NOTES

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Abbreviations

Correspondence from officers usually uses abbreviations of job titles and branches, such as DG for Director-General. Complicated number and letter designations were often used, and their meaning cannot always be discerned at this distance, which was often the very intention behind their use. In some instances, a number indicates the section within a branch (e.g. B3), but in others it serves another purpose. Where the meaning of the designation is known, it is listed below. In the interests of consistency and brevity, known abbreviations have also been used in these notes where the correspondent wrote the job title out in full. The use of initials has also been standardised here, as has capitalisation within ASIO document titles. Common abbreviations, such as those for Australian states, are not included below; abbreviations not found here may be found in the main ‘Acronyms and Abbreviations’ list at the beginning of this book.

ADG A

Assistant Director-General, A Branch (Administration), pre-1978, or A Branch (Management Services), post-1978

ADG B

Assistant Director-General, B Branch (Research and Analysis)

ADG C

Assistant Director-General, C Branch (Protective Security)

ADG Co-ord

Assistant Director-General Co-ordination Branch

ADG D

Assistant Director-General, D Branch (Operations)

ADG FI

Assistant Director-General, Foreign Intelligence Branch

ADG P

Assistant Director-General, P Branch (Personnel Matters)

ADG R

Assistant Director-General, R Branch (Resources and Services)

ADG S

Assistant Director-General, S Branch (Subversion, Politically Motivated Violence and Terrorism)

ADG Sec

Assistant Director-General (Secretariat)

ADG Sov

Assistant Director-General (Soviet Bloc Espionage Section)

ADG X

Assistant Director-General, X Branch (Executive Branch)

ADGs

Assistant directors-general

ADP

automated data-processing

AGPS

Australian Government Publishing Service

AMF

Australian Military Forces (now Australian Army Reserve)

AS ASIA

Assistant Secretary Asia

ASPI

Australian Strategic Policy Institute

C

Coordinator

C, AA

Coordinator, Asian Affairs Group

CAN

Canberra regional office

CAO

Chief Administration Officer

CCO

Canberra Central Office

CELO

Counter Espionage Liaison Officer

CIO

Chief Intercept Officer

CISG

Cabinet Intelligence and Security Group (Committee)

CLO

Chief Liaison Officer

CO

ASIO Central Office

CPC

Crisis Policy Centre

CPD, H of R

Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives

CPD, Senate

Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate

CPF

Commonwealth Police Force

CPO

Chief Personnel Officer

CTOPS

Counter-Terrorist Operations and Planning Staff

D

Director

DAS

Department of Administrative Services

DDG ASIO

Deputy Director-General of Security

DEA

Department of External Affairs

DEIR

Department of Employment and Industrial Relations

DFA

Department of Foreign Affairs

DG ASIO

Director-General of Security

DIEA

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

DILGEA

Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

DOT

Department of Overseas Trade

DSD

Defence Signals Directorate

DSMS

Department of the Special Minister of State

EO

Executive Officer

ERC

(Cabinet) Expenditure Review Committee

FADG

First Assistant Director-General

FAS

First Assistant Secretary

FBI

Federal Bureau of Investigation (United States)

G2

Group 2

H

Head

HLG

Headquarters Liaison Group

HQ ASIO

Headquarters ASIO

I&O

Intelligence and Operations

IGIS

Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security

IMB

Information Management Branch

IPSG

Interdepartmental Protective Security Group

ISC

Intelligence and Security Committee

ISG

Intelligence and Security Group

JEPG

Joint Exercise Planning Group

LO

Liaison Officer

NAA

National Archives of Australia

NATP

National Anti-Terrorist Plan

NCDC

National Capital Development Commission

O-i-C

Officer in Charge

OBE

Operational Base Establishment

OG

See ORG

Ops

Operations

ORG

Operations Resources Group

P&D

Planning and Development

PA to DG

Director-General’s Personal Assistant

PAO

Public Affairs Officer

PCLO

Planning, Co-ordination and Liaison Officer

PHCIS

Permanent Heads Committee on Intelligence and Security

PLO

Principal Legal Officer

PM’s Department

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

PMV

Politically Motivated Violence (section/group)

POPWG

Planning and Operating Procedures Working Group

PPO

Principal Projects Officer

PRD

Perth Regional Director

PSB

Public Service Board

PSCC

Protective Security Coordination Centre

PSO

Principal Section Officer

PSR

Protective Security Review

PTH

Perth

R

R Branch (Resources and Services)

RCASIA

Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies, 1983–84

RCIS

Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security, 1974–77

RD/s

Regional director/s

ROW

Rest of the World

S

Supervisor

SAC-PAV

Standing Advisory Committee of Commonwealth/State Cooperation for Protection Against Violence

SAO

Senior Administrative Officer

SB/s

special branch/es

SC

Senior Coordinator

SEO

Senior Executive Officer

SIDCs

Special Inter-Departmental Committees (Commonwealth Government)

SITREP

Situation Report

SLO

Senior Liaison Officer

Sr

Senior

SS

Subversive Studies

TA

Threat Assessment

TSG

Technical Support Group

TSU

Technical Support Unit

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Introduction

1 P. Dibb, The Nuclear War Scare of 1983, ASPI Special Report, October 2013, <www.aspi.org.au/publications/special-report-the-nuclear-war-scare-of-1983-how-serious-was-it/SR56_nuclear_war_scare-1.pdf>, accessed 15 June 2016.

2 See P. Edwards, Robert Marsden Hope and Australian Public Policy, Office of National Assessments, Canberra, 2011.

Part 1: ASIO during the Fraser Years, 1975–1983

Chapter 1: Hope for a New Beginning

1 Fraser & Simons, Malcolm Fraser, pp. 304–5, 402.

2 Ibid., pp. 487–96.

3 Ibid., pp. 472–9.

4 A.E. Woodward, PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

5 L.C. McBride, ADG P, to DDG, ADGs and RDs, ‘Establishment and Staffing—1978/79’, 25 October 1978; and Acting ADG P to DDG, ADGs and RDs, ‘Establishment and Staffing—1978/79’, 4 January 1979, both from ASIO records.

6 Minute, SEO to ADG P, ‘Staffing Estimates’, 20 March 1980, ASIO records.

7 Press statement No. 565, ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization’, 26 September 1975, NAA: A7452, A224, Part 2.

8 ‘Press Statement by the Prime Minister’, NAA: A7452, A224, Part 2.

9 J.L. Menadue, Secretary, PM’s Department, to PM, ‘Director-General of Security’, 19 November 1975, NAA: A7452, A224, Part 2.

10 Letter, C.W. Harders, Secretary, Attorney-General’s Department, to Menadue, Secretary, PM’s Department, 23 February 1976, ASIO records; and letter I.J. Greenwood, Attorney-General, to J.M. Fraser, PM, 14 November 1975, NAA: A7452, A224, Part 2.

11 Letter, R.M. Hope, RCIS, to Fraser, PM, 8 March 1976, NAA: A7452, A224, Part 3.

12 Letter, Fraser, PM, to F.J. Mahony, Deputy Secretary, Attorney-General’s Department, 24 March 1976, NAA: A7452, A224, Part 3.

13 Telex, ‘For RD from Acting D-G’, 10 May 1979, ASIO records.

14 Letter, B.J. Knox (for Secretary, Attorney-General’s Department, to Woodward, DG ASIO, 27 February 1976, ASIO records.

15 Letter, 16 Feb 1960; and ‘Statement by the Commonwealth Attorney-General, Senator Ivor J. Greenwood, Q.C. Appointments to Industrial Court and Arbitration Commission’, 12 May 1972, both from ASIO records.

16 See memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, to ADGs and RDs, 18 December 1978, ASIO records.

17 Interview, W. Mather, 28 October 2010; and S. Wilkins, ‘New ASIO head is man for all seasons’, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 October 1975.

18 Interview, W.M. Monkhouse, 29 October 2010.

19 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to senior ASIO staff, 6 August 1981, ASIO records.

20 Interview, M.D. Boyle, 6 August 2012.

21 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. D.G. 5’, 1 April 1976, ASIO records.

22 ‘Mr T.H. Barnett’, ASIO records.

23 Interview, E.J. Marks, 4 March 2013.

24 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 190.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.

27 Interview, J.M. Fraser, 16 November 2011.

28 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 160.

29 ‘Record of Conversation with the Prime Minister and Mr Alan Carmody, Secretary, Dept. of PM & C 21 October, 1976’, ASIO records.

30 See ‘Record of Conversation with the Rt. Hon. Malcolm Fraser, Prime Minister, Mr J.D. Enfield, Deputy Secretary, DPM & C on 31st March 1982’, ASIO records.

31 Woodward, One Brief Interval, pp. 167–8.

32 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to E.G. Whitlam, Leader of the Opposition, 1 November 1976, ASIO records.

33 Minute, DG ASIO to DDG, ‘Briefing Leader of the Opposition’, 24 January 1977, ASIO records.

34 Letter, R.W., Principal Private Secretary to Leader of the Opposition, to PA to DG ASIO, 26 January 1977, ASIO records.

35 Ops Adviser to ADG B, ‘Visit of Honourable E.G. Whitlam, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition, 1 February 1977’, 2 February 1977, ASIO records.

36 Minute, D.R. Marshall ADG (P&D) to ADG B, ‘Visit to ASIO Headquarters by the Leader of the Opposition’, 3 February 1977, ASIO records.

37 Confidential interview, 16 September 2015.

38 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 4 February 1977, ASIO records.

39 ‘Statement by the Prime Minister in the House of Representatives on Thursday 5 May 1977 on Intelligence and Security Arrangements’, ASIO records.

40 T.H. Barnett, DDG ASIO, to DG ASIO, ADG B and ADG D, Minute, ‘Alleged “Break-In” at Curtin House, Canberra’, 10 May 1977, ASIO records.

41 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Whitlam, 6 May 1977, ASIO records.

42 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to W.G. Hayden, Leader of the Opposition, 23 December 1977, ASIO records.

43 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 30 May 1978, ASIO records.

44 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon Mr W.G. Hayden, MP on 10 May 1978’, ASIO records.

45 Minute, ERO DG to ASIO Historian (R.A. Swan), ‘Director-General’s Briefings of Attorney General, Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition 1976–1981’, ASIO records.

46 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Hayden, 15 February 1979, ASIO records.

47 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 19 September 1980; and record of conversation, ‘The Hon. W.G. Hayden, M.P., Leader of the Opposition on 2 October 1981 with the Director General’, 2 October 1981, both from ASIO records.

48 Note for file, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Letter from Mr W.G. Hayden’, 9 March 1983; and letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Hayden, 4 September 1981, both from ASIO records.

49 Record of conversation, Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Briefing Opposition on ASIO Bill’, 31 March 1979, ASIO records.

50 For details of all eight reports, see NAA, ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security—Fact sheet 262’, <www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs262.aspx>, accessed 15 June 2016.

51 See NAA, ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security, <www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/security/royal-commisson>, accessed 15 June 2016; and Fraser, ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security Ministerial Statement’, CPD, H of R, 25 October 1977, p. 2333.

52 Memo, Harders, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Fourth Report on the Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security’, 17 June 1977, ASIO records.

53 Ibid.

54 Ibid.

55 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981.

56 Memo, Harders, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Fourth Report on the Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security’, 17 June 1977, ASIO records.

57 Ibid.

58 Letter, Fraser, PM, to R.J. Ellicott, Attorney-General, 17 May 1976, ASIO records.

59 See, for instance, Cabinet minute, Intelligence and Security Committee, Canberra, 18 October 1977, Decision No. 4142 (IS), and 21 September 1977, Decision No. 3197 (IS), both from ASIO records.

60 RCIS, Second Report, p. 7, NAA: A8913, 2/3.

61 Fraser, ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security Ministerial Statement’, CPD, H of R, 25 October 1977, p. 2336.

62 A.T. Carmody, Chair PHCIS, ‘Draft Report of Permanent Heads Committee Established to Consider the Reports of the Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security’, 10 May 1977, ASIO records.

63 Minute, Woodward, DG ASIO, to DDG, FADG and ADG C, ‘Task Force to Study RCIS Report’, 11 August 1976, ASIO records.

64 Minute, Woodward, DG ASIO, to ADGs A, B and D, and PPO, ‘Liaison with Royal Commission’, 29 March 1976, ASIO records.

65 Harders, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Memo, Fourth Report on the Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security’, 17 June 1977, ASIO records.

66 DG ASIO (Woodward) to Secretary Attorney-General’s Department (Harders), ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security: Second Report’, 16 May 1977, ASIO records.

67 Interview, D. Prowse, 2009.

68 Interview, A.R. Beard, 3 August 2012.

69 Interview, W. Mather, 28 October 2010.

70 See Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979, Federal Register of Legislation, Commonwealth of Australia, <www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00437>, accessed 15 June 2016.

71 Barnett, DG ASIO, to RDs, 5 March 1981, ASIO records.

72 Telephonic Communications (Interception) Act 1960, Federal Register of Legislation, Commonwealth of Australia, <www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C1960A00027>, accessed 15 June 2016.

73 Harders, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Memo, Fourth Report on the Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security’, 17 June 1977, ASIO records.

74 Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979, Federal Register of Legislation, Commonwealth of Australia, <www.conmlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00361>, accessed 15 June 2016.

75 P.D. Durack, ‘Telecommunications (Interception) Bill 1979’, CPD, Senate, 8 March 1979, p. 649.

76 Telex, HQ ASIO to ACT, 13 February 1976, ASIO records.

77 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to LO, 12 April 1979, ASIO records.

78 CPD, Senate, ‘Telecommunications (Interception) Bill 1979 [No.2] Second Reading’, 22 August 1979, extract from proof copy, ASIO records.

79 L.F. Bowen, CPD, H of R, ‘Telecommunications (Interception) Bill 1979 Second Reading’, 17 October 1979, extract from proof copy, ASIO records.

80 Letters, C.W.M. Court, Premier WA, to Fraser, 2 April 1979; and Fraser to Court, 28 August 1979, both from ASIO records.

81 Woodward, DG ASIO, to Secretary PM’s Department, ‘Freedom of Information Exemption of Australian Intelligence Community’, 12 September 1979, ASIO records.

82 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Ellicott, Attorney-General, 5 May 1977, ASIO records.

83 Minute, M.D. Boyle, HLG, to Legal Adviser, ‘ASIO Bill (1978)’, 9 May 1978, ASIO records.

84 Cabinet submission, Durack, Attorney-General, ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Bill: Ministerial Control Provisions’, 19 July 1978, ASIO records.

85 Durack, ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Bill 1979’, CPD, Senate, 8 March 1979, p. 647.

86 A.C.C. Menzies, FAS Justice Division, ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Bill: Comments on Media Criticism’, 20 March 1979, ASIO records.

87 ‘Director’s Conference—31 July – 1 August, 1978, New Legislation Affecting ASIO’, ASIO records.

88 Ibid.

89 Ibid.

90 Telex, to Scorpion Melbourne (HQ ASIO), 15 August 1978, ASIO records.

91 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

92 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

Chapter 2: Woodward Makes His Mark

1 Letter, DG ASIO (Woodward), ‘Review of Australian Internal Security’, 3 May 1976, ASIO records.

2 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to secretaries PM’s Department, Attorney-General’s Department, Defence, DIEA, DAS, DEIR, DOT, Transport and Treasury, 18 May 1976, ASIO records.

3 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. D.G. 9 ADG Policies and Priorities’, 12 April 1976, ASIO records.

4 Letter, DG ASIO (Woodward), ‘Review of Australian Internal Security’, 3 May 1976, ASIO records.

5 M. Grattan, ‘ASIO Probing Security in Australia’, The Age, 27 May 1976; and letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to secretaries PM’s Department, Attorney-General’s Department, Defence, DIEA, DAS, DEIR, DOT, Transport, and Treasury, 18 May 1976, ASIO records.

6 ASIO records.

7 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 30 June 1978, ASIO records.

8 ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Establishment’, 13 April 1976, ASIO records.

9 ‘B Branch—Research and Analysis’, 17 May 1976, ASIO records.

10 ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Establishment’, 13 April 1976, ASIO records.

11 Minute, B. Nienaber, ADG B, to DG ASIO, ‘Structure of ASIO’, 11 March 1976, ASIO records.

12 Woodward, DG ASIO, to NSW, ‘New Establishment—NSW Office’, 3 May 1976, ASIO records.

13 Ibid.

14 ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Establishment’, 13 April 1976, ASIO records.

15 ‘Minute 19–20 July 1977’, ASIO records.

16 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

17 ‘Minutes 19–20 July 1977’, ASIO records.

18 ‘Report of the Committee Appointed to Examine the Re-organisation of B, and D, Branches’, 15 October 1976, ASIO records.

19 ‘ASIO Staff Seminar: 23rd–25th November, 1976’, 17 December 1976, ASIO records.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid.

25 Marshall, ADG (P&P), to DDG and ADGs, ‘ASIO Residential Seminar—23–25 November 1976 Director’s Conference 15 November 1976’, 23 May 1977, ASIO records.

26 McBride (for DG ASIO), ‘Director-General’s Memorandum 14’, 8 June 1976, ASIO records.

27 ‘Minutes of the Director’s Conference 19–20 July 1977’, ASIO records.

28 Minute, P.G.M. Gilbert, D, P&D, to DG ASIO, ‘Proposed Reorganization of B/D Branches’, 4 November 1977, ASIO records.

29 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 16: Staffing—E.S. & R. Branches’, n.d., ASIO records.

30 DG ASIO (Woodward) to LOs, ‘Operational Chart & Outline—ASIO Headquarters’, 6 February 1979, ASIO records.

31 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

32 Minute, PD/2 to D, P&D, ‘Regional Office Organizational Structure’, 8 February 1978, ASIO records.

33 Telex, to RD from R1, 19 January 1978, ASIO records.

34 Minute, Gilbert, D, P&D, to DG ASIO, 8 August 1978, ASIO records.

35 DG ASIO’s handwritten notes on minute, D, P&D, to DG ASIO, 17 August 1978, ASIO records.

36 Confidential interview, 23 September 2015.

37 Minute, P. Gilbert, D, P&D, to DDG ASIO, ADGs E, S, R and P, ‘Operational Resources Group’, 12 March 1980, ASIO records.

38 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memo. No. 21: Head of Headquarters Liaison Group’, 8 October 1978, ASIO records.

39 Memo, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 2/1979: The Purpose and Functions of the Headquarters Liaison Group (HLG) of the Office of the Director-General (OIDG)’, n.d., DG ASIO, ASIO records.

40 ASIO records.

41 Ibid.

42 Ibid.

43 Ibid.

44 Interview, J.C. Griffiths, 17 March 2009.

45 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

46 Interview, A.R. Beard, 3 August 2012.

47 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

48 ‘ASIO Directors’ Conference: 4–5 May 1981: Director-General’s Opening Address’, ASIO records.

49 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

50 Ibid.

51 Telex, HQ ASIO to all regions, 4 June 1980, ASIO records.

52 Minute, DDG ASIO to ADG R, 13 June 1980, ‘Warrants under New Asio [sic] Bill’, ASIO records.

53 Telex, HQ ASIO to all regions, 5 September 1980, ASIO records.

54 Report, A.L. Heilig, February 1981, ASIO records.

55 Ibid.

56 Ibid.

57 ASIO records.

58 ‘Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, ASIO records.

59 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 30 June 1978, ASIO records.

60 G.J. Yeend, Chair PHCIS, to Fraser, ‘Intelligence Community—Budget Estimates for 1978/79’, 7 July 1978, ASIO records.

61 Gilbert (for DG ASIO) to ADGs and RDs, ‘Operational Finance Procedures’, 20 December 1977, ASIO records.

62 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. D.G. 16 Expenditure on Official Hospitality’, ASIO records.

63 Memo, August 1981, ASIO records.

64 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, to senior HQ and regional staff, ‘Three Year Forward Estimates and Budget Estimates’, 2 December 1980, ASIO records.

65 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

66 Memo, DG ASIO to ADGs, RDs, et al., ‘Internal Audit’, 22 April 1981, ASIO records.

67 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

68 Minute, C, C2, to ADG C, ‘C2 Section Staffing and Operating Problems’, 21 January 1981, ASIO records.

69 Memo, DG ASIO, ‘Establishment of ADP Management Committee and ADP Systems Advisory Committee’, 18 August 1980, ASIO records.

70 Confidential interview, 29 October 2010.

71 Interview, I.M. Thomas, 21 March 2013.

72 Minute, Mahony, DG ASIO, to Attorney-General, 27 January 1976, ASIO records.

73 Ibid.

74 Ibid.

75 Minute, Attachment B, Mahony (DG ASIO) to AG, 27 January 1976, ASIO records.

76 DG ASIO, February 1979, ASIO records.

77 Ibid.

78 Ibid.

79 Woodward, DG ASIO, to RDs, ‘Members of Parliament Reporting and Recording Procedures’, 11 May 1976, ASIO records.

80 Minute, Woodward, DG ASIO, to DDG and ADGs, D, P&D, PLO, ‘Members of Parliament—Reporting and Recording Procedures’, 11 May 1976, ASIO records.

81 Minute, D1 (B) to Registrar, 14 May 1976, ASIO records.

82 Minute, Acting Branch Director, to ADG B, 25 January 1977, ASIO records.

83 Minute, S3-J to C, SS, 6 March 1980, ASIO records.

84 Minute, Nienaber, ADG S, to DG ASIO 18 March 1980; and memo, 10 December 1973, both from ASIO records.

85 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 31 January 1979, ASIO records.

