer, H. E. Sadler, F. J. Shephard, W. C. Stewart, S. N. White, F. H. Wright. Rumor says this society has been in existence over a quarter of a century, and numbers among its alumni some of Yale’s most illustrious graduates. Only once before in the history of its existence was it deemed expedient to appear with pins. That was in 1870.”

108.Yale Literary Chronicle, p. 17.

109.Bagg, op. cit., p. 173. Both the Yale Index, vol. 1, no. 1, dated June 30, 1869 (Presentation Day), and the Pot-Pourri for 1868–69 (at p. 30), in printing the senior society memberships lists both the members of S.L.M. for 1869 and of E.T.L., the latter’s fifteen being: Charles Bullis, Henry Burnham, Andrew J. Copp, John C. Grant, Edward Hedges, Dennis McQuillen, Henry Missimer, Edward C. Seward, Thomas W. Swan, John M. Thayer, Stanley P. Warren, Edward P. Wilder, and Francke S. Williams.

110.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 172–173; Mack, op. cit., pp. 156–157. Yale Lit. (for November 1868) reported that Bull and Stones was “an avowed imitation of the two reputable societies . . . generally understood to be a sort of burlesque of them, and to have no intention of perpetuating itself.” Yale Banner for October 3, 1868, includes the delegation names for that year (the class of 1869) and the cut of the coffin lid.

111.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 171–172.


1.Bascom, John, Things Learned By Living (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1913, pp. 7, 46; “Bascom, John 1827–1911,” Dictionary of Wisconsin History, http://www.wwisconsinhistory.org (keyword=Bascom).

2.Rudolph, Mark Hopkinsop. cit., pp. 110–111.

3.Bascom, John, Secret Societies in College (Pittsfield, Mass.: Berkshire County Eagle, 1868), pp. 5–6, 8–10, 13–16.

4.Slosson, Great American Universities (New York: Macmillan, 1910), p. 103.

5.Selden, William K., Club Life at Princeton: An Historical Account of the Eating Clubs at Princeton University (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Prospect Foundation, 1994), pp. 2–4.

6.Axtell, James, The Making of Princeton University: From Woodrow Wilson to the Present (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006), pp. 291, 15, and generally, pp. 291–309. Shortly before his death, even Cottage Club alumnus F. Scott Fitzgerald (class of 1917) pronounced his malediction on “a lousy cruel system,” whose “ragged squabble of club elections with its scars of snobbishness and adolescent heartbreak” he would gladly abolish. Turnbull, Andrew, ed., The Letters of F. Scott Fitzgerald (New York and London: Scribner’s, 1964), p. 445 (November 13, 1939).

7.Selden, pp. 7–10, and passim; Wilson, Edmund, “Profiles: A Prelude II, Landscapes, Characters, and Conversations from the Earlier Years of My Life,” New Yorker, May 6, 1967; “religious frenzy,” Axtell, op. cit., p. 309. Wilson proposed to curb the eating clubs by adopting a “Quadrangle Plan” of residential colleges, but the notion was defeated, perceived by alumni as a threat to submerge or eliminate their clubs, and he soon thereafter left Princeton. Karabel, Jerome, The Chosen (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005), pp. 64–70. Only one Princeton president was ever an eating club member (Robert Goheen, class of 1936, president in 1957–1972).

8.Sheldon, History and Pedagogyop. cit., pp. 167–169; Morison, Samuel Eliot, op. cit., p. 424; on the Hasty Pudding constitution, Harding, op. cit., p. 44, and the Institute of 1770, Catalogue of the Officers and Members of the Institute of 1770, of Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.: Welch, Bigelow, 1868), p. 27 (emphasis in original).

9.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 112–115; Johnson, Owen, “The Social Usurpation of Our Colleges: II—Harvard, Collier’s, Vol. XLIX No. 10, May 25, 1912, p. 13.

10.Sheldon, op. cit., pp. 170–171; “most aristocratic,” Morison, op. cit., pp. 181–182; Porc and PBK, Current, op. cit., p. 61; “The Porc,” Time, February 26, 1940; “notice of Harvard,” Fraser, Rae W., Westward by Rail: The New Route to the East (New York: Longmans, Green., 1870), pp. 254–255; “club formula,” Hughes, Tom, “The Harvard Societies,” College Courant, April 8, 1871, p. 159; adornment, Wecter, Dixon, The Saga of American Society: A Record of Social Aspiration 1607–1937 (New York: Scribner’s, 1937), pp. 276–278. On the secrecy of Hasty Pudding and Porcellian, “The Harvard Clubs,” Yale Record, March 18, 1874, pp. 311–312.

11.Wecter, op. cit., pp. 278–279; Morison, op. cit., p. 424: “Between 1875 and 1890, these [underclass or waiting clubs] were mainly chapters of national fraternities; but the Harvard chapters found their obligations to brethren from other colleges onerous, surrendering their charters, and becoming local clubs.”

12.Shand-Tucci, Douglass, Harvard University (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001), p. 101.

13.Fournier, George T., and James K. Mcauley, “The Men’s Final Clubs,” Harvard Crimson, October 5, 2010.

14.Ibid.; on the Fly fireplace and FDR, Shand-Tucci, op. cit., p. 101. Franklin Roosevelt’s failure to be asked to join Porcellian constituted “the bitterest moment in [his] life up till then,” in the words of a relative, and it gave him “an inferiority complex” in his wife Eleanor’s view. Davis, Kenneth F., F.D.R.: The Beckoning of Destiny 1882–1928 (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1972), pp. 154–155; Ward, Geoffrey, and Ken Burns, The Roosevelts: An Intimate History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), pp. 89–90. Two of Theodore’s sons and three of Franklin’s became Porcellian members, but more conservative members of the Roosevelt family attribute FDR’s turn toward socialism to this rejection.

15.“The man,” Johnson, Owen, “The Social Usurpation of Colleges, Part II—Harvard,” Collier’s, May 25, 1912, p. 14; “taboos” and “stroke,” Amory, Cleveland, The Proper Bostonians (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1947), pp. 299–304.

16.Amory, op. cit., p. 304; Morison, op. cit., p. 425, also tells the Kaiser Wilhelm story, and Ward and Burns, op. cit., p. 133, note that President Roosevelt, his son-in-law, and thirty-eight other members of Porcellian slipped into a private dining room at the White House for the club’s ceremonial, traditional toast to the groom, while cousin Franklin stood outside with the other guests.

17.Morison, op. cit., p. 425, records: “From 1878, when the A.D. purchased a house of its own, every final club has shaken down its graduates for a house, each new one surpassing the last in size and luxurious appointments.” On Whitney, Beschloss, Michael, “From White Knight to Thief,” New York Times, September 14, 2014.

18.Martin, Edward S., “Undergraduate Life at Harvard,” Scribner’s, vol. XXI, February, 1897, p. 543.

19.Morison, op. cit., p. 42; Sheldon, History and Pedegogyop. cit., pp. 168–169.

20.Robbins, op. cit., pp. 124–125.

21.Pierson, Yale Book of Numbersop. cit., pp. 5–6.

22.R.R.J. ’76, “Yale’s Senior Society System,” Yale Critic, June 20, 1882, p. 5.

23.Wood, op. cit., p. 25; Bones legacies, New-York Evening Post, February 5, 1884.

24.Catalogue of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternityop. cit., p. 113.

25.Holt, op. cit., pp. 33, 35, 39, 41–45, 81–82, 94. The new tomb, given the reunion’s date of 1902, was almost certainly that of Book and Snake at the corner of Grove and High Streets, constructed in 1901. The “ground glass” windows in the Bones tomb were in the rear extension built in 1883.

26.Kellogg, op. cit., pp. 79–80.

27.As quoted in Barrows, Chester L., William M. Evarts: Lawyer, Diplomat, Statesman (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941), p. 8.

28.Lyman, Chester, “Origins of the Yale Lit.,” Yale Literary Magazine, February 1886, pp. 181–191; Kingsley, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 351; Stokes, op. cit., vol. II, p. 269; “The Yale Literary Magazine,” Yale News, December 15, 1886.

29.Lyman, op. cit., pp. 186–187; Barrows, op. cit., pp. 11–12; Record of the Class of 1837 of Yale University (Springfield, Mass.: Weaver, Shipman, 1887), pp. 13–17. Many Yale classes have adopted the adjective “famous” as descriptive of their character, but the class of 1837, out of one hundred four graduates—including a man whom many historians think should have been president (Tilden), a chief justice (Waite), a secretary of state (Evarts), an attorney general and minister to England (Pierrepont), and a member of the National Academy of Sciences (Silliman)—seems to have had their self-interested judgment confirmed. Stokes, op. cit., vol. II, p. 268.

30.Kellogg, op. cit., p. 41, for “radical testimonies”; “Yale Secret Societies,” Boston Globe, July 2, 1873, for “holy horror.”

31.Hartford Courant, June 26, 1873.

32.Sheldon, op. cit., pp. 133–135; Harding, op. cit., pp. 157, 262; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 222–223; Potter, op. cit., p. 89; Johnston, op. cit., pp. 117–120, 126. As more comprehensively stated by Rudolph, op. cit., pp. 145–146, for which description at Yale the phrase “senior societies” may be substituted for his “fraternities”: “The literary societies [at all colleges] declined not so much because the fraternities robbed them of their purpose but because the fraternities created a higher level of loyalty and intruded new political complications into literary-society elections. They also declined as the colleges themselves took over some of their old purposes: built up broader collections of books, opened the libraries more than once a week, introduced respectable study in English literature, discovered history as a field of study, [and] expanded the sciences,” citing, inter alia, Kingsley, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 320–323.

33.On the demise of the two literary societies, see Mack, op. cit., pp. 174–175; “joint committee,” Harding, op. cit., p. 263; “decline in attendance.” Potter, op. cit., pp. 89, 92; “one evening,” Chamberlain, Daniel, op. cit., p. 351; “blow and gas,” College Courant, April 2, 1869; “post hoc,” College Courant, April 29, 1871; “printing press,” College Courant, February 10, 1872.

34.Steiner, op. cit., p. 166; Thacher in Kellogg, op. cit., p. 79.

35.Quoted in Stokes, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 270.

36.Freeman, Harrison B., “Letters: The First Yale Crew Flag,” Yale Alumni Weekly, February 9, 1912, p. 516.

37.Mendenhall, op. cit., p. 23.

38.Freeman, op. cit., p. 516.

39.Bagg, (signing as “A Graduate of ‘69’”), Yale Courant, letter, December 6, 1873; Mack, op. cit., pp. 158–160, 246.

40.Yale Courant, December 6, 1873.

41.“negatively mysterious,” Andrews, op. cit., p. 24; 1858 quote, unsourced in Hodgson, op. cit., p. 36; Hodgson, Geoffrey, The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), p. 36; Yale Courant, October 10 and 24, 1866; Yale Courant, March 23, 1878; class size in Pierson, Yale Book of Numbers, p. 7.

42.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 147, 169; College Courant, June 24, 1868, on the contrasting pin wear among classes, and on night dress display; Yale News, March 11, 1878, damning “puerile practices as wearing their pins on their night shirts.” E. E. Aiken’s article is in the Yale Critic, April 14, 1882.

43.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition (Boston, Mass., and New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011), p. 1371; http://www.merriam.webster/co/dictionary/poppycock, accessed February 27, 2014.

44.Mack, op. cit., p. 162.

45.The Galaxy: An Illustrated Magazine of Entertaining Reading, New York, March 1871, p. 474, cited by Robert Ingersoll in a public address in New Haven as reported in the Yale News for March 5, 1878.

46.Yale Literary Chronicle, 1873, p. 31.

47.College Courant, June 24, 1868. Andrews, op. cit., p. 28, saying the story might be apocryphal, cites a Buffalo, New York, newpaper report of 1890 relating that a Bonesman was lying ill in his room, missing the Thursday night meeting. Clubmates making an appearance sat in one-hour shifts by the sickbed, while completely ignoring the man’s roommate. After the second visitation, the roommate, bolting the door, informed the next arrival that no deaf-mutes need apply.

48.College Courant, June 24, 1868.

49.Yale Literary Chronicle, pp. 4, 19, citing the College Courant letter.

50.An official notice was sent out by Skull and Bones: “You are especially cautioned against certain members of Yale College, who are wearing a badge almost the exact fac-simile of our own, and trying to pass themselves off for what they are not.” Mack, op. cit., p. 248.

51.Mack, op. cit., pp. 167, 248.

52.Lewis, Wilmarth S., One Man’s Education (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967), p. 94.

53.banner, Yale Courant, January 3, 1874; pantomine, Yale Courant, January 31, 1874, p. 206.

54.Yale Literary Chronicle, 1873, pp. 15–16.

55.Yale News, June 7, 1878; Yale Courant, October 24,1866. Iconoclast of 1873 noted (at p. 5) that “a Bones man is not at liberty to speak of his society or pin in the presence of other human beings, and . . . if reference is made to them he feels deeply wounded and insulted.”

56.College Courant, June 24, 1868.

57.Mack, op. cit., p. 3.

58.Yale News, May 28, 1878; May 29, 1878.

59.“College Journals,” Yale Record, May 26, 1876, p. 392.

60.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 32, 454–456.

61.College Courant, October 29, 1870, p. 283.

62.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 461–467.

63.“History of The Banner,” Yale News, December 7, 1886.

64.Statistics of Yale ’77, p. 4; Iconoclast, p. 1.

65.Iconoclast, pp. 2–6.

66.Yale Literary Chronicle, pp. 1, 2, 10, 11, 12, 15.

67.Mack, op. cit., pp. 220–221. Yale Naughty-Gal All-Man-Ax for 1875op. cit., p. 7, says Seventh Book was, “written by a sophomore in revenge for having some of his memorabilia appropriated by one of the college societies,” which was probably Keys, and the Latin motto on that pamphlet’s front wrapper begins: “Dum mens grata mane nomen landesquae Seventy-Six.”

68.The Seventh Book of Genesis (New Haven, Conn.: Methodist Book Concern, 1874), pp. 5–6, 9–10, 15–16.

69.Whittemore, Arthur D., “The Coming Society,” Yale Literary Magazine, January 1874, pp. [159]–165.

70.Yale News, March 11, 1878. While the satire seems mild, at least one senior society member, John Addison Porter 1878, son of one of the founders of Keys, was to write: “During this year [1878] a daily anti–Senior Society newspaper was started and vigorously conducted so as to thwart the society men in every way.” Porter, “The Society System of Yale College,” New Englander, CLXXX, May 1884, p. 377.

71.Law, William H., “The Birth of ‘The Yale News’,” Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University. Law was not wrong about the wire-pulling politics: see Duffy, Herbert S., William Howard Taft (New York: Mitton, Balch, 1930), pp. 5–6.

72.“Yale” [William McMurtie Speer] letter to the editor, Nation, November 15, 1883.

73.Nation, November 22, 1883.

74.Yale Courant, November 7, 1866.

75.Mack, op. cit., p. 245, citing Keys scrapbooks for 1867.

76.Seventh Book of Genesisop. cit., pp. 10–13; Yale Courant, January 3, 1874; Mack, op. cit., pp. 220–221.

77.Yale Courant, May 23, 1874, pp. 348–349.

78.The Fall of Skull and Bonesop. cit., p. 7; Andrews, op. cit., p. 43, is probably correct in concluding that “‘File and Claw’ [was] obviously another manifestation of the chameleon, ‘Bull and Stones.’”

79.Skull and Bones, Yale Archives Yeg.2 R9 1, p. 1.

80.The Harvard Advocate, February 2, 1877, pp. 109–110; The Princetonian, February 8, 1877, its very first issue; New Haven Evening Register, March 2, 1877.

81.Seventh Book of Genesisop. cit., pp. 14–15; Yale Courant, January 17, 1874; Plimpton, op. cit., p. 70.

82.Andrews, op. cit., p. 55.

83.New Haven Evening Register, November 11, 1872, listing L. B. Almy, H. E. Benton, A. H. Boardman, E. H. Buckingham, J. A. Clemmer, C. Daring, J. W. Gott, F. C. Goode, D. W. Huntington, H. Meyer, H. E. Sadler, F. J. Shephard, W. C. Stewart, S. N. White, and F. H. Wright.

84.Yale Naughty-Gal All-man-ax for 1875, p. 9.

85.Yale News, p. 7.

86.Mack, op. cit., pp. 161, 247; New Haven Daily Palladium, June 18, 1878.

87.Yale News, June 17, 1878; see also the newspaper reports in the New Haven Evening Register, June 15, 1878; and the New Haven Daily Palladium, June 17, 1878. Yale News and Evening Register reports are both reprinted in Millegan, op. cit., pp. 477-483.

88.Yale News, June 12, 1878; Millegan, op. cit., p. 482.

89.Mack, op. cit., pp. 157, 162; Andrews, op. cit., p. 54; Yale News, June 18, 1878.

90.Yale Year Book, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 3, the cut and names repeated in Supplement to the Yale News, vol. X, no. 10, June 13, 1878; Yale News, June 17, 1878, on McDonald’s and Wilcox’s (otherwise anonymous) editorship of the Year Book.

91.“private caucus,” Aiken, E. E., “The Secret Society System. IV,” Yale Critic, June 2, 1882, as expanded, after the semicolon, in his book of the same title (New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1882), p. 59. Exclusion of Bonesmen may have occurred earlier: “Some years ago the ‘Bones’ men put on such airs as to greatly incense their neutral classmates. It resulted in open rupture. ‘Bones’ men were ostracized in class elections.” “Fun in College Societies,” op. cit.

92.Yale Courant, May 23, 1874.

93.Hadley, Arthur, to George Greuner, July 29, 1925, Arthur Hadley Family Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University (“Hadley Letter”).

94.Yale Courant, May 22, 1875.

95.Hadley Letter, op. cit.

96.Yale Courant, May 29, 1875.

97.Yale Courant, May 27, 1876, p. 328. The society’s legal title was “The Livingston Trust Association.”

98.Yale Courant, May 29, 1875.

99.Barricaded entry, “Drift of ‘Tap Day’ Talk,” New-York Evening Post, May 10, 1913, reprinted in Yale News for May 15, 1913, as “A Real History of Tap Day.”

100.Hadley Letter, op. cit. This book’s account of how Tap Day began corrects that given in Pierson, Yale College 1921–1937op. cit., p. 137

101.“Old Time Society Elections,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 23, 1913, reporting that “It is said that the Class of ’78, when Juniors, were the first to break up the situation by coming down from their rooms to the stone steps of their entries—Durfee steps for the most part, as the Juniors were quartered there at the time,” but the other sources alongside Hadley suggest that it was rather the class of 1877 when juniors presented themselves for the first time on the dormitory steps. Horoscope of May 1883 (p. 1), describes “juniors [who] have had their new spring suits padded on the right shoulder in anticipation,” and the first appearance of the phrase “Go to your room” appears in Illustrated Horoscope for May 1887 (p. 7), and again in May 1889 (p. 3): “the precipitate ‘g’t’y’room’ is hissed into his willing ear.” Yale News for May 24, 1878, says that one candidate “retired to his room, heard the prescribed formula, ‘I offer you election to the so-called Skull and Bones Society,’ and promptly accepted.” Horoscope of May 1888 writes of a candidate, “padding his shoulder for the heavy hand of a Bones man,” and Yale Illustrated Horoscope for May 1889 (pp. 1, 3) writes of “shoulders [being] spanked” and “slapped.” A New York Times article on the expansion of the Bones tomb in 1903, “Change in Skull and Bones,” September 13, 1903, similarly dates this change: “Till about 1875 the members of the societies were elected by announcements in their college rooms. Since then the practice of giving elections on the campus at the annual ‘tap day,’ each person elected being slapped between the shoulders, has been followed.”

102.Yale Alumni Weekly, May 27, 1903; construction, Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 28–31; fence, Welch and Camp, op. cit., p. 33.

103.“Society Elections. Seniors,” Yale Courant, May 27, 1876, p. 327.

104.Yale News, May 23, 1878, May 23, 1879; Yale Illustrated Horoscope, May 1888, p. 3.

105.Yale Courant, May 26, 1876.

106.“muzzling,” Andrews, op. cit., p. 42; election of anti-society crusaders, Porter, “Senior Society System,” op. cit., p. 390.

107.Wood, College Daysop. cit., p. 145; Havemeyer, Go to Your Roomop. cit., pp. 12–14; Bagg, op. cit., pp. 94, 106.

108.Reported in Yale News, November 4, 1881.

109.Yale Courant, November 15, 1873.

110.McCosh, James, “Discipline in American Colleges,” North American Review, May–June 1878, p. 433.

111.Yale Courant, May 29, 1875, p. 349. The faculty resolution of June 2, 1875, is reprinted in the Courant for June 5, 1875, proclaiming that no “secret society [shall] hereafter be formed or exist in the Sophomore class.” The song verse is from Wood, College Daysop. cit., p. 136. Yale Indexwhich appeared in June 1875 draped the sophomore society lists in funereal black.

112.Goodwin, op. cit., p. 30. Taft’s father Alphonso wrote William’s younger brothers that he “doubt[ed] that such popularity is consistent with high scholarship,” but William protested to his mother: “If a man has to be isolated from his class in order to take a high stand I don’t want a high stand. The presidency of Delta Kap takes none of my time except so much as I spend on Saturday night which I should use anyhow. There’s got to be some relaxation.” Pringle, Henry E., The Life and Times of William Howard Taft (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1939), vol. 1, p. 35; William Howard Taft to Louise Torrey Taft, November 4, 1874, William Howard Taft Papers, Library of Congress.

113.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 49–51; Sheldon, op. cit., pp. 172–174; initiation details, Patton and Field, op. cit., p. 239.

114.Havemeyer, op. cit., p. 8; Yale News, November 17, 1880.

115.Porter, op. cit., p. 195, first printed in the New Englander for July 1870 and reprinted in New Haven in College Courant for July 17, 1869, p. 40.

116.Rudolph, The American Collegeop. cit., pp. 148–149.

117.Wood, College Daysop. cit., pp. 281–282; Aiken, Edwin, “The Secret Society System. V,” Yale Critic, 20 June 1882, p. 2.