86 Woodward, ‘Draft Ministerial Statement’ (submitted to Attorney-General), 31 January 1979, ASIO records.

87 Ibid.

88 Ibid.

89 Ibid.

90 Ibid.

91 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

92 Ibid.

93 ‘Statement by the Prime Minister in the House of Representatives on Thursday 5 May 1977 on Intelligence and Security Arrangements’, ASIO records.

94 DG ASIO to Secretary NCDC, ‘Proposed New Headquarters Premises for the Australian Security Intelligence Organization in Canberra’, 11 February 1977, ASIO records.

95 Report, August 1981; and letter, DG ASIO to Secretary PM’s Department, ‘Location of ASIO Headquarters’, 20 July 1979, both from ASIO records.

96 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, ‘The Proposed Move of ASIO Headquarters from Melbourne to Canberra’, 24 May 1982, ASIO records.

97 Memo, DG ASIO, ‘The Move to Canberra’, 30 April 1980, ASIO records.

98 Cabinet submission 644, ‘Construction of a Building for the Australian Security Intelligence Organization Headquarters’, n.d. ASIO records.

99 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, ‘Site for ASIO Headquarters in Canberra’, 26 July 1979, ASIO records.

100 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, ‘The Proposed Move of ASIO Headquarters from Melbourne to Canberra’, 24 May 1982, ASIO records.

101 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

102 ‘ASIO Directors’ Conference: 4–5 May 1981: Director-General’s Opening Address’, ASIO records.

103 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, ‘The Proposed Move of ASIO Headquarters from Melbourne to Canberra’, 24 May 1982, ASIO records.

104 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 4 September 1981, ASIO records.

105 ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 8/82: New Headquarters Building—Canberra’, 30 August 1982, ASIO records.

106 Interview, M.D. Boyle, 6 August 2012.

107 Interview, G.P. Walsh, 12 June 2012.

108 Woodward, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

109 Ibid.

110 See G. Sorby, ‘ASIO Appointment Escapes Scrutiny’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 August 1981.

111 G.J. Evans, cited in ‘Labor Urges ASIO Clamp’, The Sun (Melbourne), 8 August 1981.

112 Woodward, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

113 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 193.

114 Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Message from the Director-General’, 7 September 1981, ASIO records.

115 P. Nicholson & R. Nankivell, ‘Judge Left a Remarkable Legacy’, The Age, 28 April 2010.

116 Interview, A.R. Beard, 3 August 2012.

117 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 9 March 1983, ASIO records.

118 ASIO, ‘Annual Report 1981–1982’, September 1982, ASIO records.

Chapter 3: Personnel

1 RCIS, Second Report, ASIO records.

2 ‘ASIO’s New Deputy Head Appointed’, Sydney Morning Herald, 26 May 1976; and B. Toohey, ‘Govt’s New ASIO Appointment’, Australian Financial Review, 25 May 1976.

3 A.K. Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 18/1986: Senior Management Appointments’, 22 September 1986, ASIO records.

4 ‘Minutes of the Director’s Conference 19–20 July 1977’, ASIO records.

5 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

6 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

7 McBride, ADG P, ‘Recruitment of Staff, 1977–78’, 6 June 1977, ASIO records.

8 C, Personnel Services, to ADG P, Minute, ‘Staff Recruitment’, 11 March 1980, ASIO records.

9 ‘Minutes of the Director’s Conference 19–20 July 1977’, ASIO records.

10 ASIO records.

11 Ibid.

12 Confidential interview, 17 August 2010.

13 ASIO records.

14 Ibid.

15 Minute, SR2 to DSR, 21 November 1977, ASIO records.

16 Report, ‘Communist Party of Australia (Marxist/Leninist)’, 27 June 1977, ASIO records.

17 ASIO records.

18 Minute, Griffiths, ADG P, to ADG X, ‘Director’s Conference—4/5 May 1981: Questions Without Notice’, 29 April 1981, ASIO records.

19 D, Recruitment, ‘Recruitment Procedures for Employment within ASIO’, D/Recruitment, 29 June 1977, ASIO records.

20 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 7: Promotions and Appointments Committee (Screening)’, 4 May 1977, ASIO records.

21 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. D.G. 14: Staffing and Establishment Procedures’, 8 June 1976, ASIO records.

22 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 1/1979: Personnel Assessments Panel’, ASIO records.

23 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 2: New System of Remuneration for Members of ASIO’, 22 March 1978, ASIO records.

24 ASIO records.

25 Minute, October 1976, ASIO records.

26 ASIO records.

27 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

28 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to R.W. Cole, Chair PSB, and A.R. Neaves, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, 15 April 1981, ASIO records.

29 Minute, D, Recruitment, 29 June 1977, ASIO records.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

33 ‘B Branch’, 27 January 1976, ASIO records.

34 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 1: Tertiary Education for ASIO Officers’, 17 January 1977, ASIO records.

35 Confidential interview, 7 October 2015.

36 Minute, McBride, ADG P, 3 June 1977, ASIO records.

37 Minute, C, Personnel Services, to ADG P, 6 July 1979, ASIO records.

38 ‘ASIO Directors’ Conference 4–5 May 1981: Director-General’s Opening Address’, ASIO records.

39 ASIO records.

40 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No 18’, 26 July 1976, ASIO records.

41 ASIO records.

42 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

43 Ibid.

44 Interview, A.R. Beard, 3 August 2012.

45 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 2: New System of Remuneration for Members of ASIO’, 22 March 1978, ASIO records.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 2: New System of Remuneration for Members of ASIO’, 22 March 1978, ASIO records.

49 Minute, McBride, ADG P, 27 April 1978, ASIO records.

50 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 6/1978: Temporary Transfer and Higher Duties Allowance’, ASIO records.

51 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 11/1979: Salaries, Allowances and Career Structure for Clerical Officers in ASIO’, 25 October 1979, ASIO records.

52 Telex, Sydney to HQ ASIO, ‘For ADG/P from RD’, 8 June 1978, ASIO records.

53 Memo, McBride, ADG P, ‘National and Regional Staff Representatives’, 21 August 1978, ASIO records.

54 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 4/1978: Election of “National” Staff Representative’, 12 May 1978, ASIO records.

55 Minute, National Staff Representative to DG ASIO (with annotations from Woodward), ‘Staff Association Proposal’, 30 June 1980, ASIO records.

56 Minute, ADG A to DG ASIO, ‘Staff Agreements’, 8 April 1975, ASIO records.

57 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

58 Minute, C.H. Brown, FADG, to D, Training, ‘Training New Recruits’, 10 February 1976, ASIO records.

59 R.H. Rodger, D, Training, to ADG A, ‘Review of ASIO Training Requirements’, 14 December 1976, ASIO records.

60 Minute, Rodger, D, Training, to ADG P, ‘A Proposal for a Training Section Programme and Establishment’, 17 June 1977, ASIO records.

61 Woodward, DG ASIO, to DDG, ADGs and RDs, ‘Directors’ Conference 28 November 1977’, 14 November 1977, ASIO records.

62 McBride, ADG P, ‘1978 Generalist Officer Development Program’, 8 November 1977, ASIO records.

63 Memos, Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 7/1980: Generalist Officer Development Programme’, 11 November 1980; and ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 12/1981: Generalist Officer Development Programme’, 17 November 1981, both from ASIO records.

64 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No 4: Responsibilities and Structure of Personnel Branch’, 20 April 1977, ASIO records.

65 Minute, C, Training, to DG ASIO and ADG P, ‘ASIO Training’, 8 October 1979, ASIO records.

66 McBride, ADG P, to DDG ADGs and RDs, ‘Proposed Generalist Officer Development Programme for 1980’, 7 December 1979, ASIO records.

Chapter 4: Confronting a New Face in Terrorism

1 ‘Hitch-hiker to Goulburn Sought’, Canberra Times, 17 September 1977.

2 R. Landers, Who Bombed the Hilton?, pp. 71–2.

3 Telex, to ADG B from 2B2, ‘Incident Involving Colonel Singh of Indian High Commission’, 19 September 1977, ASIO records.

4 Report, ‘Ananda Marga (AM) in Australia’, September 1992, ASIO records; and ‘Verdict’, Canberra Times, 19 August 1978.

5 Anon., ‘Ananda Marga’, Hinduism Today, May 1989, <www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/makepfp.php?itemid=621>, accessed 15 June 2016.

6 Minutes, C.H. Brown, FADG, to SC, B, ‘India—Universal Freedom Movement and Ananda Marga’, 2 September 1975; and B2D to ADG B, 7 April 1976, both from ASIO records.

7 ‘Man Stabbed, Note Left: Envoy’, Canberra Times, 20 October 1977.

8 Telex, to ADG B from 2B2, ‘Incident Involving Colonel Singh of Indian High Commission’, 19 September 1977, ASIO records.

9 Minute, B2D to ADG B, 7 April 1976, ASIO records.

10 Telex, for CB2 from H, HLG, 16 September 1977, ASIO records.

11 Telex, for DG (copy to C, B2) from H, HLG, ‘IDC Meeting on Indian Military Attaché Incident’, 16 September 1977, ASIO records.

12 Note, B2A, 15 September 1977, ASIO records.

13 DDG’s annotations on minute, C, B2, to DG ASIO (through ADG B), ‘Ananda Marga’, 21 September 1977; and telex, HQ ASIO to regional offices, ‘Ananda Marga’, 22 September 1977, both from ASIO records.

14 Telex, HQ ASIO to H, HLG, ‘Ananda Marga’, 14 October 1977, ASIO records.

15 Landers, Who Bombed the Hilton?, pp. 64, 91.

16 DG ASIO to RDs, ‘Demonstrations and Threats Directed against ASIO in Response to the Proposed New Legislation’, 11 October 1978, ASIO records.

17 Letter, J.M. Davis, Commissioner CPF, to Deputy Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Ananda Marga’, 20 October 1977, ASIO records.

18 Minute, C, B2 to ADG B, ‘Ananda Marga’, 10 November 1977, ASIO records.

19 Minute, Barnett, DDG ASIO, to ADG B, ‘Ananda Marga’, 10 November 1977, ASIO records.

20 Report, ‘Report to the Special Interdepartmental Committee on Protection Against Violence’, 1 February 1978, ASIO records.

21 Memo, 15 December 1977, ASIO records.

22 Memo, 19 December 1977; and record of conversation, 20 December 1977, both from ASIO records.

23 Telex, for C, Ops, from C, PMV, ‘Ananda Marga (AM)’, 9 January 1978, ASIO records.

24 Minute, Acting C, SS, to S4-A1 (through ADG S), ‘Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting (CHOGRM) 13–16 February 1978’, 2 February 1978, ASIO records.

25 Telex, HQ ASIO to DAS, ‘CHOGRM SITREP 6.2.78’, 6 February 1978; minute, S, S5, to DG ASIO through ADG S, ‘CHOGRM’, 6 February 1978; and telex, HQ ASIO to HLG, ‘CHOGRM SITREP’, 13 February 1978, all from ASIO records.

26 Memo, D. Sadleir, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Report to Staff Hilton Hotel Bombing’, 15 February 1995, ASIO records.

27 Report, ‘Ananda Marga (AM) in Australia’, September 1992, ASIO records.

28 Ibid.

29 IGIS report, ‘Complaint by Mr Richard John Seary against the Australian Security Intelligence Organization: Final Report’, 21 September 1994; and report, ‘Ananda Marga (AM) in Australia’, September 1992, both from ASIO records.

30 Memo, Woodward, 9 June 1978, ASIO records.

31 Telex, ‘CHOGRM SITREP 10’, For Gp One from G4, 13 February 1978, ASIO records.

32 Interview, J.M. Fraser, 16 November 2011.

33 Landers, Who Bombed the Hilton?

34 Minute, DG ASIO to RDs, R1 to ADG R, ‘COMPOL and Ananda Marga’, 19 June 1978, ASIO records.

35 ‘Demonstrations and Threats Directed against ASIO in Response to the Proposed New Legislation’, 11 October 1978, ASIO records.

36 Telex, HQ ASIO to DAS, ‘CHOGRM SITREP 16.2.78’, 16 February 1978, ASIO records.

37 Telex, HQ ASIO to CLO London, ‘Ananda Marga’, 21 February 1978, ASIO records.

38 Interview, L.V. Pollard, 25 November 2011.

39 IGIS report, ‘Complaint by Mr Richard John Seary against the Australian Security Intelligence Organization: Final Report’, 21 September 1994, ASIO records.

40 Ibid.

41 Memo, 12 June 1978, ASIO records.

42 Telex, S, G4 NSW, to C, PMV HQ, 19 September 1978, ASIO records.

43 Memo, 17 October 1978, ASIO records.

44 Telex, S, G4 NSW, to R5 HQ, 13 March 1979, ASIO records.

45 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon Mr W.G. Hayden, MP, on 10th May 1978’, ASIO records.

46 Ibid.

47 DG ASIO to RDs, ‘Demonstrations and Threats Directed against ASIO in Response to the Proposed New Legislation’, 11 October 1978, ASIO records.

48 Report, ‘Report to the Special Interdepartmental Committee on Protection Against Violence’, 23 June 1978, ASIO records.

49 ‘Yagoona Incident—15 June 1978’, n.d., ASIO records.

50 Molomby, Spies, Bombs and the Path of Bliss, p. 48; and record of conversation, ‘IGIS Inquiry into Seary Allegation’, 31 March 1992, ASIO records.

51 Anderson, Take Two, Chapter 6.

52 Molomby, Spies, Bombs and the Path of Bliss; and Landers, Who Bombed the Hilton?, p. 198.

53 Telex, S, G4 NSW, to C, PMV HQ, 19 September 1978; and minute, G1 to ‘everybody’, ‘Tabling in Parliament of Seary Report’, 23 June 1995, both from ASIO records.

54 DG ASIO to RDs, ‘Demonstrations and Threats Directed against ASIO in Response to the Proposed New Legislation’, 11 October 1978, ASIO records.

55 Landers, Who Bombed the Hilton?, pp. 80–1, 108.

56 DG ASIO to RDs, ‘Demonstrations and Threats Directed against ASIO in Response to the Proposed New Legislation’, 11 October 1978, ASIO records.

57 Ibid.

58 Memo, 9 April 1979, ASIO records.

59 Minute, R1 to Acting DG ASIO, 15 August 1979, ASIO records.

60 Telex, S2 NSW to R5 HQ, 18 September 1979, ASIO records.

61 Memo, 4 October 1979, ASIO records.

62 Memo, Woodward, 3 December 1979, ASIO records.

63 Memo, 2 May 1982, ASIO records.

64 Telex, ASIO NSW to HQ ASIO, 28 February 1983, ASIO records.

65 ASIO records.

66 Memo, RD Victoria to HQ ASIO, 15 February 1979, ASIO records.

67 Memo, 9 April 1979, ASIO records.

68 Telex, ASIO Victoria to HQ ASIO, 6 September 1979, ASIO records.

69 Memo, 1 October 1979, ASIO records.

70 Memo, 3 October 1979, ASIO records.

71 Memo, 23 September 1980, ASIO records.

72 Memo, 8 June 1982, ASIO records.

73 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, 23 January 1981; and memo, n.d., both in ASIO records.

74 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, 23 January 1981, ASIO records.

75 Memo, 31 October 1980, and handwritten approval by Barnett, DDG, 12 December 1980, ASIO records.

76 Record of conversation, 6 January 1981, ASIO records.

77 Note for file, R5 and R.A. Knight, C, R2, n.d., ASIO records.

78 Memo, 26 January 1981, ASIO records.

79 Record of conversation, 3 March 1981, ASIO records.

80 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, 12 May 1981, ASIO records.

81 Note for file, A.J. McFarlane, H, HLG, ‘Police Raids on the New Humanist Faction of Ananda Marga’, 24 September 1981, ASIO records.

82 J. Knewstub, ‘CHOGM’, The Herald (Melbourne), 24 September 1981.

83 Telex, HQ ASIO to PM’s Department, DAS, PSCC and Attorney-General’s Department, 25 September 1981, ASIO records.

84 Memo, Nienaber, Acting DG ASIO, 4 November 1981, ASIO records.

85 Telex, C, R2, to S, R, 22 December 1981, ASIO records.

86 Telex, HQ ASIO to ASIO NSW, 19 January 1982, ASIO records.

87 Minute, S4D to R5, 26 January 1982, ASIO records.

88 Memo, 28 January 1982, ASIO records.

89 Memo, Barnett, 26 April 1982, ASIO records.

90 Record of conversation, 30 April 1982, ASIO records.

91 Minute, S4D to R5, 27 July 1982, ASIO records.

92 Ibid.

93 Minute, S, S5 to Acting C, R2, 19 January 1983; memo, 27 January 1983; minute, R2A to S5C, March 1983, all from ASIO records.

94 IGIS report, ‘Complaint by Mr Richard John Seary against the Australian Security Intelligence Organization: Final Report’, 21 September 1994, ASIO records.

95 Memo, Sadleir, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Report to Staff Hilton Hotel Bombing’, 15 February 1995, ASIO records.

96 Minute, G1 to ‘everybody’, ‘Tabling in Parliament of Seary Report’, 23 June 1995, ASIO records.

97 Report, ‘Ananda Marga (AM) in Australia’, September 1992, ASIO records.

98 D. Marr, ‘Special Branch’s Greatest Triumph’, National Times, 25–31 January 1985.

99 Minute, G1 to ‘everybody’, ‘Tabling in Parliament of Seary Report’, 23 June 1995, ASIO records; and T. Molomby, ‘Background Briefing’, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Current Information Section Transcript, 26 September 1982

100 See Landers, Who Bombed the Hilton?

101 Evans, Attorney-General, ‘Statement of Reasons, High Court of Australia’, 8 February 1984; and minute, C, PMV, to DG ASIO (through ADG S), ‘High Court Appeal—Yagoona Three’, 15 February 1984, both from ASIO records.

102 Minute, G1 to ‘everybody’, ‘Tabling in Parliament of Seary Report’, 23 June 1995; and letter, R.J. Holdich, IGIS, to ASIO, 24 March 1992, ASIO records.

103 Minute, G1 to ‘everybody’, ‘Tabling in Parliament of Seary Report’, 23 June 1995; and letter, I.M. Thomas (for DG ASIO) to Holdich, IGIS, ‘Ananda Marga’, February 1992, ASIO records.

104 IGIS report, ‘Complaint by Mr Richard John Seary against the Australian Security Intelligence Organization: Final Report’, 21 September 1994, ASIO records.

105 Report, Sadleir, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Report to Staff Hilton Hotel Bombing’, 15 February 1995, ASIO records.

Chapter 5: Combating Terrorism

1 See Horner, SAS; and Blaxland, The Australian Army from Whitlam to Howard.

2 Letter, DG ASIO to DG NZSIS, ‘Letter Bombs—Australia’, December 1975; and telex, RD ACT to HQ ASIO, ‘SIDC-DV: Precautionary and Alert Arrangements in Respect of Letter Bombs’, 11 December 1975, both from ASIO records.

3 Telex, HQ ASIO to DAS (Evans), ‘Students for Australian Independence’, 1 October 1976, ASIO records.

4 Telex, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, ‘Demonstration against the Prime Minister Monash University—23 August 1976’, 25 August 1976, ASIO records.

5 See ‘Mob Jostles, Spits at Fraser Party: Ceremony Stopped’, Sydney Morning Herald, 24 August 1976; and ‘Unionists Helped Organise Protest’, The Australian, 24 August 1976.

6 Barnett, Acting DG ASIO, ‘Record of Conversation with Prime Minister on Thursday, 26th August, 1976, at 1600 hours’, ASIO records.

7 Memo, Woodward to ADGs and RDs, ‘ASIO’s Role Concerning Demonstrations and Domestic Violence’, 12 October 1976, ASIO records.

8 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, to ADGs and RDs, ‘Australian Universities: Contact by ASIO with Their Staff or Students’, 3 August 1978, ASIO records.

9 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to C.P.J. Woods, Commissioner AFP, 6 June 1980, ASIO records.

10 Letter, Woods, Commissioner AFP, to Woodward, DG ASIO, 6 January 1981, ASIO records.

11 Letter, Barnett, Acting DG ASIO, to Woods, Commissioner AFP, 12 January 1981, ASIO records.

12 ‘Protective Security Circular No. 25: Commercial Facsimile Machines—Security’, 12 January 1976; and ‘Protective Security Circular no. 35: National Security Alarm Systems’, 16 November 1979, both from ASIO records.

13 ‘Protective Security Circular No. 321: Security of Telephones’, 14 April 1975, ASIO records.

14 Letter, DG ASIO to Durack, Attorney-General, 13 September 1977, ASIO records.

15 G. Walsh, ‘Rift over Soviet “Bug” Find’, The Sun (Melbourne), 15 November 1978; and G. O’Neill, ‘Russians Bugged Our Embassy’, The Australian, 15 November 1978.

16 Minute, C.D. Smith, CELO, ‘Interview of Commonwealth Police Officers Returning from Moscow: Senior Constable Geoffrey Lloyd Williams’, 20 August 1980, ASIO records.

17 G. Walsh, ‘Rift over Soviet “Bug” Find’, The Sun (Melbourne), 15 November 1978; and G. O’Neill, ‘Russians Bugged Our Embassy’, The Australian, 15 November 1978.

18 P. Costigan, ‘PM warns on Soviet “Bugs” ’, The Herald (Melbourne), 15 November 1978.

19 ASIO records.

20 Minute, S1 B to A-C, SS, ‘Communist Party of Australia: Threat Assessment for the 1980 Federal Election Campaign’, 4 August 1980, ASIO records.

21 Minute, ‘1980—Federal Elections’, S-5A to S S5, 14 November 1980, ASIO records.

22 Record of conversation, ‘Brigadier Mike Jeffery, Deputy Head, PSCC, on 26th October, 1981 with Director-General’, ASIO records.