1.Andrews, op. cit., p. 56.

2.Yale Critic, March 24, 1882, the phrase “free, democratic Yale” being changed in the book version to “in the name of freedom,” Aiken, op. cit., p. 9.

3.Aiken, op. cit., pp. 25, 35–37, 46, 53, 57, 61–66. The inherent tension in grading senior society member student performance was mentioned in a newspaper article a decade before: “It is also asserted that preference is shown to them, particularly the members of Skull and Bones, in the studies of the course, and in the examinations by such of the faculty as were members of that organization. That this has ever been intentionally done, I emphatically disbelieve . . . [but] true or not true [such suggestions]—current among the undergraduates, hurt the morale of the college, and tend to destroy the democratic spirit synonymous with Yale. “Yale Senior Societies,” Boston Globe, July 3, 1873.

4.Porter, John Addison, “Society System,” op. cit.

5.New Haven Courier, November 19, 1883; Nation, November 15, 1883.

6.Yale Literary Magazine, February 1884, pp. 194–195; Yale News, February 4, 1884; “Yale’s Latest Tumult,” New-York Evening Post, February 4, 1884; “Bones and Keys on Top,” New Haven Morning News, February 2, 1884; “Lively Times at Yale,” New York Times, February 2, 1884. Down in New Jersey, Princetonian had opined that “the bare defeat of that movement . . . is probably the sounding of the death knell of the secret societies at Yale,” February 8, 1884.

7.“Yale’s Latest Tumult,” New-York Evening Post, February 4, 1884; Andrews, op. cit., p. 65.

8.“Yale’s Latest Tumult,” op. cit.

9.New Haven Daily Palladium, July 31, 1883.

10.New Haven Morning News, February 2, 1884; Andrews, op. cit., pp. 6–8.

11.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 68–69.

12.Ibid., pp. 206, 236.

13.Idem., p. 200.

14.Kelley, op. cit., p. 216; the chapter “Eating Clubs” in Beers, op. cit., pp. 100–132. On the Moriarty’s menu, Thompson, Henry C. M., op. cit., p. 121, and Gitlin, Jay, and Baisie Bales Gitlin, Mory’s A Brief History (Mory’s Preservation, Inc.: New Haven, 2014), p. 10.

15.Thompson, op. cit., pp. 7, 17, 75, 96, and 166; Andrews, op. cit., p. 195.

16.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 195, 208, 212–213. Bowen considered his eating club, “to be a unique one, for it consisted for the most part of pre-eminent names,” apparently an oblique reference to the Bones and Keys members as well as his future clubmates in Wolf’s Head.

17.Andrews, op. cit., p. 209.

18.Ibid., p. 297.

19.Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 28–30, 62, 106.

20.Steiner, op. cit., p. 181; Andrews, op. cit., pp. 197, 201: “The private seats were then a drug on the market. One day a student was found to be buying them up at 25 cents a seat. The mystification was intense until his study was visited. There the seats were hanging on the wall. Within each seat was framed a portrait of a member of the faculty.”

21.The Yale Courant, May 29, 1875, p. 341, writing of onlookers, “commenting on the Bones in the severest terms for leaving out a most worthy man who deserved an election if any one ever did;” May 27, 1876, pp. 322–323, 327. In his New Englander essay, Porter defines “suping” as “currying favor with society men,” Porter, op. cit., p. 392.

22.Horoscope, May [15], 1883.

23.Andrews, op. cit., p. 74.

24.Ibid., pp. 78–79.

25.Idem., pp. 80–84.

26.Patton and Field, Eight O’Clock Chapel: A Study of New England College Life in the Eighties (Boston, Mass., and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1927), p. 115; “Funeral of E. J. Phelps,” New York Times, March 12, 1909.

27.Andrews, op. cit., p. 84; Historical Register of Yale University 1701–1937 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1939), p. 540.

28.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 90–91.

29.Ibid., pp. 95–103.

30.Idem., pp. 103–105.

31.Critic and Good Literature, March 8, 1884, pp. 109–110.

32.Critic and Good Literature, March 22, 1884, p. 137.

33.“J. Addison Porter, Dead,” New York Times, December 18, 1900.

34.Porter, op. cit., pp. 377–393; Yale News, March 15, 1878, p. 1. It has been asserted about Porter’s article and others appearing in the 1880s and 1890s “laying bare the sanctum sanctorum of secret societies, fraternity life, and team sports on campus,” that “Articles on Skull and Bones or Hasty Pudding were not meant for alumni, who knew as much as they needed or wanted to know about the collegiate subculture, nor were they describing new developments, for most of the organizations had flourished for decades. Rather, they were aimed at parents who were nongraduates but who were beginning to entertain thoughts of a college education for their children.” Kett, op. cit., pp. 184–185.

35.Roth, Leland M., The Architecture of McKim, Mead & White 1870–1920: A Building List (New York: Garland, 1978), p. 120.

36.Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 165–166, 174; “Without a Name,” New Haven Palladium, July 11, 1884. The architectural plans for the “Phelps Association Hall” are in the McKim, Mead & White Architectural Record Collections, PR 42, Department of Prints, Photographs, and Architectural Collections, Rolled Drawings N51 00-284, 4-inch and 2-inch tubes, The New-York Historical Society.

37.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 108–115. According to Havemeyer, Go to Your Roomop. cit., p. 61, “the Egyptian symbol represents the Nile River which is life while the wolf’s head means death,” and “no member is allowed to wear his pin outside their hall.”

38.Horoscope, April 1884, pp. 1–2.

39.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 116–117; “diamonds,” “Secret Societies of Yale College,” New York Herald, May 22, 1893; Horoscope, May 1885, p. 3.

40.The New York World, June 19, 1884.

41.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 119–121.

42.Yale News, March 4; March 30, 1885.

43.Welch and Camp, op. cit., p. 107.

44.Catalogues of Psi Upsilon and Delta Kappa Epsilon, op. cit.

45.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 159–162.

46.Ibid., p. 169.

47.New Haven Journal and Courier, January 19, 1886.

48.New Haven Register, January 24, 1886.

49.Idem. (no other report of Depew’s speech has been located); “Chauncey Mitchell Depew, B.A. 1856,” Yale University Obituary Record of Graduates Deceased During The Year Ending July 1, 1928, Number 87 (New Haven, Conn.: published by the University, 1928), pp. 4–8.

50.Horoscope, May 1886, p. 2; Horoscope (2), May 1886; Yale Illustrated Horoscope, May 1887, p. 1.

51.Horoscope, May 1886, p. 2; Illustrated Horoscope, May 1887, pp. 2–3, 7.

52.Andrews, op. cit., pp. 173–174.

53.Ibid., pp. 178–182.

54.Mack, op. cit., pp. 248–249, quoting a letter dated July 6, 1940 from George E. Eliot, Keys 1886.

55.Yale Illustrated Horoscope, May 1888. In its May 1889 issue, the publication returned to this point: “The ‘Crab’ has recently been taken from its prominent place on the necktie and put in a less conspicuous postion on the vest,” commending the change and criticizing Keys for not making it.

56.Mack, op. cit., p. 248; Hughes, op. cit., in Millegan, op. cit., p. 570.

57.Unidentified newspaper quoted in Andrews, op. cit., p. 186; “C. Wyllys Betts Prize,” Yale News, January 23, 1892.

58.Packard, Lewis R., “The Phi Beta Kappa Society,” in Kingsley, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 327.

59.Bagg, op. cit., pp. 228, 231.

60.“Revival of Phi Beta Kappa—Prospects of the Society,” Yale News, March 10, 1884; “Phi Beta Kappa,” Yale Literary Magazine, March 1884, pp. 230–231.

61.Voorhees, op. cit., p. 256.

62.Yale News, March 10, 1884.

63.Yale News, May 1, 1884.

64.New-York Evening Post, March 24, 1884.

65.Yale Literary Magazine, February 1884, p. 187.


1.Wood, John Seymour, Yale Yarns: Sketches of Life at Yale University (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1895), p. 22.

2.Pierson, Yale Book of Numbersop. cit., pp. 4–6, 69–70, 81. A census in the Yale News for October 22, 1886, showed students from thirty-eight states and territories and eight foreign countries (China, England, Hawaii, India, Japan, Saxony, Mexico, and Turkey) in the college (both Academical and Sheffield parts).

3.Pierson, ibid., p. 85; on age, New-York Evening Post, June 16, 1886.

4.Santayana, George, “A Glimpse of Yale,” Harvard Monthly XV (1892), pp. 92–93, reprinted in George Santayana’s America: Essays on Literature and Culture, ed. James Ballowe (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1967). On Santayana’s visit and article, “the most perceptive study of Yale ever penned by a stranger,” Pierson, Yale College 1871–1921op. cit., pp. 5–9, 579.

5.Slosson, op. cit., p. 70; Boston ditty quoted in Amory, op. cit., p. 14; Yale limerick quoted in Astrachan, Anthony, “Class Notes,” Dubois, Diana, ed., My Harvard, My Yale (New York: Random House, 1982); p. 214; Corbin, John, Which College for the Boy? Leading Types in American Education (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1908), p. 18; Wilson, Edmund, “Harvard, Princeton, and Yale,” Forum, September 1923, 70, p. 1874.

6.Bagg, op. cit., p. 521. In Stover at Yale, Le Baron tells Stover about “the right crowd” who run things: “Money won’t land a man in it, and there’ll be some in it who work their way through college.” Johnson, op. cit., p. 27.

7.“valets,” Slosson, op. cit., p. 70; Jenkins, A. E., Lippincott’s, vol. 40, 1887–1888, p. 293; see also Johnson, Owen,“The Social Usurpation of Our Colleges III—Yale,” Collier’s, June 8, 1912, p. 23, on prior disfavor to rich students’ keeping of horses, and then automobiles.

8.Dwight, Timothy, What A Yale Student Ought To Be (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1887), pp. 16–17.

9.Hadley, “University Progress,” Yale Alumni Weekly, March 6, 1914, p. 642; Santayana, op. cit., p. 94.

10.Gilman, Daniel Coit, The Launching of a University and Other Papers (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1906), p. 191.

11.Slosson, op. cit., p. 66.

12.Lewis, Harry S[inclair]., “Unknown Undergraduates,” Yale Literary Magazine, June 1906, pp. 335–338

13.“equality of opportunity,” Pierson, George Wilson, Yale College 1871–1921 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1953), p. 42, and “‘Stover At Yale’—An Explanation,” Yale Alumni Weekly, March 29, 1912; Hadley, Arthur T., in Norton, Charles Eliot, Arthur T. Hadley, William M. Sloane, and Brander Matthews, Four American Universities (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1895), p. 83; Camp, Walter, “Senior Society Elections at Yale,” pp. 74–79; “‘Tap Day’ at Yale,” New York Tribune, May 18, 1901.

14.Yale 1883: The Book of the Class Compiled after the Quartercentury Reunion (printed for the class: 1910), p. 51.

15.Franklin, op. cit., p. 10; Johnson, op. cit., p. 246; Wendell, Barrett, Harvard Monthly, December 1901, 33, p. 101; “Yale Facing the Biggest Crisis in Its History,” New York Times, April 6, 1913; man of action, DeVane, Clyde, “The College in a National University,” in Seventy-Five: A Study of a Generation in Transition (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Daily News, 1953), p. 6.

16.Syrett, op. cit., p. 137; Stimson quoted, Hodges, op. cit., p. 37; Stimson, Henry, and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948), p. xv.

17.Arnold, George A., “American Yale,” Yale Literary Magazine, June 1902, pp. 337–338.

18.Berman, Pemberton, “The Spirit of Boyishness,” Yale Literary Magazine, May 1902, pp. 291–292; Farrand, “Summa Cum Laude,” quoted in Yale News, March 17, 1910; “Yale College,” Scribner’sop. cit., p. 594; Pierson, op. cit., pp. 117–120, on Hadley, and p. 269.

19.Lord, Franklin A., “Scholarship,” Yale Literary Magazine, April 1897, p. 29; Slosson, op. cit., p. 47; Ehrich quoted in Oren, Dan A., Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale (New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 1985), pp. 12–13. Ehrich’s conclusion is odd: Bones tapped both the valedictorian and salutatorian for the class of 1868, and the valedictorian for Ehrich’s class of 1869, along with eight other members of Phi Beta Kappa, including three men whose high stand was sufficient for them to be named tutors after they graduated.

20.Oviatt, Edwin S., “On Shams,” Yale Literary Magazine, January 1896, p. 134; Report of the Committee on Numbers and Scholarship, Yale College, April 1903 (the “Fisher Report”), Yale College Committee Records, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, p. 131, discussed and excerpted in Pierson, Yale Collegeop. cit., pp. 238–242; “intellectual attainments,” Yale Alumni Weekly May 31, 1905; Parmalee, Maurice, “Yale and the Academic Ideal,” Yale Courant, December 1906, p. 129; Yale Courant statistics cited and discussed in Slosson, op. cit., pp. 67–68; Harvard finals clubs elections and Phi Beta Kappa, Johnson, Owen, “The Social Usurpation of Our Colleges II—Harvard,” Collier’s, May 25, 1912, p. 14; Hadley quoted in New York Times, June 23, 1915.

21.“Yale system,” Nettleton, George Henry, “On Realities,” Yale Literary Magazine, February 1896, p. 178 (Nettleton had been tapped for Keys, class of 1896, and later became chair of Yale’s English Department and then dean of Yale College); Johnson, Stoverop. cit., p. 16.

22.Canby, Henry Seidel, Alma Mater: The Gothic Age of the American College (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1936), pp. 130–131; “History of Music at Yale,” Yale News, April 18, 1891. The Glee and Banjo Clubs toured the country with concerts. Yale News, April 15, 1882.

23.Fisher Report, op. cit., p. 131; Paine, Ralph, College Years (New York: Scribner’s, 1909), p. 242; Canby, op. cit., p. 71; Johnson, op. cit., p. 321.

24.Holbrook, Richard, Boys and Men: A Story of Life at Yale (New York: Scribner’s, 1900), pp. 59–60; Rudolph, American Collegesop. cit., pp. 148–149; Rudolph, Mark Hopkins, op. cit., p. 116; New York Tribune, May 30, 1892.

25.Thwing, Charles, “College Men First Among Successful Citizens,” Forum 15 (June 1893), p. 500; Santayana, op. cit., p. 95; “Prominent Yale Graduates,” Yale News, December 6, 1887; “Yale Men in Congress,” Yale News, 1891; on Theodore Roosevelt, Wilmarth Lewis, op. cit., pp. 94–95.

26.“literary college,” Bledstein, op. cit., p. 239; Slosson, op. cit., p. 59. This notion persisted for at least the next century: one character in The Paragon, John Knowles’s novel of 1971 about the Yale of 1953 (New York: Random House, p. 16), says to a classmate: “You’ve got to understand that Yale is Wall Street and the State Department and all that, Yale is, well, Yale is American success, much more so than Harvard, Harvard is too idiosyncratic, and much more so than Princeton, Princeton is too casual, too Southern-oriented.”

27.“Secret Societies at Yale,” Harper’s, February 7, 1874, pp. 125–126; Hughes, Robert, “Secret Societies at Yale,” Munsey’s, June 1894, reprinted in Millegan, op. cit., p. 571; Sheldon, Student Lifeop. cit., pp. 176–177; Nettleton, George Henry, “American Universities and Colleges. I—Yale University,” Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly, November 1896, p. 499; magazine short stories include R. E. Hallock’s “The Last Man Tapped, a Tale of the New Haven Campus,” Gunter’s Magazine, September 1906, and Mary Raymond Shipman Andrews’s “The Courage of the Commonplace,” Scribner’s, July 1911; “Happy Yale Juniors. Selected for Election to Skull and Bones and Scroll and Keys,” New York Times, May 28, 1886; “Members of the Wolf Head,” June 2, 1886. New York Tribune also published election results with commentary, e.g. “Yale Senior Elections,” May 28, 1892, as did the Hartford Times, e.g., May 27, 1892.

28.Horowitz, Helen, op. cit., p. 12; Rudolph, Mark Hopkinsop. cit., p. 116; Slosson, op. cit., pp. 59–60; Geiger, Roger, ed., The American College in the Nineteenth Century (Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press, 2000), pp. 14–15.

29.Beers, Henry, The Ways of Yale in the Consulship of Plancus (New York: Henry Holt, 1895), p. 10.

30.“Dwight Hall,” Yale News, September 1, 1886; “History of Dwight Hall,” Yale News, December 20, 1886; Welch and Camp, op. cit., p. 52; Slosson, op. cit., p. 58; Gabriel, op. cit., pp. 189–191; Arnold, op. cit., p. 338; “Dwight Hall ring,” Pierson, Yale Collegeop. cit., p. 13; “Bones tunnel,” Horoscope, April 1889, p. 1, and Yale Illustrated Horoscope, [May] 1891, p. 2; Goodrich refusal, “Yale Senior Societies,” New York Tribune, June 7, 1896 In Stover at Yaleop. cit., p. 205, a character opines about the “Bones list,” “You’ve got to include the pitcher of the nine and the president of Dwight Hall, haven’t you?”

31.Slosson, op. cit., p. 59.

32.Welch and Camp, op. cit., pp. 62–64; Patton and Field, op. cit., pp. 220–223; “happy communion,” Pierson, op. cit., p. 14; “Pope,” Fish and Runk, eds., Horoscope, [May] 1892, p. 1; “Student Handbook,” Yale News, September 27, 1887.

33.Smith, Ronald, op. cit., pp. 73, 84–87; “muckers,” Kelley, op. cit., p. 302; on Camp’s contributions, see Marshall, John S., “Walter Camp and His Gridiron Game,” American Heritage XII (October 1961), pp. 50–55, 77–81.

34.“athletic field purchase,” Steiner, op. cit., pp. 218–219; “friction,” Presbrey, Frank, ed., Athletics at Princeton (New York: Frank Presbey, 1901), p. 56.

35.Camp, Walter, “Yale Athletics, A Review of Its History,” Illustrated American (April 19, 1890), p. 27.

36.Smith, op. cit., pp. 122, 148; “Rah! Rah! Rah! Yale!,” Yale News, July 1, 1887. Poem by B. A. Gould Jr., Harvard ’91, in Echoes of the Harvard-Yale Football Game of 1890 Being A Collection of Ephemeral But Entertaining Expressions of Rejoicings of the Hour (Cambridge, Mass.: Charles H. Thurston, December 1890).

37.Welch and Camp, op. cit., p. 453; Canby, op. cit., p. 26.

38.Rader, Benjamin G., American Sports from the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Spectators (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1983), pp. 20–26.

39.Yale News, April 10; May 9; and May 18, 1888; the volume’s full title is A History of Yale Athletics 1840–1888 Giving Every Contest with Harvard, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Columbia, Wesleyan, and Others in Rowing, Foot Ball, Base Ball, Track Athletics, Tennis.

40.1905 statistics, Robbins, op. cit., pp. 69–70; “Standing of the Athletic Men in ’90, ’91, and ’92,” Yale News, January 23, 1891; “Standing of the Editors of the College Papers,” Yale News, January 30, 1891.

41.Figures taken from Fisher Report, op. cit., p. 129, with regard to junior prom chairmen, class deacons, and Lit. editors, and otherwise compiled from society and fraternity catalogues and issues of Horoscope. In Meade Minnigerode’s novel about his class of 1910, The Big Year: A College Story (New York and London: G. P. Putnam, 1921), p. 215, a character says: “I don’t see why you should go [be tapped for] anything, Benson, just because you’re president of the Glee Club—unless Keys needs you to sing tenor over there on Thursday nights!”

42.Welch and Camp, op. cit., p. 98; Horoscope, May 1898, pp. 5–6. On the Ten Eyck, see “According to Tradition,” Yale Alumni Weekly, April 23, 1902.

43.Holbrook, Richard, op. cit., p. 37; Welch and Camp, op. cit., p. 98; Fisher Report, op. cit., p. 129; “Yale Society Elections,” New-York Evening Post, May 24, 1900.

44.Holbrook, op. cit., p. 54.

45.Canby, American Memoirop. cit., pp. 152, 156, 166–167, 169.

46.Yale ’97 Class Book, p. 42; Wooster, James Willet, Edward Stephen Harkness 1874–1940 (New York: William E. Rudge, 1949), pp. 26, 28–29; Pierson, Yale: The University College 1921–1937op. cit., pp. 213–215; Kelley, op. cit., p. 91; Betsky, Aaron, James Gamble Rogers and the Architecture of Pragmatism (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994), pp. 4–5, 55–61, 104, 140, 153, 155.

47.Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 56–57.

48.Howland, op. cit., pp. 21–22.

49.Statistics of Yale, ’74, pp. 20–21. Smyth, Nathan Ayer, “The Democratic Idea in College Life,” Yale Literary Magazine, April 1896, pp. 272–276; Yale Horoscope, May 1891, pp. 5–9.

50.“Yale Societies Doomed,” New York Times, December 8, 1900; Havemeyer, op. cit., pp. 16–19; Pierson, Yale Collegeop. cit., pp. 234–237; Horoscope, May 1901, p. 10; Horoscope, [May] 1901, p. 6. For years afterwards, one member from each of Scroll and Key and Skull and Bones were appointed as members of the defuct sophomore society Eta Phi, “so that things would be handed down in perpetuity in case they should ever be revived,” as Henry Luce, the 1920 Bones appointee, wrote his parents. Brinkley, op. cit., p. 74.

51.Nettleton, George Henry, “On Realities,” Yale Literary Magazine, February 1896, p. 179.

52.New York Times, May 29, 1893; Welch, Flexner and Flexner, op. cit., p. 45; Nettleton, “American Universities and Colleges,” op. cit., p. 500.

53.Yale Illustrated Horoscope, May 1888, pp. 1–2, 4, 6.

54.Horoscope, April 1899, p. 5.

55.Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly, May 29. 1907, p. 823.

56.Flexner and Flexner, op. cit., pp. 174–175.

57.Horoscope, May 1885, p. 2.