23 Interview, J.M. Fraser, 16 November 2011.

24 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 169.

25 Letter, DG ASIO to A.S. Cooley, Chair PSB, and Harders, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, 4 November 1976, ASIO records.

26 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

27 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979: Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

28 Note for file, S6-A, ‘VIP Protection—The Prime Minister’, 31 March 1980, ASIO records.

29 Telex, ‘VIP Protection—Prime Minister’, 31 March 1980, ASIO records.

30 Cabinet minute, ‘Security Arrangements for the Prime Minister’, 31 March 1980, ASIO records.

31 ‘Demonstration against the Prime Minister at Opening of the Harold McCracken Nursing Home, Corner Nicholson and Church Streets North Fitzroy, Afternoon of 30 March 1980’, ASIO records.

32 Ibid.

33 Telex, HQ ASIO to all regions, 27 August 1976, ASIO records.

34 Minute, H, HLG, to HQ ASIO, ‘Meeting of SIDC (DV) and (CT) on Friday 30 September, 1977’, 5 October 1977, ASIO records.

35 Minute, Boyle, HLG, to DG ASIO, DDG, ADG S and ADG C, ‘Recommendations of the Joint HLG/ACT Working Party on Counter-Terrorism and Crisis Management: The Role of ASIO in Counter-Terrorism’, 12 June 1978, ASIO records.

36 Minute, Boyle, HLG, to DG ASIO, ADG R, Legal Adviser and Technical Adviser, ‘Working Party on Counter-Terrorist Contingency Planning: Technical Support to the Police’, 19 June 1978, ASIO records.

37 Quoted in Anderson, Take Two.

38 ‘Statement by the Prime Minister on Protective Security and Counter-Terrorism in the House of Representatives on 23 February 1978’, ASIO records.

39 Ibid.

40 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Hope, PSR Commissioner, 1 March 1978, ASIO records.

41 G. O’Neill, ‘Overseas Aid Enlisted in Terrorism Fight’, The Australian, 31 August 1978.

42 Letter, M.J.M. Leslie, SLO Washington, to HQ ASIO, ‘Protective Security Review’, 1 September 1978, ASIO records.

43 Submission, ‘ASIO Role in Counter-Terrorism and VIP Protection’, October 1978, ASIO records.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid.

47 ‘Protecting Australia from Terrorism’, The Australian, 16 November 1979.

48 Letter, Hope to Fraser, ‘Protective Security Review’, 5 March 1979, ASIO records.

49 Draft, ‘Report of the Protective Security Review by Mr Justice Hope’, 6 September 1979, ASIO records.

50 ‘Summary of the Main Points of Cabinet Decision No. 11704 (IS) of 22 May 1980’, ASIO records.

51 Minute, to C, C2, ‘Planning to Meet the Expanded ASIO Responsibilities Flowing From Government Acceptance of ASIO’s Proposals Regarding the IPSG’, 4 June 1980; and minute, McBride, ADG C, to DG ASIO (with annotations), ‘Cabinet Decision on PHCIS Report on Certain Protective Security Review Recommendations’, 5 June 1980, both from ASIO records.

52 Minute, Nienaber, H, HLG, to ADGs C, E and S, ‘ASIO Assessments of Threats to Departments’, 30 October 1980, ASIO records.

53 Minute, A.R. Beard, C2C, to ADG C (through C, C2), ‘ASIO Assessments of Threats to Departments’, 18 November 1980, ASIO records.

54 Minute, H, HLG, to ADG C (for info DG) ‘Cabinet Decision 11704: Implications for ASIO’, 6 June 1980, ASIO records.

55 Minute, H, HLG, to ADGs S, C, E, P and R, and D, IMB, ‘Arrangements for Co-ordinating the Work of the HLG’, 17 April 1980, ASIO records.

56 Minute, Beard, C2C, to ADG C (through C, C2), ‘ASIO Assessments of Threats to Departments’, 18 November 1980; and aide-mémoire, ‘ASIO Threat Assessments’, n.d., both from ASIO records.

57 C2C to C2H, ‘Protective Security Policy: Threat Assessments’, 25 August 1983, ASIO records.

58 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 14 November 1978, ASIO records.

59 Ibid.

60 Ibid.

61 See M. Finnane, ‘The Munich Olympics Massacre and the Development of Counter-Terrorism in Australia’, Intelligence and National Security, vol. 30, no. 6, 2015, pp. 817–36.

62 Minute, C, B2, to C, External Liaison, 24 October 1977, ASIO records.

63 Ellicott, Attorney-General, ‘ASIO Seminar on P.M.V and Terrorism: Opening Address’, 11 February 1976, ASIO records.

64 G.V. Halliday, Chair SIDCs, to DG ASIO, ‘Counter Terrorist Contingency Planning: CTOPS: Seconded ASIO Officer’, 12 October 1976, ASIO records.

65 Letter, DG ASIO to Halliday, Attorney-General’s Department, 4 May 1977; and letter, Halliday, Chair SIDCs, to DG ASIO, 13 May 1977, both from ASIO records.

66 Minute, to RD ACT, ‘Exercise “Can Top” ’, 8 March 1976, ASIO records.

67 Minute, R.H. King, CTOPS, to HQ ASIO, ‘Exercise Sea Gull’, June 1976, ASIO records.

68 Telex, HQ ASIO to CPC Canberra and CPC Sydney, 28 May 1976, ASIO records.

69 Minute, H.M. Small, C2-C, to C, C2, ‘Exercise Sea Gull’, 2 June 1976, ASIO records.

70 PM’s Department report, ‘Some observations on matters arising from Exercise Sea Gull’, 18 June 1976, ASIO records.

71 ‘Notes of Working Party on Counter Terrorist Exercise Planning Held on 1 September 1976, Administrative Building, Canberra’, n.d., ASIO records.

72 See telex, HQ ASIO to DEA, 10 December 1976, ASIO records.

73 SIDC-CT report, ‘Matters Arising from Exercise Bull Finch’, March 1977, ASIO records.

74 POPWG, ‘National Anti-Terrorist Plan’, Melbourne, 9 July 1979, ASIO records.

75 General instructions, ‘Exercise Bellbird’, 27 July 1978; and JEPG, M. Brown, PSCC, ‘Notes on Meeting Held at 0930 hrs, 15 June 1978’, 15 June 1978, both from ASIO records.

76 Telex, ASIO ACT to ADGs S and C, 28 June 1978, ASIO records.

77 General instructions, ‘Exercise Bellbird’, 27 July 1978; and JEPG, M. Brown, PSCC, ‘Notes on Meeting Held at 0930 hrs, 15 June 1978’, 15 June 1978, ASIO records.

78 Minute, HLG, to H, HLG, ‘Exercise Bellbird’, 13 September 1978, ASIO records.

79 See, for instance, minute, H, HLG, to HQ ASIO, ‘Exercise Backdrop’, 7 September 1977; and T.H. Mooney, PSCC, to H, HLG, ‘Matters Arising from Exercises Sand piper and Back Drop’, 20 January 1978, both from ASIO records.

80 Minute, Woodward, DG ASIO, to ADG S and H, HLG, ‘Extract from Minutes of Heads of Agencies Meeting Thursday, 6th September, 1979’, 4 October 1979, ASIO records.

81 S. Wright, ‘Bureaucrats Ignored Blackmail Risk: Fraser’, Weekend West, 1 January 2011.

82 DG ASIO to SLO Melbourne, ‘Protection of Oil Installations’, 30 July 1980, ASIO records.

83 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 169.

84 Blaxland, The Australian Army from Whitlam to Howard, p. 50.

85 Horner, SAS.

86 DG ASIO to Durack, Attorney-General, ‘Briefing Notes—Cabinet Submission for a Technical Support Unit’, 15 December 1980, ASIO records.

87 Minute, Marshall, ADG R, to DG ASIO (cc DDG), ‘Technical Support Unit’, 19 September 1980, ASIO records.

88 ‘Technical Support Unit’, n.d.; and ‘Public Presentation—Minister’s Proposals’, n.d., both from ASIO records.

89 ‘Technical Support Unit’, n.d., ASIO records.

90 Minute, W.T. Robertson, Chair PSCC, to Minister, DAS, ‘Briefing Notes on Cabinet Submission 4491: Counter Terrorism: Technical Support Unit’, 7 January 1980, ASIO records.

91 Minute, McFarlane, H, HLG, to DDG, ‘The NATP, the CPC and the Responsibilities of ASIO’, 8 March 1982, ASIO records.

92 DG ASIO to Durack, Attorney-General, ‘Briefing Notes—Cabinet Submission for a Technical Support Unit’, 15 December 1980, ASIO records.

93 Minute, Marshall, ADG R, to DG ASIO (cc DDG), ‘Technical Support Unit’, 19 September 1980, ASIO records.

94 SAC-PAV, ‘Joint Commonwealth and Queensland Counter Terrorist Exercise: Exercise Sun State, 29 April – 1 May 1981’, n.d.; and ‘Summary Record of Committee Proceedings’, 1 May 1981, both from ASIO records.

95 ‘Notes on the Debriefing Following the Conclusion of Exercise Sunstate at 1000 hours on 1 May, 1981’, n.d., ASIO records.

96 Minute, Boyle, EO, HLG, to DDG, and ADGs S, C, R et al., ‘Summary Record of the Inter-Branch Meeting at ASIO Headquarters, 30 November 1981’, 8 December 1981, ASIO records.

97 Minute, Boyle, PSO, HLG, to DDG, ‘The NATP, the CPC and the Responsibilities of ASIO’, 1 March 1982, ASIO records.

98 Minute, Boyle, PSO, HLG, to DDG, ‘The NATP, the CPC and the Responsibilities of ASIO’, 1 March 1982, ASIO records.

99 Report, SSC, ‘Security Planning and Arrangements for the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, 1981’, August 1982, ASIO records.

100 Ibid.

101 Ibid.

102 Ibid.

103 Ibid.

104 Record of conversation, Barnett, DG ASIO, 15 October 1981, ASIO records.

105 Letter, Fraser, PM, to Barnett, DG ASIO, 27 October 1981, ASIO records.

106 Minute, A, O-i-C, TSU, to ADG R, ‘Exercise Maroon Victory, Brisbane, 30 July – 2 August 1982’, 17 August 1982; and ‘Exercise Game Run’, n.d., both from ASIO records.

107 ‘XII Commonwealth Games 1982: Intelligence Collection Brief Queensland’, ASIO records.

108 ADG S to DG ASIO, ‘Charles Perkins’, 19 August 1982, ASIO records.

109 Telex, HQ ASIO to all regions, ‘Commonwealth Games—Arrangements for Intelligence Briefings in Brisbane’, 13 September 1982, ASIO records.

110 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, ‘Commonwealth Games’, 27 September 1982, ASIO records.

111 Interview, L.C. McBride, 14 September 2011.

112 Ibid.

113 Minute, to ADG S, ‘Prime Ministerial Request’, 7 October 1982, ASIO records.

114 Minute, P.J. Browne to ADG S, ‘Prime Ministerial Enquiry’, 7 October 1982, ASIO records.

115 Interview, McBride, 14 September 2011.

116 Telex, DG ASIO to all regions, ‘Commonwealth Games’, 11 October 1982, ASIO records.

Chapter 6: Terrorism from Overseas

1 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

2 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

3 ASIO records.

4 Letter, Woodward to Fraser, PM, 15 July 1976; and minute, ADG D to DG ASIO, 4 August 1976, both from ASIO records.

5 Report, ‘Visit to Australia of Hamid Meziani March–July 1976’, ASIO records.

6 Letter, Woodward to Fraser, PM, 15 July 1976; and minute, ADGD to DG ASIO, 4 August 1976, both from ASIO records.

7 Minute, ADG D to ADG B, ‘Ali Kazak’, 2 August 1976; and minute, B2B to ADG D (through C, B2), 23 June 1976, both from ASIO records.

8 Telex, for C, B2, 2 June 1976, ASIO records.

9 Letter, RD Victoria to HQ ASIO, ‘Ali Kazak ((HQ) K/42/73), 22 February 1983, ASIO records.

10 Telex, HQ ASIO to Canberra, ‘Palestine Information Office’, 30 May 1986, ASIO records.

11 ‘Palestine Liberation Organisation’, CPD (Senate), 2 March 1989, p. 297.

12 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

13 Rejectionists were those unprepared to engage in any negotiation with the state of Israel.

14 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

15 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 12 October 1978, ASIO records.

16 Report, ASIO records.

17 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 178.

18 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon Mr W.G. Hayden, MP, on 10th May 1978’, ASIO records.

19 Minute, DG ASIO to ADG B, March 1976, ASIO records.

20 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, ‘Iraq—Diplomatic Representation in Australia’, 2 February 1979, ASIO records.

21 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon Mr W.G. Hayden, MP, on 10th May 1978’, ASIO records.

22 Letters, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 13 November 1980; and DG ASIO to Secretary PM’s Department, ‘Violence within the Arab Community’, 25 November 1980, both from ASIO records.

23 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon. N.A. Brown, QC, MP, Acting Attorney-General on Thursday, 7th October 1982’; and minute, DG ASIO to RD Victoria, ‘Haydar Haj Ismail Aka Aboud Aboud’, 25 June 1986, both from ASIO records.

24 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon. N.A. Brown, QC, MP, Acting Attorney-General on Thursday, 7th October 1982’, ASIO records.

25 Memo, ASIO records.

26 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon. N.A. Brown, QC, MP, Acting Attorney-General on Thursday, 7th October 1982’, ASIO records.

27 Intelligence report, 25 June 1980; and memo, 26 November 1980, both from ASIO records.

28 Memo, RD Victoria to HQ ASIO, ‘Al Fatah’, 26 June 1980, ASIO records.

29 Minute, ADG S, to DG ASIO, 26 June 1980, ASIO records.

30 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

31 Memo, 29 June 1980, ASIO records.

32 ASIO records.

33 Minute, C, PMV, to ADG P, 4 August 1980; and telex, ASIO Victoria to HQ ASIO, 3 October 1980, both from ASIO records.

34 Memo, 21 August 1980, ASIO records.

35 Memo, 16 December 1980, ASIO records.

36 Telex, S, R NSW, to C, R2, and C, PMV HQ, 28 November 1980, ASIO records.

37 Minute, C, PMV, to S, S4, 13 March 1981, ASIO records.

38 Memo, 30 April 1981, ASIO records.

39 Telex, S2 NSW to S4-A HQ, 11 June 1982, ASIO records.

40 Telex, HQ ASIO to ASIO NSW, 5 July 1982, ASIO records.

41 ASIO records.

42 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, to J.T. Lees, Police Commissioner NSW; L.D. Draper, Police Commissioner SA; and S.I. Miller, Chief Commissioner Victoria, 15 April 1981, ASIO records.

43 Ibid.

44 Report, ASIO records.

45 Letter, DG Security, Melbourne, ‘Assassination of Turkish Consul-General in Sydney on 17 December, 1980’, 23 February 1981, ASIO records.

46 Report, ‘Armenian Terrorism’, December 1982, ASIO records.

47 Minutes, ‘Special Incidents Task Force on Turkish/Armenian Violence: Summary Record of First Meeting, 3 February 1981 at 1030 hours’, ASIO records.

48 Briefing notes, S4-B, ‘The Assassination of the Turkish Consul-General in Sydney of 17 December 1980’, 28 January 1981, ASIO records.

49 Report, ‘Armenian Terrorism’, December 1982, ASIO records.

50 Telexes, 18 February 1983 and 1 June 1982; and letter, SLO Melbourne to DG ASIO, ‘Armenian Terrorism’, 29 May 1981, all from ASIO records.

51 Confidential interview, 22 October 2015.

52 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Lees, Police Commissioner NSW, Draper, Police Commissioner SA, S.I. Miller, Chief Commissioner Victoria, 15 April 1981, ASIO records.

53 Report, ‘General Union of Palestinian Workers (GUPW): Potential for Violence within Australia’, 30 June 1982, ASIO records.

54 Telex, PP to HQ ASIO (for ADG S from H, HLG), ‘Raising Level of CT Alert’, 24 December 1982; Crisis Policy Centre, ‘Summary Record of Proceedings’, 23 December 1982; and ‘The December 1982 Hakoah Club Bombing’, n.d., all from ASIO records.

55 Crisis Policy Centre, ‘Summary Record of Proceedings’, 23 December 1982, ASIO records.

56 Note for file, S4-B and S4-D, ‘Bombing of Israeli Consulate-General and Hakoah Club on 23 December 1982’, 30 December 1982, ASIO records.

57 ‘Bomb Attacks on Israeli Consulate-General and Hakoah Club, Sydney, 23 December 1982: Summary Record of Out-of-Hours Action by ADG/S 23–31 December 1982’, ASIO records.

58 See, ‘Hakoah Bomb Swoop: 7 Held’, Daily Mirror, 1 February 1983.

59 Minute, S4-C to ADG S, 1 February 1983, ASIO records.

60 SLO Washington to HQ ASIO, ‘Explosive Devices Used by Terrorists—Possible Link with Sydney Bombings’, 22 February 1983, ASIO records.

61 Telex, 27 January 1983, ASIO records.

62 Telex, from RD NSW to ADG S, 11 February 1983, ASIO records.

63 Minute, S2 to RD NSW, ‘Raids on Suspected Personalities Involved in the Bombing of the Hakoah Club, 23.12.82’, 3 February 1983, ASIO records; and ‘Man Sent for Trial on Club Bombing Charge’, Canberra Times, 17 December 1983.

64 N. Mercer, ‘Thirty Years Later, Police Hunt for Robbers’, Sydney Morning Herald, 26 August 2012.

65 Telex, HQ ASIO to SA and WA, 28 January 1983, ASIO records.

66 Memo, 28 January 1983, ASIO records.

67 Memo, 23 February 1983, ASIO records.

68 Memo, 25 February 1983, ASIO records.

69 Telex, NSW to HQ ASIO, 16 March 1983, ASIO records.

70 Telex, HQ ASIO to SA, 5 May 1983, ASIO records.

71 Memo, for RD SA to HQ ASIO, ‘Hassan Mourtada’, 25 November 1983, ASIO records.

72 Memo, for RD NSW to HQ ASIO, ‘Hassan Ali Mourtada’, 8 November 1984, ASIO records.

73 ‘Resource Commitment Proposal’, 16 January 1985, ASIO records.

74 Telex, HQ to NSW, 24 January 1985, ASIO records.

75 Telex, NSW to HQ, 5 February 1985; and note for file, R5-A, 14 February 1985, both from ASIO records.

76 Telex, NSW to HQ, 3 June 1985, ASIO records.

77 Memo, 23 July 1985, ASIO records.

78 See NSW Crime Stoppers, ‘Bombing of the Israeli Consulate and Hakoah Club’, www.police.nsw.gov.au/can_you_help_us/rewards/100000_reward/bombing_of_the_israeli_consulate_and_hakoah_club, accessed 30 May 2014.

79 Report, ‘Report to the Special Interdepartmental Committee on Protection Against Violence’, 1 February 1978, ASIO records.

80 Minute, S1 to C, Intelligence, ‘Srecko Blaz Rover’, 9 June 1976; and RD Victoria to HQ ASIO, ‘Telephonic Communications (Interception Act) Srecko Blaz Rover’, 11 June 1976, both from ASIO records.

81 Memo, RD Victoria to CIO, HQ ASIO, ‘Srecko Blaz Rover’, 13 December 1976, ASIO records.

82 Minutes, C, B2, to CIO, ‘Telephonic Interception: (Srecko Rover)’, 26 May 1977; and minute, B2D to C, B2, 21 June 1977, both from ASIO records.

83 Woodward (DG ASIO), Telephonic Communications (Interception) Act 1960, 26 January 1979 (signed Attorney-General 1 February), ASIO records.

84 Ibid.

85 Woodward, DG ASIO, 12 September 1979, ASIO records.

86 Minute, to RD WA, 30 June 1981; and telex, RR to PTH, ‘Stefan Brbic’, 8 July 1981, ASIO records.

87 Minute, Boyle, HLG, to ADG B, ‘Yugoslav Ambassador’s Concerns over Threats to Yugoslav Diplomatic Premises and Personnel’, 11 October 1977; and letter, P. Hutton (for Secretary DFA) to DG ASIO, ‘Croatian Extremism: Yugoslav Allegations’, 28 October 1977, ASIO records.

88 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 12 July 1979, ASIO records.

89 Telexes, DFA Canberra to DFA Belgrade (cc ASIO etc.), 5 December 1977; and DFA Belgrade to DFA Canberra, ‘Relations with Yugoslavia’, 13 December 1977, both from ASIO records.

90 Aide-mémoire, 9 December 1977, ASIO records.

91 Letter, P.G.F. Henderson, Acting Secretary DFA, to DG ASIO, ‘Croatian Extremism’, 29 December 1977, ASIO records.

92 I.S.C. Bryce, R2, to Acting ADG S, ‘Croatian Revolutionary Brotherhood (HRB)’, 28 June 1978; and telex, HQ ASIO to Victoria and NSW offices, ‘Croatian Revolutionary Brotherhood (H.R.B.)’, 8 February 1978, both from ASIO records.

93 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

94 Report, 8 February 1979, ASIO records.

95 Telex (with attachment), PP, NSW office, to HQ ASIO, 14 March 1979, ASIO records.

96 Report, 8 February 1979, ASIO records.

97 Telex, HQ ASIO to DFA, PM’s Department, DIEA and PSCC, ‘Croatian Extremists’, 9 February 1979; note for file, A-C, PMV ‘Arrest of Croatian Extremists in New South Wales’, n.d.; and telex, NSW office to HQ ASIO, ‘Croatians Arrested with Explosives’, 9 February 1979, all from ASIO records.

98 Telex, NSW office to HQ ASIO, ‘Croatians Arrested with Explosives’, 9 February 1979, ASIO records.

99 See ‘Bomb Warning Averted Disaster, Court Told’, Sydney Morning Herald, 26 March 1980; and ‘Croat Killings Planned to Cover Bombs Plot, Court Told’, The Australian, 14 February 1979.

100 Telex, PP, NSW office to HQ ASIO, ‘Lithgow Trail [sic]’, 20 May 1980; and minute, S7-A to R4 (via O, S7) ‘Passing of ASIO Documents’, 20 May 1980, both from ASIO records.

101 Telex, HQ ASIO to DFA, DAS (for PSCC), AFP and police SBs, ‘Croatian Reaction to Sentencing of “Lithgow Bombers” ’, 18 February 1981, ASIO records; and J. Slee, ’15 Years’ Jail for Six in Bomb Plot’, Sydney Morning Herald, 18 February 1981.

102 A. Myers, ‘ “Croatian Six”: Justice at Last’, Direct Action, no. 705, 1 August 1989, p. 6.

103 Cited in H. McDonald, ‘Framed’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 February 2012.

104 C, PMV 31 May 1982, ASIO records.

105 A. Myers, ‘ “Croatian Six”: Justice at Last’, Direct Action, no. 705, 1 August 1989, p. 6.

106 See H. McDonald, ‘Framed’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 February 2012.

107 Interview, A. Turnbull, 5 March 2015.

108 Telephone intercept transcript, n.d., ASIO records.

109 Memo, 16 June 1981, ASIO records.

110 Memo, 5 June 1981, ASIO records.

111 Memo, 12 June 1981, ASIO records.

112 Interview, A. Turnbull, 5 March 2015.

113 Ibid.

114 Ibid.

115 Woodward, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

116 Minute, C, PMV, to O, S6 (for info S, S4), 9 July 1982, ASIO records.

Chapter 7: Monitoring Fractious Revolutionaries

1 Fraser, ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security Ministerial Statement’, CPD (H of R), 25 October 1977, p. 2335.

2 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘ASIO’s Role Concerning Demonstrations and Domestic Violence’, 12 October 1976, ASIO records.

3 ‘Survey of ASIO 1976–1981’, August 1981, ASIO records.

4 ‘Police Told Late of Labor “Watergate” ’, The Australian, 6 May 1977.

5 Minute, Barnett, DDG ASIO, to ADG B, ADG D and HLG, ‘Alleged “Break-in” at Curtin House, Canberra’, 10 May 1977, ASIO records.

6 Letter, DG ASIO to Whitlam (cc PM, AG and DDG), 6 May 1977, ASIO records.

7 Minute, Boyle, EO, to FADG B, ‘Notes on FRETILIN Leadership and its Political Sympathies’, 3 February 1976, ASIO records.

8 ‘Record of Conversation with the Prime Minister and Mr Alan Carmody, Secretary, Dept. of PM & C [Prime Minister and Cabinet] 21 October, 1976’, ASIO records.

9 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon E.G. Whitlam, QC, MP, on 25 September 1977’, ASIO records.

10 D. McKnight, ‘Dynamo of Left Led Timor Protest’, The Australian, 11 September 1995.

11 Minute, Acting C, B1, to all B1 Section staff, ‘ASIO Interest in Demonstrations Against Uranium Mining’, 31 August 1977, ASIO records.

12 ‘Record of Conversation with the Prime Minister and the Attorney-General on Wednesday 7th September 1977’, ASIO records.

13 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978; and, ‘Aide Memoire Communist Party of Australia (CPA)’, 27 August 1976, both from ASIO records.

14 Minute, Nienaber, ADG S, to Secretary ORG, 11 April 1980, ASIO records.

15 Minute, C, SS, to Registrar CISG, ‘Subversive Studies Group’, 5 December 1977, ASIO records.

16 Telex, HQ ASIO to DFA, 6 June 1975, ASIO records.

17 Report, ‘The Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist) (CPA (M/L) November 1975’, ASIO records.

18 Report, RD SA to DG ASIO, ‘Summary of Events—South Australia’, 4 March 1977; and telexes, HQ ASIO to Canberra, 6 September 1976; and HQ ASIO to DFA, 6 June 1975, all from ASIO records.

19 Report, ‘The Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist) (CPA (M/L) November 1975’, ASIO records.

20 Ibid.

21 Report, RD SA to DG ASIO, ‘Summary of Events—South Australia’, 4 March 1977; and telex, HQ ASIO to Canberra, 6 September 1976, both from ASIO records.

22 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

23 Minute, S1 F to C, SS, 19 May 1978, ASIO records.

24 Telex, HQ ASIO to Victoria, ‘CPA (M-L) Membership (General)’, 15 September 1978, ASIO records.

25 Minute, S1 F to ADG S (through C, SS), ‘Situation Report on the State of the Information Held About the CPA (M-L)’, 10 March 1978, ASIO records.

26 Minute, ‘CPA (M-L) /CCP Relations’, S3 D to S3 C, 27 March 1981, ASIO records.

27 Minute, O, S2 to C, SS, 9 July 1981, ASIO records.

28 Report, ‘Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist)—Sixth National Congress; and DG ASIO to RDs, ‘Director-General’s Overseas Visit 1976 Aides-memoire’, 27 August 1976, both from ASIO records.

29 Report, ‘The Socialist Party of Australia (SPA)’, November 1975, ASIO records.

30 DG ASIO to RD NSW, ‘Socialist Party of Australia (SPA) Monitor’s Briefing Notes’, 5 February 1976, ASIO records.

31 Telex, HQ ASIO to Canberra, 6 September 1976, ASIO records.

32 Telex, HQS 00950, 26 January 1982, ASIO records.

33 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

34 Report, RD SA to DG ASIO, ‘Summary of Events—South Australia’, 4 March 1977, ASIO records.

35 Minute, O-i-C, Special Ops, to C, Ops NSW, 27 September 1976, ASIO records.

36 Minute, S1 D to C, SS, 15 January 1979, ASIO records.

37 Source reports, 6 February and 8 August 1979, both from ASIO records.

38 Telex, HQ to NSW, 19 February 1980, ASIO records.

39 Memo, (for DG ASIO) to RD NSW, 8 July 1980, ASIO records.

40 Memo, (for RD NSW) to HQ ASIO, 22 July 1980, ASIO records.

41 Minute, Acting C, SS, to O, S2, ‘Visit to New South Wales Office 30 July 1980, 29 August 1980, ASIO records.

42 Telex, S, S1 NSW, to C, SS HQ, 2 October 1981, ASIO records.

43 Telex, C, R2 HQ, to C, Ops NSW, 22 October 1981, ASIO records.

44 Minute, Knight, C, R2, to C, TSG, 11 November 1981, ASIO records.

45 Telex, S, R NSW, to C, R2 HQ, 22 February 1982, ASIO records.

46 Telex, RD NSW to C, R2 HQ, 8 March 1982, ASIO records.

47 Telex, NSW to ADG R, 19 May 1982, ASIO records.

48 Minute, Knight, C, R2, to C, SS, 2 June 1982, ASIO records.

49 Memo, (for RD NSW) to HQ ASIO, 3 June 1982; and note for file, Knight, C, R2, 1 July 1982; both from ASIO records.

50 Telex, C, R2 HQ, to C, Ops, and S, R NSW, 12 August 1982, ASIO records.

51 Telex, RD NSW to ADG R, 16 August 1982, ASIO records.

52 Telex, NSW to HQ, 28 October 1982; and minute, R7 A to C, R2, 20 October 1982; both from ASIO records.

53 Telexes, NSW to HQ, 14 January 1983; NSW to HQ, 18 March 1983; and HQ to NSW, 24 March 1983, all from ASIO records.

54 Telexes, NSW to HQ, 5 September 1983; and NSW to HQ, 29 September 1983, both from ASIO records.

55 ‘Director-General’s Overseas Visit 1976 Aides-memoire’, 27 August 1976, ASIO records.

56 Review report; and T.H. Barnett (DG ASIO), ‘Telecommunications (Interception) Act 1979 Request by the Director-General of Security’, 27 September 1983, both from ASIO records.

57 Review report, ASIO records.

58 Record of Conversation, C, SS, 22 May 1983, ASIO records.

59 ‘Director-General’s Overseas Visit 1976 Aides-memoire’, 27 August 1976, ASIO records.

60 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

61 Minute, to ADG B, ‘Resource Availability for C/S Targets’, 11 November 1976, ASIO records.

62 Woodward for PHCIS ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

63 Memo, 15 December 1976, ASIO records.

64 ‘Director-General’s Overseas Visit 1976 Aides-memoire’, 27 August 1976, ASIO records.

65 Memo, S, Intelligence SA, to C, Ops SA, ‘Lisa Walter’, 3 July 1975, ASIO records.

66 Memo, SA to C, Ops SA, 2 ‘Lisa Walter’, September 1975, ASIO records.

67 Memo, SAO to C, Ops SA, ‘Lisa Walter’, 6 October 1975, ASIO records.

68 Memo, 1 October 1975, ASIO records.

69 Memo, SA to C, Ops SA, ‘Lisa Walter’, 10 October 1975, ASIO records.

70 Memo, C, Ops SA, to CAO SA, 17 October 1975, ASIO records.

71 Memo, 4 November 1975, ASIO records.

72 Ibid.

73 Memo, 11 November 1975, ASIO records.

74 Memo, 24 November 1975, ASIO records.

75 Memo, 1 December 1975, ASIO records.

76 Ibid.

77 Memo, 5 December 1975, ASIO records.

78 Ibid.

79 Memo, 19 February 1976, ASIO records.

80 Memo, 1 April 1976, ASIO records.

81 Memo, 7 May 1976, ASIO records.

82 Memo, 20 May 1976; and telex, HQ to SA, 7 May 1976, both from ASIO records.

83 Handwritten notes by D1B on telex, SA to HQ ASIO, 6 May 1976, ASIO records.

84 Telex, SA to NSW, 10 May 1976, ASIO records.

85 Telex, NSW to SA, 17 May 1976, ASIO records.

86 Memo, 20 May 1976, ASIO records.

87 Ibid.

88 Telex, NSW to HQ, 20 May 1976, ASIO records.

89 Telex, RD SA to ADG D, 21 May 1976, ASIO records.

90 J. Edwards, ‘The Adelaide Spy Caper’, National Times, 24–29 May 1976, pp. 18–19.

91 Extracts from Direct Action, 27 May 1976, in ASIO records.

92 Memo, 24 May 1976, ASIO records.

93 Telex, SG1 NSW to D1B HQ, n.d., ASIO records.

94 Circular memo, Barnett (for DG ASIO) to all staff, ‘Lisa Walter’, 26 May 1976, ASIO records.

95 Minute, G.H. Jiear, Supervisor, Agent Operations, to all agent masters, ‘Lisa Walter’, 2 June 1976, ASIO records.

96 Minute, SC1B, ‘C Branch Security Assessment’, 11 April 1978, ASIO records.

97 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011; and letter, J. Langridge to SAO, c. July 1975, ASIO records.

98 T.J. Poulus, ‘Assessment Interview: Janet Langridge’, 26 August 1976, ASIO Records.

99 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011.

100 Minute, S, G1, to Poulus, ‘Janet Langridge—Potential Agent’, 2 September 1976, ASIO records

101 Memo, Poulus, 16 September 1976, ASIO records.

102 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011.

103 Memo, B.F. Campbell, C, D1, to DDG, 15 June 1977, ASIO records.

104 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011; and memo C, D1, to DDG, 15 June 1977, ASIO records.

105 Memo, C, D1, to DDG, 15 June 1977, ASIO records.

106 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011.

107 Ibid.

108 Telex, SG1 NSW to C, D1 HQ, 20 June 1977, ASIO records.

109 Telex, SG1 NSW to C, D1 HQ, 16 June 1977, ASIO records.

110 ‘ASIO Agents Exposed’, Australian Spartacist, 15 June 1977.

111 Handwritten note on minute, C, D1, to DDG, 15 June 1977, ASIO records.

112 Telex, SG1 NSW to C, D1 HQ, 20 June 1977, ASIO records

113 Minute, PAO to DG ASIO, 20 June 1977, ASIO records.

114 ASIO records.

115 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011.

116 Telex, RD NSW to ADG D, 28 June 1977, ASIO records.

117 Interview, T.J. Poulus, 6 September 2011.

118 Ibid.

119 Minute, L.V. Pollard, D1 B to C, D1, 13 October 1977, ASIO records.

120 Memo, n.d. (c. October 1984), ASIO records.

121 Memo, R4 A to D, Psychological Services, 22 January 1981, ASIO records.

122 Minute, Consulting Psychologist to ADG R (Attn R4 A), 24 February 1981, ASIO records.

123 ‘Foreword Draft’, n.d., ASIO records.

124 Letter, RD ACT to HQ ASIO (Attn Acting C, R4), 21 July 1983, ASIO records.

125 Note for file, n.d., ASIO records.

126 Note for file, n.d., ASIO records.

127 Memo, 1 February 1983, ASIO records.

128 Memo, 2 February 1983, ASIO records.

129 Memo, 1 February 1983, ASIO records.

130 Memo R6 D, n.d., ASIO records.

131 Memo, 2 February 1983, ASIO records.

132 Memo, 15 April 1983, ASIO records.

133 Memo, R6 D, n.d., ASIO records.

134 Memo, ASIO records.

135 Memo, ASIO records.

136 Letter, McFarlane to SLO Washington, 2 August 1979, ASIO records.

137 Letter, DG ASIO to LO, 15 November 1979, ASIO records.

138 On 29 March 1979, for example, Canada declared the Second Secretary of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV) Embassy in Ottawa, Ho Xuan Dich, persona non grata for his exploitation of pro-SRV associations and threats towards the Vietnamese population (circular memo, [for DG ASIO] to RDs, ‘SRV Intelligence Activity in Canada’, 27 August 1979, ASIO records).

139 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DAS, ‘Irish Republican Activities in Australia’, 31 May 1977; telex, HQ ASIO to HLG Canberra, ‘Provisional Wing—Irish Republican army—Activities/Support in Australia’, 31 August 1979; and S6 A to C, PMV, minute, ‘Recommendation to Up-grade Coverage of Pro-Irish Republican Activities in Australia’, 8 January 1980, all from ASIO records.

140 Letter, J.D. Davies, Acting Commissioner, CPF, to DG ASIO, 3 September 1979, ASIO records.

141 Minute, S6 A to C, PMV, ‘Recommendation to Up-grade Coverage of Pro-Irish Republican Activities in Australia’, 8 January 1980, ASIO records.

142 Letter, to DG ASIO, 14 February 1980; and telex, HQ ASIO to AFP, 3 March 1980, both from ASIO records.

143 Telex, HQ ASIO to HLG Canberra, 19 May 1981, ASIO records.

144 Minute, C, B1, to ADG D (through ADG B), ‘Australian League of Rights (ALR)’, 8 December 1975, ASIO records.

145 Minutes, C, SS, to S1 H, 7 March 1978; and S1 F to ADG S (through C, SS) ‘Australian League of Rights (ALR), 23 March 1978, both from ASIO records.

146 Minute, C, SS, to S, S1, ‘Australian League of Rights (ALR) 13 August 1982, ASIO records.

147 Letter, Mahony (for DG ASIO) to Secretary RCIS, 22 December 1975, ASIO records.

148 ‘Scientologists Issue Writ against ASIO’, The Age, 25 September 1979, <news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1300&dat=19790925&id=Ce9UAAAAIBAJ&sjid=-ZIDAAAAIBAJ&pg=5067,3567661&hl=en>, accessed 5 April 2016.

149 Attachment, ‘Hubbard Association of Scientologists (Church of Scientology)’, p. 29, September 1980; and letter, DG ASIO, ‘The Church of Scientology’, 8 October 1980, both from ASIO records.

150 Record of Conversation, Woodward, DG ASIO, 27 September 1979, ASIO records; ‘No Limit to ASIO Powers’, Workers News, 13 September 1980; and ‘Church Bid on ASIO Fails’, The Advertiser (Adelaide), 3 October 1980.

151 Note for file, Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Church of Scientology Writ’, 24 October 1979, ASIO records.

152 ASIO Briefing Note, ASIO records.

Chapter 8: Vetting, Assessing and Advising

RCIS, Second Report, p. 5, NAA: A8913, 2/3.

2 Table, ‘ASIO: Staff and Establishment: Office: Headquarters: Branch: Protective Security (C Branch)’, 29 February 1980, ASIO records.

3 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

4 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979 Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

5 Minute, CC, C1, to ADG C, ‘C Branch Establishment’, 24 April 1981, ASIO records.

6 Minute, C C1 to S P5, ‘C Branch Work Statistics’, 16 August 1985, ASIO records.

7 Record of conversation, H, HLG, ‘Liaison with I&EA, Etc’, 7 September 1977, ASIO records.

8 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

ASIO Act 1979.

10 ‘Directors’ Conference 9/10 July 1979 Director-General’s Address’, ASIO records.

11 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

12 ‘Submission to the Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies on ASIO’s responsibility to Government for Protective Security’, March 1984, ASIO records.

13 RCIS, First Report, NAA: A8913, 2/3.

14 Cabinet Minute, CISG, Canberra, 21 September 1977, Decision No. 3197 (IS), ASIO records.

15 Woodward, DG ASIO, to DDG, ADGs and RDs, ‘Directors’ Conference 28 November 1977’, 14 November 1977, ASIO records.

16 Fraser, ‘Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security Ministerial Statement’, CPD (H of R), 25 October 1977, p. 2338.

17 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary RCIS, 15 September 1976, ASIO records.

18 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘RCIS Second Report ASIO Aide Memoire’, 27 April 1977, ASIO records.

19 Minutes, PHCIS, Meeting No. 2/77, agenda item no. 4/77, ‘Matters Stemming from Cabinet Decision No. 3917 (IS) of 21 September 1977 Regarding Immigration Cases in Relation to Security Assessments and the Security Appeals Tribunal’, 13 October 1977, ASIO records.

20 Durack, ‘Australian Security Intelligence Organization Bill 1979’, CPD (Senate), 8 March 1979, p. 648.

21 Minutes, PHCIS, Meeting No. 2/77, agenda item no. 4/77, ‘Matters Stemming from Cabinet Decision No. 3917 (IS) of 21 September 1977 Regarding Immigration Cases in Relation to Security Assessments and the Security Appeals Tribunal’, 13 October 1977, ASIO records.

22 ‘Appeal Right in ASIO Check’, The Sun (Melbourne), 26 October 1977.

23 Confidential interview, 24 November 2015.

24 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘RCIS Second Report ASIO Aide Memoire’, 27 April 1977, ASIO records.

25 Letter, DG ASIO to Ellicott, Attorney-General, 29 June 1977, ASIO records.

26 Ibid.

27 Memo, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Policy and Procedures Regarding Members of Parliament’, 21 September 1981, ASIO records.

28 Memo, Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Policy and Procedures Regarding Members of Parliament’, 10 February 1977, ASIO records.

29 Minute, PA to DG to Registrar CISG, ‘Records Review’, 29 September 1977, ASIO records; and I. Kirkwood, ‘Family Defends Late Labor MP Albert James against KGB Spy Reports’, Sydney Morning Herald, 12 August 2014.

30 Minute, PA to DG to Registrar CISG, ‘Records Review’, 29 September 1977, ASIO records.

31 Minute, C, Soviet Bloc Affairs, to ADG E, ‘Policy and Procedures Regarding Members of Parliament’, 10 December 1981, ASIO records.

32 ‘Summary of the Main Points of Cabinet Decision No. 11704 (IS) of 22 May 1980’, ASIO records.

33 ‘Review of Departmental Security Officer (DSO) Training Requirements—(1) Survey of DSO tasks’, n.d., ASIO records.

34 Minute, Boyle, EO, HLG, to H, HLG, ‘IPSG: ASIO Concept and Responsibilities’, 5 June 1980, ASIO records.

35 Minute, McBride, ADG C, to FADG A, ‘Implementation of Cabinet Decision 11704’, 10 July 1980, ASIO records.

36 Minute, J.C. Elliott (for DG ASIO) to RDs, ‘ASIO/Departmental Counter-Espionage Liaison’, 29 November 1974, ASIO records.

37 Ibid.; and letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Secretary RCIS, ‘ASIO/Departmental Arrangements for Counter-Espionage Liaison and Investigation’, 20 October 1976, ASIO records.

38 Telex, PRD WA to HQ ASIO, 18 July 1977, ASIO records.

39 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

40 ‘Review of Departmental Security Officer (DSO) Training Requirements—(1) Survey of DSO tasks’, n.d., ASIO records.

41 ‘Background to the Commonwealth Government Protective Security Training Function 1974–2007’, ASIO records.

42 Interview, R. Andrew, 26 March 2012.

43 ‘Review of Departmental Security Officer (DSO) Training Requirements—(1) Survey of DSO tasks’, n.d., ASIO records.

44 Report, August 1981, ASIO records.

45 ASIO, ‘Annual Report 1981–1982’, September 1982, p. 7, ASIO records.

46 Minute, ‘Recommendations of the Protective Security Review Concerning Departmental Security Officers and an Interdepartmental Protective Security Group’, 14 March 1980, ASIO records.