58.Yale Literary Magazine, June 1885, p. 379–380; June 1887, p. 389; June 1888, p. 430; June 1889, pp. 432–433; June 1896, pp. 408–409; June 1899, p. 448; June 1890, p. 439; June 1900, p. 426; June 1903, p. 342; “Yale Announcements,” New York Times, May 24, 1889; Yale Alumni Weekly, May 30, 1906.

59.“Yale Society Elections,” New-York Evening Post, May 24, 1901; “Tap Day at Yale,” New York Times, May 24, 1901; “Intense Feeling At Yale,” New York Tribune, May 24, 1901; “Yale Men Slurred by Senior Societies,” New York Herald, May 24, 1901; “Skip Gould and Vanderbilt,” New Haven Register, May 24, 1901; “Stop at Captain Gould,” New Haven Daily Palladium, May 24, 1901; Yale Alumni Weekly, May 29, 1901.

60.“Tap Day Surprises Many,” New Haven Palladium, May 22, 1903; “Yale Tap Day Exercises,” New Haven Journal and Courier, May 26, 1905; “Several Surprises at Yale’s ‘Tap Day’ Exercises,” New York [Times or Herald or Tribune], May 23, 1903; Yale Alumni Weekly, May 27, 1903; “Yale’s Brightest Man a Farmer,” New York World, June 14, 1904. Pierce received his MA degree at Yale in 1905, and a PhD in 1908; a member of the faculty there from 1906, he became associate professor of English in 1926, but advanced no further in the faculty, and committed suicide in 1935 after several years of ill health (a path eerily similar to that of Keysman Denny Hansen, discussed in chapter 12 below).

61.Ibid.New York World.

62.“No Society For Shevlin,” New Haven Evening Register, May 26, 1905.

63.“so-called surprises,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 28, 1902.

64.Horoscope, [May] 1892, p. 3.

65.The Yale Illustrated Horoscope, [May] 1891, p. 4; Minnegerode, op. cit., p. 217; “It Is Touch and Go at Yale,” New York Sun, May 27, 1894.

66.May 1891 Illustrated Horoscope, p. 2; Yale Alumni Weekly, 29 May 1907, p. 823.

67.Wilson, op. cit., p. 1876; Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly Newspaper, 8 June 1893.

68.History of the Class of Eighteen Hundred Ninety-Nine, Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: 1919), p. 18.

69.“As To Tap Day,” Yale Alumni Weekly, 27 May 1903. Another, longer letter, relating the same history and almost certainly from the same correspondent, “A Graduate of the Seventies,” titled “Discussion of ‘Tap Day,’” appeared in the Yale Alumni Weekly for June 24, 1905, p. 759.

70.Gavit, John Palmer, “Social Barriers and ‘Hush Dope’ at Yale,” New York Post, May 15, 1922; Stewart, op. cit., p. 60.

71.“little mingling,” “Yale’s Happy Forty-Five,” New-York Evening Post, May 20, 1911; “no athletic training,” “It Is Touch and Go at Yale,” New York Sun, May 27, 1894; Depew, “Hadley Elected President of Yale,” New Haven Daily Palladium, May 26, 1899; building vantage points, “The Yale Senior Societies,” New Haven Journal and Courier, May 27, 1898; crowd composition, “Yale’s Tap Day Guerdons,” New-York Evening Post, May 20, 1910; poem, Hooker, Achievements of the Class of 1902, Yale College, from Birth to the Year 1912 (1913), p. 106.

72.“annual meeting” and policeman’s gossip, “Yale’s Tap Day Tremors,” New-York Evening Post, May 19, 1911; Dwight Hall balcony audience, “Tap-Day Surprises Many,” New Haven Daily Palladium, May 22, 1903; “Tap Day on Yale Campus,” New York Sun, May 26, 1905; automobiles and Durfee and Farnam windows, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 29, 1907, p. 828; “Mory’s” and “lined with hacks” and the tappers’ campus entry points, Minnigerode, op. cit., pp. 222, 224; “Secret Societies of Yale College,” New York Herald, May 22, 1893; “heathenish rite,” “It Is a Weird Ceremony That Takes Candidates into Yale’s Secret Societies,” New York Herald, Conn. section, May 27, 1906; separate gate entries, “‘Go to Your Room, Sir!’ Tap Day Same on Yale Campus,” New York Herald, May 24, 1905; “gallery . . . mothers,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 31, 1905; Pass of Thermopylae, Kelley, op. cit., p. 307; Welch and Camp, op. cit., pp. 99–10.

73.“young Hercules,” “‘Taps’ Given to 45 Yale Juniors,” Hartford Courant, May 24, 1907, and also “Lucky Yale Men,” New Haven Daily Palladium, May 28, 1897; “melancholy visage,” “Yale Senior Societies,” New York Tribune, June 7, 1896; black suites and derbies, Pierson, Yale College 1921–1937op. cit., p. 137; last Wolf’s Head elector, New Haven Daily Palladium, May 27, 1898; MacLeish, New Haven Journal-Courier, May 21, 1915; “up a tree,” “Yale’s Happy Forty-Five,” New-York Evening Post, May 20, 1911; high vantage points, Yale Alumni Weekly, June 1, 1904; fifteen minutes, “Wait for Chapel Chimes at Five,” New Haven Courier, May 28, 1908; Wolf’s Head precipitate tap, New Haven Daily Palladium, May 28, 1909; pace, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 30, 1906, p. 771; “halfway across,” “Yale Tap Day Brings out Many Campus Callers,” New Haven Evening Register, May 25, 1906; “Yale’s Juniors Slapped,” New Haven Evening Register, May 28, 1897; Robinson second tap, “Surprises at Yale Tap Day,” New Haven Journal and Courier, May 20, 1910, and “Tap Day Is Held at Yale,” New Haven Daily Palladium, May 20, 1910.

74.“cheers,” “The Secret Society System at Yale,” The Kappa Alpha Journal, vol. VIII, no. 9, June 1891, p. 507; fainting, Johnson, op. cit., p. 208, and in Clarke, “Senior Society Elections,” New Haven Journal and Courier, June 26, 1899; “cry,” New York Sunop. cit.; Wolf’s Head precipitate tap, New Haven Palladium, May 28, 1909; on Hoyt, New York Herald, May 24, 1895; circle of singers, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 29, 1907, p. 828, and June 12, 1907, p. 876; “boarding house,” New Haven Daily Palladium, May 26, 1899.

75.“first touched,” New York Sunop. cit.; “honor man” and “last man chosen,” “Tap Day on Campus,” New Haven Journal and Courier, May 27, 1898; Hallock, R. E., “The Last Man Tapped,” Gunter’s Magazine, September 1906, p. 166; “Tap Day Quiet at Yale,” Daily Princetonian, May 16, 1913; Camp, Walter, Jack Hall at Yale: A Football Story (New York and London: D. Appleton, 1909), p. 163.

76.“Few Tap Day Surprises,” New Haven Journal and Courier, May 27, 1905; “dope sheets,” “Dray Passed by at Yale Tap Day,” New Haven Evening Register, May 27, 1907, and “Yale’s Tap Day Tremors,” New-York Evening Post, May 19, 1911; Kirkpatrick, Daily Princetonian, May 20, 1910; Rosey’s dope sheet, Stewart, op. cit., p. 60, and Oren, op. cit., p. 337. On the Rosenberg patriarch’s trick of writing a society candidate’s name and sealing it in an envelope before elections, see Havemeyer, Loomis, Out of Yale’s Past (New Haven, n.d.), pp. 84–86. In Rosey’s obituary notice in the college newspaper, it was said that he was an honorary member of all six senior societies. Yale Daily News, May 5, 1951.

77.New York Sunop. cit.; Minnigerode, op. cit., pp. 207–208, 211–212; Buffalo Courier, [Sept. or Oct.] 1892, cited by Mack, op. cit., n. 99, p. 250; “Skull and Bones Has Chimney Fire,” New Haven Journal-Courier, November 29, 1909. The “burly naked arm shoot[ing] forth to clutch and drag in the proselytes” is reported once more in Time for May 31, 1926, and described again in Travis Ingraham’s 1931 novel, Young Gentlemen, Rise (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1930, p. 28): “Down out of nowhere like an axe descending fell a gigantic white arm, culminating in a large hand which fastened about the neck of the neophyte, yanked him within.”

78.“Secret Society System at Yale,” op. cit., pp. 505–506; Buffalo Courierop. cit.; trial testimony, “Yale Senior Societies,” New York Tribune, June 7, 1896; “Has Taps Sounded for Tap Day?,” New York Evening Telegraph, March 30, 1913, reporting that Wolf’s Head also marched two by two with a left foot heavy stomp; Vaill, Noah, Stover in Bones (n. p.: privately printed, 1913), pp. 42–43.

79.Porter’s essay reprinted in Kimball, Robert, ed., Cole: A Biographical Essay by Brendan Gill (Woodstock, N.Y. and New York: Overlook Press, 2004), p. 21; Walker, Charles R., ed., The Collected Poems of H. Phelps Putnam (New York: Farrar Strauss & Giroux, 1971), p. 14, third of six numbered sonnets. The second stanza of the sonnet VI contains another hidden society reference: “Then say that we were bells cast into flesh,/And every wind that rustled in our blood/Stirred in our skulls clear poignant chimes and fresh/And poured them out a brilliant dreamful flood.” (p. 17).

80.New York Tribune, June 7, 1896; New Haven Courant, September 19, 1895; undershirt, Stewart, op. cit. p. 73.

81.Mack, op. cit., pp. 92–93; “Scroll and Key,” New York World, May 25, 1892; “Scroll and Key Society,” New York Tribune, May 31, 1892; Twichell sermon, Twichell Papers, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale.

82.A. D. White to F. Burton Harrison, May 15, 1895.

83.Hitler’s silverware in Wolf’s Head, Singer, Mark, “Our Far-Flung Correspondents: La Cabeza De Villa,” New Yorker, November 27, 1989, p. 111, and Rosenbaum, Ron, “The Last Secrets of Skull and Bones: An Elegy for Mumbo-Jumbo,” Esquire, September 1977, reprinted in Rosenbaum’s The Secret Parts of Fortune (New York: Random House, 2000), p. 139, saying the utensils are in Scroll and Key; Minnigerode, op. cit., p. 205; doorway ornamentation, “In Shadow of Skull and Bones,” New-York Evening Post, May 4, 1912; Time, May 31, 1926; Pringle, Henry, “Young Men on the Make,” Harper’s, January 1929, p. 153; autobiography coffin and its nonexistence, and Bones whore and her nonexistence, Holahan, David, “The Bad News Bones,” Hartford Courant, May 29, 1988; sanctification of objects in tombs, Vaill, Noah, Stover in Bones (n. p.: privately published, May 15, 1913), p. 42. Before being incorporated into his novel, Minnigerode published the Tap Day chapter “Hush Stuff” in Collier’s for February 26, 1921, where it was illustrated by Raymond Moreau Crosby, Keys 1898.

84.Robert Taft tap, “Few Surprises at Tap Day,” New Haven Evening Register, May 8, 1909. Robert Taft affected some indifference, writing his mother before Tap Day in May 1909: “There is great excitement thorugh our class especially. Some people take it terribly seriously, but I can’t feel that it really decides very much.” Patterson, James, Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert Taft(Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), p. 38. The William Howard Taft nucleus of fellow Bonesmen in federal service was to be rivaled again thirty years later in the administrations of Franklin Roosevelt, when Secretary of War Henry Stimson called on Allan Klots (1909, special assistant to the secretary of state), Harvey Bundy (1909, assistant secretary of state and then special assistant to the secretary of war), and George Harrison (1910, special consultant to the secretary of war), while serving with Archibald MacLeish (1915, assistant secretary of state), Robert Lovett (1918, assistant secretary of war for air), and Averell Harriman (1913, ambassador to the U.S.S.R.), making a tiny clique of wealthy Republicans serving a Democratic president. Hodgson, op. cit., pp. 246–247.

85.“Secret Society System at Yale,” op. cit., p. 506; basement wall lists, Johnson, op. cit., pp. 287, 344, and New York Sun, “Tap Day on Yale Campus,” May 26, 1905; bets, New York Sunop. cit.; Harriman wagers, “‘Taps’ on Rubber Coats,” New York Tribune, May 17, 1912.

86.New York Sunop. cit.Horoscope, May 1886, p. 1, noted that those tapped would miss chapel as “the effects of initiation last night might last for several days,” and Yale Illustrated Horoscope for May 1891 wrote of “the privilege of partaking of the dilute lemonade and corn starch ice cream which Bones supplies its chosen men”; Benét, Stephen Vincent, The Beginning of Wisdom(New York: Henry Holt, 1921), pp. 104–105; Wilson, op. cit., p. 1875. Wilson also discussed the Yale senior society system in his memoirs in New Yorker for May 6, 1967, pp. 98–100: “I felt a certain respect for the importance given at Yale to intellectual achievement. Scholarship counted as well as athletics, and the editor of the Yale News and the editor of the Yale Lit. were ex officio tapped from Bones. At Princeton [c. 1912–1916], you had no incentive to excel in any such pursuit.”

87.Fisher Report, op. cit., pp. 3, 62, 132; “Yale’s Juniors Slapped,” New Haven Evening Register, May 28, 1897; “Yale’s Tap Day Elections. Nephew of Secretary Taft Fails to Get into Any Senior Society,” New York Times, May 25, 1906.

88.Hooker, op. cit., pp. 3–5, 9, 11; “New Yale Senior Club,” New York Times, March 21, 1903; “Wealthy Yale Men Form ‘Open’ Club,” New York Herald, March 21, 1903; Yale Alumni Weekly, March 18, 1903; “On March 20th the Elihu Club announced its existence publicly,” Yale College Class Book 1903 (New Haven, Conn.: June 1903), p. 182; Yale Literary Magazine, June 1903, p. 344; “elections by mail,” and varying numbers of members, Minnigerode, op. cit., pp. 207–208; Horoscope, May 1903; Suitable Quarters: Elihu Celebrates The 100th Anniversary of Its Landmark Home on New Haven Green, pp. 1–2, 5.

89.Brown, Elizabeth Mills, New Haven, A Guide to Architecture and Urban Design (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), p. 64; Federal Writers Project, Connecticut: A Guide to its Roads, Lore, and People (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938), p. 235; Pinnell, op. cit., pp. 108-109; Suitable Quarters, op. cit., p. 5.

90.Pfister, Joel, The Yale Indian: The Education of Henry Roe Cloud (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2009), pp. 2, 15, 46–47, 50, 58–63, 68–69, 73. Henry Roe Cloud’s personal Elihu Club delegation photograph is to be found in the Ravi D. Goel Collection of Henry Roe Cloud, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University. In 1907 for the class of 1908, eight days after Tap Day, Elihu elected fourteen men, including the president of the dramatic association, the treasurer of Dwight Hall, the track team captain, the Apollo Glee Club leader, and the tennis team captain, so it was fulfilling the function of recognizing leaders in all walks of campus life omitted by the three senior societies. Yale Alumni Weekly, June 15, 1907, p. 852. Notably, a Chinese American, Bartlett Golden Yung, son of Yung Wing, LL.D. 1854 (and DKE member), and Mary Louise Kellogg, was elected to Wolf’s Head in 1902; born in Hartford, Conn., he went to Shanghai to work from 1912 onward.


1.Johnson, op. cit., p. 342.

2.Schiff, Judith, introduction to Johnson, Owen, Stover at Yale (New Haven, Conn.: The Yale Bookstore, 1997), p. vi.

3.Quoted in DelBanco, Andrew, “Colleges: An Endangered Species,” New York Review of Books, March 10, 2005. Fitzgerald’s biographer says that at Princeton, Fitzgerald “planned to succeed according to the guidelines set forth in Owen Johnson’s Stover at Yale.” Bruccoli, Matthew, Some Sort of Epic Grandeur (New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981), p. 43.

4.Yale Alumni Weekly, May 3, 1912; Halberstam, Michael J., “Stover at the Barricades,” American Scholar, vol. 38, No. 3, Summer, 1969, p. 470.

5.Morison, Elting E., ed., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954), vol. VII, 433–434.

6.Lamoreaux, David, “Stover At Yale and the Gridiron Metaphor,” Journal of Popular Culture, vol. XI, Fall 1977, pp. 331, 333; “novel with a purpose,” Johnson, quoted in Current Literature, July 1912, p. 95.

7.Lewis, Sinclair, “Owen Johnson Himself,” Book News Monthly, May 1912, p. 625; Lamoreaux, op. cit., p. 341 n. 19.

8.Johnson, op. cit., pp. 13, 29, 79, 210, 265–266, 273, 276, 288, 330, 332, 342, 385–386.

9.Higgs, Robert J., “Yale and the heroic ideal, Götterdämerung and palingenisis, 1865–1914,” in Mangin, J. A., and James Walvin, Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America 1800–1940 (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1987), p. 170.

10.See generally, on republic civil individualism and liberal individualism, Robert B. Bellah, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (New York: Collier, 1968).

11.Mack, op. cit., p. 179. A substantial excerpt was reprinted in Yale Alumni Weekly itself, April 5, 1912, and the book itself was reviewed there in the issue of May 3, 1912, identifying it as “a philippic directed against certain tendencies and facts at present-day American universities in general, and Yale in particular . . . ” while an editorial of May 17, 1912, complained that “the human nature in Yale’s Campus institutions has been translated into sinister influences, their immense and long proven power for good ignored.”

12.New York Times, March 25, 1912, and March 31, 1912.

13.Johnson, Owen, “The Social Usurpation of Our Colleges II—Harvard,” Collier’s, May 25, 1912, p. 14. The other articles in the series appeared on May 18 and on June 8, 5, and 22.

14.Johnson, Owen, “The Social Usurpation of Our Colleges III—Yale,” Collier’s¸ June 8, 1912, pp. 12–13, 23–25.

15.Mack, op. cit., pp. 180–181.

16.Johnson, “III—Yale,” op. cit., p. 25; Johnson, Stoverop. cit., p. 335.

17.“1912 Vindicates Social System,” Yale News, May 9, 1912; “45 Juniors ‘Tapped’ in the Rain,” New York Herald, May 17, 1912.

18.“Society Men Locked Out,” New Haven Journal-Courier, May 24, 1912; “Yale Gates Glued Shut on Society Men,” New York Times, May 24, 1912.

19.Harriman estate, Smith, Sally Bedell, Reflected Glory: The Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976), p. 82, and Abramson, Rudy, Spanning the Century: The Life of Averell Harriman, 1891–1986 (New York: William Morrow, 1992, p. 91; Harriman on Porcellian, Isaacson and Thomas, op. cit., p. 82. On the decades-long interplay of the Harriman family and Skull and Bones, see Robbins, op. cit., pp. 164–166.

20.Stewart, Donald, “The Higher Learning in America II—Yale,” Smart Set, December 1921, pp. 52–53.

21.Durfee baseball games, Marlin, Jane, “Yale: Her Fads and Fancies,” Paterson Magazine, February 1898, p. 192; rain gear, New York Tribune, May 17, 1912; Harriman letter, Abramson, op. cit., p. 107.

22.“Authors Have A Say,” New York Tribune, May 17, 1912; “Owen Johnson Attacks His Critics,” New York Times, May 19, 1912.

23.Pierson, Yale Collegeop. cit., p. 256.

24.Tomkins, Calvin, Living Well Is the Best Revenge (New York: Viking, 1971), p. 14.

25.Vaill, Amanda, Everybody Was So Young: Gerald and Sara Murphy—A Lost Generation Love Story (Boston, Mass., and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998), pp. 1–2. 31–33. 34–36. 45–46; Vaill, Amanda, Hotel Florida: Truth, Love and Death in the Spanish Civil War (New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2014), p. 115.

26.Donnelley, Honoria Murphy, with Richard N. Billings, Sara & Gerald: Villa America and After (New York: Times Books, 1982), pp. 9, 127–128.

27.Schwartz, Charles, Cole Porter: A Biography (New York: Dial Press, 1977), pp. 22–24, 26, 30, 33, 255, 262, and 273; Kimball, Robert, “Cole Porter, College Man,” Yale Alumni Magazine, November 1992, pp. 39–43; “Football Song Writing: Cole Porter, Latest Yale Composer of Big Game Choruses, Looks to New Hits ‘Bull Dog’ and ‘Eli’ to Cheer Team to Victory Next Week,” New Haven Register, November 13, 1911; McBrien, William, Cole Porter: A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), pp. 28, 31, 42–43, 389 (quoting Porter’s “Oh, its awfully hard to concentrate at Yale . . . For the extra curriculum/Makes the gay life at Yale.”); Porter’s Keys anthems and Murphy on Porter quoted in Kimball, op. cit., pp. 9–10, 14, and Brendan Gill’s introductory biographical essay, pp. x–xi. Saturday Chronicle for May 11, 1912, reported: “Cole Porter, leader of the Musical Clubs, might get Bones or he might get Keys, but nobody seems certain that he will get anything.”

28.Johnson, op. cit., p. 6. In his introductory biographical essay to Kimball’s Cole (op. cit., p. xi), Bonesman Brendan Gill writes that “one cannot help wondering what the handsome burley athletes of the Porter era, with their suspicion of cleverness, their pursuit of the manly, their strenuous Christianity, thought of the exquisite pagan hedonist in their midst. Well, it appears that they liked him very much.” In Donald Ogden Stewart’s 1921 magazine article [endnote 20 above], op. cit., p. 61, he was to observe about his spring 1915 election: “The present system is the unplanned result of many years’ slow growth in which the interest of Yale have always been the prime consideration; the indications are that the societies themselves are already applying the corrective to the present ill in the shifting of their standards for ‘successful’ men.”

29.“Unique Yale Tap Day Situation,” New Haven Journal-Courier, March 14, 1913; “150 for Yale Reforms,” New York Times, April 14, 1913; “Yale Sophomores Line Up,” another front-page story, New York Times, April 15, 1913; first petitions, “Has Taps Sounded for Tap Day?,” New York Morning Telegraph, March 30, 1913; Webb, Eugene, “The Sophomores and the Senior Societies,” Yale Courant, April 1913; “Mending Yale Societies,” New-York Evening Post, April 16, 1913; Daily Princetonian, April 18, 1913.