47 Letter, Carmody, Chair PHCIS, to Woodward, DG ASIO, 11 April 1978, ASIO records.

48 Letter, A.H. Tange, Secretary Department of Defence, to Chair PHCIS, 19 April 1978, ASIO records.

49 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Yeend, Acting Secretary PM’s Department), 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

50 Minute, PHCIS, 20 March 1978, ASIO records.

51 Cabinet submission, 12 May 1981; and file note, IMB SC, 12 May 1981, both from ASIO records.

52 ASIO records.

53 B. Toohey, ‘Oz Spies Abroad’, National Times, 21 March 1981.

54 Record of conversation, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Leak of RCIS Report on ASIS’, 19 March 1981, ASIO records.

55 RCIS, Fifth Report, 15 April 1981, ASIO records.

56 Records of conversation, DG ASIO, 29 June 1981 and 1 July 1981, both from ASIO records.

57 Records of conversation, DG ASIO, 29 June, 30 June and 1 July 1981, all from ASIO records.

58 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Durack, Attorney-General, 5 February 1982, ASIO records.

59 ‘Bulletin: Item of 18.7.1978’, ASIO records.

60 Ibid.

61 See, for example, B. Toohey & M. Wilkinson, The Book of Leaks.

62 ‘Communist Spies in Australia: ASIO Files on Yugoslav Spies Leaked’, Nation Review, 3–9 November 1977.

63 ASIO records.

64 Ibid.

65 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 14 September 1981, ASIO records.

66 Woodward, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

67 Ibid.

68 Ibid.

69 Ibid.

70 G. Sheridan, ‘Tension among the Spooks at ASIO’, The Bulletin, 20 July 1982.

71 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, ‘ “Bulletin” Articles about ASIO’, 2 September 1982, ASIO records.

72 ASIO records.

73 Ibid.

74 Ibid.

75 Letter, DG ASIO to Deputy Crown Solicitor, ‘Re Andrew Campbell’, 27 October 1981, ASIO records.

76 ASIO records.

77 See, for example, ‘Mr Andrew Campbell Turns up Again in Melbourne’, Australian League of Rights, <www.alor.org/Volume16/Vol16No30.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

78 Record of conversation, ‘Mr David Sadleir, Office of National Assessments and Deputy Director-General’, 29 February 1980, ASIO records.

79 Press Office transcript, PM’s Department, ‘Press Conference, Canberra’, 10 April 1980, at <pmtranscripts.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00005322.pdf>, accessed 15 June 2016.

80 Speech, C.R. Cameron, CPD (H of R), 15 April 1980, p. 1755.

81 ‘Cloak-and-dagger Goofs Down Under’, New Straits Times, 19 April 1980, p. 5.

82 Cabinet Minute, M. Codd, Committee Secretary, ‘Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee Canberra, 17 June 1980, Decision No. 11887 (FAD)’, ASIO records.

83 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, 31 July 1980, ASIO records.

84 Record of conversation, Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘ONA’s Loss of ASIO’s Threat Assessment’, 3 April 1980, ASIO records.

85 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, and Yeend, Secretary PM’s Department, 31 July 1980, ASIO records.

86 ‘PM Hoodwinked in ONA-ASIO Scandal’, News Weekly, 30 July 1980, p. 5.

87 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, and Yeend, Secretary PM’s Department, 31 July 1980, ASIO records.

88 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, 31 July 1980, ASIO records.

89 Fraser, ‘Office of National Assessments’, CPD (H of R), 19 August 1980, pp. 26–27; and press release, ‘Prime Minister, for Media, Office of National Assessments’, 19 August 1980, ASIO records.

Chapter 9: Chasing Shadows

1 ASIO records.

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Minute, P. Barbour, DG ASIO, to ADG B, 6 September 1974, ASIO records.

13 Barbour’s creation of the Special Team in September 1974 is a case in point. See Volume II of this history for more on its creation and early operations.

14 Memo, C, B3, to ADG B, ‘B3 Section: Staffing and Responsibilities’, 30 January 1976, ASIO records.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid.

18 Interview, A.J. McFarlane, 9 September 2014.

19 Ibid. The emphasis is in the original.

20 Memo, C, B3, to ADG B, ‘B3 Section: Clerical Assistant’, 11 May 1976, ASIO records.

21 ASIO records.

22 Controller, OBE, to HQ ASIO, ‘Operational Base Establishment Staff Establishment’, 26 October 1977, ASIO records.

23 Minute, Gilbert, Director, P&D, to DG ASIO, ‘Proposed Reorganization of B/D Branches’, 4 November 1977, ASIO records.

24 Minute, Registrar, ISG, to ADG B, ADG D,‘ISG Arrangements for B/D Reorganisation’, 2 December 1977; and memo, for DG ASIO to liaison officers, 6 February 1979, both from ASIO records.

25 Andrew & Gordievsky, KGB, p. 540.

26 ‘Review of and Recommendations for Restructuring the Surveillance Capacity of the Australian Security Intelligence Organization’, January 1976, NAA: A12389, A101.

27 One of those ASIO suspected of being a ‘talent spotter’ was Leonid Stupin, an academic at the Australian National University. His status as a Soviet agent codenamed Gatskiy was confirmed by the KGB defector Vasili Mitrokhin (see Mitrokhin’s notes on the KGB in Australia, CAC, MITN 1/7).

28 ASIO records.

29 See Mitrokhin’s notes on the KGB in Australia, CAC, MITN 1/7.

30 ‘Review of and Recommendations for Restructuring the Surveillance Capacity of the Australian Security Intelligence Organization’, January 1976, NAA: A12389, A101.

31 See Andrew, The Defence of the Realm, pp. 565–86.

32 Letter, Woodward to Fraser, 18 August 1976, ASIO records.

33 Ibid. This was the term used to describe the imbalance between the number of Australian officials in Moscow and the number of Soviet officials in Australia. In ASIO’s mind, there was not enough genuine work for Soviet officials in Australia to warrant having so many diplomats, which meant that rather than performing proper, overt work, a number of the Soviet officials were merely present to engage in espionage.

34 ASIO records.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.

37 Ibid.

38 Woodward for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Estimates of Expenditure 1978–1979’, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

39 Ibid.

40 ASIO records.

41 Fraser and Roberts, Dangerous Allies, pp. 164–5.

42 ASIO records.

43 P. Kelly, ‘John Malcolm Fraser’, in Grattan (ed.), Australian Prime Ministers, p. 372.

44 ASIO records.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 ‘Soviet Action Wait after Spies Banned’, Courier-Mail (Brisbane), 17 July 1976, NAA: A12384, K/2/2/1.

49 ASIO records.

50 Record of conversation, 24 February 1982, ASIO records.

51 Letter, DG ASIO to Henderson, Secretary DFA, ‘KGB Resident—Visa Extension’, 13 December 1982, ASIO records. The emphasis is in the original.

52 ‘Lev Sergeyevich Koshlyakov: 7 February 1984–18 March 1984’, n.d., ASIO records.

53 K. Glascott, ‘KGB Spy Used Canberra Embassy as Base’, The Australian, 28 October 1996.

54 Interview, A.J. McFarlane, 18 August 2014.

55 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 177. Woodward’s use of ‘recruited’ in reference to the Petrovs is incorrect; they were not recruited in the sense that ASIO uses the term, but defected.

56 For example, Andrew, The Defence of the Realm, p. 708.

57 Confidential interview.

58 Record of conversation, C, B3 and B25, ‘Liaison with Security Liaison Officer, Canberra’, 26 June 1974, ASIO records.

59 ASIO records.

60 Confidential interview.

61 Confidential interview.

62 Confidential interview.

63 Confidential interview.

64 Confidential interview.

65 Minute, ADG E to ADG P, ‘Mr. G.P. Walsh’, 9 January 1978, ASIO records.

66 Confidential interview.

67 ASIO records.

68 Confidential interview.

69 Minute, 14 October 1976, ASIO records.

70 Memo, for RD NSW to HQ ASIO, 21 July 1977, ASIO records.

71 Telex, ACT to HQ ASIO, 6 December 1976, ASIO records.

72 Memo, RD NSW to DDG, 7 December 1976, ASIO records.

73 Minute, Group 2 to S, G2, ‘Minutes of Planning Meeting Held in NSW Office on Monday, 6.12.76’, 8 December 1976, ASIO records.

74 Telex, C, Ops NSW to ADG D, 8 December 1976, ASIO records.

75 D2B, ‘Meeting’, n.d., ASIO records.

76 Handwritten comments by DDG, 28 January 1977, on memo, RD NSW to HQ ASIO, 25 January 1977, ASIO records.

77 Memo, for RD NSW to ADG D, 3 February 1977, ASIO records.

78 Memo, for RD ACT to HQ ASIO, 8 September 1977, ASIO records.

79 Telex, S, G2 NSW, to C, B3 HQ, 11 February 1977, ASIO records.

80 ASIO records.

81 Minute, R.A. Riley, G2, to S, G2 NSW, 1 March 1977, ASIO records.

82 Report, D2B, 14 April 1977, ASIO records.

83 Telexes, S, G2 NSW to ADG D, 6 April 1977; telex, S, G2 NSW to ADG D, 14 April 1977; draft minute, B3B, ‘Yuriy Yuriyevich Podogov’, June 1977; telex, C, D2 HQ to C, Ops NSW, 6 June 1977, all from ASIO records.

84 Memo, for RD ACT to HQ ASIO, 8 September 1977, ASIO records.

85 ASIO records.

86 Minute, C, B3 to ADG B, 14 February 1977, ASIO records.

87 Memo, DDG to RDs NSW, ACT and Victoria, 31 March 1977, ASIO records.

88 Ibid.

89 Memo, ‘Andrey Borisovich Duchkov’, 8 October 1976, ASIO records.

90 Memo, Heilig, 11 March 1977, ASIO records.

91 Record of meeting, 2 February 1977, ASIO records.

92 Telex, ACT to B3C and C, D2 HQ, 24 June 1977, ASIO records.

93 Telex, ACT to B3C HQ, 18 February 1977, ASIO records.

94 Telex, ACT to B3C and C, D4 HQ, 25 February 1977, ASIO records.

95 Minute, and G.W. Bowcock to RD ACT, 1 March 1977, ASIO records.

96 Memo, for RD ACT, to HQ ASIO, 24 June 1977, ASIO records.

97 AMF Statement of Service; memo, SSO B2 NSW to PCLO, ‘ASIO Recruitment’, 24 March 1969, both from ASIO records.

98 ASIO records.

99 Interview, G.W. Bowcock, 30 October 2014.

100 Note for file, 26 January 1978, ASIO records.

101 Telex, ACT to HQ, n.d., ASIO records.

102 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 23 January 1978, ASIO records.

103 Note for file, 26 January 1978, ASIO records.

104 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 1 February 1978, ASIO records.

105 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 2 February 1978, ASIO records.

106 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 19 May 1978, ASIO records.

107 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 31 July 1978; and telex SOS ACT to E1A HQ, 5 September 1978, both from ASIO records.

108 Telex, ACT to H1A HQ, 22 September 1978, ASIO records.

109 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 12 October 1978, ASIO records.

110 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 16 October 1978, ASIO records.

111 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 8 November 1978, ASIO records.

112 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 13 November 1978, ASIO records.

113 Telex, ACT to E1A HQ, 14 November 1978, ASIO records.

114 Note for file, to ADG E, 16 November 1978, ASIO records.

115 Telex, E1A HQ to C, Ops ACT, 15 November 1978, ASIO records.

116 Telex, ACT to H1A HQ, 1 December 1978, ASIO records.

117 Ibid.

118 Telex, ACT to H1A HQ, 4 December 1978, ASIO records.

119 Memo, 15 September 1978, ASIO records.

120 Telex, C, SA HQ to ACT, 4 December 1978, ASIO records.

121 ASIO records.

122 Ibid.

123 Telex, E1A4 to E1A1, 28 May 1981, ASIO records.

124 Log, n.d., ASIO records.

125 Note for file, E101, n.d., ASIO records.

126 ASIO records.

127 Minute, Bryce, C, D2, to D, Personnel, 11 August 1977, ASIO records.

128 Memo, ADG E (for DG ASIO) to RDs ACT, NSW and Victoria, 24 May 1978, ASIO records.

129 See, for instance, minute, Acting S, G1 ACT, to C, Ops ACT, 24 April 1979, ASIO records.

130 Circular memo, J.B. Ross-Perrier (for DG ASIO) to RDs, 13 October 1980, ASIO records.

131 Record of conversation, Bryce, 15 April 1981, ASIO records.

132 Memo, Ross-Perrier (for DG ASIO) to RDs, 12 August 1981, ASIO records.

133 ASIO records.

134 Ibid.

135 Ibid.

136 Ibid.

137 Ibid.

138 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

139 ASIO records.

140 Ibid.

141 Ibid.

142 Data from ASIO records.

143 Note for file, McFarlane, C, B3, 3 October 1977, ASIO records.

144 See Chapter 16 in Volume II of this history.

145 Minute, B3D to C, B3, ‘Anatoliy Borisovich Mikhaylov’, 20 December 1975, ASIO records.

146 Minute, B3D to C, B3, ‘Anatoliy Borisovich Mikhaylov’, 4 February 1976, ASIO records.

147 Memo, 11 February 1976, ASIO records.

148 Telex, D2A HQ to C, Ops ACT, 30 March 1977, ASIO records.

149 Telex, Q2B ACT to C, D4 HQ, 1 April 1977, ASIO records.

150 Telexes, S, Ops ACT to ADG D HQ, 4 April 1977; and S, Ops ACT to C D4, 7 April 1977, both from ASIO records.

151 Minute, C, D2, to C, D4, 30 May 1977, ASIO records.

152 Telex, 1A2 ACT to C, D4 HQ, 22 November 1977, ASIO records.

153 ASIO records.

154 Telex, HQ ASIO to SLO Washington, 27 May 1977, ASIO records.

155 Memo, Bryce (for DG ASIO) to RD ACT, 17 October 1977, ASIO records.

156 Telex, 1A2 ACT to C, D4 HQ, 22 November 1977, ASIO records.

157 Minute, Barnett, DDG, to ADG D, 22 November 1977, ASIO records.

158 Telex, C, D4 HQ, to C, Ops ACT, 24 November 1977, ASIO records.

159 Telexes, CS ACT to R2 HQ, 19 May 1978 and 25 May 1978, both from ASIO records.

160 Telex, 1A2 ACT to E1D1 HQ, 11 July 1978, ASIO records.

161 ‘Resource Commitment Proposal’, 17 August 1978, ASIO records.

162 Telex, S, G3 ACT, to R4 HQ, 30 August 1978, ASIO records.

163 Minute, E1D, to S, E1, 27 August 1979, ASIO records.

164 Telex, CS ACT to R2 HQ, 28 December 1978, ASIO records.

165 Memo, 30 June 1982; and minute, EO, DG, to DG ASIO, ‘Briefings of Former Prime Minister and Former Attorney-General on IVANOV/BUSHFOWL’, 22 May 1983, both from ASIO records.

166 Memo, 26 August 1981, ASIO records.

167 Memo, 30 June 1982, ASIO records.

168 Telex, E1A8 ACT to S, E1 HQ, 10 May 1982, ASIO records.

169 Telex, S, E1 ACT, to HQ ASIO, 20 May 1982, ASIO records.

170 Telex, E1A HQ to C, Ops ACT, 25 May 1982, ASIO records.

171 Telex, C, Ops ACT to E1A HQ, 27 May 1982, ASIO records.

172 Telex, ACT to ADG E and ADG R, 18 June 1982; and memo, 19 June 1982, both from ASIO records.

173 Summary, Knight, C, R2, n.d., ASIO records.

174 Telex, S, R, to C, R2, 5 July 1982, ASIO records.

175 Telex, S, R, to C, R2, 8 July 1982, ASIO records.

176 Telex to ADG R, 9 July 1982, ASIO records.

177 Telex, S, R, to C, R2, 8 July 1982, ASIO records.

178 Handwritten comments on minute, R6-A to C, TSG, 21 July 1982, ASIO records.

179 Telex, S, E1, to C, R2, 17 November 1982, ASIO records.

180 Report, 18 January 1983, ASIO records.

181 Minute, EO, DG, to DG ASIO, ‘Briefings of Former Prime Minister and Former Attorney-General on IVANOV/BUSHFOWL’, 22 May 1983; and memo, 13 December 1982, both from ASIO records.

182 Telex, H, HLG to ADG E, 14 February 1983, ASIO records.

183 Minute, EO, DG, to DG ASIO, ‘Briefings of Former Prime Minister and Former Attorney-General on IVANOV/BUSHFOWL’, 22 May 1983, ASIO records.

184 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Record of Conversation with E.G. Whitlam M.P. Q.C., Leader of the Opposition on 1 February 1977’, ASIO records.

185 ‘Record of Conversation with the Hon Mr W.G. Hayden, MP, on 10th May 1978’, ASIO records.

186 Telex, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 24 February 1983, ASIO records.

187 Telex, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 24 February 1983, ASIO records.

188 Record of conversation, 3 March 1983, ASIO records.

189 Telex, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 24 February 1983, ASIO records.

190 Marr, The Ivanov Trial, p. 211.

Chapter 10: Managing Competing Priorities

1 ASIO records.

2 Ibid.

3 Memo, McFarlane (for DG ASIO), 16 December 1977, ASIO records.

4 Report attached to minute, Mahony, DG ASIO, to Attorney-General, 27 January 1976, ASIO records.

5 The remainder included the staff at Headquarters in Melbourne (managers, desk officers, translators, operational support staff, technical and photographic officers, and secretarial staff), officers overseas, and the support staff in the regions (report attached to minute, Mahony, DG ASIO, to Attorney-General, 27 January 1976, ASIO records).

6 Report attached to minute, Mahony, DG ASIO, to Attorney-General, 27 January 1976, ASIO records.

7 Minutes, C, B4, to ADG B, ‘B Branch, Headquarters—Establishment’, 22 April 1976; and C, B3, to ADG B, ‘B Branch, Headquarters—Establishment’, 26 April 1976, both from ASIO records.

8 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, ‘AAG Establishment’, 4 July 1978, ASIO records.

9 Minute, C, B4, to ADG B, ‘Resources—B4 Section’, 7 September 1976, ASIO records.

10 Minute, C, B4, to ADG B, 28 February 1977; and memo, C, B4, to ADG B, ‘Communication between B & D Branches’, March 1977, both from ASIO records.

11 Memo, C, B4, to ADG B, ‘Re-organization’, 28 March 1977, ASIO records.

12 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, ‘Visit to the Department of Foreign Affairs 13 December 1977’, 23 December 1977, ASIO records.

13 Minute, C, AA, to AAG desk officers, 19 December 1977, ASIO records.

14 Minutes, C, AA, to ADG/E, ‘Visit to the Department of Foreign Affairs 13 December 1977’, 23 December 1977; and C, AA, to ADG E, ‘Visit to JIO by C/AA on 13 December 1977’, 10 January 1978, both from ASIO records.

15 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, ‘Visit to the Department of Foreign Affairs 13 December 1977’, 23 December 1977, ASIO records.

16 Interview, A.J. McFarlane, 18 August 2014.

17 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, ‘Visit to the Department of Foreign Affairs 13 December 1977’, 23 December 1977, ASIO records.

18 Minute, C, AA, to E Branch desk officers, 19 December 1977, ASIO records.

19 Memo, Acting ADG E, to ADG P, 2 March 1978, ASIO records. The emphasis is in the original.

20 Confidential interview, 28 January 2016.

21 Memo, C, AA (for DG ASIO) to RDs, 3 May 1978, ASIO records.

22 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, ‘AAG Establishment’, 4 July 1978, ASIO records.

23 Minute, McFarlane, ADG E, to DDG and ADG P, 5 July 1978, ASIO records. The emphasis is in the original.

24 Woodward, ‘Director-General’s Conference—July/August 1978: Notes on Establishment and Staffing Situation’, n.d., ASIO records.

25 ASIO records.

26 Memo, for RD NSW to HQ ASIO, 5 December 1975, ASIO records.

27 Memo, ‘B4 Section—Duties and Responsibilities’, April 1975, ASIO records.

28 ASIO records.

29 Report, July 1988; and ‘Notes of Lecture Delivered on 10 November 1978’, both from ASIO records.

30 Record of discussion, McFarlane, ADG E, 12 December 1977, ASIO records.

31 Memo, for RD ACT to HQ ASIO, 5 April 1976, ASIO records.

32 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, ‘Visit by C/AA to the ACT on 12–13 December 1977’, 15 December 1977, ASIO records.

33 ASIO records.

34 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

35 ASIO records.

36 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

37 ASIO records.

38 N. Inkster, ‘Chinese Intelligence in the Cyber Age’, Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 55, no. 1, February–March 2013, pp. 46–50; Mattis, ‘The Analytic Challenge of Understanding Chinese Intelligence Services’, pp. 51–3.

39 Memo, to HQ ASIO, 25 October 1976, ASIO records.

40 ‘Notes of Lecture Delivered on 10 November 1978’, ASIO records.

41 Inkster, ‘Chinese Intelligence in the Cyber Age’, pp. 53–4.

42 Memo, to HQ ASIO, 25 October 1976, ASIO records.

43 ‘Notes of Lecture Delivered on 10 November 1978’; report attached to record of conversation, 4 December 1980, ASIO records.

44 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

45 Interview, I.M. Thomas, 21 March 2013.

46 ASIO records.

47 Paper, March 1982, ASIO records.

48 Telex, ACT to HQ, 4 February 1983, ASIO records.

49 Telex, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 9 February 1983, ASIO records.

50 Telex, HQ to Victoria, 7 February 1983; and minute, 7 February 1983, both from ASIO records.

51 Minute, S3D, 7 February 1983, ASIO records.

52 Report, 17 March 1983, ASIO records.

53 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

54 Memo, C, D3, to C, D4, 18 August 1977; telex, C, Ops NSW, to C, D4 HQ, 14 November 1977, both from ASIO records.

55 Telex, ADG E and ADG R to E, 20 April 1978, ASIO records.

56 Minute, E4D to C, AA, 3 July 1978, ASIO records.

57 Telex, Acting C, Ops NSW, to C, AA, and R2 HQ, 3 March 1978, ASIO records.

58 Telex, C, Ops NSW, to C, AA and G2A HQ, 7 April 1978, ASIO records.

59 Telex, HQ to C, Ops NSW, 20 September 1978, ASIO records.

60 Telex, ADG R to C, Ops NSW, 2 November 1978, ASIO records.

61 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, 7 March 1978, ASIO records.

62 Memo, 6 November 1978, ASIO records.

63 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

64 Memo, DG ASIO to AG, 22 December 1983, ASIO records.

65 ASIO records.

66 ASIO records.

67 Memo, Q. Anthony (for RD/ACT) to HQ ASIO, 9 June 1978, ASIO records.

68 Telexes, ADG E to C, Ops ACT, 16 June 1978; and C, Ops ACT, to ADG E, 21 June 1978, both from ASIO records.

69 Telex, C, Ops ACT, to C, AA HQ, 25 July 1978, ASIO records.

70 Memo, 11 September 1979, ASIO records.

71 Record of conversation, 24 January 1980, ASIO records.

72 Memo, RD ACT to C, AA HQ, 18 March 1980, ASIO records.

73 Intelligence report, 29 April 1980, ASIO records.

74 ASIO records.

75 Minute, C, AA, to ADG E, 7 March 1978, ASIO records.

76 Inkster, ‘Chinese Intelligence in the Cyber Age’, pp. 48–54.

77 Report attached to record of conversation, 4 December 1980, ASIO records.

78 For more on the Chinese approach to foreign intelligence collection, a process based on patience and gathering small pieces of information from many expendable sources, see Inkster, ‘Chinese Intelligence in the Cyber Age’, pp. 50–2; and N. Eftimiades, Chinese Intelligence Operations, pp. 27–43.

79 Record of conversation, 23 July 1980; and note for file, E4C, 28 February 1986, both from ASIO records.

80 Memo, 5 July 1980, ASIO records.

81 Record of conversation, 21 July 1980, ASIO records.

82 Record of conversation between DG ASIO and PM, 6 February 1981, ASIO records.

83 Inkster, ‘Chinese Intelligence in the Cyber Age’, pp. 48–50.

84 See, for instance Eftimiades, Chinese Intelligence Operations; Inkster, ‘Chinese Intelligence in the Cyber Age’; and P. Mattis, ‘The Analytic Challenge of Understanding Chinese Intelligence Services’, Studies in Intelligence, vol. 56, no. 3, September 2012, pp. 47–57.

85 ‘Hanoi Recognition Agreement Signed’, Canberra Times, 27 February 1973, p. 1.

86 ‘Mission Arrives from Hanoi’, Canberra Times, 29 October 1973, p. 9.

87 ‘Notes for Lecture Delivered on 10 November 1978’, ASIO records.

88 NSW Department of Education,‘Migration to Australia’, Racism. No Way!, <www.racismnoway.com.au/teaching-resources/factsheets/76.html>, accessed 5 January 2015.

89 North Vietnam defeated the South Vietnamese forces in April 1975. North and South Vietnam were formally reunited as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 2 July 1976.

90 Extract attached to minute, HLG to ADG E, 23 September 1980, ASIO records.

91 ‘Infiltration of Refugee Stream’, n.d., ASIO records.

92 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

93 ‘Infiltration of Refugee Stream’, n.d., ASIO records.

94 See ‘Viet Spies Pose as Refugees’, South China Morning Post, 9 April 1979; ‘The Bogus Refugees’, Adelaide Advertiser, 14 April 1979; ‘Spies Operating among Refugees’, Herald (Melbourne), 18 April 1979; and ‘Vietnamese Spies “Sent out with Boat People” ’, Canberra Times, 27 August 1979.

95 The Inter-Departmental Committee on Determination of Refugee Status consisted of representatives from the Attorney-General’s Department, DFA, PM’s Department, DIEA and UNHCR (telex, DIEA to HQ ASIO, 12 December 1977; and minute, H, HLG, to ADG C, ‘Committee on Determination of Refugee Status DORS’, 10 April 1978, both from ASIO records).

96 Records of conversation, 8 December 1977 and 21 August 1979, both from ASIO records.

97 Record of conversation, 21 August 1979, ASIO records.

98 ASIO records.

99 ‘Infiltration of Refugee Stream’, n.d., ASIO records.

100 Memo, for DG ASIO to RDs, 27 August 1979, ASIO records.

101 Memo, ADG E, 22 October 1979, ASIO records.

102 Record of conversation, 1 November 1978, ASIO records.

103 Ibid.

104 ASIO records.

105 ‘Notes for Lecture Delivered on 10 November 1978’, ASIO records.

106 Record of conversation, 1 November 1978, ASIO records.

107 Telex, R2 HQ to S, G3 ACT, 1 June 1979, ASIO records.

108 Minute, 8 June 1979, ASIO records.

109 Memo, April 1980, ASIO records.

110 Memo, April 1980, ASIO records.

111 ASIO records.

112 Record of conversation, DG ASIO and Secretary DFA, 24 February 1982, ASIO records.

113 Hoare, Historical Dictionary of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, pp. 52–3, 106–7.

114 Record of conversation, 29 March 1978, ASIO records.

115 Hoare, Historical Dictionary, p. 53.

116 ASIO records.

117 See Volume I of this history, p. 460.

118 Minute, B3J and B3H to B3A, ‘ASIO Annual Report—B3 Contribution’, 6 June 1977; and memo, C, B3, to ADG B, ‘B3 Section: Duties’, 19 January 1976, both from ASIO records.

119 Memo, B3J and B3H to C, B3, ‘Sovbloc Liaison’, 20 June 1977, ASIO records.

120 Ibid.

121 ‘B4 Section: Duties and Responsibilities’, April 1975, ASIO records.

122 Memo, 1 August 1979, ASIO records.

123 Interview, G.P. Walsh, 12 June 2012.

124 ASIO records.

125 Note for file, Barnett, 16 May 1984, ASIO records.

126 Report, n.d., ASIO records.

127 Memo, Anthony (for RD ACT) to ADGD, 25 March 1976, ASIO records.

128 Memo, McFarlane (for DG ASIO), 14 November 1977; and report, n.d., both from ASIO records.

129 Memo, Heilig, RD ACT, to ADG R, 4 July 1979, ASIO records.

130 Minute, Ross-Perrier, Acting D, SRB, to DDG, 14 April 1977, ASIO records.

131 Memo, 8 January 1979; and report, 5 November 1979, both from ASIO records.

132 Minute, E2H to ADG E, 19 June 1978, ASIO records.

133 Minute, S, E2, to C, SA, 12 September 1979; and ‘B4 Section: Duties and Responsibilities’, April 1975, both from ASIO records.

134 Minute, Acting C, B1, to ADG B, ‘Visit of Attorney-General to Headquarters—9th August 1977’, 29 August 1977, ASIO records.

135 Minute, C, D4, to ADG D, 18 July 1977, ASIO records.

136 Minute, W. Miller, C, Electronics, to ADG D, 26 April 1977, ASIO records.

137 Record of conversation, Woodward, 27 April 1977, ASIO records.

138 Cable, DG (in London) to DDG, 31 May 1977, ASIO records.

139 Reports, 23 and 31 May 1977, ASIO records.

140 Memo, RD Victoria, n.d., ASIO records.

141 Woodward, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club’, 8 September 1981, ASIO records.

Part 2: ASIO during the Hawke Years, 1983–1989

Chapter 11: The Combe–Ivanov Affair

1 Rather than retelling the story of the whole affair, which is covered extensively by David Marr in The Ivanov Trial, this chapter will focus on ASIO and its interaction with the Government, and the impact of the affair on ASIO.

2 Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Record of Conversation with Senator Gareth Evans, Attorney-General Designate’, 6 March 1983, ASIO records.

3 Ibid.

4 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Evans, Attorney-General, 6 March 1983, ASIO records.

5 ‘Record of Conversation with Mr R.J. Hawke, Prime Minister-elect on Tuesday, 8th March 1983 (1530 hours) with Director-General in Sydney’, ASIO records.

6 Barnett (DG ASIO) ‘Record of Conversation with Senator Gareth Evans, Attorney-General Designate’, 18 March 1983, ASIO records.

7 Memo, 30 June 1982, ASIO records.

8 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 121, 132.

9 Telex, E1A8 ACT to S, E1 HQ, 10 May 1982, ASIO records.

10 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 122–5.

11 Record of conversation, Hope, RCASIA, and Barnett, DG ASIO, 18 September 1984; and letter, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 16 May 1983, both from ASIO records.

12 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 119, 126.

13 M. Davis, ‘Combe Affair May Have Been ASIO Blunder’, On Dit, 26 September 1983.

14 Record of conversation, 7 October 1982; record of conversation, S, E1, 4 June 1983; and minute, E1A(O) to S, E1, 10 June 1983, all from ASIO records.

15 Record of conversation, 7 October 1982, ASIO records.

16 Minute, E1A to S, E1, ‘Royal Commission into Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies’, 3 June 1983, ASIO records.

17 Memo, for RD ACT to ADG E, ‘Operation Bushfowl, 21 June 1983, ASIO records.

18 Bushfowl transcript, 4 March 1983, ASIO records.

19 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 122–5.

20 Telex, EO, DG, to Boyle, 15 June 1983, ASIO records.

21 E1C1, ‘Statement by E1C1 Concerning Movements of Epic Tapes BF 66/82 and BF 72/82’, 15 June 1983, ASIO records.

22 Minute, E1A(O) to S, E1, 10 June 1983, ASIO records. See also Marr, The Ivanov Trial, p. 250.

23 Bushfowl transcript of 3 April 1983, ASIO records.

24 Memo, for RD ACT to ADG E, ‘Operation Bushfowl’, 21 June 1983, ASIO records.

25 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 126–7.

26 Confidential interview, 10 December 2015.

27 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

28 Telex, DG ASIO to H, HLG (for transmission to Attorney-General), 19 April 1983, ASIO records.

29 Interview, G.J. Evans, 21 August 2015.

30 Aide-mémoire, April 1983, ASIO records.

31 d’Alpuget, Hawke, p. 21.

32 Telex, S, R, to C, R2, 20 April 1983, ASIO records.

33 Scott, Gareth Evans, pp. 124–5.

34 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

35 Interview, M.D. Boyle, 6 August 2012.

36 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

37 ‘Bob Hawke—Question and answer with media’, NAA, <www.naa.gov.au/collection/publications/papers-and-podcasts/cabinet-release/bob-hawke-qa.aspx>, accessed 15 June 2016.

38 P. Kelly, ‘How a Former Judge Helped the Hawke Government Survive Ivanov Affair’, Australian, 12 July 2010, p. 3.

39 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 7 June 1983, ASIO records.

40 Interview, R.J. Hawke, 8 March 2012.

41 Scott, Gareth Evans, p. 124.

42 Minute, McFarlane, H, HLG, to Secretary Attorney-General’s Department, ‘RCIS—Proof of Evidence—H/HLG’, 8 June 1983, ASIO records. Other ministers in attendance included Bowen, Young, Gordon Scholes and Hayden.

43 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

44 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 119, 126.

45 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

46 ADG E account of the meeting on 21 April 1983, ASIO records.

47 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov Expulsion: Briefing of the Prime Minister and Subsequent Events’, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

48 Scott, Gareth Evans, p. 125.

49 Interview, G. Evans, 21 August 2015.

50 S. Maiden, ‘Labor Mates: The Russian Spy’, Sunday Telegraph, 1 January 2012.

51 B. d’Alpuget, ‘The Spy Who Trapped a Mate’, The Australian, 12 July 2010.

52 DFA, news release no. M37, ‘Expulsion of Soviet Diplomat’, 22 April 1983, ASIO records.

53 Telex, DG ASIO to all regions, 22 April 1983, ASIO records.

54 Telex, to DG ASIO, 26 April 1983, ASIO records.

55 Scott, Gareth Evans, p. 128.

56 Telex, ADG E to RD SA, 22 April 1983, ASIO records.

57 Telex, ADG E to RD NSW, 22 April 1983, ASIO records.

58 Minute, ACT, ‘V.N. Ivanov—Persona Non Grata’, 22 April 1983, ASIO records.

59 ‘Briefing Note’, 27 April 1983, ASIO records.

60 Draft memo, ‘Soviet Embassy Reaction to Ivanov Expulsion 22 April 1983 – 28 April 1983’, n.d., ASIO records.

61 Confidential ASIO officer interview cited by C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the Heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014.

62 Telex, S, R, to C, R2, 2 May 1983; and draft memo, ‘Soviet Embassy Reaction to Ivanov Expulsion 22 April 1983 – 28 April 1983’, n.d., both from ASIO records.

63 Memo, ‘Valeriy Ivanov’, 8 August 2002, ASIO records.

64 Marr, The Ivanov Trial, pp. 247–51.

65 Interview, R.J. Hawke, 8 March 2012.

66 Record of conversation, Ross-Perrier, ADG E, 4 May 1983, ASIO records.

67 Interview, B. Nienaber, 26 March 2012.

68 Record of conversation, Ross-Perrier, ADG E, 4 May 1983, ASIO records.

69 Marr, The Ivanov Trial, p. 249.

70 Record of conversation, Ross-Perrier, ADG E, 4 May 1983, ASIO records.

71 Marr, The Ivanov Trial, p. 249.

72 Record of conversation, Ross-Perrier, ADG E, 4 May 1983; and note for file, ‘Briefing of the Prime Minister’, 7 June 1983, both from ASIO records.

73 Extract from note for file, Barnett, DG ASIO, 9 May 1983, ASIO records.

74 E1C1, ‘Draft Statement by E1C1 Concerning Briefing of Prime Minister, Melbourne, 8 May 1983’, n.d., ASIO records.

75 Extract from note for file, Barnett, DG ASIO, 9 May 1983, ASIO records.

76 E1C1, ‘Draft Statement by E1C1 Concerning Participation in Briefing of Prime Minister, Canberra, 10 and 11 May 1983’, n.d., ASIO records.

77 Memo, T.H. Barnett, ‘Ivanov/Epic’, 11 May 1983, ASIO records.

78 E1C1, ‘Draft Statement by E1C1 Concerning Participation in Briefing of Prime Minister, Canberra, 10 and 11 May 1983’, n.d., ASIO records.

79 Note for file, ‘Briefing of the Prime Minister and Attorney General’, 10 May 1983, ASIO records.

80 E1C1, ‘Draft Statement by E1C1 Concerning Participation in Briefing of Prime Minister, Canberra, 10 and 11 May 1983’, n.d., ASIO records.

81 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov/Epic’, 11 May 1983, ASIO records.

82 Letter, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 16 May 1983, ASIO records.

83 Memo, Barnett, ‘Ivanov/Epic’, 11 May 1983, ASIO records.

84 Barnett, ‘Ivanov/Epic: Briefing of Combe’, 7 June 1983, ASIO records.

85 Cited in Marr, The Ivanov Trial, p. 262.

86 Telex, DG to all ASIO, 17 May 1983, ASIO records.

87 Note for file, EO, DG, ‘Examination of Bushfowl Tapes by Officers of the Royal Commission’, 31 May 1983, ASIO records.

88 Memo, Boyle, ADG Secretariat, to S, E1, and EO, DG, ‘Bushfowl Product’, 7 June 1983, ASIO records.

89 P. Kelly, ‘How a Former Judge Helped the Hawke Government Survive Ivanov Affair’, The Australian, 12 July 2010, p. 3.

Chapter 12: Working in ASIO

1 Interview, ‘Robert Marsden Hope by John Farquharson in the Law in Australian Society oral History Project’, 1998, NLA, ORAL TRC 3672, <nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn1791129>, accessed 16 February 2015.

2 Record of conversation, Barnett, DDG ASIO, 28 May 1981, ASIO records.

3 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to R.J.L. Hawke, PM, 13 May 1983, ASIO records.

4 Letter, (for DG ASIO) to Secretary RCASIA, 28 March 1984, ASIO records.

5 Minute, C, R2, to ADG R, 30 September 1986, ASIO records.

6 Briefing notes, ‘Prepared for Briefing PM & AG on 23 1 84’, ASIO records.

7 Ibid.

8 Record of conversation, EO, DG, ‘ASIO Budgets 1976/77 and 1982/83’, 10 February 1983, ASIO records.

9 Memo, DG ASIO to Secretary RCASIA, 18 September 1984, ASIO records.

10 Minute, Boyle, ADG Sec, 6 January 1984, ASIO records.

11 Evans, Inside the Hawke-Keating Government, p. 15.

12 Ibid.

13 Interview, E.J. Marks, 4 March 2013.

14 Letter, DG ASIO to CLO London, 9 August 1983, ASIO records.

15 Ibid.

16 Interview, R.J. Hawke, 8 March 2012.

17 Barnett, Tale of the Scorpion, pp. 128–30.

18 See Blesing, Was Your Dad a Russian Spy?

19 Note for file, S, E1, June 1983, ASIO records.

20 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to McFarlane, CLO London, 30 October 1984, ASIO records.

21 Note for file, S, E1, June 1983, ASIO records.

22 Ibid.

23 Record of conversation, Hope, RCASIA, and Barnett, DG ASIO, 18 September 1984, ASIO records.

24 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Hope, RCASIA, 4 October 1984, ASIO records.

25 Confidential interview, 5 April 2016.

26 Note for file, S, E1, June 1983, ASIO records.

27 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Hawke, PM, 25 July 1983, ASIO records.

28 Note for file, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘The Combe Telephone Intercept Transcripts’, 28 July 1983, ASIO records.

29 ASIO records.

30 Ibid.

31 Venona was the codename given to the program of decrypting messages from Soviet diplomatic traffic. It had been instrumental in exposing the spy ring in Australia in the late 1940s, and had also helped expose Soviet espionage in a number of other countries. It is discussed at length in Volume I.

32 ASIO records.

33 Barnett, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 3/83 Creation of Secretariat’, 10 February 1983, ASIO records.

34 Minute, Acting C, Secretariat, to ADG Sec, 7 June 1983, ASIO records.

35 Minute, Boyle, ADG Sec, to DG ASIO, 29 November 1983, ASIO records.

36 Note for file, Barnett, DG ASIO, 24 May 1984, ASIO records.

37 Interview, M.D. Boyle, 6 August 2012.

38 Ibid.

39 Minute, Boyle, ADG Sec, 24 August 1983, ASIO records.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid.

42 Record of conversation, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘RCASIA—Draft ASIO Report’, 4 December 1984, ASIO records.

43 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Hope, RCASIA, ‘ASIO—RCASIA Draft Report’, 29 November 1984, ASIO records.

44 Record of conversation, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘RCASIA Tabling Statement’, 23 January 1985, ASIO records.

45 ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 16/83’, ASIO records.

46 Report, 7 October 1983, ASIO records.

47 G. Kitney, ‘Sheraton Hotel Bungle May Cost ASIS its Covert Raiders’, National Times, 1 March 1985.

48 Press statement, ‘ALP Submission to Hope Inquiry’, 20 February 1984, ASIO records.

49 Ibid.

50 Letter, G. Evans, Attorney-General, to Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Re: ALP Submission to Hope Royal Commission’, 10 February 1984, ASIO records.

51 ‘Address by the Attorney-General, Senator the Hon. Gareth Evans QC, to Annual General Meeting of Victorian Council for Civil Liberties, Melbourne, 17 May 1984’, ASIO records.

52 Ibid.

53 Minute, Boyle, ADG Sec, to DG ASIO, ‘A Personal View of the Draft ALP Submission to the RCASIA’, 15 February 1984, ASIO records.

54 Record of conversation, Barnett, ‘ALP Submission to RCASIA’, 23 February 1984, ASIO records.

55 Telex, HQ ASIO to Wellington, ‘Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies (RCASIA)’, 31 May 1985, ASIO records.

56 Ibid.

57 Barnett, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 3/85: Reports of the Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies (RCASIA)’, 13 May 1985, ASIO records.

58 Ibid.

59 G. Kitney, ‘Sheraton Hotel Bungle May Cost ASIS Its Covert Raiders’, National Times, 1 March 1985.

60 Barnett, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 3/85: Reports of the Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies (RCASIA)’, 13 May 1985, ASIO records.

61 The agencies were ASIO, ASIS, DSD, JIO and ONA. The Defence Imagery and Geospatial Organisation (DIGO) was added later.

62 Barnett, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 3/85: Reports of the Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies (RCASIA)’, 13 May 1985, ASIO records.

63 Ibid.

64 Ibid.

65 Ibid.

66 Ibid.

67 Advertisement, ‘Commissions, Contempts and Civil Liberties’, The Australian, 7–8 January 1984.

68 Statement to Parliament, Bob Hawke, ‘Report of the Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies’, CPD (H of R), 7 December 1983, pp. 3250–70.

69 Ibid.

70 Ibid.

Chapter 13: Implementing Hope

1 Barnett, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 1/85: Royal Commission on Australia’s Security and Intelligence Agencies—Progress Report to All Staff’, 16 April 1985, ASIO records.

2 Ibid.

3 Minute, S, Sec 1, to ADG Sec, 26 January 1984, ASIO records.

4 Telex, HLG to HQ ASIO, ‘Record of Conversation with Attorney General—25 October 1984’, 25 October 1984, ASIO records.

5 Minute, Barnett, DG ASIO, to principal officers, ‘Procedures for Correspondence to the Attorney-General’, 14 December 1984, ASIO records.