30.Bangs, F. H., and C. Bennitt, L. F. Carr, W. P. Campbell, W. W. Crocker, T. B. Denègre, E. B. Harrison, H. A. Pumpelly, J. D. Robb, and H. G. Woodruff, untitled pamphlet, quoted in full in Yale Alumni Weekly, April 18, 1913, p. 776, with a reprinting of the editorial of the Yale News on this statement, and reprinted in full in the New-York Evening Post, April 16, 1913.

31.Eavesdropper, Vol. 2, No. 1, January 19, 1914, p. 2.

32.Wolf’s Head, “Has Taps Been Sounded for Tap Day?,” New York Morning Telegraph, March 30, 1913; “322,” April 26, 1913, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

33.“Yale Tap Day to Be Quiet and Queer,” New York Herald, May 11, 1913.

34.“Yale’s Society Revolt,” New York Times, May 1, 1913; “‘Tap Day’ at Yale,” editorial, New York Times, May 17, 1913.

35.Wolf’s Head, “Tap Day on Thursday,” New Haven Satuday Chronicle, May 11, 1912; “Yale Tap Day Said to Be So Quiet and Queer,” New Haven Journal, May 14, 1913; “Tap Day Interest Intense,” New York Times, May 15, 1913.

36.“Man In Tree Features Tap Day Ceremony at Yale,” New Haven Journal & Courier, May 16, 1913; “Jones Is Pleased over Yale Tap Day, “ New Haven Register, May 16, 1913; “Yale’s Tap Day Is Marked by Levity,” New Haven Journal, May 16, 1913; “Seniors’ Gibes End Tap Day’s Gravity,” New York Times, May 16, 1913; “The 1913 Tap Day,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 23, 1913.

37.“Minutes of Junior Meeting on Wednesday night, January 23, 1914 . . . In Osborn Hall;” “Yale’s Senior Societies,” New-York Evening Post, February 18, 1914; “Unique Yale Tap Day Situation,” New Haven Journal-Courier, March 13, 1914; “This Is Tap Day at Yale,” New York Times, May 14, 1914; “not a woman,” “Honor 45 Juniors in Yale’s Annual Tap Day Rites,” New York Herald, May 15, 1914; Berkeley Oval, Pinnell, op. cit., p. 104.

38.“The Class List,” Yale News, April 18, 1914; “The Societies and the Juniors,” Yale Alumni Weekly, April 24, 1914, also quoting the News; “Junior Class List,” Yale News, April 29, 1914; “Yale Tap Day Will Not Be on Campus,” Brooklyn Eagle, May 3, 1914; “Yale Bides New Tap Day,” New-York Evening Post, May 14, 1914; “Big Interest in Tap Day Today,” New Haven Journal-Courier, May 14, 1914.

39.MacLeish, Donaldson, op. cit., p. 57; MacLeish on David Acheson, Winnick, R. H., Letters of Archibald MacLeish 1907–1982 (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1983), p. 47; “Denatured Tap Day Comes to Yale,” New York Times, May 15, 1914; “Tap Day Reformer Is ‘Untapped’,” New York Herald, May 15, 1914; “Tap Day Makes History,” New-York Evening Post, May 15, 1914; “Stick Close to List of Juniors,” New Haven Journal-Courier, May 15, 1914; “Yale Leaders in Tap Day Reform Get Coveted Taps,” New York World, May 15, 1914; fired as crew coach, Isaacson and Thomas, op. cit., p. 85; Truman, Acheson, and Harriman, Abramson, op. cit., p. 440.

40.Jones announcement, Yale News, May 8, 1915; “Skull and Bones Twice Rejected,” New Haven Journal-Courier, May 21, 1915; “Yale’s Great Oak Sees ‘Tap Day’ Again,” New York Times, May 21, 1915; “Tap Day Back on Campus at Yale,” New York Herald, May 21, 1915.

41.“‘Tap Day’ At Yale,” New York Times, May 19, 1916; “One Rejection Marks Tap Day,” New Haven Journal-Courier, May 19, 1916, also noting that George Mosher Murray rejected Bones for Wolf’s Head, a first; “A Yale Tradition Shattered,” New York Times, May 20, 1916; “One Rejection Marks Tap Day,” New Haven Journal, May 20, 1916.

42.Hugh Bayne to Morris Hadley, September 27, 1915, Hadley Family Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

43.Pierson, Yale College, 1871–1921op. cit., pp. 435–437, 444–474; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 348–355; “The Yale Spirit of Defense,” Yale Alumni Weekly, October 20, 1916; Jones speech, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 4, 1917; “Yale in the War—An Epitome,” Yale Alumni Weekly, November 23, 1917; “A Militarized Yale,” Yale Alumni Weekly, October 11, 1918; Stokes, “Yale’s Contribution to the War,” Yale Graphic, March 20, 1919; ambulance service, Flint, Joseph Marshall, “The Yale Mobile Hospital Unit,” in Nettleton, G. H., editor, Yale in the World War Part One (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1926), pp. 437–440, and Donaldson, Scott, Archibald MacLeish: An American Life (Boston, Mass., New York, and London: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), pp. 87–89.

44.“Yale Dinner at Fort Sill,” Yale Alumni Weekly, April 26, 1918; Wortman, Mark, The Millionaire’s Unit: The Aristocratic Flyboys Who Fought the Great War and Invented American Air Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2006), pp. 137–138; Robbins, op. cit., pp. 144–146; Green, Fitzhugh, George Bush: An Intimate Portrait (New York: Hippocrene, 1989), p. 50; prior removal of remains and on purchase vs. grave desecration, Loftus, John, and Mark Aarons, The Secret War against the Jews (New York: St. Martin’s, 1984), p. 592 n. 32; Rosenbaum, “I Stole the Head of Prescott Bush: More Skull and Bones Tales,” New York Observer, July 17, 2000; Herskowitz, Mickey, Duty, Honor, Country: The Life and Legacy of Prescott Bush (New York: Thomas Nelson, 2003), pp. 38–39, doubting the accusation in Prescott Bush’s only biography; Yale Daily News, October 14, 1988, quoting the director of the Fort Sill Museum to the effect that there was no evidence that Geronimo’s skull was ever removed from the grave contained within the museum’s site, and that an iron door does not exist on Geronimo’s grave; “complex and contradictory mores,” Lassila, Kathrin Day, and Mark Alden Branch, “Whose Skull and Bones?,” Yale Alumni Magazine, May–June 2006.

45.Wilson, Yale Alumni Weekly, April 20, 1917; Pierson, op. cit., pp. 445, 464, 470; “‘For Country’ Part of Famous Yale Pledge,” New Haven Register, April 22, 1917; Yale Alumni Weekly, January 26, 1917 and October 5, 1917; Reed, E. B., “The Yale of Today,” Yale Alumni Weekly, November 23, 1917.

46.Archibald MacLeish poem first published in April 1919 Lyric; Wortman, op. cit., pp. xiv–xv, 5–12, 28–34; “Twelve Men with Wings,” Time, September 8, 1941; Davison, F. T., “The First Yale Naval Aviation Unit” in Nettleton, op. cit., pp. 443–447, and Schieffelin, John Jay, “The Second Yale Unit,” in Nettleton, pp. 449–453; Yale News, November 14, 1916, naming the members of the unit in reprinting an article by Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary; Yale Alumni Weekly, October 20, 1916, and January 26; March 30; and May 4, 1917; Hynes, Samuel, The Unsubstantial Air:American Flyers in the First World War (New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2014), pp. 26–29; “The Millionaire’s Unit,” http://www.millionairesunit.org/index.php?option=com-content=view&id=23&Itemid=36, accessed August 28, 2014. On Lovett federal appointments, Issacson and Thomas, op. cit., p. 21; Lovett and Faulkner, Hodgson, op. cit., p. 245; “Turn About,” Saturday Evening Post, March 5, 1932, p. 6, where the Lovett character (named Bogard in the story), is described thusly: “He was past twenty-five; looking at him, one thought, not Phi Beta Kappa, exactly, but Skull and Bones, perhaps, or possibly a Rhodes scholarship.” Coincidentally, the actor Gary Cooper, who played the (Bonesman) Lovett character in Today We Live, was also to play Joe Chapin, the unlucky hero and Bonesman in the film version of John O’Hara’s Ten North Frederick(1955).

47.“Yale Seniors Tapped,” New York Times, April 20, 1917; “Charlie Taft Honored on Yale’s Tap Day,” New York Tribune, April 20, 1917; Yale News, April 23, 1917; “Only Thirty-Four Tapped on Yale Campus,” New Haven Journal-Courier, April 20, 1917; “Yale Will Revive Tap Day This Year,” New York Times, May 4, 1919. On Lewis, see Lewis’s memoirs, op. cit., pp. 87–88, and Winks, Robin, Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War 1939–1961 (New York: William Morrow, 1987), pp. 96–102. On Barry, see Gill, Brendan, introduction to States of Grace: Eight Plays by Philip Barry (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975), pp. 20–22, 47.

48.“Tap Day at Yale Finds Honored Ones in Training Camp.” New York Herald, April 20, 1917; “brutal business,” Donaldson, op. cit., p. 58, also noting Archie’s delight when his son Bill was elected to membership thirty-two years later; MacLeish letter of September 30, 1917, Rossano, Geoffrey, The Price of Honor: The World War One Letters of Naval Aviator Kenneth MacLeish(Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1991), pp. 16–17, 27; Wortman, op. cit., p., 99–103; Hynes, op. cit., pp. 254–256; Robbins, op. cit., pp. 108–109; New York Times, April 20, 1917; Lovett on K. MacLeish, Winnick, op. cit., pp. 54–55; Nettleton, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 284–287; Paine, Ralph D., The First Yale Unit: A Story of Naval Aviation 1916–1919 (Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1925), vol. I, pp. vii–viii, 88–89, 159–168, and vol. II, pp. 321–325, 350–373.

49.private train, Lewis, op. cit., p. 121. The reference to a Bones initiation in the headquarters of the Navy’s Northern Bombing Group, in Robbins, op. cit., p. 109, is unsourced (although apparently from Isaacson and Thomas, op. cit., p. 93) and incorrect: Lovett was initiated before he was ordered to France in August 1917 (Wortman, op. cit., p. 123), as proven by the photograph of his Bones delegation (the first and last time all the men were to be together in New Haven) reproduced in Issacson and Thomas at p. 65.

50.Keys, Lewis, op. cit., p. 121; Elihu, Suitable Quartersop. cit.

51.Jones, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 4, 1917; McCormick, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 23, 1919; Schieffelin, op. cit., pp. 449–453; Paine, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 289–293.

52.Yale News, May 21, 1918; Yale Alumni Weekly, April 26, 1918

53.New York Times, May 4, 1919; Wortman, op. cit., pp. 136–137; Isaacson and Thomas, op. cit., p. 93; Lassila and Wortman, op. cit. Depew became after graduation Assistant to the federal district attorney for Western New York, William (“Wild Bill”) Donovan, later to head the Office of Strategic Services in WWII, but Depew’s political career was cut short when he died in 1924.

54.“American Ace a Bones Man,” New York Times, May 16, 1919; Yale News, May 16, 1919; Wortman, op. cit., p. 267; Paine, op. cit., Vol. II, pp. 267–292; Yale Alumni Weekly, May 23, 1919.

55.Schiff, Judith, “To Freedom’s Fallen,” Yale Alumni Magazine, March 1997, p. 88.


1.Baltzell, E. Digby, The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America (New York: Random House, 1964), p. 110.

2.Yale Daily News, January 1, 1926.

3.Oren, op. cit., pp. 22, 66, 337 n. 3, 338 n. 18; Karabel, op. cit., p. 200; “Dormitories and Democracy,” Yale Alumni Weekly, December 6, 1905.

4.Synnott, Martha G., The Half-Opened Door: Discrimination and Admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900–1930 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979), pp. 127, 129, 155.

5.Oren, op. cit., p. 19.

6.Jewish enrollment, Synnott, Marcia C., “The Admission and Assimilation of Minority Students at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1910–1950,” History of Education Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 3, Fall 1979, p. 290; Baltzell, op. cit., p. 130; Jones quoted in Oren, op. cit., p. 43.

7.Caro, Robert, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974), pp. 1–2, 38–47; Synnott, The Half-Opened Doorop. cit., pp.145–146; individual vs. team sports, Hall, G. Stanley, Youth (New York: D. Appleton, 1906), pp. 84–8, and Lamoreaux, op. cit. pp. 337–338.

8.Oren, op. cit., pp. 35, 339 n. 31.

9.Sauna, Marianne Rachel, “‘Going Greek’: A Social History of Jewish College Fraternities, 1895–1945,” PhD diss., Columbia University, 1994, pp. 19–21, 54–56; Oren, op. cit., pp. 25–26; Synnott, The Half-Opened Doorop. cit., pp. 168–169. By 1918, there were three Jewish social clubs or fraternities at Yale, and six at Harvard. Synnott, “Admission and Assimilation,” op. cit., p. 293.

10.Baltzell, op. cit., p. 210; Hapgood, Norman, “Jews and College Life,” Harper’s Weekly, January 15, 1916, p. 53; Oren, op. cit., pp. 320–321; Synott, op. cit., pp. 139–143, 152: “Almost three-fourths, or 307, of the 420 Jewish students in the classes of 1911 through 1925 had prepared in the local high schools [of New Haven, Hartford, and Bridgeport]”; Rostow, Eugene, “The Jew’s Position,” Harkness Hoot, November 23, 1931; on Rostow, Oren, op. cit., pp. 88–89, and Bissell, Richard M., Jr., Reflections of a Cold Warrior: From Yalta to the Bay of Pigs (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996), p. 9, and Milne, David, America’s Rasputin: Walt Rostow and the Vietnam War (New York: Hill & Wang, 2008), pp. 16–24.

11.Minutes of the Twenty-Sixth General Meeting of the Elihu Club, New Haven, Conn., Nov. 18, 1911, p. 3.

12.Synnott, The Half-Opened Doorop. cit., pp. 131–132; Oren, op. cit., pp. 70–71, 343 n. 7, 348 n. 19. Yale did not have a Catholic chapel for students until 1938. There is hardly any scholarship on how elite, private colleges and universities discriminated against Catholics, according to Horowitz, Daniel, On the Cusp: The Yale College Class of 1960 and a World on the Verge of Change (Amherst and Boston, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015), p. 65.

13.Synnott, The Half-Opened Doorop. cit., pp. 130–132; Janish, Herbert, “Catholicism and Culture: The American Experience of Thomas Lawrason Riggs, 1888–1943,” Catholic Historical Review 68, July 1982, pp. 451–468. Synnott does chart a decline in the Catholic members of the senior societies from 1912 to the class of 1927, from 8 to 3 (see Table 5.1, p. 132). O’Hara letter quoted in Wolff, Geoffrey, The Art of Burning Bridges: A Life of John O’Hara (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), p. 46.

14.Warner, Robert Austin, New Haven Negroes: A Social History (New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1969), pp. 175–176, 246–247, 249 n, 31, 254; Synnott, op. cit., p. 133; Pickens, William, Bursting Bonds (Boston, Mass.: The Jordan and Moore Press, enlarged edition, 1923), chapter 6 and pp. 127 and 131. Harvard College’s first black graduate was Richard T. Green of the class of 1870 (Yale’s first was Richard Henry Green of the class of 1856, and its third after Boucher was John Wesley Manning, 1881), and the first black Harvard undergraduate elected to Phi Beta Kappa was William Monroe Trotter of the class of 1895.

15.Thirty blacks, seven blacks, Association of Yale Alumni estimates in Kabaservice, Geoffrey, “Kingman Brewster and the Rise and Fall of the Progressive Establishment,” PhD thesis, Yale University, 1999, pp. 35–351, and class of 1916, p. 96; www.yale.edu.alpha.zeta_chapter.htm, and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Phi_Alpha, each accessed November 12, 2014.

16.Bullard, Allan B., The Education of Black Folk (New York: Harper and Row, 1973), p. 53.

17.Synott, op. cit., p. 134; Oren, op. cit., pp. 71–72.

18.Up at Harvard, President Charles W. Eliot commented that “in a few cases . . . negroes were taken into athletic organizations on account of their remarkable athletic merit,” but that he “never heard of negroes being admitted to fraternities or clubs at Harvard.” Synott, “Admission and Assimilation,” op. cit., p. 293.

19.Carnegie Foundation figures, Pierson, Yale the University Collegeop. cit., p. 662 n. 9; Pierson, Yale Book of Numbers, p. 94 on society memberships, 1929 Yale College Classbook, and Oren, op. cit., p. 183.

20.Synott, “Admission and Assimilation,” op. cit., p. 291; Wallace, William, Yale’s Ironmen: A Story of Football & Lives in the Decade of the Depression and Beyond (New York: Universe, 2005), p. 6.

21.Bergin, Thomas, on his “caste-ridden Yale of the twenties,” in “My Native Country,” in Dubois, op. cit., pp. 162–163.

22.Benét, Stephen Vincent, “The Songs of Dear Old Yale,” Stephen Vincent Benét Papers, Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University.

23.alumni sons increase, Kelley, op. cit., p. 406; Benét, op. cit., pp. 63–64; public vs. private schools, Noyes, Edward S., “Selecting Him,” Seventy-Fiveop. cit., pp. 32–37.

24.Pak, Susie J., Gentlemen Bankers: The World of J. P. Morgan (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2013), pp. 144–145, 158, and works cited at 304–305 and 312. President Eliot at Harvard maintained that discrimination by individuals did not matter as long as “the university, like the state, leaves its members free to do their own social sorting.” It was enough that “all students in Harvard University—as students—are treated by the University precisely alike without regard to class, caste, or race.” Synnott, “Admissions and Assimilation,” op. cit., p. 293.

25.Oren, op. cit., p. 89. A graduate of the class of 1979, Oren spoke about his book at a date when four of the senior societies had admitted woman, and all had admitted blacks and Jews: “Much progress has been made in making Yale a more democratic institution,” adding that “the societies had been monitors rather than initiators of exclusionist trends. The role of societies has not been an insidious role but a realistic one.” Yale Daily News, November 4, 1988.

26.Pierson, op. cit., pp. 3–15, (Angell and the senior societies) 76; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 369–371; on Hutchins and Angell, see Dzuback, Mary Ann, Robert Maynard Hutchins: Portrait of an Educator (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 30, 32–33, 36–39. The senior society component of membership among the Alumni Fellows and Successor Trustees is substantial: according to a statistical study made in 1969, providing a census of the two categories since 1905 (marking the election of Bonesman Payson Merrill as the first lay Successor Trustee), 80 percent of the Alumni Fellows and 69 percent of the Successor Trustees, or 76 percent of all members of the Yale Corporation from 1905 to 1969, were members of the senior societies, ranking exactly in the order of the founding of those societies or incorporation from Sheff into the system (38 from Bones, 17 from Keys, 5 from Wolf’s Head, 4 from Elihu, 2 from Berzelius, 1 from Book and Snake, and 3 from St. Anthony Hall). Richards, David Alan, The Making of the Corporation 1969, Appendix III, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

27.Pierson, Yale The University Collegeop. cit., pp. 24, 145, 455, 487–492, 515–517.

28.Yale Alumni Weekly, November 21 and December 5, 1919; Elihu badge announcement to its members and graduates, May 1920.

29.Swanberg, W. A., Luce and His Empire (New York: Scribner’s, 1972), p. 41; Herzstein, Robert E., Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century (New York: Scribner’s, 1994), pp. 38–41; Brinkley, op. cit., pp. 55–70; Wilner, Isaiah, The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 47–50, 54, 58.

30.“Yale Will Revive Tap Day This Year,” New York Times, May 4, 1919; Brinkley, op. cit., p. 72. Luce once described the society as “a religion,” and described it to his parents as “the most exclusive society in the world.” Elson, Robert T., Time, Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941 (New York: Athenaeum, 1968), pp. 44–45; Brinkley, p. 74. Many years later, in his troubled marriage to Clare Boothe Luce, he blamed his impotence with her partly on her disregard for his senior society membership. Morris, Sylvia Jukes, Price of Fame: The Honorable Clare Boothe Luce (New York: Random House, 2014), pp. 192–193.

31.Wilner, op. cit., pp. 3, 59, 65; Swanberg, op. cit., p. 49.

32.Wilner, op. cit., pp. 92–93. Remarkably, Time’s rival Newsweek also began with a Bones pedigree: Averell Harriman in 1933 founded a publication called Today which he merged with another magazine in 1937 to become Newsweek. Abramson, op. cit., pp. 250–252.

33.Yale News, May 16 and 17, 1919; Robbins, op. cit., p. 110.

34.A Twenty-Five Year Record: Class of 1919, Yale College (New Haven, Conn., 1946), [3]; “The Tapiad” excerpt quoted here is the chorus to the text printed in Fenton, Charles A., Stephen Vincent Benét: The Life and Times of an American Man of Letters, 1898–1943 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press), p. 63.

35.Letter to Shreve C. Badger, July 1918, in Fenton, Charles, ed., Selected Letters of Stephen Vincent Benét (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1960), pp. 15–18.

36.Benét, op. cit., p. 104. It is said that the 1927–28 Lit. board of editors refused to elect a chairman until after Tap Day, so as to defy Skull and Bones. Pierson, Yale: The University Collegeop. cit., pp. 289–290.

37.Gavit, John Palmer, “Social Barriers and ‘Hush Dope’ at Yale,” New York Post, May 19, 1922.

38.New York TimesNew York Herald, and New York Tribune, May 19, 1922. Spock was later to write that his election, “seemed proof that I’d become an acceptable fellow at last, or at least had learned to act like one.” Spock, Benjamin, “The Mother’s Boy and the New Coach,” in Dubois, op. cit., p. 154.

39.New York Times, May 9, 1926; Kahn, E. H., Jr., Jock: The Life and Times of John Hay Whitney (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981), pp. xiii, 2, 10, 15, 57. The first John Hay Whitney Professorship in the Humanities, established in 1977 with $750,000 raised by Scroll and Key through its membership and Whitney’s many friends, was held by Bart Giamatti, Keysman and later Yale’s nineteenth president. Kahn, p. 306.