6 Minute, Ross-Perrier, ADG E, to ADG Sec (via DDG and DG ASIO), ‘Submission to RCASIA’, 22 May 1984, ASIO records.

7 Minute, to Secretariat, ‘RCASIA Issues Arising from Submissions’, 22 June 1984, ASIO records.

8 Record of conversation, Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Official—Kirribilli House, Sydney’, 18 December 1984, ASIO records.

9 EO, DG, to DG ASIO, ‘Visit by Attorney-General to ASIO Headquarters on Tuesday 22 January 1985’, 16 January 1985; and record of conversation, ‘Briefing of Attorney-General’, 22 January 1985, both from ASIO records.

10 Interview, I.M. Thomas, 21 March 2013.

11 Letter, L.F. Bowen, Attorney-General, to Hawke, PM, 18 July 19988, ASIO records.

12 Report, ‘Human Factors in the Acceptance of ADP’, September 1984, ASIO records.

13 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, 25 June 1985, ASIO records.

14 Letter, Bowen, Attorney-General, to Hawke, PM, 18 July 1988, ASIO records.

15 Ibid.

16 Record of conversation, Boyle, ADG Sec, 7 May 1984, ASIO records.

17 ASIO records.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Confidential interview, 13 January 2016.

23 ASIO records.

24 Ibid.

25 Record of conversation, 7 July 1983, ASIO records.

26 Telex, HQ ASIO to all regions, 20 September 1983, ASIO records.

27 Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 5/1984 Communist Party of Australia (CPA)’, 4 May 1984, ASIO records.

28 Minute, R. Costello, S, S1, to ADG S (per C, SS), ‘Communist Party of Australia (CPA) Review’, 19 December 1983, ASIO records.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 5/1984 Communist Party of Australia (CPA)’, 4 May 1984, ASIO records.

33 Quoted in A.M. Nicholson, ‘A Man Who Makes no Apology for Wanting to Change the World’, Weekend Australian, 14–15 January 1984.

34 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Hope, RCASIA, 5 September 1984, ASIO records.

35 Confidential interview, 29 October 2010.

36 Minute, DG ASIO to senior executives, ‘Strategy and Planning Board (SPB)’, 9 October 1984, ASIO records.

37 Minute, DG ASIO to senior executives, ‘Canberra Transfer—Terms and Conditions of Service’, 23 November 1984, ASIO records.

38 Letter, DG ASIO to G.G. Glenn, Commissioner, PSB, 1 February 1985, ASIO records.

39 Memo, DG ASIO to all staff, 8 February 1985, ASIO records.

40 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, ‘Move of ASIO Headquarters’, 15 February 1985, ASIO records.

41 Telex, HLG Canberra to DG ASIO, ‘ASIO’, 17 April 1985, ASIO records.

42 L. Oakes, ‘ASIO Staff Ordered to “Move It” ’, The Bulletin, 19 March 1985.

43 See cable, ADG Sec to H, HLG, ‘PM “In Principle” Decision to Cancel Transfer of HQ to Canberra and to Give New HQ Building to AFP’, 18 February 1985, ASIO records.

44 Telex, from president, Staff Association, to all regions, ‘Canberra Move’, 22 February 1975, ASIO records.

45 See T. Duggan, ‘Asio Move Put on Ice’, The Age, 19 February 1985; Margot O’Neill, ‘ASIO Headquarters Could Remain in Melbourne’, The Age, 27 February 1985; and ‘Spies Want to Stay in Cold of Melbourne’, West Australian, 27 February 1985.

46 Memo, DG ASIO to all staff, 1 March 1985, ASIO records.

47 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, ‘Re-location to Canberra’, 27 February 1985; and telex, HQ ASIO to PM’s Department, 4 April 1985, ASIO records.

48 M. Grattan, ‘Asio’s Stay in Melbourne Will Not Save as Much as Expected’, The Age, 22 March 1985.

49 Telex, DG ASIO to all staff, ‘Move of ASIO Headquarters’, 28 February 1985, ASIO records.

50 L. Oakes, ‘ASIO Staff Ordered to “Move It” ’, The Bulletin, 19 March 1985.

51 Record of conversation, N.D. McInnes, Deputy Secretary PM’s Department, with DG ASIO, 18 April 1985, ASIO records.

52 Ibid.; and note for file, DG ASIO, 30 May 1985, ASIO records.

53 Letter, DG ASIO to AG, 16 May 1985, ASIO records.

54 Record of conversation, Yeend, Secretary PM’s Department with DG ASIO, 13 June 1985, ASIO records.

55 Interview, A.R. Beard, 3 August 2012.

56 Interview, E.J. Marks, 4 March 2013.

57 Note for file, DG ASIO, ‘Discussions with Attorney-General (7th June 1985)’, ASIO records.

58 Ibid.

59 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, 25 June 1985, ASIO records.

60 Note for file, DG ASIO, ‘Discussions with Attorney-General (7th June 1975)’, ASIO records.

61 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, 25 June 1985, ASIO records.

62 Record of conversation, DG ASIO, 27 June 1985, ASIO records.

63 ‘Press Statement’, 1 July 1985; and telex, DG ASIO to all staff, ‘From Director-General’, 8 July 1985, both from ASIO records.

Chapter 14: Moving and Shaking

1 Telex, DG ASIO to all staff, 12 July 1985; and minute, EO, DG, to staff, ‘Director-General Designate’, 23 July 1985, ASIO records.

2 Interview, G. Evans, 21 August 2015.

3 Interview, A.K. Wrigley, 27 March 2012.

4 Note for file, DG ASIO, ‘Briefing of Director-General Designate’, 11 July 1985; and memo, Nienaber, DDG ASIO, to senior staff, ‘Briefing of Director-General’, 24 July 1985, both from ASIO records.

5 Telex, DG ASIO to all staff, 1 August 1985, ASIO records.

6 Letter, Director DSD to Wrigley, 12 July 1985, ASIO records.

7 Letter, Woodward to Wrigley, 15 July 1985, ASIO records.

8 Wrigley, ‘Address to the National Press Club, Canberra, Wednesday, 10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

9 Interview, A.K. Wrigley, 27 March 2012.

10 Minute, FADG A, ‘Future Location of ASIO Headquarters’, 20 August 1985, ASIO records.

11 Telex, EO, DG, to all LOs, ‘Relocation of ASIO Headquarters to Canberra’, 23 September 1985, ASIO records.

12 Memo, Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 7/1985: Terms and Conditions of Employment’, 21 October 1985, ASIO records.

13 Telex, DG ASIO to all staff, 9 December 1985; and note for file, EO, DG, ‘Future Location of ASIO Headquarters’, 24 January 1986, both from ASIO records.

14 Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 4/1986: Some Comments on the Recent Staff Survey’, 24 March 1986, ASIO records.

15 ‘Canberra 1986’, issue no. 1, ASIO records.

16 Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 14/1986: Staff Decisions on Relocation to Canberra’, 9 July 1986, ASIO records.

17 DG ASIO to Sec. AGD, ‘Briefing for Intelligence and Security Legislation Package’, 24 September 1986, ASIO records.

18 Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 8 December 1986, ASIO records.

19 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, ‘Official Opening of Central Office, Canberra’, 13 November 1986, ASIO records.

20 Ibid.

21 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 8 December 1986, ASIO records.

22 Ibid.

23 Wrigley, DG ASIO, to RD ACT, ‘Colocation of the ACT Regional Office’, 6 May 1986, ASIO records.

24 Memo, DG ASIO to all staff, ‘Address by the Director-General on Foundation Day March 16 1988’, 18 March 1988, ASIO records.

25 Interview, A.K. Wrigley, 27 March 2012.

26 Record of conversation, ‘Central Office Transfer to Canberra’, 25 March 1987, ASIO records.

27 Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 9/1986: Higher Management Structure’, 19 May 1986.

28 Ibid.

29 Ibid.; and Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 12/1986: Senior Administrative Arrangements’, 30 June 1986, both from ASIO records.

30 Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 18/1986: Senior Management Appointments’, 22 September 1986, ASIO record

31 Note for file, Barnett, DG ASIO, 8 June 1982, ASIO records.

32 Note for file, Barnett, 6 December 1983; and nomination form, Australian Administrative Staff College, 23 July 1984, both from ASIO records.

33 Woodward, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 9/1986: Higher Management Structure’, 19 May 1986, ASIO records.

34 Memo, E.J. Marks, EO, DG, ‘Absences of Senior Staff’, 16 December 1986, ASIO records.

35 ASIO records.

36 Ibid.

37 Ibid.

38 Interview, I.M. Thomas, 21 March 2013.

39 ASIO records.

40 Ibid.

41 Interview, G.P. Walsh, March 2016.

42 Wrigley, ‘Address to the National Press Club, Canberra Wednesday, 10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

43 See R. Eccleston, ‘ASIO Fears Watchdog Plan’, The Age, 11 September 1986; J. Waterford, ‘Bruising Criticisms “Make ASIO Timid” ’, Canberra Times, 11 September 1986; L. Olney, ‘ASIO Rejects Statements on Terrorism’, West Australian, 11 September 1986; and M. Seccombe & M. Robbins, ‘ASIO Chief Rejects Joh’s Claims on Terrorist Bases’, The Australian, 11 September 1986.

44 Wrigley, ‘Address to the National Press Club, Canberra Wednesday, 10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid.

47 Memo, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to all staff, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club—10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

48 Wrigley, ‘Address to the National Press Club, Canberra Wednesday, 10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

49 Memo, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to all staff, ‘Director-General’s Address to the National Press Club—10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

50 Ibid.

51 Wrigley, ‘Address to the National Press Club, Canberra Wednesday, 10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

52 Anon., ‘Inside ASIO: Meet Our Five New Spies’, Australian Magazine, 24–25 September 1988, p. 13.

53 Letter, Boyle (for DG ASIO) to Secretary PM’s Department, 5 September 1985, ASIO records.

54 Telex, Scorpion (HQ ASIO) to PM’s Department, 24 October 1985, ASIO records.

55 Letter, A. Preston, FAS Justice Division, PM’s Department, 22 November 1985, ASIO records.

56 Wrigley, ‘Address to the National Press Club, Canberra Wednesday, 10 September 1986’, ASIO records.

57 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to McInnes, IGIS, 11 February 1988, ASIO records.

58 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to McInnes, IGIS, 15 April 1988, ASIO records.

59 J.M. Moten, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 4/89: Complaints to the Inspector-General by ASIO Employees’, 16 February 1989, ASIO records.

60 Minute, Moten, DG ASIO, to DDGs and ADGs, 24 February 1989, ASIO records.

61 Moten, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 10/88: Farewell to Mr A.K. Wrigley’, 24 November 1988, ASIO records.

62 Ibid.

63 Ibid.

64 Interview, J.M. Moten, 2 April 2012.

65 ‘New Director-General for ASIO’, 28 September 1988; and N.M. Stephen, Governor-General, ‘Minute Paper for the Executive Council, Appointment of Director-General of Security’, 28 September 1988, both from ASIO records.

66 Ibid.

67 Letter, Moten to Hayden, Governor-General, 13 December 1991, ASIO records; and B. Lagan, ‘Wanted: New Top Spy for the’90s’, Sydney Morning Herald, 18 December 1991.

68 Moten, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum 17/89: Variations to ASIO’s Higher Management Structure’, 17 October 1989, ASIO records.

69 Ibid.

70 Letter, Moten, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 27 October 1989, ASIO records.

Chapter 15: A Conceptual Shift

1 ‘Address by the Attorney-General, Senator the Hon. Gareth Evans QC, to Annual General Meeting of Victorian Council for Civil Liberties, Melbourne, 17 May 1984’.

2 Paper, for PHCIS, ‘ASIO Subversive Studies Role’, 16 April 1984, ASIO records.

3 Barnett, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 1/84: Possible Changes to ASIO Act 1979—Subversion’, 9 February 1984, ASIO records.

4 Paper, for PHCIS, ‘ASIO’s Subversive Studies Role’, 16 April 1984, ASIO records.

5 Record of conversation, Barnett, 18 September 1984, ASIO records.

6 ‘ASIO “On Strike”, Senate Told’, The Age, 24 October 1984.

7 Cited in G. Greene, ‘ “No Threat” to Security’, The Sun (Melbourne), 25 October 1984.

8 See Chapter 15 in Volume II of this history.

9 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Yeend, Chair, PHCIS, 1 November 1984, ASIO records.

10 Minute, C, SS, to ADG S, ‘Establishment and Staffing 1984/1985’, 13 August 1984, ASIO records.

11 McBride, ADG S, to DDG I&O, ‘Briefing of Mr N. McInnes, Deputy Secretary, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet’, 2 July 1986, ASIO records.

12 In the ASIO Act 1979 (p. 1), ‘acts of foreign interference’ were defined as ‘activities relating to Australia that are carried out on by or on behalf of, are directed or subsidised by or are undertaken in active collaboration with, a foreign power, being activities that:

(a) are clandestine or deceptive and:

(i) are carried on for intelligence purposes;

(ii) are carried on for the purpose of affecting political or governmental processes; or

(iii) are otherwise detrimental to the interests of Australia; or

(b) involve a threat to any person.’

13 McBride, ADG S, to DDG I&O, ‘Briefing of Mr N. McInnes, Deputy Secretary, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet’, 2 July 1986, ASIO records.

14 ASIO records.

15 See ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 6/88: PMV Guidelines’, n.d., ASIO records.

16 Report, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to ADG S, 16 July 1986, ASIO records.

17 Memo, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to C, PMV, 26 August 1986, ASIO records.

18 Letter, McBride (for DG ASIO), 12 June 1984, ASIO records.

19 Memo, S, S4 to C, PMV, June 1986, ASIO records.

20 Memo, DG ASIO to RDs, 14 August 1986; and telex, HQ ASIO, 14 August 1986, both from ASIO records.

21 Minute, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to ADG S, ‘PMV Seminars’, 25 August 1986, ASIO records.

22 See ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 6/88: PMV Guidelines’, n.d., ASIO records.

23 Ibid.

24 Minute, McBride, ADG S, to DDG ASIO, Secretary Attorney-General’s Department and D, IMB, 3 September 1985, ASIO records.

25 Memo, 10 August 1983, ASIO records.

26 Letter, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 19 October 1983, ASIO records.

27 Telex, HQ to NSW, 25 November 1983, ASIO records.

28 Minute, S, R5, to C, SS, 16 December 1983, ASIO records.

29 Minute, McBride, ADG S, to DDG, 29 December 1983, ASIO records.

30 Memo, 22 December 1983, ASIO records.

31 Barnett, DG ASIO, to all regions, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 1/84: Possible Changes to ASIO Act 1979—Subversion’, 9 February 1984, ASIO records.

32 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 8 May 1985, ASIO records.

33 This phrase is inspired by N. McLachlan, Waiting for the Revolution.

34 Memo, (signed by Bowen, Attorney-General, 4 September 1987), ASIO records.

35 Ibid.

36 Memo, 28 October 1987, ASIO records.

37 To Acting DG ASIO, ‘ASIO’s Policy on the Targeting of the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist)’, 8 January 1987, ASIO records.

38 ‘Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist)’, n.d., ASIO records.

39 S3-D and O, S2, to ADG S, ‘Coverage of the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist) (CPA(M–L)) Congress’, 2 December 1984; and minute, S3-D to O, S2, 20 March 1985, both from ASIO records.

40 Minute, S2 to S, S, ‘Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist) (CPA M–L)’, 17 April 1986, ASIO records.

41 To Acting DG ASIO, ‘ASIO’s Policy on the Targeting of the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist)’, 8 January 1987, ASIO records.

42 Minute, to C, TSG, ‘Liaison with Tasmania Police Force—Criticism of ASIO’, 16 March 1984; and Ops Officer, ‘Exercise Two Up, Hobart 7–9 March, 1984 Operations Report’, both from ASIO records.

43 Minute, Acting Ops Officer to O-i-C, 1 August 1984; memo, n.d.; minute, A, GLA, to O-i-C, 6 December 1984; and minute, O-i-C, TSU, to C, TSG, 10 May 1985, all from ASIO records.

44 Minute, to O-i-C, ‘TSU/Qantas Equipment Trial and Aircraft Familiarisation’, 8 October 1984; minute, TA, GLA, to O-i-C, 6 December 1984; and report, 3–5 May 1985, all from ASIO records.

45 Minute, Acting Ops. Officer to O-i-C, 1 August 1984; and report, n.d., both from ASIO records.

46 Minute, A, GLA, to OIC, 6 December 1984, ASIO records.

47 Minute, C, PMV, to ADG S, ‘Review of Australia’s Counter-Terrorist Capacity’, 19 August 1985, ASIO records.

48 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Holdich, Deputy Secretary DSMS, ‘Review of Counter-Terrorism Capabilities and Administrative Arrangements’, 7 July 1986, ASIO records.

49 Holdich, ‘Counter-Terrorism Capabilities in Australia’, preliminary report, 6 June 1986, ASIO records.

50 Letter, Moten, DG ASIO, 9–11 October 1989, 17 March 1989, ASIO records.

51 Report, for DG ASIO to L.F. Bowen, Attorney-General, 27 September 1989; and letter, Moten, DG ASIO, 9–11 October 1989, 17 March 1989, both from ASIO records.

52 ‘Address by the Deputy Prime Minister and Attorney-General, the Honourable Lionel Bowen MP’, October 1989, ASIO records.

Chapter 16: Politically Motivated Violence

1 Memo, May 1983, ASIO records.

2 Memo, May 1983, ASIO records.

3 Memo, Nienaber, Acting DG ASIO, 12 February 1986; and report, August 1988, both from ASIO records.

4 Memo, May 1983, ASIO records.

5 ‘ASIO Submission to the National Intelligence Sub-committee on the Armenian Threat’, 8 September 1983, ASIO records; and B. Nicholson, ‘ASIO Detected Bomb Plot by Armenian Terrorists’, The Australian, 2 January 2012.

6 Minute, C, PMV to DDG, ‘Armenian Terrorism’, 30 August 1983, ASIO records.

7 Memo, Barnett, DG ASIO, 4 April 1984, ASIO records.

8 ‘ASIO Submission to the National Intelligence Sub-committee on the Armenian Threat’, 8 September 1983, ASIO records; and B. Nicholson, ‘ASIO Detected Bomb Plot by Armenian Terrorists’, The Australian, 2 January 2012.

9 ‘ASIO Submission to the National Intelligence Sub-committee on the Armenian Threat’, 8 September 1983, ASIO records.

10 Ibid.

11 Telex, HQ ASIO to PSCC, Attorney-General’s Department, AFP, Customs, PM’s Department, ‘Armenian Terrorism: Alert’, December 1983; and N.S. Reaburn, Sr Assistant Secretary Law Enforcement Branch, Attorney-General’s Department, ‘Level of Counter Terrorist Threat’, 13 December 1983, both from ASIO records.

12 B.V. Cogan, Acting FAS, Security Branch, PM’s Department, to PM, ‘Threat to Turkish Interests by Armenian Terrorists’, 13 January 1984, ASIO records.

13 Telex, HQ ASIO to Sydney, 21 March 1984, ASIO records.

14 Memo, Barnett, DG ASIO, 4 April 1984; and memo, n.d. (1985), both from ASIO records.

15 Memo, signed by Lionel Bowen, Attorney-General, 31 October 1986; telex, HQ ASIO to RD NSW, 12 January 1987; and telex, HQ ASIO to RD NSW, ‘Armenian Affairs’, 2 October 1986, all from ASIO records.

16 Telex, HQ ASIO to Sydney, 27 February 1985, ASIO records.

17 Report, 23 February 1984, ASIO records.

18 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

19 Memo, 24 December 1984, ASIO records.

20 Minute, S, R6-C to C, TSG, 16 January 1985, ASIO records.

21 Telex, HQ ASIO to Sydney, 16 January 1985, ASIO records.

22 Telex, Sydney to HQ ASIO, 7 May 1985, ASIO records.

23 Minutes, McBride, ADG S to S, S5, ‘Kegham Sarkissian’, 29 August 1985; and C, PMV, 14 August 1985, both from ASIO records.

24 Minute, RD NSW, 7 November 1985, ASIO records.

25 Minute, CO, S, to S, S, ‘Dashnag Youth Camp: 4–6 October 1986’, 11 November 1986, ASIO records.

26 Minute, ME3 to Acting S, ROW, 15 September 1987, ASIO records.

27 Minute, S2 to C, Ops, 13 October 1987, ASIO records.

28 Telex, RD NSW to CO, 9 December 1987, ASIO records.

29 B. Nicholson, ‘ASIO Detected Bomb Plot by Armenian Terrorists’, The Australian, 2 January 2012.

30 Telex, RD NSW to CO ASIO, 29 June 1987, ASIO records.

31 ‘Bombing Turkish Consulate-General Melbourne’, n.d.; and memo, RD NSW to ASIO CO ASIO, 1 May 1987; both from ASIO records.

32 Memo, DG ASIO to all staff, ‘Address by the Director-General on Foundation Day March 16 1988’, 18 March 1988; and report, Wrigley, DG ASIO, 22 May 1987, both from ASIO records.

33 Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Director-General’s Memorandum No. 21/1986: Turkish Consulate-General Bombing’, 12 December 1986, ASIO records.

34 Ibid.

35 Minutes, G.P. Walsh, DDG I&O, to DG ASIO, 3 April 1987; and to DDG I&O, 20 March 1987, both from ASIO records.

36 Memo, G.P. Walsh (for DG ASIO), 13 March 1987, ASIO records.

37 Minutes, G.P. Walsh, DDG I&O, to DG ASIO, 3 April 1987; and to DDG I&O, 20 March 1987, both from ASIO records.

38 Memo, DG ASIO to all staff, ‘Address by the Director-General on Foundation Day March 16 1988’, 18 March 1988, ASIO records.