40.New York Herald Tribune, May 18, 1928; Mellon, Paul, Reflections in a Silver Spoon (New York: William Morrow, Inc., 1992), pp. 114–117; Kahn, op. cit., p. 299.

41.Yale Alumni Weekly, June 7, 1929, and reported in the New York Times for the same date.

42.Kahn, op. cit., p. 57.

43.Pringle, Henry F., “Young Men on the Make,” Harper’s Monthly, January 1929, pp. 150–151; “A Magazine Writer on Yale’s Social System,” Yale Alumni Weekly, January 18, 1929. Pringle was considerably more respectful of the society experience a decade later in his biography of Taft: “He was tapped for Skull and Bones, an honor by no means due to the fact that his father was one of its founders or to the prominence at Yale of the Taft name. The senior society pays the tribute of election not merely to athletes or college intellectuals. It seeks men of outstanding personality and great force in undergraduate life and Taft was such. Throughout his life the memory of Skull and Bones was precious. He was certain that it represented the very best among all the excellent phases of Yale life. He returned to its meetings when he could.” Pringle, Henry F., The Life and Times of William Howard Taft (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1939), vol. 1, p. 40.

44.New York Times, May 17, 1929; May 16 and 18, 1930.

45.Hobson, Yale Daily News, April 10, 1931; New York Herald Tribune, May 14, 1931.

46.Pierson, Yale The University Collegeop. cit., pp. 290–293; Nation, 6 May 1931; Schiff, Judith Ann, “The Hoot Heard ’Round the World,” Yale Alumni Magazine, March/April 2006.

47.Childs, Richard S., “Elks in Our Midst,” Harkness Hoot, April/May 1931.

48.New York Herald Tribune and New York Times, May 15, 1931; New York Times, May 22, 1931; on the Bissell refusal to Bones, Thomas, Evan, The Very Best Men: Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (New York: Touchstone, 1995), p. 92, quoting from Bissell’s then unpublished “Memoirs,” and Bissell, op. cit., pp. 9–10; Kabaservice, PhD thesis, op. cit., p. 119; on Bissell’s stated reason, Bird, Kai, The Color of Truth: McGeorge Bundy and William Bundy: Brothers in Arms (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), p. 59. Childs may have come under family pressure to allow his election: his grandfather and father were both Keysmen.

49.New York Times, May 9 and 12, 1933; New York Herald Tribune, May 12, 1933; Yale Alumni Weekly, May 26, 1933; May 18, 1935 “furtively,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 19, 1933.

50.Brock, H. L., “College Ways in America,” New York Times Magazine, May 28, 1933.

51.Yale News, May 7, 1934 (the editorial is unsigned, but the chair of the News that year was Lyman Spitzer Jr., who was elected to Bones the following week); Yale Record, May 1934; New York Times, May 7, 1934.

52.Yale Alumni Weekly, May 18, 1934, p. 646; New York Times, May 13, 1934; New York Herald Tribune, May 11, 1934.

53.The Hoot’s demise, Pierson, The University Collegeop. cit., pp. 308, 613–614 n. 33; poem, Harkness Hoot, May 1934.

54.Rogers, James Gamble III, “James Gamble Rogers—Yale Architect,” Senior Honors Essay, April 30, 1968, Manuscripts & Archives, Yale University, pp. 1–2, 6–11, 15–17, 42, and (on the Wolf’s Head tomb) 62; Goldberger, Paul, “Romantic Pragmatism: The Work of James Gamble Rogers at Yale University,” Senior Honors Essay, May 1, 1972, Haas Arts Library Special Collections, Yale University, pp. 56, 58; Cleveland, Reginald, “Mr. Harkness’s Gifts Cover a Wide Field,” New York Times, January 19, 1930, sec. IX, p. 5; Rogers, James Gamble, “The Future of Yale College,” typescript dated March 27, 1928, p. 1, Commonwealth Fund Archives, Rockefeller Archives Center, Poncantico Hills, N.Y., and in Angell MSS, Yale; Betsky, op. cit., pp. 32, 108 (the Rogers double room floor plan), 113–114, 119–120, 140–143, 153, 161, 251 n. 10; Pierson, Yale the University Collegeop. cit., pp. 212–220, 238, 248; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 372–376; Duke, Alex, Importing Oxbridge: English Residential Colleges and American Universities (New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 1996), pp. 91–124; on Harvard, Smith, Richard Norton, The Harvard Century: The Making of a University to a Nation (Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 1986), pp. 94–95, 351 n. 29; on Professor Tinker, MacLeish, “New-Yale,” op. cit., p. 74. The Wolf’s Head hall commission and design are not discussed in Bertram Grosvenor Goodhueby Richard Oliver (New York: The Architectural History Foundation/MIT Press, 1983), except to be noted in the List of Buildings and Projects, p. 288. On this tomb’s amenities, see the description in Muenzen, Paul, “Voices from the tombs speak,” Yale Daily News, April 17, 1988.

55.wall carvings, Stern, Michael, Yale’s Hidden Treasures: Mystery of the Gothic Stone Carvings (United States: Carvingswithclass, 2012), pp. 7, 97–98, and Betsky, Ibid., pp. 143, 153, 155; Fox, Lyttleton, “One Foot in the Grave and One in the Tomb,” Town & Country, February, 1940, p. 43. In the legend to the map of the Yale campus in MacLeish’s “New-Yale” article in March 1934’s Fortune, at p. 79, it reads in pertinent part, “To the left of Pierson [College] like a huddle of disconsolate sheep are the doomed junior fraternities with the new Wolf’s Head senior society tomb (Mr. Harkness is a member) looming largest.”

56.“separate countries,” Havemeyer, Go to Your Roomop. cit., pp. 73–74; Chittenden, Russell, E., History of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University 1846–1922 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1928), vol. two, p. 493; Slosson, op. cit., p. 52; Fitzgerald, F. Scott, “May Day,” Smart Set, July 1920, reprinted in Bruccoli, ed., The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, A New Collection (New York: Scribner’s, 1989), p. 121. Sheff graduation numbers, The ’93S. Class Book (New Haven, Conn., June 1893), p. 129.

57.Hadley, in Norton, op. cit., p. 60; Universities and Their Sons, Yale University (Boston, Mass.: R. Herndon Company, 1900), pp. 248–249.

58.Moore, John D., “Around the Campus,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 5, 1933; Yale Alumni Weekly, May 12, 1933.

59.Yale Alumni Weekly, May 26, 1934.

60.“Newcomers Among Senior Societies,” Yale Alumni Weekly, May 26, 1933; Chittenden, op. cit., vol. two, p. 494; Trotman, Philip, The History of the Berzelius Society (New Haven, Conn.: Colony Foundation, 1991), pp. 12–15, 19–21, 24–53; Havemeyer, Go to Your Roomop. cit., pp. 75–76; Berzelius report to graduates on college plan impact, February 10, 1933; 1934 election results in Berzelius News Letter, May 17, 1934; request for candidate evaluation, B.T.A. Council letter, February 15, 1935; Berzelius Alumni Advisory Campaign Committee letter, November 16, 1936; Berzelius News Letter, May 28, 1937. Angell was the fourth Yale president to be an honorary member of Berzelius: Theodore Dwight Woolsey was so elected in 1865, Timothy Dwight in 1886, and Arthur Hadley in 1899. Photographs of the interior of the Berzelius tomb, taken from the society’s website, were published in Rumpus in November 1999.

61.Chittenden, op. cit., pp. 494–495; Trotman, op. cit., p. 29.

62.“Newcomers,” op. cit.; Havemeyer, Loomis, The History of the Book and Snake Society and The Cloister Club 1863–1955 (privately printed: New Haven, Conn. 1956), pp. 20–21.

63.Havemeyer, op. cit., pp. 23–24, 30, 33, 41, 52–54, 57, 59, 68, 74–79.

64.St. Anthony’s, Havemeyer, “Go to Your Room,” op. cit., p. 106 Fox, op. cit., p. 78. The interior of the Book & Snake tomb is described extensively with floor plans in the campus tabloid Rumpus for September 1997, in Moussach, Jane W., “They Let Us In. What Were They Thinking?”

65.“Senior Societies and the Lord Jehovah,” Harkness Hoot, May 1933, pp. 63–64.

66.Bulletin of the Phelps Association, Number 18, December 1936.

67.New York Herald Tribune, May 10, 1935; New York Times, May 10, 1935, and May 8, 1936.

68.Donkey’s Head, Yale Alumni Weekly, May 21, 1937. Donkey’s Head was founded by members of the class of 1940, including Marshall Green, who said “the sole purpose . . . was to disparage the secret societies. At one event, fourteen of us dressed up all in black and carried a coffin around. This was clearly not Bill [Bundy]’s cup of tea, but Robert French, the master of Jonathan Edwards, thought it terribly funny.” Interview with and reported in Bird, op. cit., p. 61.

69.Elections, New York Times and New York Herald Tribune, May 8, 1936, May 14, 1937, May 13, 1938, and May 12, 1939; wave of rebellion, Fox, op. cit., p. 81.

70.Fox, op. cit., p. 81.

71.Oren, op. cit., pp. 87–88; New York Times, May 14, 1937. The second Jew to be tapped by Skull and Bones was Thomas Guinzburg, 1950, and the third was Benjamin Zucker, 1960, the grandson of an Orthodox rabbi.

72.Hallock, “The Last Man Tapped,” Gunter’s Magazine, September 1906; Andrews, Mary Raymond Shipman, “The Courage of the Commonplace,” Scribner’s, July 1911; Minnigerode, Meade, “Hush Stuff,” Collier’s, February 26, 1921; cartoon, Hokinson, Helen E., New Yorker, May 12, 1934, p. 24.

73.Marquand, John P., The Late George Apley: A Novel in the Form of a Memoir (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1937), quotations (Thomas Apley to son George) at p. 73, and pp. 71, 79, 80. The “Club” is identified as Porcellian in Birmingham, Stephen, The Later John Marquand(Hagerstown, Md.: Lippincott, 1972), pp. 30–31. Marquand, Harvard 1915, was never asked to join any social club there at all, passed over by Hasty Pudding and all the final clubs; his high school background shut him out of this exclusive club world, and because Yale honored him first with an honorary degree (1950 to Harvard’s 1953), he gave all his literary manuscripts to Yale. Bell, Millicent, Marquand: An American Life (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1979), p. 75. In Marquand’s later satirical novel with a Harvard man as the protagonist, H. M. Pulham, Esquire (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1941, at p. 208), the author all but switches alma maters: “We walked up and down the platform at New Haven and talked about Yale and wondered why we were always prejudiced against it. You had to admit that they dressed better there than at Harvard. They had a better social sense and a better sense of reality. Bill said if he had a boy, though God knew he did not want to get married and tied up with a family, that he would send him to Yale if he had to earn his living afterwards. ‘Harry,’ he said, ‘you should have gone to Yale.’” Yale Daily News announced the gift of the book’s manuscript on its front page, May 6, 1941.

74.“Perquisites,” Gill, Brendan, introduction to States of Graceop. cit., pp. 11–19; Farr, Finis, O’Hara: A Biography (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1973), pp. 76–77.

75.Karl, Frederick, William Faulkner: American Writer: A Biography (New York: Grove Press, 1989), pp. 82, 94, 96–97, 110–111, 407, 1047; Blotner, Joseph, Faulkner (New York: 1984), pp. 190–191; on Stone, History of the Class of 1914 Yale College, pp. 319–320; Faulkner, William, “Turnabout,” Collected Stories of William Faulkner (New York: Vintage International, 1995), pp. 411–413, 415, 425, 435, 565, 598. George Frazier, the Boston Globe columnist who was to write an insightful article entitle “Yale Secret Societies” of Esquire magazine in September 1955, and often discussed them in his newspaper column thereafter, usually just prior to the Yale-Harvard football game, wrote on 23 November 1974: “I rather doubt if Ol’ Doc Hemingstein and Bill the Faulk were writing today they would use Bones as a symbol of augustness.”

76.Bruccoli, op. cit., pp. 43, 138, 204, 337, 341, 385, 442; Stewart, “The Higher Learning in America,” op. cit. The first article in the Smart Set series, subtitled “I—Princeton University,” was by John Peale Bishop, Fitzgerald’s clubmate and a poet and novelist, an assistant editor of Vanity Fairwhen Stewart arrived, also to live in Paris, becoming in 1924 the best friend there of MacLeish. Donaldson, op. cit., p. 132; Stewart, By A Stroke of Luck!op. cit., pp. 44–45. Stein to Hemingway, Hemingway, Ernest, A Moveable Feast (New York: Scribner’s, 1964), p. 29. On Fitzgerald and MacLeish, Donaldson, op. cit., pp. 152, 159, 178. Hemingway to Fitzgerald on the distortion of the Murphys, May 28, 1934, Baker, Carlos, ed., Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters (New York: Scribner’s, 1981), p. 407.

77.Fitzgerald, F. Scott, This Side of Paradise (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), pp. 56–57. (Edmund Wilson, in his memoirs in New Yorker [May 6, 1967] credits Fitzgerald with inventing this jape for a Triangle production.) Earlier in the book (p. 37), Fitzgerald wrote that Amory had decided to attend Princeton, although “Yale had a romance and glamor . . . and [his prep school’s] men who had been ‘tapped for Skull and Bones,’ but Princeton drew him most, with its atmosphere of bright colors and its alluring reputation as the pleasantest country club in America.” He described his eating club Cottage as “an impressive mélange of brilliant adventurers and well-dressed philanderers” (p. 44), although in the end he deplored the system (see endnote six in Chapter Six).

78.Fitzgerald, F. Scott, “The Popular Girl,” Saturday Evening Post, February 11, 1922 (Part I); Fitzgerald, “Basil and Cleopatra,” Saturday Evening Post, April 27, 1929; Fitzgerald, The Beautiful and the Damned (New York: Harper Press, 2013 ed.), pp. 341–342.

79.Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby (New York: Scribner, 1924/2004 ed.), pp. 3, 4. 6. 7; Skull bookplate reproduced in Churchwell, Sarah, Careless People: Murder, Mayhem and the Invention of the Great Gatsby (London: Virago, 2013), pp. 331–332; “100 Best Novels” (http://www.modernlibrary,com/top-100/100-best-novels), Modern Library, retrieved January 11, 2015. In the Baz Luhrmann film version of The Great Gatsby (2013), Nick Carraway calls Tom Buchanan “Boaz,” the Bones internal name for the football captain, and Tom in turn calls Nick “Shakespeare,” thereby implying that they were in Bones together. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/fiction/great-gatsby/younger-vulnerable-8

80.Fitzgerald, F. Scott, Tender Is the Night (New York: Scribner, 1933/2003 ed.), pp. 88–89, 115, 117, 158. In Nelson Aldrich’s Old Money: The Mythology of America’s Upper Class (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988), at p. 46, he writes: “In the 1920s and 1930s, this double image of club life reflected the felt helplessness of the observer to get in. The ‘social’ novelists of the day―Fitzgerald, Marquand, and O’Hara―returned again and again to the snob’s agony of belongingness. . . . Fitzgerald was proud to be friends, as he thought, with the Gerald Murphys and with Tommy Hitchcock. . . . Scott Fitzgerald and Tommy Hitchcock might be friends, but there was no way, even if he had gone to Harvard, that Scott Fitzgerald could belong to the Porcellian Club. To belong to the Porcellian Club, it was not enough―it still isn’t―that one be friends with a member. One has to have been friends with him always, and in that elusive past perfect tense of the verb to be the socially ambitious read their sad fate.”

81.Schiff, Judith Ann, “Yale’s First Student,” Yale Alumni Magazine, May/June 2004; Sanford, Marcelline Hemingway, At the Hemingways: A Family Portrait (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1962), p. 19.

82.Le Vot, André, F. Scott Fitzgerald, A Biography, trans. William Byron (New York: Doubleday, 1983), p. 220; Hemingway, A Movable Feastop. cit., p. 185; Meyers, Jeffrey, Hemingway: A Biography (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), pp. 72, 148–150, 170.

83.Vaill, Hotel Floridaop. cit., pp. 39, 63, 65 (on MacLeish), 254–255; Hemingway, Ernest, To Have and to Have Not (New York: Scribner’s, 1937, p. 239, and at p. 240, about the patent medicine which is the basis for the millionaire’s fortune: “Grateful users from all over the world keep writing in discovering new uses and old users are as loyal to it as Harold Tompkins, the fiancé, is to Skull and Bones or [British Prime Minister] Stanley Baldwin to Harrow.” “Frances” in the first quotation was Frances Coates, a high school classmate of Hemingway’s who spurned his suit and married another classmate, John “Jack” Grace, who did not attend Yale and thus was not a Bonesman: see Elder, Robert K., “To Have and To Have Not,” The Paris Review: The Daily, May 4, 2017.

84.Hemingway, Ernest, The Fifth Column and Four Stories of the Spanish Civil War (New York: Scribner’s, 1938/1969), pp. 62–63. There is no evidence that Gellhorn ever aborted a wedding with a Bonesman (her long affair with Frenchman Bertrand de Jouvenal ended shortly before her meeting Hemingway, whose third wife she became in 1940). See Moorehead, Caroline, Martha Gellhorn: A Life (London: Chatto & Windus, 2003), passim.

85.Vaill, Hotel Floridaop. cit., pp. 96–97, 119, 200–207, 315; Baker, Carlos, Ernest Hemingway, A Life Story (New York: Scribner’s, 1969), pp. 313–314; Meyers, op. cit., p. 302; Griffin, Peter, Less Than a Treason: Hemingway in Paris (New York and Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 124. Hemingway had a habit of unleashing attacks on Donald Ogden Stewart (a model for Bill Gordon in The Sun Also Rises), John Dos Passos, and Archibald MacLeish “so harsh and extreme as to end all possibilities of continuing friendship.” Baker, op. cit., p. 379.

86.Meyers, op. cit., pp. 71, 282; Donaldson, op. cit., p. 50; Griffin, op. cit., pp. 149, 171.

87.“class,” Bruccoli, Matthew, The O’Hara Concern: A Biography of John O’Hara (New York: Random House, 1975), pp. 21–22. 28–29; on Phelps’s columns, MacShane, Frank, The Life of John O’Hara (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980), p. 11; Wolff, Geoffrey, The Art of Burning Bridges: A Life of John O’Hara (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), pp. 48–49, 53; on Owen Johnson, O’Hara, John, foreword to the Modern Library 1994 edition of Appointment in Samarra (New York: Random House, 1934/1994), p. vii.

88.Wolff, op. cit., pp. 70–71; Bruccoli, op. cit., p. 42.

89.MacShane, op. cit., pp. 43, 117; Bruccoli, op. cit., pp. 60–62; O’Hara to John Hersey, May 26, 1965, in Bruccoli, Matthew, ed., Selected Letters of John O’Hara (New York: Random House, 1978), p. 475.

90.Bruccoli, op. cit., p. 164; Wolff, op. cit., pp. 50, 120; MacShane, op. cit., p. 177; Farr, op. cit., p. 77. According to Brendan Gill (Here at the New Yorker, New York: Random House, 1975, p. 117), “It seemed . . . that there wasn’t anything he didn’t know about college and prep-school matters, down to the chants of the youngest schoolboy at Lawrenceville. It was, for example, a Bones custom never to speak of the secret society itself but to speak of its in terms of its location in New Haven; one said, ‘How are things on High Street?’ O’Hara knew that, though he didn’t tell me he knew it; he revealed it indirectly many years later, when he was anxiously awaiting word of his election to the Century Club. Happening to encounter his neighbor in Princeton, Frederick B. Adams, who is both a Bones man and a Centurion, O’Hara said, ‘Tell me, Fred―how are things on Forty-Third Street? [the location of the Century].”

91.O’Hara, John, BUtterfield 8 (New York: Penguin, 1935), pp. 45–46, 51–52.

92.O’Hara, John, A Rage To Live (New York: Random House, 1949), pp. 76–77, 129, 329.

93.Gill, Brendan, States of Graceop. cit., pp. 18–19.

94.O’Hara, John, “Writing―What’s in It for Me?,” in “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on Writers and Writing, ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977), pp. 70–71; Wolff, op. cit., pp. 288–289, 300; MacShane, op. cit., pp. 151, 196–197; Bruccoli, op. cit., pp. 183, 283. When Yale president Kingman Brewster was asked why Yale had not offered the writer an honorary degree, Brewster replied “Because he wanted it too much.” Brendan Gill (see endnote 90) concludes (at p. 19): “Acrimoniously at odds with the world, though the world could not be sure why, he was the last person likely to be tapped for Bones. He would have stood waiting in vain on Tap Day, and afterward he would have found reason to believe that unknown enemies had ruthlessly conspired to deprive him of the honor he so richly deserved. But there would have been no enemy, no conspiracy; there would have been only his nature.”

95.O’Hara to Moses, August 1959, Bruccoli, Selected Lettersop. cit., pp. 299–300. O’Hara touched for the last time on the Yale senior societies in 10 North Frederick, for which he won the National Book Award in 1955, in which the protagonist Joe Chapin is a member of Wolf’s Head, whose son drops out of Yale so as not to be passed over by the same senior society. O’Hara, John, Ten North Frederick (New York: Penguin, 2014), pp. 50–51, 129, 212, 235, 399. Another novel of these decades which mentions the societies is Travis Ingraham’s Young Gentlemen, Rise (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1930), about the Yale class of 1928, citing Bones (pp. 88–89) and Keys (p. 150).


1.Marquand, op. cit., p. 19. Magazine articles about Yale (e.g., Time and Newsweek for June 11, 1951) customarily named Sinclair Lewis, Philip Barry, Thornton Wilder, Walter Millis, and Stephen Vincent Benét as Yale’s constellation of writers.

2.Kelley, op. cit., pp. 386–387; “maturity,” Pierson, Yale College 1921–1937op. cit., p. 376.

3.Pierson, ibid., pp. 432–444.

4.1916 vs. 1941, Kabaservice, Kingman Brewsterop. cit., pp. 94–97; W.B., letter to the editor, Yale Daily News, March 6, 1940, p. 4.

5.“Senior Societies,” Yale Daily News, May 2, 1938.

6.Bundy, McGeorge, “Visions & Revisions: The Senior Societies, I,” Yale Daily News, May 6, 1938; column award, Bird, op. cit., pp. 27, 60.

7.Morris, Richard L., Jr., “Visions & Revisions: II. The Senior Societies,” Yale Daily News, May 9, 1938.

8.Bundy, McGeorge, “Visions & Revisions: The Senior Societies, III,” Yale Daily News, May 11, 1938.

9.“Senior Society Elections,” Yale Daily News, May 12, 1939.

10.Bundy, McGeorge, “For the Defense,” Yale Literary Magazine, February 1939, pp. 7–8.

11.Bird, op. cit., pp. 60–61. Bill Bundy recalled: “It was a very intense experience. It stretched you. You had to think for yourself and you learned a lot about human beings and the different qualities of men. It became a lot of fun. It was an important part of my life.” Mac felt the same way: “It was and is an important part of my life. It does focus around the intense experience of learning to trust your colleagues. In our case, it was fifteen white, Anglo–Saxon Protestants. Even today we meet irregularly as a group and individually. It is a remarkable institution.” Ibid., pp. 61–62. On mother Bundy’s pressure, Kabaservice, The Guardiansop. cit., p. 69.

12.Goldstein, op. cit., p. 8.

13.Time, May 20, 1940; speech extract from 1941’s Walton Dowdell Thomas, shortly to be tapped for Bones.

14.Robbins, op. cit., p. 109.

15.Yale Daily News, May 11, 1940.

16.Jackson, William E., “Cabbages and Kings: Now It Can Be Told,” Yale Daily News, May 18, 1939.

17.“Skull and Bones,” Time, May 20, 1940, pp. 59–60; “act of heroism,” Lemann, Nicholas, The Big Test: The Secret History of the American Meritocracy (New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1999), p. 148. One memoir says that Brewster’s News office door was locked and broken down by his Bones tapper. Astrachan, Anthony, “Class Notes,” in DuBois, op. cit., p. 215. George Frazier in his Boston Globe column for April 9, 1964, celebrating Kingman Brewster’s inauguration as Yale’s first president in living memory not to be a senior society member, relates an oft-repeated story that Brewster was “finally located in a basement bathroom, where, without even rising, he shook his head to indicated that he declined the honor.” The Brewster bathroom refusal story was retailed again in Wall Street Journal on December 11, 1968. In the Time cover article on Brewster dated June 23, 1967, his rejection of Bones is mentioned twice. On the true story, Harold (“Doc”) Howe’s aborted tap attempt, Kabaservice, The Guardiansop. cit., p. 69, citing a personal interview with Howe.

18.Brewser, Kingman Jr., “Introduction,” Stover at Yale (New York: Collier, 1968), p. vi.

19.Kingman Brewster, Jr. to Clarence W. Mendell, March 15, 1962, MSS 572 11–1, “Provost—Personal, Brewster—3, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University. To student journalist R. Thomas Herman, Brewster said in 1968: “It was simply that I didn’t want to spend two nights a week behind closed windows for purposes which were not prescribed in advance. . . . Furthermore, I was having a great social life and couldn’t see losing two more nights a week.” Herman, R. Thomas, “The Inscrutable King of Yale,” p. 23, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University. On Jackson’s sister, Kabaservice, The Guardiansop. cit., p. 69.

20.Kabaservice, The Guardiansop. cit., p. 69; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 227, from interview with Mary Griswold.

21.Yale Daily News, April 14 and May 8, 1941.

22.Andrews, op. cit., p. 14.

23.The Phelps Association, Bulletin No. 22, December 1940, pp. 1–3.

24.Buck, Polly Stone, We Minded the Store: Yale Life & Letters during World War II (New Haven, Conn.: self-published, 1975), pp. 1–6, 20, 26–27, 34–35, 42–43, 49–50; Kelley, op. cit., pp. 396–402; Havemeyer, Loomis, The Story of Undergraduate Yale in the Second World War (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1960), pp. 13, 16–17. 19, 23–24, 38–39, 56, 74; The Nineteen Forty-Three Yale Banner, pp. 27–47; The Nineteen Forty Four Class Book, pp. 20–27; Schiff, Judith Ann, “When Yale Schooled for War,” Yale Alumni Magazine, December 2002, p. 88.

25.Kinglsey Trust centennial notices and Benét poem collected in the Arnold G. Dana Scrapbook Collection, titled Yale Old and New, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

26.Yale Daily News, December 3 and 4, 1942; “minority groups,” Schaap, Dick, “Lux et Veritas,” New York Herald Tribune, June 7, 1965.

27.Giamatti, op. cit., p. 4.

28.Coffin was to remember: “Quirky, mawkish, sophomoric, whatever you want to call it, I can only say that in 1949, even for a pretty skeptical guy like me, it worked. It worked for the whole group.” Quoted in Oldenberg, Don, “Tippy-Top Secret, Yale’s Bush and Kerry Share Patrician Past of Skull and Bones,” Washington Post, April 4, 2004.

29.Schiff, Judith Ann, “Old Yale: When the Shooting Stopped,” Yale Alumni Magazine, Summer 1995, p. 112.

30.Buck, op. cit., pp. 165–172; Yale Daily News, September 12, 1946.

31.Fenton, Charles, “Social Solemnity,” Seventy-Fiveop. cit., pp. 43–44.

32.Parmet, Herbert, George Bush: The Life of a Lone Star Yankee (New York: Scribner, 1997), pp. 20–25; Phillips, Kevin, American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush (New York: Viking, 2004), pp. 20–25. Phillips (at pp. 42 and 200) asserts that George H. W. Bush “depended on his father’s help to arrange an underage and unqualified entrance into the naval air program [because he could not satisfy the normal flight-school entry requirement of two years of college]” which “might have been quite manageable with a telephone call from Prescott Bush to one of three fellow Yale Skull and Bones men (the secretary of war, the assistant secretary of war for air, or the assistant secretary of the navy for air),” but no other Bush biographer supports this hypothesis.

33.Parmet, op. cit., pp. 36–59; Phillips, op. cit., p. 26; on AUV, Green, Fitzhugh, George Bush: An Intimate Portrait (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1989), p. 49. The Andover yearbook for 1942, GHWB’s graduation year, shows more activities for him than anyone else in the class of over two hundred boys. King, Nicholas, George Bush: A Biography (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1980) pp. 16, 20–21.

34.On veterans’ maturity, diversity, and Negro scholarships, 1948 Yale Class Book (New Haven, Conn.: 1948), pp. 37–38, 40, 42–43; on G.I. Bill grant, Cohane, Tim, The Yale Football Story (New York: G. Putnam, 1951), p. 374; on football team names, Bergin, Thomas, The Game (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984), p. 324; King, Nicholas, George Bush: A Biography (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1980), pp. 38–40; 1949 Class Book, p. 57.

35.Phillips, op. cit., p. 42; baseball stadium seat, Bush, George W., 41: A Portrait of My Father (New York: Crown, 2014), p. 72; Bush, Barbara, Barbara Bush: A Memoir (New York: Scribner’s, 1994), pp. 26–29; Green, op. cit., pp. 48–49; on Chafee, Rubin, Alissa, “Senate Centrist John H. Chafee Is Dead at 77,” Los Angeles Times, October 26, 1999.

36.Loftus and Aarons, op. cit., pp. 362 and 592, citing confidential interviews with Skull and Bones members, and Shapiro, Bruce, “Bush Ape ‘Just Elitist,’” New Haven Independent, November 3, 1988.

37.Pincus, Walter, and Bob Woodward, “Bush Opened Up to Secret Yale Society; Turning Points in a Life Build on Alliances,” Washington Post, August 7, 1988, and “George Bush: Man and Politician,” Washington Post, August 11, 1988; Berke, Richard L., “Million-Dollar Team Keeping Bush Campaign in the Money,” New York Times, May 23, 1988. Woodward, as a member of Book and Snake in the class of 1965, would have absorbed much lore about Bones long before becoming the famous investigative reporter at the Post, and it was speculated that Woodward’s sources for Deep Throat (before Woodward himself publicly identified his source as Mark Felt) might have been Bonesmen Ray Price and Richard Moore, high Nixon aides. Rosenbaum, The Secret Partsop. cit., p. 162.

38.Green, op. cit., pp. 52–53; Minutaglio, Bill, First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty (New York: Times Books), pp. 24–25; Bearak, Barry, “His Great Gift, to Blend In: Team Player Bush: A Yearning to Serve,” Los Angeles Times, November 22, 1987. George H. W. Bush was to name one of his sons Neil Mallon Bush.

39.Letter dated March 10, 1949 from undergraduate members of Scroll and Key to society alumni; Yale Daily News, April 12 and 25, and May 12, 1949.

40.“Yale Men,” Ebony, July 1950; Cohen, Leonard, “The Sports Parade,” New York Post Home News, November 28, 1948; Williams, Joe, “Jackson’s to Be Tapped for Fabulous Bones,” New York World-Telegram, May 11, 1949. Scroll and Key debated offering Jackson a tap, and did, but the first black man would not join that society until the class of 1967, when the children of all the classes of 1948 and 1949 were in college. Giamatti, op. cit., p. 4. Jackson’s biography and election to the captaincy are in Cohan, op. cit., pp. 333–334. The first Italian American Yale football captain was Joseph Fortunato (1954), tapped for Bones. Bergin, op. cit., pp. 190, 274, 364.

41.1949 Yale Class Book, p. [33].

42.New York TimesNew York Herald TribuneNew Haven Journal-CourierNew Haven Register, May 13, 1949; pre-tap pledge, Oren, op. cit., p. 162, and Plimpton, op. cit., p. 69; later Jackson comment, Meers, Erik, “Integration Remembered,” New Journal 25, 1991–1993, February 5, 1993, p. 24. New York Times also featured the election of the “Ebony Express” as team captain on its front page, “Yale Elects First Negro Captain as Jackson Heads Football Team,” November 23, 1948, noting that Harvard had appointed an African American as varsity football manager.

43.Fenton, Seventy-Fiveop. cit., pp. 43–44.

44.Green, Yale’s 103rd captain and third leading ballcarrier by his day, was the son of a carloader for the Texas & Pacific Railroad. Bergin, op. cit., pp. 274–275.

45.Baltzell, op. cit., p. 279, without further citation, a quotation repeated many times in magazine journalism on the society system. A better example of Jackson’s wit was his reaction to Yale football coach Herbert Hickman’s characterization of his not too sturdy line as “the seven dwarfs,” to which Jackson’s response was, “I guess that makes me Snow White.” Bergin, op. cit., pp. 197–198.

46.Oren, op. cit., p. 162; Judis, John B., William F. Buckley, Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988, pp. 58–59). Buckey’s post-graduation bestseller, God and Man at Yale (1951), saying that neither Catholics and Jews had “social prestige of any sort” at Yale and attacking his alma mater as offering undergraduates a godless and collectivist education, brought on a forceful reaction which “should undermine the confidence of those who believe in a unified conspiratcy of men from Skull and Bones,” earning the public, printed wrath of Reuben Holden (Bones 1940), McGeorge Bundy (1939), Frank Ashburn (1925), and the Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin (1897), who said Buckley’s Catholicism “distorted” his outlook and he “should have attended Fordham or some similar institution.” Horowitz, Daniel, op. cit., pp. 54–55. His book’s dustjacket identified Buckley’s society membership, and the author had some misgivings about mentioning it—“nothing more than snob appeal”—but saw it clinched what his publisher desired to emphasize, that this was an attack on the citadel mounted from within. Tanenhaus, op. cit.

47.Weber, Bruce, “Thomas Guinzburg, Paris Review Co-Founder, Dies at 84,” New York Times, September 10, 2010. Guinzburg and Buckley were the two leading contenders for chairmanship of the Yale Daily News, but Guinzburg was more interest in getting out the news rather than writing editorials, and so took the managing editorship by agreement with Buckley. Judis, op. cit., p. 54.

48.Oren, op. cit., p. 163; Oder, Norman, “Senior Societies,” Yale Daily News, April 13, 1982; “Survey: Senior Society Elections, May 1955, A. Whitney Griswold papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

49.Campus policeman John J. Gill to Dean Richard C. Carroll, November 19, 1949. In a letter from Plimpton to George Frazier quoted extensively in Frazier’s magazine article, “The Yale Secret Societies,” Esquire, September 1955, p. 116, Plimpton gives more, sometimes slightly different, and, given the official police report’s text, incorrect details (in his retelling, presumably as reported to him by Loeb, Loeb went to the tomb with the search party and demanded the building be searched, to see for himself how much of the article was accurate, but the police demurred, “as nervous about the power of Bones apparently as the aspiring undergraduate”). In April 2000, three thousand copies of the campus tabloid Rumpus for that month, with a four-page insert of Skull and Bones, identifying its current members, were redistributed to residential college basements and recycling bins, and Bones was accused of the mischief in the next month’s issue.

50.1950 Class Book, p. 47.


1.Yale Daily News, May 5, 1950.

2.Harvard Crimson, November 23, 1950.

3.“Smith Explores Inner Sanctum of Bonesmen, Reveals Tense Tapping, Portentous Tombs,” Current, vol. X, no. X, 6 December 1951.

4.Halberstam, Michael J., George Abrams, and Ronald P. Kriss, “Yale: High Society Yale Dances to Senior Society Tune, but Minority Refuses to Get in Step,” Harvard Crimson, November 2, 1952.

5.Knowles, John, “The Yale Man,” Holiday, May 1953. Yale Daily News ran a front-page piece on Knowles’s article on April 17, 1953. Knowles was tapped by an underground senior society, Sword and Gate.

6.Frazier, George, “Yale’s Secret Societies,” Esquire, September 1955, pp. 106–116. In his 1955 article, the reporter-detective with the divorcees is not identified, but in his column for January 24, 1962, Frazier admitted that this was his own research methodology. His final such column drawing on his knowledge of Yale secret societies appeared before the Harvard-Yale game of 1973 on November 23.

7.Poore, Charles, “We Must Be Pacemakers in a Free World,” New York Times Magazine, February 28, 1950.

8.Acheson, David C., Acheson Country: A Memoir (New York: W. W. Norton, 1993), pp. 202–204; Chase, James, Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), p. 370. Dean Acheson’s own rendition of the Corporation election story does not mention the Hutchins feint with his fellow Keysman Lewis, and describes Edwin Foster Blair, class of 1924 and Bones, as “manager” of the Griswold candidacy: Acheson, Dean, Present At the Creation (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996), pp. 371–373. Classifying the voting Corporation members by senior society, six were Bonesmen, four from Keys, two members of Wolf’s Head, and one from Elihu (thirteen senior society graduates in all), with only three neutrals as fellow board members.

9.Time, June 11, 1951; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., pp. 227–228; Horowitz, David, op. cit., p. 47. In Remembering Denny, Calvin Trillin writes of his senior year, 1957, that “‘Shoe’ meant more to us than ‘white shoe.’ It could indicate a background of boarding schools and trust funds—something like what ‘preppy’ came to mean a decade later, although without the scorn that term carried with it. It could mean dress or behavior that reflected such a background, even if the person involved came from entirely different circumstances. . . . It could also mean something approaching cool or suave. . . . Apparently, the brown shoe people were the bright student council presidents from white middle-class high schools who had been selected by Yale to be buffed up a bit and sent out into the world, prepared to prove their high-school classmates right in voting them the most likely to succeed. Black shoe people were beyond the pale.” He also mentions the theory “that the phrases derived from similar classifications that were used in the Navy during the Second World War to distinguish among ship’s officers and naval pilots and those young ensigns and lieutenants who wore their white shoes to the dress-uniform functions that were a regular part of your wear if you were attached to the admiral’s staff.” Trillin, op. cit., pp. 31–32.

10.Newsweek, June 11, 1951.

11.Griswold, A. Whitney, In the University Tradition (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1957), p. 75; 1946 faculty rank, Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 66.

12.Strong, Dennis, letter to Yale Daily News, April 25, 1950; Moses, Dick, “On the Whole,” Yale Daily News, April 26, 1950, referencing the Strong letter.

13.Yale Daily News, May 12, 1950.

14.Yale Daily News, April 30 and May 4, 1951.

15.Milton Devane tap, with Levi Jackson and Fenno Heath, Yale Daily News, May 13, 1949; Yale Daily News, April 25 and 28, 1952. The statistical analysis cited by Weinberg was in Gideon Gordon’s article “Societies: Who’s Been Tapped” in the May 2, 1951 News.

16.Yale Daily News, May 5 and 9, 1952.

17.“Olds Plan” details, Yale Daily News, May 5, 1952, and editorial on June 12, 1953, and Griswold interview on January 14, 1953. The “DeVane Plan,” originally styled the “Olds Plan,” was finally printed in full on May 6, 1953 in Yale Daily News.

18.Letter to Dean DeVane, January 1, 1953; Yale Daily News, March 26, 1953.

19.Letter to the Class of 1954 by Hamilton D. Harper and Philip M. Glover, March 9, 1953, generously excerpted on May 2, 1953 in the Yale Daily News.

20.Letter from Carlos F. (“Toddy”) Stoddard Jr., on behalf of the Special Committee of the Kingsley Trust Association, March 13, 1953.

21.Letter from Donald F. Keefe to the Representatives of the Senior Societies, March 23, 1953, and enclosure; letter from O’Keefe to the Graduate Representatives of the Senior Societies, April 15, 1953. The plan had been submitted to the Yale College Dean under cover letter dated April 9, 1953, signed by fifteen members of the class of 1953 assembled from the six abovegrounds.

22.“Yale University Abolishes Tap Day Ritual; Ceremony Called Humiliating to Rejected,” New York Times, March 27, 1953.

23.Yale Daily News, April 8, April 16, and May 6, 1953; Time, May 3, 1953.

24.Yale Daily News, May 4, 1953.

25.Yale Daily News, May 6, 1953.

26.Trillin, op. cit., p. 93; New York Times, April 30, 1954.

27.Yale Daily News, April 27, 28, and 29 and May 9 and 14, 1955. The biographical sessions of Wolf’s Head are described in Muenzen, Paul, “Voices from the Tombs Speak,” Yale Daily News, April 17, 1985, and by a member as events “when the bonding takes place.”

28.Devane and Fenton articles, Yale Daily News, April 24 and 25, 1956. A similar series of educational articles was run in 1958: see Yale Daily News, April 28, 1958, by Scott Sullivan ’58; April 29, 1958, by Thomas K. Swing ’58; and on April 29, 1958, by the anonymous member of an underground.

29.Yale Daily News, April 28, 1956, p. 8; on Trillin, informally interviewed by William Horowitz ’29 before following his path from Kansas City back east a quarter of a century later, “as [Horowitz] frequently did for Jewish boys considering going from the Paris of the Midwest to the City of Elms,” see Horowitz, David, op. cit. p. 51.

30.Oren, op. cit., pp. 162–163. During Chauncey’s student days at Groton (where he was a scholarship student, as at Yale), that prep school admitted students whom he understood were its first-ever Jew and first-ever black man. Lemann, op. cit., p. 141. Lehrman was a German Jew whose family had come to America in the middle of the nineteenth century. Raised as a Jew and, after marrying an Episcopalian and converting to Catholicism, Lehrman was a graduate of the Hill School, and a Yale a member of the Fence Club, while serving as undergraduate director of the Yale Summer Camp for Underprivileged Children. Horowitz, David, op. cit., pp. 229–230.

31.Yale Daily News, April 17, 1957; Trillin, who himself did not read Stover until decades later, op. cit., pp. 34–36, 92.

32.Yale Daily News, April 18 and 29, and May 1, 1957. Schiffrin, described by Trillin op. cit., p. 36, as “the son of intellectuals who had fled France in 1941,” was born in Paris, and became the managing director of publishing at Pantheon Books. His anti-society piece in the News, “If You Have the Time,” was cowritten with Michael Cooke, an Afro Carribean who was Class Day Poet, Scholar of the House, and All-American in soccer, and may well, according to Horowitz, op. cit., p. 261 n. 24, have had multiple offers from aboveground senior societies, but perhaps he discouraged them in the pre-tapping period; Cooke later became a tenured Yale professor of English and master of Berkeley College. Professor Weiss (son of immigrants, high school dropout, City College BA, Harvard PhD, joining the faculty of Yale College as its only Jewish full professor, whose son Jonny was a member of the class of 1960, Horowitz, op. cit., p. 65) had been attacking the senior society system since 1951, with a speech to the Aurelian Honor Society which was reprinted in the Yale Daily News and the Yale Literary MagazineYale Daily News, April 17, 1951, and Yale Literary Magazine, May 1951, p. 3, with that magazine’s editors finding that “despite his statement to the contrary, Mr. Weiss is virtually advocating the abolition of the societies. . . ”

33.Schiffrin, André, A Political Education: Coming of Age in Paris and New York (Hoboken, N.J.: Melville House, 2007), pp. 127–128. He received a full scholarship on the recommendation of Paul Mellon, and as a senior he won the Snow Prize, given to the man “who has done the most for Yale” (pp. 122, 140).

34.Yale Daily News, April 30, 1957. Manuscript’s first published membership list appeared on May 3, 1957, in the Yale Daily News, and the strongest advocate for the society coming above ground was David Calleo ’55, who was then president of the Yale Political Union and who served thereafter for decades as the society’s corporate president. Wallace, Thomas, ed. Reflections on Manuscript 1953–2012 (New Haven, Conn.: 2012), pp. 18–19.

35.Calleo, David P., and Henry S. F. Cooper, Inside Eli or How to Get on at Yale (New Haven, Conn.: privately printed, 1957), pp. 5–7. Yale Daily News, April 18, 1957, hailed the publication approvingly as “an irreverent and scurrilous critic of Yale mores if ever there was one.” Trillin, op. cit., p. 31, discusses the authors and the pamphlet, “written in a tone that may have reflected some exposure to the works of Evelyn Waugh.”

36.Yale Daily News, May 5, 1955.

37.The Charter of the Sword and Gate Society; Sword & Gate Society Undergraduate Handbook. The name is taken from Milton’s passage in Book XII, lines 633–649, on the expulsion of Adam and Eve by “the brandisht sword of God” through “th’ Eastern Gate.” Sword and Gate’s tomb is at 18 Linwood Street, and its corporate parent is the Hale Foundation.

38.Havemeyer, “Go to Your Room,” op. cit., p. 71; on Taft, Plimpton, op. cit., p. 95.

39.Velsey and Leinenweber, op. cit., pp. 47–52; Yale Daily News, April 16, 1957.

40.Yale Daily News, April 16, 1957, and April 30, 1958. Daniel Horowitz in his history of the class of 1960 writes, “When I had to present my autobiography to my underground senior society at Yale [Spade & Grave], I focused on how I looked at the world as both an insider and an outsider . . .” Horowitz, op. cit., p. 33.

41.Horowitz, ibid., pp. 154–155, on Spade and Grave.

42.Cooper, H. S. F. Jr., Thomas C. Wallace, eds.: Stephen Parks, producer, Manuscript (1953–2002) (New Haven, Conn.: Wrexham Foundation, 2002), passim.

43.Ibid., pp. 71–73, 79-84; Wallace, ed, Reflections on Manuscriptop. cit., pp. 47 and 74–78; “Ingenious Use of a Narrow Site,” Architectural Record, November 1965; “King-liu Wu: Noted Architect and Popular Instructor,” Yale Bulletin & Calendar, Vol. 31, No. 1, August 30, 2002.

44.Perrotta, Tom, Joe College (New York: St. Martin’s, 2000), p. 109, in his novel’s setting year of 1982.

45.Havemeyer, “Go to Your Room,” op. cit., pp. 70–71; Guo, Jerry, “Connecticut Journal: Inside Yale’s Secret Societies,” http:www.gadling.com/2008/05/29.connecticut-journal-inside-yales-secret-societies).Gadling.com, retrieved July 9, 2015; on Elba, Wallace, ed., Reflections on Manuscriptop. cit., pp. 48–49, 53–55.

46.Guo, ibid. On Ashcroft, Gillette, Howard, Jr., Class Divide: Yale ’64 and the Conflicted Legacy of the Sixties (Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 2015), pp. 9 and 232 n. 35. The players in the 1963 Harvard-Yale freshman soccer game were not told of the assassination until the match finished, and this may well have been true of Ashcroft’s and other contests. Monette, Paul, Becoming A Man: Half a Life Story (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovioch, 1992), p. 107.

47.Trillin, op. cit., p. 112; Wedge, Bryant M., MD, ed., Psychosocial Problems of College Men (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1958), p. 12; Trillin, op. cit., p. 41; “Imitation or Reformation?” Yale Daily News, April 16, 1957.

48.DeVane, Clyde, “The College in a National University,” in Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 3; Pierson, G. W., “The Yale Approach,” Seventy-Five, op. cit., p. 19; “Bursary System at Yale,” Yale Daily News, April 29, 1959.

49.Fenton, Charles, “Social Solemnity,” in Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 44; Carroll, Richard, “Extra-Curricular Proficiency,” Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 45.

50.Carroll, ibid. pp. 45–46. See also Sewall, Richard B., “An Educator Evaluates,” Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 58. Sewall, in his fall 1953 address to the matriculation assembly of the class of 1957, referred without enthusiasm to a view of Yale as “a stepping-stone to what we Americans fondly call ‘success’—success in general terms, what Time magazine had in mind a few months ago when it said, ‘As every Yale man knows, Yale is more than a great university; it is also a school for success.’” Quoted in Trillin, op. cit., p. 50.

51.“Society Breakdowns,” Yale Daily News, May 12, 1955.

52.Records of A. Whitney Griswold, Manuscripts & Archives, Yale University.

53.Ibid., Fiske to Griswold, November 12, 1956; Fiske speech, dated November 13, 1956; Griswold to Fiske, November 17, 1956; Michel Leisure ’57 to Fiske, December 21, 1956; Griswold to Fisk, January 14, 1957; Griswold to Fiske, November 22, 1957.

54.“A Farewell to Bright College Years,” Life, June 24, 1957; Trillin, op. cit., pp. 29–30. When Life was considering running the feature, the man overseeing the University News Bureau was Carlos Stoddard, Keys 1926 and former Yale Daily News chair, who as a matter of fairness and diplomacy sent to the magazine not only Hansen’s name, but that of a man from Bones as well, Steve Ackerman. Trillin, op. cit., pp. 83–84.

55.“The Time Has Come,” Yale Daily News, May 4, 1959.

56.On Goss, Horowitz, op. cit., pp. 231–232. The use of “spook” by both the CIA and the societies is noted in Rosenbaum, Ron, “An Elegy for Mumbo-Jumbo” in Esquire, September 1977 (p. 85), and the CIA connection is considered (pp. 148–149).

57.Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, Cloak and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Unversity Press, 2002), pp. 60–63, 67–68, 70; on Stimson, Hodgson, op. cit., p. 203.

58.Smith, Bradley F., The Shadow Warriors: O.S.S. and the Origins of the C.I.A. (New York: Basic Books, 1983), pp. 360–362.

59.Winks, op. cit., pp. 15–16, and p. 485 n. 1. On Hale, and making the point that it was not his spying skills which distinguished his service, but rather his volunteering for what could not be commanded because of the stigma against spying, see Corson, William R., The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire (New York: Dial Press, 1977), pp. 488–491.

60.Winks, op. cit., pp. 97–101; Lewis, op. cit., pp. 334–366; Kahrl, William L., “Yet time and change shall not prevail To break the friendships formed at . . . ,” New Journal, vol. 2, no. 6, 9 February 1964.

61.Winks, op. cit., p. 35, on class of 1943; on Pearson, Diamond, Sigmund, Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945–1955 (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 53. Robbins, op. cit., p. 187, lists a number of Bonesmen with CIA connections.

62.On Princeton, Hersh, Burton, The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA (New York: Scribner’s, 1992), p. 4; on Yale, Professor Gaddis Smith in 1984, quoted in Blow, Rich, “The Secret Link,” New Journal, vol. 16, no. 6, April 20, 1984.

63.“laying on of hands,” Winks, op. cit., p. 35; on Walz, Notestein, the residential college system and senior societies as recruitment pools, and “sentimental imperialism,” Winks, op. cit., pp. 36–40, 51–56, 59, 119.

64.Thomas, Evan, The Very Best Men: Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (New York: Touchstone, 1995), p. 12; Kahrl, op. cit.

65.On Barnes’s CIA career (and Keys), Thomas, op. cit., pp. 74–86, 334–338, 366; on Cord Meyer Jr.’s CIA career, Hendrickson, Paul, “Behind the Scenes of a CIA Life: Cord Meyer’s Trek from One-World Crusader to CIA Official,” Washington Post, February 7, 1978, and Winks, op. cit., pp. 443–444; on William Bundy’s CIA career, Bird, op. cit., pp. 156–181; on Buckley’s CIA career, Diamond, op. cit., pp. 172–177, 328–329 n. 21, and Judis, op. cit., pp. 89–93; on Coffin’s, Goldstein, Warren, William Sloane Coffin Jr.: A Holy Impatience (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 71–78, and Coffin, William Sloane Jr., Once to Every Man, a Memoir (New York: Atheneum, 1977), pp. 86–94.

66.On Angleton, see Mangold, Tom, Cold Warrior: James Jesus Angleton: The CIA’s Master Spy Hunter (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), pp. 31–37, and Holzman, Michael, James Jesus Angleton: The CIA, and the Craft of Counterintelligence (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008), pp. x–xi, 50, and 321, who credits Angleton’s skills in parsing ambiguity to his training in the New Criticism at Yale under Professor Maynard Mack (Keys 1932 and the society’s first historian). Angleton’s mentor, Yale professor and OSS veteran Norman Holmes Pearson, is credited with the suggestion of developing “a cadre, one eventually including thousands of academics, who could ‘tap’ young people for the secret intelligence services, as if for acceptance by Skull and Bones.” Holzman, op. cit., p. 251. On Pearson, see Winks, pp. 247–321. On Bissell, see text accompanying endnote 48 in Chapter Ten, and Thomas, op. cit.passim.

67.Holzman, op. cit., pp. 100–101; no scandal, Sinclair, Andrew, “Recruiting the right stuff,” [London] Sunday Times, January 17, 1988, reviewing Winks’s book.

68.Latham, Aaron, Orchids for Mother (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1971), p. 298, and see also pp. 12, 16 for more Yale/Hale text.

69.Le Carré, John, Russia House (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989), p. 291. Le Carré did something similar on Skull and Bones in The Night Manager (London: Penguin, 2013), p. 354: “The Prescotts were old Yale people, of course, and a couple of them had Agency connections—how could they not have?—and there was even a rumor, which Ed Prescott had never even specifically defined, that he was in same way related to old Prescott Bush, George Bush’s father.”

70.McCarry, Charles, The Last Supper (London and New York: Duckworth Overlook, 1983/2010), pp. 52, 99–101, 180 (see also, in the Duckworth editions: Second Sights [1974/2009], pp. 88, 318; The Better Angels [1979/2003], p. 68.

71.Buckley, William F., Jr., Saving the Queen (New York: Doubleday, 1976), pp. 13, 35, 44, and 192–193. The Buckley series titles are Saving the Queen; Stained Glass; Who’s On First; Marco Polo, If You Can; The Story of Heni Tod; See You Later, Alligator; High Jinx; Mongoose, R.I.P.; Tucker’s Last Stand; A Very Private Plot; and Last Call for Blackford Oakes.

72.Sarris, Andrew, “At the Movies,” New York Observer, December 26, 2006; Roth, Eric, The Good Shepherd: The Shooting Script (New York: Newmarket Press, 2006), pp. 11–14, 16–17, 29–34, 105–106, 116–117, 123–125; on the non–New Haven shooting locations, Dempsey, Rachel, “Real Elis Inspired ‘Shepherd’.” Yale Daily News, January 18, 2007.

73.Bissell, op. cit., p. 7.

74.Giamatti, op. cit., pp. 25–26; Gifford, Prosser, “A Student Evaluates,” in Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 55.

75.Yale Daily News, May 5 and 6, 1960.

76.Wedge, op. cit., p. 11.

77.Frazier, George, “The Bones Boys,” Boston Herald, April 9, 1964. The Pyle/Mallory dustup was recollected in the opening paragraphs of a Wall Street Journal front-page article by Stephen Grover on Yale senior societies, “Secret Groups Thrive At Yale While Interest In Fraternities Lags,” December 11, 1968.


1.Quoted in Holden, Reuben A., Profiles and Portraits of Yale University Presidents (Freeport, Me.: Bond-Wheelwright, 1968), p. 136.

2.von Bothmer, Bernard, Framing the Sixties: The Use and Abuse of a Decade from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush (Amherst: University of Masaschusetts Press, 2010), p. 2, calling them the “long 1960s” or the “bad 1960s.”

3.Horowitz, David, op. cit., pp. xvii, 2, 9, 16–17; Arthur Howe, “Dean Howe Replies,” Yale Daily News, November 2, 1962; Social Register percentages, Yale Daily News, November 23, 1963.

4.Horowitz, op. cit., pp. 13, 91; on Torch, Havemeyer, “Go to Your Room,” op. cit., p. 89. Ironically, it had been the Yale chapter of DKE which had admitted the Chinese student Yung Wing, class of 1854, who is said to have been the only person of color to be initiated into a college fraternity in the antebellum period. By the 1920s, a number of fraternities had amended their constitutions to include regulations barring all but white Christian men. Syrett, op. cit., pp. 217, 253–254, 260.

5.Lamb, William Pollack, Jr., “Senior Year,” Class Book 1960, p. 34; Horowitz, op. cit., pp. 10–11, 56.

6.Wedge, op. cit., pp. 10–14.

7.Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., pp. 239–253; on Howe’s failed tap, Kabaservice, The Guardiansop. cit., p. 69; Winks, op. cit., pp. 97–98.

8.“Long Island Sound,” Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 335; Herman, op. cit., p. 19. As stated by Franklin Foer in “What’s Really Wrong with Skull and Bones: Tomb of Their Own,” New Republic, April 17 and 24, 2000: “In fact, it was men from the secret societies, like Yale administrators R. Inslee Clark, William Sloane Coffin, and Sam Chauncey, who ended the dominance of their kind, the boarding-school elite.”

9.Kinkaid, Katherine, How an Ivy League College Decides Admissions (New York: W. W. Norton, 1961), pp. 7, 25–28, and passim; Griswold, Report to the Alumni, 1952–53 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1953), p. 3; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 301; Soares, Joseph, The Power of Privilege: Yale and America’s Elite Colleges (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 36–38, 41, 51, 54–56, 66–71; on Clark, Lemann, op. cit., p. 149.

10.Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 309.

11.Ibid., pp. 218, 304, 306; Brewster quoted in Soares, op. cit., p. 82.

12.Idem, pp. 305–306. President Brewster in answering a letter from an alumnus about leaders with stronger character than brains wrote: “[W]hile the academic threshold is higher than ever, we have more extracurricular achievers in [the class of] 1970 than we did in 1967; far more in the class of ’67 than in 1952. So the canard that we have shifted to ‘brains only’ myopia is not borne out by the record.” Letter to Bayard Walker dated June 26, 1967, Kingman Brewster Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

13.“Alumni Board Comparision of Classes of 1952 and 1970,” Kingman Brewster Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.

14.Soares, op. cit., pp. 87–88; Pierson, George, Yale Book of Numbersop. cit., pp. 101–102.

15.Yale Daily News, May 4, 1954 and May 12, 1955; 1956 membership chart, A. Whitney Griswold Papers, op. cit.

16.All data on class composition derives from Seventy-Fiveop. cit., p. 33, as summarized in Giamatti, op. cit., p. 22.

17.Statistics for Bones and Keys delegations of 1967 compiled from the Yale 1967 Class Book; on Bush admission, Karabel, op. cit., pp. 344–345, and Minutaglio, op. cit., pp. 58–75. The percentage of legacies in Bush’s class was 19.6 percent, and his verbal SAT score put him in the bottom 10 percent of his class, although he ranked 114th out of 238 at Andover. Kinsley, Michael, “How Affirmative Action Helped George W. Bush,” Time, January 2003, p. 70. On his tap, see New York Times, July 29, 2000; Minutaglio, op. cit., pp. 104–105; and Kristof, Nicholas D., “Ally of an Older Generation amid the Tumult of the 60’s,” New York Times, June 19, 2000. George W. Bush’s daughter Barbara Bush (class of 2004) was elected to the underground Sage and Chalice. New York Times, May 23, 2004. After moving into the White House, Bush nominated or appointed at least ten Bonesmen to significant administration positions, among them the head of the Securities and Exchange Commission, William Donaldson ’53; general counsel of the Office of Homeland Security, Edward McNally ’79; ambassador to Poland, Victor Ashe ’67; Bush’s clubmate, assistant attorney general and then ambassador to Australia, Robert McCallum ’68; his clubmate, ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago, Roy Austin ’68; and his clubmate, acting director of the National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Rex Cowdry ’68.

18.Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., pp. 322–326; Oren, op. cit., pp. 208–211; on legacies, Soares, op. cit., pp. 85–87 and Table 4.2; Borders, William, “Ivy’s Admissions Irk Prep Schools,” New York Times, April 30, 1967.

19.Brewster, Kingman, Jr., “Admission to Yale: Objectives and Myths,” Yale Alumni Magazine, October 30, 1966, pp. 31–32. The admissions cap on Catholics in the early 1950s was alleged by the Catholic chaplain of that era. Lemann, op. cit., p. 142.

20.Karabel, op. cit., p. 272; Oren, op. cit., p. 391 n. 27; meeting notes, Women’s Advisory Council, February 1969, Manuscripts & Archives, Yale University. Corporation records are sealed for seventy-five years after the resignation of the Yale president in office at the time, meaning that evidence—if it exists—of the attack on Clark would not come to light until 2052, and the only source is Kabaservice’s oral history project of 1993. Soares, op. cit., pp. 78–79.

21.Baltzell, op. cit., pp. 8, 341. “WASP” was first used in print not by Baltzell, but by Erdman B. Padmore, Yale sociologist, in the January 1962 issue of the American Journal of Sociology.

22.Yale Daily News, April 8, 1959; on national fraternity policies and Yale, Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 367.

23.Yale Daily News, September 21, 1955 and May 29, 1963; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 321.

24.Bond, Horace Mann, Black American Scholars (Detroit, Mich.: Balamp Publishing, 1972), p. 14.

25.Young, Jesse Allen, “A Century of Blacks at Yale, 1874–1974,” Scholar of the House Paper, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University, p. 7 and Appendix 5, pp. 57–59.

26.Ibid., pp. 22–26; Dubois, W.E.B., The Atlanta University Publications (New York: Arno Press, 1968), p. 10; Corwin quoted in Oren, op. cit., p. 72.

27.Young, op. cit., pp. 15–16.

28.Pickens, William, “Southern Negro in Northern University,” Voices of the Negro, vol. II, no. 3, 1905, p. 324.

29.Hiller, Stephen, “How Black Students Arrived at Yale,” Yale Daily News, September 25, 1973.

30.Young, op. cit., p. 32.

31.“Yale Men,” Ebony, 5:9, January 1950, p. 20; Synnott, op. cit., p. 174.

32.Kabaservice, op. cit., pp. 352–353, (1957–1963 figures) 355; Young, op. cit., pp. 42, 49.

33.Kabaservice, ibid., pp. 354, 357–358, 366; Yale Daily News, April 2, 1966.

34.Kabaservice, idem., p. 357.

35.Ball, David George, A Marked Heart (Bloomington, Ind.: iUniverse, 2012), pp. 62–69, 74; Coffin, op. cit., pp. 82–125; Wilgoren, Jodi Lynne, “Black & Blue: Yale Volunteers in the Civil Rights Movement, 1963–65,” senior essay in History, Yale College, April 13, 1992, pp. 15–16, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University; Gillette, op. cit., pp. 26–28; Sack, Kevin, “Trip South in ’63 Gave Lieberman a Footnote, and Hold, in History,” New York Times, September 26, 2000; Branch, Taylor, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963–65 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), pp. 156–159.

36.Kabaservice, op. cit., pp. 349, 350, 368–369.

37.Bundy, McGeorge, “The Issue before the Court,” Atlantic, 240:5, November 1977, p. 42.

38.Kabaservice, op. cit., p. 375.

39.Brown, Buster, “Skull & Bones: It’s Not Just for White Dudes Anymore,” Atlantic, February 25, 2013.

40.These figures were computed by comparison of the lists of black undergraduates for the classes of 1960 through 1970 contained in Young, op. cit., pp. 60–62, and also in Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., Appendix N, pp. 694–698, with the names of those elected to the seven aboveground senior societies in the annual classbooks from 1960 to 1970. In Stephen Grover’s 1968 Wall Street Journal article “Secret Groups Thrive at Yale While Interest in Fraternities Lags,” December 11, 1968, a “recent graduate” is quoted as saying, “with some irony,” that “There’s hardly a Negro who doesn’t get an offer to join a society. Everyone thinks that a Negro is going to add something special to these secret society meetings.” On Roy Austin’s greater satisfaction with his 1968 Bones delegation than with his class’s treatment of him, Holahan, David, “The Bad News Bones,” Hartford Courant, May 29, 1988. By way of contrast, a magazine article on the Ivy League clubs, published in 1973, reported about the Harvard final clubs that “except as servants or occasional guests, blacks have never set foot in half the clubs. Perhaps ten or fifteen belong to the other half, and most of those are in Fly Club, where they comprise nearly fifty percent of the membership.” Jaes, Theodore, Jr., “Ivy League Clubs,” Town & Country, August 1973.

41.Velsey and Leinenweber, op. cit., pp. 85–87.

42.Giamatti, op. cit., p. 2, emphasis supplied.

43.Yale Daily News, April 19, 1963.

44.Yale Daily News, May 3, 1963.

45.Davis, Lanny, and Barry Golson, “Senior Societies,” 1968 Class Book (New Haven, Conn.: 1968), p. 238 (Davis ’67 was chairman of the Yale Daily News and a member of Spade and Grave, and his classmate Golson a member of Wolf’s Head).

46.Decrow, op. cit., p. 33.

47.Yale Daily News, April 28, 1964.

48.Yale Daily News, May 1 and 6, 1964.

49.Yale Daily News, May 6, 1964.

50.Yale Daily News, May 6, 1964.

51.Yale Daily News, May 8, 1964.

52.Yale Daily News, April 29, 1965.

53.Yale Daily News, May 7, 1964, and April 28, 1966. For the 1967 election for the class of 1968, Bones’ fifteen most wanted juniors were called to a meeting one evening at the admissions office and informed of their selection by athletic director Delany Kiphuth and others. Yale Daily News, April 27, 1967.

54.Dated April 25, 1963, William Sloane Coffin Jr. Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library. Tellingly, on the chaplain’s conflicted view in 1963, Lieberman wrote: “I must thank you for the honesty of your offer to me including the expression of doubt concerning the existence of Societies at Yale. Because of my deep admiration for you, I left your office totally confused and quite depressed over the confusion your presence in the name of Skull and Bones brought to me.” In his letter, Lieberman is sure that Thomas Rowe, a future Rhodes scholar, would join him in Elihu, but Rowe went to Bones. On the Bones tap, Baum, Geraldine, “Moderating and Moralizing, Lieberman Toils in the Center for the Record,” Los Angeles Times, October 20, 2000.

55.Leslie, Jacques, “Smirk from the Past,” Salon, March 1, 2000; Borders, William, “Bones and Keys Rattle in the Night at Yale,” New York Times, April 29, 1967.

56.Yale Daily News, April 30, 1965.

57.Yale Daily News, April 12 and 20, 1966.

58.Monette, Paul, Becoming a Man: Half a Life Story (New York, San Diego, Calif., and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992), pp. 134–135.

59.Robbins, op. cit., p. 137, reports that many Bones seniors came out as gay in the early seventies; on Keys, Guernsey and Zdanys, op. cit., pp. 79–80; on the Bones club of 2011, Brown, op. cit.

60.Davis and Golson, op. cit., p. 251; Yale Daily News, April 27, 1967.

61.Grover, op. cit.

62.Davis and Golson, op. cit., pp. 241–242; Robbins, op. cit., p. 198; Wolfe, Tom, “The ‘ME’ Decade,” New York, August 23, 1976, pp. 32–33. Keys’ program of “optionals” also sometimes included “autobiographical show and tell”: Guernsey and Zdanys, op. cit., p. 97.

63.Davis and Golson, ibid., pp. 242–243, 247.

64.Ibid., pp. 248–249.

65.Grover, op. cit.

66.Gillette, Howard, Jr., Class Divide: Yale ’64 and the Conflicted Legacy of the Sixties (Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 2015), p. xvii and pp. 1–32, passim; Yale’s experience was not singular: see Klatch, Rebecca, A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), passim.

67.Griswold, A. Whitney, “A Proposal for Strengthening the Residential College System in Yale University,” 1958, A. Whitney Griswold Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University; Margolis, Jon, The Last Innocent Year: America in 1964—The Beginning of the “Sixties” (New York: William Morrow, 1999); Patterson, James T., The Eve of Destruction: How 1965 Transformed America (New York: Basic Books, 2012); Kaiser, Charles, 1968 In America: Music, Politics, Chaos, Counterculture, and the Shaping of a Generation (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988); Horowitz, op. cit.; Gillette, op. cit.

68.Yankelovich, Daniel, New Rules: Searching for Self-Fulfillment in a World Turned Upside Down (New York: Random House, 1981), p. 175.

69.The President’s Commission on Campus Unrest, Campus Unrest (Washington, D.C.: 1970), passim.

70.MacPherson, Myra, Long Time Passing: Vietnam and the Haunted Generation (New York: Doubleday, 1984), p. 11; Stern, Lawrence, “America in Anguish, 1965 to 1973,” in A Short History of the Vietnam War, ed. Allen Reed Millett (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), p. 3.

71.Drennen, Bill, “Miscarriage: Reflections on a War,” in Robert G. Kaiser and Jethro Lieberman, eds., Later Life: The 25th Reunion Classbook; The Class of 1964 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1989), p. 504. See also Reston, James, “New Haven: God and War at Yale,” New York Times, April 26, 1967.

72.Kerry was to organize a 25th anniversary remembrance of Pershing’s death for their Bones club at Arlington National Cemetery. “Keepers of the Crypt,” Baltimore Sun, March 23, 2004, quoting Kerry’s 1968 letter to his parents expressing his anguish at Pershing’s death.

73.Yale graduation, New York Times, June 10, 1969; Hunter, James Davison, Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America (New York: Basic Books, 1991), pp. 34. 42.

74.Schiff, Judith, “The first female students at Yale,” Yale Alumni Magazine, September/October 2009; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 416. Only one faculty member, Yale historian George Pierson, voted against coeducation.

75.Coit, Nancy, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987), p. 219.

76.Quoted in Remnick, David, “American Hunger,” New Yorker, October 12, 1998, p. 64.

77.On Howe, Soares, op. cit., p. 103; Bergin, Thomas, Yale’s Residential Colleges in the First Fifty Years (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983), p. 100; New York Times, September 29 and 30, 1956.

78.“Women at Yale Proposed by Dean of Admissions Howe,” Yale Daily News, September 28, 1956; Arnstein, Dr. Robert, “Letter to Coeducation Forum,” Yale Daily News, April 27, 1966; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 421.

79.Doob, Leonard, et al., The Education of First Year Students in Yale College (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1962), p. 13; Gate ’67, Vol. 1, No. 2, March 1964, pp. 10–13; Yale Daily News, May 18, 1966.

80.Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., p. 446; Lever, Janet and Pepper Schwartz, Women at Yale: Liberating a College Campus (Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971), p. 5; “The Co-Education White Paper: Everything You Need to Know,” Yale Daily News, November 7, 1968; Borders, William, “Yale Going Coed Next September,” New York Times, November 15, 1968.

81.Kabaservice, ibid., pp. 472–473; Co-Education Week, New York Times, November 5, 1968; admission of women, New York Times, November 15, 1968; applications, New York Times, November 24 and December 8, 1968; New York Times, April 14, 1970.

82.Lear, “How Yale Selected Her First Coeds,” New York Times Magazine, April 13, 1969; Herman, R. Thomas, “Lots of Girls Applying to Yale but Learning Is Not Always Reason,” Wall Street Journal, January 2, 1969; Linden, Tom, “Girls, Girls, Girls,” Yale Daily News, February 14, 1969.

83.Lever and Schwartz, op. cit., pp. 14–15.

84.Ibid., pp. 24–26.

85.Idem., pp. 27–28.

86.Idem., p. 25, originally appearing in Yale Daily News on April 25, 1969. According to Newsweek, October 15, 1990, p. 64, Trudeau was tapped by Bones but “chose membership in the rival Scroll and Key, which puts his Bonesman-bashing strips in a different context. This is exactly the kind of secret score-settling that so annoys members of the Bush family.” See Doonesbury strips for June 27 through July 2, 1988, and, in the month preceding the first President Bush’s inauguration, December 17 and 19–31, 1988, and February 5, 1990. On young George’s anger at Trudeau, see Meacham, John, Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush (New York: Random House, 2015), p. 290.

87.Lever and Schwartz, op. cit., pp. 15, 32.

88.Davis and Golson, op. cit., pp. 252–253.

89.Mintz, Professor Sidney, Yale Daily News, March 31, 1969.

90.Giamatti, op. cit., pp. 5–7, 32–34; Gurnsey and Zdanys, op. cit., pp. 1–2, 11–12, 22–23.

91.Guerney and Zdanys, op. cit., p. 1.

92.Trillin, op. cit., p. 6.

93.Yale Daily News, April 23, 24, 26, and 27, 1968.

94.Yale Daily News, March 11, March 12, April 4, April 21, and April 24, 1969. On Wilbur Johnson’s classroom proposal, Holahan, op. cit., and Robbins, op. cit., p. 199. The notion that the senior societies’ facilities or underlying land might be reclaimed for social centers for the university had been voiced in the spring of 1968 by Yale planner Edward Barnes: “Someday we hope secret societies will die out, and we can use their land and buildings for social centers.” Ibid., April 4, 1969.

95.Yale Daily News, October 18, 1969.

96.Cooper and Wallace, op. cit., pp. 24–25, 28, 90, 93–95.

97.Bass, Paul, and Douglas W. Rae, Murder in the Model City: The Black Panthers, Yale, and the Redemption of a Killer (New York: Basic Books, 2006), pp. 118–163; Chauncey, Henry “Sam,” Jr., John T. Hill, Thomas Strong, May Day at Yale, 1970 Recollections of the Trial of Bobby Seale and the Black Panthers (Westport, Conn.: Prospecta Press, 2015), passim; Taft, John, Mayday at Yale: A Case Study in Student Radicalism (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1976), passim; Kabaservice, “Kingman Brewster,” op. cit., pp. 516–528, 537–538; Hersey, John, Letter to the Alumni(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970), pp. 13–27, 56–57, 61–62, 77; Guernsey and Zdanys, op. cit., pp. 8–11; Wyatt, David, “The Last Spring at Yale,” Virginia Quarterly Review, Spring 1977, pp. 347–354.

98.No Tap Day, Gurnsey and Zdanys, op. cit., p. 11, describing a clandestine rendezvous with one candidate beside the Old Campus statute of President Woolsey; protecting black coeds, Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., introduction to Chauncey, Hill & Strong, op. cit., pp. 7–8; Schmoke and Bones, Baltimore Sun, March 23, 2004. The black American in Keys that year was Ronald Matchett; besides Keys and Wolf’s Head, there were also black members in the 1969–70 delegations of Bones, Berzelius, Book & Snake, Elihu, and St. Elmo’s (or, all but Manuscript).

99.Velsey and Leinenweber, op. cit., pp. 66–70.

100.Giamatti, op. cit., pp. 6, 34; Trillin, op. cit., pp. 82–83. Not until the portrait of the first Keys crowd to include women, taken in 1990, were the members all to be again attired in formal black. Guernsey & Zdanys, op. cit., p. 99. Mace and Chain was revived and acquired a property in 2006. Niarchos and Zapana, “Yale’s secret social fabric,” Yale Daily News, December 5, 2008.

101.Cooper and Wallace, op. cit., pp. 25, 90–91, 94–95; Wallace, Reflections on Manuscriptop. cit., pp. 50–52.


1.Sklar, David, “All the Things They Didn’t Want You to Know,” Rumpus, April 1997.

2.Cummins, Anastasia, “Women at Yale: The Social Process of Coeducation at Yale College,” senior prize essay, 2015, http://elischolar.library.yale.edu/mssa_yale_history, pp. 29–31; Coffin, Harriet, “Women of Yale,” New York Times, July 15, 1971; Kaplay, Cathy, and Gay Miller, “‘Superwomen’ or ‘Babes’?” Yale Daily News, April 19, 1972.

3.Synnott, Martha Graham, Student Diversity at the Big Three: Changes at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton since the 1970s (New Brunswick, N.J., and London: Transaction Publishers, 2013), p. 31 and Table 3.2, p. 151.

4.Ibid., p. 13; Yale Daily News, November 27 and December 13, 1984, March 8, 1988; on Kennedy withdrawal, Harvard Crimson, January 17, 2006; on Patrick withdrawal, Boston Globe, August 3, 2006.

5.Synnott, op. cit., pp. 132–133; Mcauley, James, “The Men’s Final Clubs,” Harvard Crimson, October 5, 2010; Mcauley, James, “The Women’s Final Clubs,” The Harvard Crimson, October 7, 2010; Seely and Birdgood, “With an Invitation, a Gender Barrier at Harvard Falls,” New York Times, September 12, 2015.

6.“Undergraduate Women at Yale” [1971], in envelope “Sex Discrimination at Yale,” Kingman Brewster Papers, Manuscripts and Archives.

7.Women student leaders, Hoffman, Emily, and Elisabeth Polon, eds., Reflections on Coeducation: A Critical History of Women at Yale (New Haven, Conn.: n.p., 2010), passimNew York Times, October 7, 1979; Oren, op. cit., p. 292. The phenomenon persists: since 2000, only two women have been elected to the presidency of the Yale College Council, the last in 2007. Yale Daily News, September 11, 2015. In 1983, the first woman Alumni Fellow, a 1977 graduate, was elected to the Yale Corporation. In 1987 the criterion of “high manhood” was removed from the qualifications for the Francis Gordon Brown Memorial Prize, and it was awarded to a woman.

8.Cooper and Wallace, op. cit., pp. 88–89.

9.Ibid., pp. 25–29, 95, 98–99, 101. According to its undergraduate handbook, the underground Sword and Gate elected two women the next year to its delegation of 1972.

10.Cummins, op. cit., pp. 32–34; New York Times, April 14, 1970.

11.Pierson, George, “Faculty,” in A Yale Book of Numbersop. cit.

12.Synnott, Student Diversityop. cit., pp. 144–145; New York Times, June 3, 1973.

13.Steinbreder, John, The History of the Yale Club of New York City (New York: Legendary Publishing, 2014), pp. 103–106; Gitlin and Gitlin, op. cit, pp. 30–32; Synnott, Student Diversityop. cit., p. 145.

14.Interview with Sam Chauncey, September 21, 2014.

15.Giamatti, op. cit., pp. 43, 45–46, and 57 n. 10; Yale Daily News, March 9, 1988; Daniels, Lee, “Another Club at Yale Admits Women,” New York Times, March 9, 1988; Gurnsey and Zdanys, op. cit., pp. i, 68–69, 78–81, 85–86, 92, 106.

16.Holahan, op. cit.

17.Brown, op. cit.

18.Wagner, Barbara, “Living through Coeducation,” in Geismar, Pamela, Eve Hart Rice, and Joan O’Meara Winant, Fresh Women: Reflections on Coeducation and Life after Yale (United States: Pamela Geismar, 2010), p. 25.

19.Trillin, op. cit., p. 93.

20.Berzelius’s official history (Trotman, op. cit., pp. 48, 77) twice mentions the date of election of its first coed delegation, but gives no further detail. Elihu’s brief history Suitable Quartersop. cit., notes that society was the first to elect women in 1970, but gives no detail of date or deliberations.

21.Quoted in Robbins, op. cit., p. 71. See, by way of example, Pablo Cruise’s column “Tap, tap, the beat goes on” in Yale Daily News, April 18, 1979.

22.“Secret societies: tricks or treats?,” Yale Daily News, April 22, 1980.

23.Barnes, Patricia, “Mystery of Yale Secret Societies Draws Students,” New Haven Register, April 19, 1985.

24.Aaron, David, “If the Summit Were Bugged,” New York Times, December 9, 1989.

25.Orrick, Phyllis, “Women Enrich Tombs,” Yale Daily News, April 23, 1971.

26.Alexander, Lawrence, “Unspooking Tombs,” Yale Daily News, April 28, 1971.

27.Giamatti, op. cit., pp. 42, 44.

28.Yale Daily News, April 19, 1972.

29.“locus classicus,” Foer, op. cit., about Frazier’s “Yale Secret Societies,” op. cit.; mutilated Esquire copies, Muezen, Paul, “Voices from the Tombs Speak,” Yale Daily News, April 27, 1985.

30.Oder, Norman, “Senior Societies: Coeducation Brought Change; Importance Now Downplayed,” Yale Daily News, April 14, 1982.

31.Kakutani, Michiko, “Things that Go Tap in the Night,” Yale Daily News Magazine, April 17, 1974 (echoed in Lavery, Brian,“Behind the Walls of Yale’s Secret Societies,” Yale Herald, Summer 1997: “[S]ome senior society members question whether their constituency reflects a forced diversity that changes the character and intended nature of the secret society itself. ‘All societies want to be diverse in terms of race, gender, and sexual orientation. There’s a de facto quota system,’ a former Book and Snake member said”; Freedman, Samuel, “‘Tap Day’ Fading Bit of Old Yale,” New York Times, April 16, 1982.

32.Reidy, Chris, “Bastion of Bones,” Boston Globe, March 4, 1991.

33.Yale Daily News, April 1, 1991.

34.Foer, op. cit.; Robbins, op. cit., p. 149, writing in 2002: “Rather than reward merit, the societies now often lean toward rewarding ethnicity, which turns the groups into overtly poitically correct hyperventilators and the candidates into token quota taps.”

35.“No Tomb. No Name. No Life.” Rumpus, October 1998; Foer, op. cit. Unlisted in the 2015 Yale Daily News announcement of all the societies on election procedures, Hack and Tool seems to have perished.

36.Rosen, Jeff, “Welcome the, Uh, Bonesmen of Penzance,” Yale Daily News, April 19, 1991.

37.Frazier, George, “Goodnight, Poor Yale,’ Boston Globe, November 21, 1973.

38.According to the recollection of Sam Chauncey, recounted in Yale Daily News, April 14, 1982; “raze the building,” Rosenbaum, op. cit., p. 89.

39.Bennetts, Leslie, “Ivy League Women Face Social Barriers,” New York Times, April 6, 1979.

40.Yale Daily News, April 7, 17, and 24, 1972; Holahan, op. cit.

41.Rosenthal, Larry, “Shh! Secretive Skull & Bones at Yale May Let Women in,” New Haven Register, February 21, 1991.

42.Rosenthal, Larry, “Secret Club at Yale May Allow Women,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 22, 1991.

43.“Secret Yale Club Admits Women, Alumni Angry,” New York Times, April 15, 1991; “Yale Club Accepts Women; Alumni Are Outraged,” New York Times, April 19, 1991; “Yale Skull & Bones Society Elects Women amid Furor,” Wall Street Journal, April 15, 1991; Coyle, Pamela, “Old-Timers Shut Down Skull & Bones,” New Haven Register, April 15, 1991; Parry, Ellan, and Jodi Wilgoren, “Alumni Lock Tomb after Bones Taps Women,” Yale Daily News, April 15, 1991; Specter, Michael, “Skull and Bones at Yale: First No Women, Now No Club,” Washington Post, April 16, 1991; “Women in the Crypt? Old Bonesmen Say No,” New York Times, April 18, 1991; Bernard, Anne, “Rattled Bones,” Boston Globe, April 16, 1991; Von Drehle, Dave, “Yale’s Skull and Bones Club Stirs a Tempest in a Tomb,” Miami Herald, April 20, 1991.

44.Ibid., all ten newspaper articles.

45.Specter, op. cit.

46.[Semple, Robert B., Jr.] New York Times, April 18, 1991; Quindlen, Anna, “Skullduggery,” New York Times, April 18, 1991.

47.Wallace, op. cit., p. 25; Yale Daily News, April 10 and 25, 1991. It has been reported that Manuscript’s price for the loan of their hall was the right to hold a yearly party in the Bones tomb once it reopened, and Bones reneged. Rumpus, April 2001.

48.Boston Globe, April 16, 1991.

49.New York Times, April 18, 1991.

50.English, Bella, “‘Skull’ Club Has Rocks in Its Head,” Boston Globe, April 22, 1991; on Mack’s speech, Guernsey and Zdanys, op. cit., pp. 93–96. The Bones board members were not wrong about the inherent awkwardness of a mixed group delivering “emotional” (i.e., sexual) histories: Kakutani, op. cit., quoting a member of Book & Snake, which had admitted six women for that year: “It’s really quite a feat if you can get all the women to talk about their sexual experiences. It’s a taboo subject at Yale.”

51.New York Times, April 25, 1991. Mrs. Bingham was the widow of Congressman Jonathan Brewster Bingham, class of 1936, and the mother of Timothy Bingham, class of 1967.

52.Barnes, Patricia G., “Mystery of Yale Secret Societies Draws Students,” New Haven Register, April 19, 1985.

53.Freedman, Samuel, “Tap Day: Fading Bit of Old Yale,” New York Times, April 18, 1982.

54.“Secret Society Moves to Admit Women,” Washington Post, June 11, 1991; “Skull & Bones Votes to Admit Women,” Washington Post, September 25, 1991; “Skull & Bones Votes to Admit Women,” Yale Daily News, September 4, 1991; “Skull and Spare Ribs,” Economist, November 2, 1991.

55.Yale Daily News, September 6 and 9, 1991; Thomas, Dana, New York Times, September 6, 1991; “Yale Society Wins Delay on Women,” Washington Post, September 7, 1991. The Buckley lawsuit plaintiffs included Fetner and members of the classes of 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, and 1959, including three past presidents of RTA. Precisely the same fear of sexual mischief was raised by the president of Porcellian Club’s alumni group when Harvard University announced that from 2017, members of single-sex clubs would be barred from holding leadership positions on campus: “Forcing single-gender organizations to accept members of the opposite sex could potentially increase, not decrease, the potential for sexual misconduct.” Saul, Stephanie, “Rules May Force Elite Harvard Clubs to Abandon Longtime All-Male Status,” New York Times, May 7, 2016.

56.Hevesi, Dennis, “Shh! Yale’s Skull and Bones Admits Women,” New York Times, October 26, 1991.

57.“Yale’s Wolf’s Head Admits Women, “ Deseret News, December 19, 1991.


1.Quoted in Pierson, Yale Collegeop. cit., pp. 366–367.

2.Yale Daily News, October 16, 2015.

3.Cole, David, “The Trouble at Yale,” New York Review of Books, January 14, 2016; Yale Factsheet (2014–2015), Facts and Statistics, February 4, 2015; Press Release, Office of Undergraduate Admissions, October 2015.

4.Yale Daily News, March 25, 2014.

5.“Seven New Senior Societies Established,” Yale Daily News, October 8, 2015; Lasilla, Kathrin, “Reform of the Senior Societies,” Yale Alumni Magazine, May/June 2015.

6.“less reverence,” “Yale’s Secret Social Fabric,” Yale Daily News, December 5, 2008; opt-out, Yale Daily News, February 17 and March 3, 2015; “Society Opt-in Offered Again,” Yale Daily News, February 29, 2016.

7.Dubois, op. cit., pp. 165–166.

8.On The Skulls, see Noah, Timothy, “The Skulls Is No Brotherhood of the Bell,” Slate Archives, March 28, 2000; Daily Princetonian, April 6, 2000. Other films of these years included, as well as The Good Shepherd (2006) discussed in Chapter 12, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008), which featured a shot of the Bones tomb being run toward by a motorcycle, and Elihu member and director Alan Hruska’s 2009 film Reunion, which explored a mythical reunion of fellow society members some twenty-three years after graduation, loosely inspired by a gathering of Hruska’s own 1955 Elihu delegation. The television series Gossip Girl featured a character, Chuck, who tries to infiltrate what he calls “the crème de la crème of senior societies,” Skull and Bones.

9.Busmiller, Elizabeth, New York Times, February 2, 2004.

10.Noting that there are now over forty senior societies, Mark Branch (“Open Secrets,” Yale Alumni Magazine, July/August 2014, p. 37) reports: “[T]he new societies are built on the same template as the old: 14 to 16 seniors, chosen with diversity of experience in mind, meet every Thursday and Saturday, deliver lengthy and intimate ‘biographies’ of themselves to their fellow members (these days, a biography might last up to five or six hours and include old home videos and PowerPoint presentations).” In Jeff Hobbs’s 2014 biography The Short and Tragic Life of Robert Peaceop. cit., Hobbes tells of the life history presentation in his and Peace’s senior year in Elihu, where Peace told a four-hour version, including his father’s conviction for murder, about which none of the club members had known.

11.Rony, Dorothy, “Why I Refused to Join a Senior Society,” Yale Daily News, January 15, 1985. Not all News writers were so ignorant: J. Kirby Simon noted that same year that “In fact, the societies have historically made a far greater commitment to the recognition of merit than have corresponding institutions at other schools.” “Joining a ‘Society’ Is a Personal Choice,” Yale Daily News, April 19, 1985.

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