39 ASIO records

40 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, n.d. ASIO records.

41 Minute, CO, S, to C, SG, 2 September 1987, ASIO records.

42 Record of conversation, 3 April 1987, ASIO records.

43 Reports, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 19 May 1987; and Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 29 September 1987, both from ASIO records.

44 Telexes, RD Victoria to CO ASIO, 18 May 1988; and CO ASIO to RD Victoria, ‘Armenian Affairs’, 24 May 1988, both from ASIO records.

45 Memo, 31 March 1988; and memo, for RD Victoria to CO ASIO, 11 May 1989, both from ASIO records.

46 Memo, DG ASIO to C. Maxwell, Principal Private Secretary to Attorney-General, ‘Increase in Level of Counter-Terrorist Alert 15 May Arab Organization’, 24 March 1983, ASIO records.

47 Ibid.

48 Memo, ‘Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine’, July 1989, ASIO records.

49 Report, ‘Fatah/The Influence of the Dispute Inside the Organization on its Attack Policy Outside the Middle East’, 11 July 1983, ASIO records.

50 Memo, Nienaber, Acting DG ASIO, 25 January 1984, ASIO records.

51 Memo, 2 November 1983, ASIO records.

52 Memo, 31 October 1983; and minute, S4-A to S, S4, 21 March 1985, both from ASIO records.

53 Report, 17 August 1983, ASIO records.

54 Report, Barnett, DG ASIO, 18 January 1985, ASIO records.

55 Minute, to S, S4, 17 January 1984, ASIO records.

56 Minutes, S4-A to C, PMV, 6 February 1984; and S4-A to C, PMV, 20 March 1984, both from ASIO records

57 Minute, C, R2 to ADG R, 24 February 1984; and memo, Barnett, DG ASIO, 11 April 1984, both from ASIO records.

58 Report, Nienaber, Acting DG ASIO, 29 June 1984; memo, 22 August 1985; and report, Poulus, 8 January 1986, all from ASIO records.

59 Minute, V1 to C, Ops, 15 February 1985, ASIO records.

60 Memo, 22 August 1985, ASIO records.

61 Telex, HQ ASIO to RD Victoria, 9 July 1982, ASIO records.

62 Minute, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to DDG, cc ADG S, 10 June 1986, ASIO records.

63 Notes, S Branch, ‘Briefing of Director-General’, 12 June 1986; and memo, Ops 19 to S, PMV, 14 August 1989, both from ASIO records.

64 Memo, RD Victoria to CO ASIO, 14 September 1987, ASIO records.

65 Minute, Ops 19 to S, Ops S, 26 October 1988, ASIO records.

66 Report, November 1989, ASIO records.

67 Ibid.

68 Memo, 27 October 1986, ASIO records.

69 Report, 30 April 1987, ASIO records.

70 Ibid.

71 ASIO records.

72 Ibid.

73 Ibid.

74 Ibid.

75 Ibid.

76 Ibid.

77 Ibid.

78 Ibid.

79 Ibid.

80 Ibid.

81 Memo, ADG IA to RDs NSW, Victoria, ACT and Central Australia, 27 July 1989; and report, 22 November 1989, both from ASIO records.

82 Memo, August 1988, ASIO records.

83 Report, 21 August 1985, ASIO records.

84 Minute, ME1 to DDG I&O, 13 July 1989, ASIO records.

85 Memo, 27 September 1989, ASIO records.

86 Minute, Secretary ORG to DDG, ADG R, ADG S, ADG P and ADG E, 28 November 1984, ASIO records.

87 Memo, 4 May 1984, ASIO records.

88 Minute, Secretary ORG to DDG, ADG R, ADG S, ADG P and ADG E, 28 November 1984, ASIO records.

89 Ibid.

90 Memo, 4 May 1984, ASIO records.

91 Report, 26 August 1985, ASIO records.

92 Memo, 4 May 1984, ASIO records.

93 Report, 2 November 1984; and memo, 13 May 1985, both from ASIO records.

94 Report, 2 November 1984, ASIO records.

95 Memo, 28 February 1985, ASIO records.

96 Confidential interview, March 2013.

97 Ibid.

98 Ibid.

99 Note for file, E.J. Marks, EO DG, ‘Briefing of the Security Committee of Cabinet: Libya’, 5 May 1986, ASIO records.

100 Minute, McBride, ADG S, 4 October 1985; and telex, to HQ S, 3 December 1985, both from ASIO records.

101 Confidential interview, March 2013.

102 Confidential interview, 28 February 2012.

103 Report, 4 June 1987, ASIO records.

104 Memo, DG ASIO to all staff, ‘Address by the Director-General on Foundation Day March 16 1988’, 18 March 1988, ASIO records.

105 Report, 4 June 1987, ASIO records.

106 Report, ASIO records.

107 Record of conversation, DG ASIO with Hayden, 10 May 1978, ASIO records.

108 Letter, Barnett, DG ASIO, to Hawke, PM, 22 March 1983, ASIO records.

109 Record of conversation, Barnett, DG ASIO, with Evans, Attorney-General, 17 February 1984, ASIO records.

110 Minute, C, Ops Victoria, and C, PMV, to DG ASIO, ‘Meeting with R.C.C. MacLellan, Deputy Leader of the Victorian Opposition, Regarding William Henry Hartley’, 1 March 1984, ASIO records.

111 Brief, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, ‘William Henry Hartley’, 13 March 1985, ASIO records.

112 Risk assessment, April 1987, ASIO records

113 Report, 15 September 1987, ASIO records.

114 Report, July 1989, ASIO records.

115 Ibid.

116 Ibid.

117 Report, 22 November 1989, ASIO records.

118 Report, July 1989, ASIO records.

119 Report, May 1983, ASIO records.

120 Minute, S, S5, to Acting C, PMV, 23 May 1984, ASIO records.

121 Minute, O, S6, to S, S5, 21 May 1984, ASIO records.

122 ASIO records.

123 Minute, O, S6, to S, S5, 21 May 1984; and minute, S5A to S, S5, 21 May 1984, both from ASIO records.

124 Minute, S/S5 to Acting C/PMV, 23 May 1984, ASIO records.

125 Memo, 12 May 1984, ASIO records.

126 Minute, S, R6-C, to C, TSG, 16 October 1984, ASIO records.

127 Minute, Acting ADG S, to C, R2, 29 October 1984, ASIO records.

128 Report, July 1989, ASIO records.

129 Report, 5 June 1987, ASIO records.

130 Memo, 11 May 1983; letter, McFarlane, H, HLG, to Attorney-General, 14 June 1983; and memo, July 1989, all from ASIO records.

131 PMV, IA, ‘Briefing Note for the Director-General: Protest by Yugoslav MFA about ASIO Activities’, 17 May 1988, ASIO records.

132 ‘Briefing for the Attorney-General’, 31 May 1988, ASIO records.

133 Report, 7 January 1988, ASIO records.

134 Report, 29 June 1988, ASIO records.

135 Report, 5 December 1988, ASIO records.

136 Memo, 3 April 1989, ASIO records.

137 Memo, ASIO, May 1983, ASIO records.

138 Evans’ handwritten comments, dated 3 September 1983, on Barnett memo, 12 August 1983, ASIO records.

139 Telex, S, R (R3) NSW, to S, R5 HQ, 24 November 1983, ASIO records.

140 McBride, ADG S, to DDG I&O, ‘Briefing of Mr N. McInnes, Deputy Secretary, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet’, 2 July 1986, ASIO records.

141 ASIO records.

142 Ibid.

143 ASIO HQ, ‘Vietnamese Community Activity Against the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV)’, May 1985, ASIO records.

144 Memo, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 16 April 1987, ASIO records.

145 Report, n.d., ASIO records.

146 Memo, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 16 April 1987, ASIO records.

147 Ibid.

148 Leslie (RD SA) to Canberra Central Office ASIO, ‘National Action South Australia’, 23 June 1987, ASIO records.

149 Telex, to Sydney, Victoria, ‘National Action’, 22 July 1987, ASIO records.

150 P. Willoughby, ‘Police Step Up Patrols after Racist Attacks’, The Advertiser (Adelaide), 18 October 1988.

151 ‘Briefing Note for the Attorney General’, n.d., ASIO records.

152 Minute, AUST2 to ADG IA, 23 October 1989, ASIO records.

153 Report, ASIO HQ, Melbourne, April 1985, ASIO records.

154 Ibid.

155 Ibid.

156 Interview, I.S.C. Bryce, 5 September 2011.

157 Report, ASIO HQ, April 1985, ASIO records.

158 Record of conversation, Barnett, 20 March 1985, ASIO records.

159 ‘Arms for French Fighters, Court Hears’, Courier-Mail (Brisbane), 19 September 1985

160 K. Dibbe, ‘Gun Runner Tells Court of Risky Plan’, Daily Sun (Brisbane), 19 September 1985.

Chapter 17: Protective Security

1 ‘Address by the Attorney-General, Senator the Hon. Gareth Evans QC, to Annual General Meeting of Victorian Council for Civil Liberties, Melbourne, 17 May 1984’.

2 Wrigley, DG ASIO, ‘Address to the National Press Club – Canberra Wednesday – 10 September 1986’.

3 Ibid. The emphasis is in the original.

4 Minute, C, C1, to S, P5, ‘C Branch Statistics’, 16 August 1985, ASIO records.

5 Minute, Acting CPO to ADG C, ‘Citizenship Applicants: Security Checking’, 27 February 1985, ASIO records.

6 Hope visited Canada as part of his research for both the RCIS and RCASIA, and cited the developments in Canada in several instances in his RCASIA report.

7 Minute, Acting CPO to ADG C, ‘Citizenship Applicants: Security Checking’, 27 February 1985, ASIO records.

8 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, ‘Briefing Note on Cabinet Submissions 3995 and 4017 for ERC Meeting on Monday 14 July 1986’, 10 July 1986, ASIO records.

9 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, 19 November 1986, ASIO records,

10 Message, DG ASIO to H, HLG (for Attorney-General), ‘ASIO’s VIP Threat Assessment Role’, 18 October 1984, ASIO records.

11 Minute, McBride, ADG S, to H, HLG, ‘Threat Assessment – Prime Minister’, 29 March 1984, ASIO records.

12 Message, DG ASIO to H, HLG (for Attorney-General), ‘ASIO’s VIP Threat Assessment Role’, 18 October 1984, ASIO records.

13 Minute, Barnett, DG ASIO, to DDG and ADGs, 30 April 1985, ASIO records.

14 Memos, 15 April 1988 and 3 June 1988, both from ASIO records.

15 Letter, Marshall, RD ACT, to CO ASIO, 22 September 1988, ASIO records.

16 Report, 18 July 1988, ASIO records.

17 Telex, CAN to CCO, 17 August 1988, ASIO records.

18 Telex, HQ ASIO to DSD, 29 August 1988, ASIO records.

19 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to R.P. McAulay, Commissioner, AFP, 18 August 1988; and memo, 3 June 1988, both from ASIO records.

20 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to McAulay, Commissioner, AFP, 30 September 1988, ASIO records.

21 Telex, 13 October 1988, ASIO records.

22 Minute, Legal Adviser to DDG I&O, 15 November 1988, ASIO records.

23 Telex, CAN to CCO, 17 October 1988; and message, RD to DDG I&O, 19 October 1988, both from ASIO records.

24 Telex, PSCC to HQ ASIO, ‘Visit to Australia by the Prime Minister of India’, 29 October 1985, ASIO records.

25 ‘Alert Not Needed – Sikhs’, The Sun (Melbourne), 23 October 1985.

26 Telex, HQ ASIO to all regions, ‘Visit to Australia by Indian PM Gandhi’, 22 November 1985, ASIO records.

27 Cabinet brief, ‘Protective Security Arrangements for Indian Prime Minister during His Visit to Australia October 1986’, 23 July 1986, ASIO records.

28 Memo, S Branch, ‘Visit of the Indian Prime Minister, 30 October 1985, ASIO records.

29 Minute, C, PMV, to EO, DG, through Acting ADG S, ‘Visit of Prime Minister Gandhi’, 11 November 1985, ASIO records.

30 Cabinet brief, ‘Protective Security Arrangements for Indian Prime Minister during His Visit to Australia October 1986’, 23 July 1986, ASIO records.

31 Minute, C, PMV, ‘Security Committee of Cabinet’, 4 July 1986, ASIO records.

32 Note for file, McBride, ADG S, ‘Visit of the Indian Prime Minister, October 1986’, June 1986, ASIO records.

33 Cabinet minute, ‘Decision No. 7935 (SEC)’, 17 July 1986, ASIO records.

34 Telex, DDG ASIO to all regions, ‘Visit of Indian Prime Minister’, 17 October 1986, ASIO records.

35 Minute, ADG IA to EO, DG, 20 October 1986, ASIO records.

36 Memo, Director, Security Review, 15 December 1988, ASIO records.

37 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Codd, Secretary PM’s Department, 13 October 1987, ASIO records.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid.

40 Minute, Acting Registrar ISG to ADG Sec, 18 May 1984, ASIO records.

41 Minute, S1-B to C, SS, 29 August 1985, ASIO records.

42 ‘The Petrov Affair’, Museum of Australian Democracy, <www.moadoph.gov.au/exhibitions/online/petrov/fallout.html>, accessed 15 June 2016.

43 Letter, T.H. Barnett (DG ASIO) to G.J. Evans (AG), ‘The Security of Mr & Mrs Petrov’, 17 October 1984, ASIO records.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

46 ‘The Petrov Affair’, Museum of Australian Democracy, <www.moadoph.gov.au/exhibitions/online/petrov/fallout.html>, accessed 15 June 2016.

47 D. Ball, A Suitable Piece of Real Estate.

48 Memo, n.d., ASIO records.

49 Memo, Leslie, RD SA, to HQ ASIO (Attn: C, SS), 18 February 1986, ASIO records.

50 See R. Coulthart, ‘The Family Court Murders’, 7 July 2003, Sunday Night, <au.news.yahoo.com/sunday-night/features/a/17866516/the-family-court-murders>; and R. Coulthart, ‘Road to Revenge’, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 August 2014, <www.smh.com.au/national/road-to-revenge-20140825-3e8yo.html>, accessed 15 June 2016.

51 Memo, for RD NSW to HQ ASIO, ‘ASIO Liaison with NSW State Police’, 6 August 1984, ASIO records.

52 Minute, C, PMV, to S4E via S, S4, ‘Assistance to NSW Police Investigation of Family Court Bombings’, 11 July 1984, ASIO records.

53 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Bowen, Attorney-General, 9 October 1985, ASIO records.

54 Ibid.

Chapter 18: Mixed Counterespionage Strategies

1 ‘Businessman, Soviet Official Held for Alleged Spying’, Canberra Times, 16 February 1983, p. 5. A second Soviet citizen, living in Italy and accused of being an ‘accomplice’, was arrested later that month (‘Espionage Charge’, Canberra Times, 26 February 1983, p. 5.

2 ‘Espionage Charge: US Diplomat Expelled from USSR’, Canberra Times, 12 March 1983, p. 4.

3 ‘British Spy: Donald Maclean Dies in Moscow’, Canberra Times, 12 March 1983, p. 4.

4 ‘Blunt: A Spy Who Never Repented’, Canberra Times, 28 March 1983, p. 4.

5 ‘Expulsion of “Spies” by Britain Denounced’, Canberra Times, 2 April 1983, p. 5; ‘Expulsion of Diplomats “Based on False Charges” ’, Canberra Times, 7 April 1983, p. 5.

6 A. Fitzgerald, ‘Come to Canberra, the City of Spies!’, Canberra Times, 8 April 1983, p. 2.

7 C. Brammall, ‘Australia Expels Soviet Diplomat for Spying’, Canberra Times, 23 April 1983, p. 1.

8 For more on this, see Andrew, Defence of the Realm, pp. 714–27.

9 US Department of Justice, FBI, The FBI: A Centennial History, 1908–2008, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, n.d. (2008), p. 79.

10 For more on Operation Ryan, the Soviet efforts to collect information about a feared NATO nuclear strike, see Andrew & Gordievsky, KGB, pp. 583–605.

11 Andrew, The Defence of the Realm, pp. 714–27.

12 B. d’Alpuget, ‘The Spy Who Trapped a Mate’, The Australian, 13 July 2010.

13 Confidential interview, 18 August 2014.

14 Minute, C, SA, to ADG E, 4 June 1985, ASIO records.

15 RCASIA, Report on the Australian Security Intelligence Organization, December 1984, AGPS, Canberra, 1985, p. 41.

16 RCASIA, Report on the Australian Security Intelligence Organization, p. 41.

17 ASIO Act 1979, Section 27A.

18 RCASIA, Report on the Australian Security Intelligence Organization, pp. 135–8.

19 Ibid., p. 29.

20 Memo, DG ASIO to ADG E, 21 May 1986, ASIO records.

21 Confidential interview, January 2016.

22 Memo, DG ASIO to ADG E, 21 May 1986, ASIO records.

23 Circular memo, ADG IA to RDs, 5 May 1988, ASIO records.

24 Record of conversation, DG, DDG, ADG E, C, SA, and Attorney-General, 8 June 1983, ASIO records.

25 Memo, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to DDG I&O, 13 October 1986, ASIO records.

26 Notes, ASIO records.

27 Ibid.

28 RCASIA, Report on the Australian Security Intelligence Organization, p. 33.

29 Ibid., p. 43.

30 Record of conversation, DG, DDG, ADG C, ADG S, S, R5, and Attorney-General, 23 January 1984, ASIO records.

31 See examples in Chapters 12 and 15.

32 ‘Address by the Attorney-General, Senator the Hon. Gareth Evans QC, to Annual General Meeting of Victorian Council for Civil Liberties, Melbourne, 17 May 1984’, ASIO records; interview, E.J. Marks, 4 March 2013.

33 See, for example, the case of Lev Koshlyakov discussed in Chapter 9.

34 Cabinet decision 610, 30 May 1983, as discussed in letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFA, 16 April 1987, ASIO records.

35 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFA, 16 April 1987, ASIO records.

36 Interview, E.J. Marks, 4 March 2013.

37 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFA, 6 November 1985, ASIO records.

38 Minute, EO, DG, to DG ASIO, May 1987, ASIO records.

39 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to S.F. Harris, Secretary DFA, 4 March 1984, ASIO records.

40 Letter, Acting DG ASIO to Secretary DFAT, 22 December 1987, ASIO records.

41 Note for file, E.J. Marks, EO, DG, ‘V.N. Zemskov’, 17 March 1986, ASIO records.

42 Letter, Wrigley, DG ASIO, to Harris, Secretary DFA, 4 March 1984, ASIO records.

43 Memo, Wrigley to McFarlane, 27 August 1986, ASIO records.

44 Minute, C, SA, to ADG E, 4 June 1985, ASIO records.

45 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFA, 16 April 1987, ASIO records.

46 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFA, 12 May 1987, ASIO records.

47 Letter, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 13 May 1987, ASIO records.

48 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFA, 9 June 1987, ASIO records.

49 Interview, A.K. Wrigley, 27 March 2012.

50 Confidential interview, 27 January 2016.

51 Letter, Acting DG ASIO to Secretary DFAT, 22 December 1987, ASIO records.

52 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFAT, 27 October 1988, ASIO records.

53 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DFAT, 9 December 1988, ASIO records.

54 Ibid.

55 Letter, DG ASIO, 8 April 1992, ASIO records.

56 Letter, DG ASIO to Acting Secretary DFAT, 28 September 1989, ASIO records.

57 Letter, DG ASIO to Attorney-General, 29 September 1989, ASIO records.

58 Note, 26 October 1989, ASIO records.

59 Report, 23 February 1984, ASIO records.

60 Report, 17 May 1984, ASIO records.

61 ASIO records.

62 Telex, S, E1 HQ to S, E1, ACT, 29 May 1986, ASIO records; RCASIA, Report on the Australian Security Intelligence Organization, p. 31.

63 Report, 11 October 1991, ASIO records.

64 Minute, ADG Sov to ADG IA, 11 January 1990, ASIO records.

65 Report, June 1987, ASIO records.

66 Report, June 1987, ASIO records.

67 Minute, SOV3 HQ, 27 January 1987, ASIO records.

68 Report, June 1987, ASIO records.

69 Memo, unknown (for ADG IA) to RDs NSW, ACT and Victoria, 8 July 1988, ASIO records.

70 Ibid.

71 Letter, DG ASIO to Secretary DILGEA, 6 May 1988, ASIO records.

72 Memo, unknown (for ADG IA) to RDs NSW, ACT and Victoria, 8 July 1988, ASIO records.

73 Letter, Bowen to Hawke, 28 March 1989, ASIO records.

74 Memo, unknown (for ADG IA) to RDs NSW, ACT and Victoria, 8 July 1988, ASIO records.

75 Memo, August 1977, ASIO records.

76 Ibid.

77 Record of conversation, 5 January 1983, ASIO records.

78 Memo, S, E3 (for DG ASIO), 9 March 1983, ASIO records.

79 Memo, unknown (for RD ACT) to Acting S, E3 HQ, 9 July 1984, ASIO records.

80 Note for file, R5-A, 21 June 1984, ASIO records.

81 Telex, HLG to HQ ASIO, 22 June 1984, ASIO records.

82 Telexes, ACT to Acting S, E3 HQ, 4 July 1984; and Acting S, E2 HQ to C, Ops, and ACT, 15 August 1984, both from ASIO records.

83 Memo, unknown (for RD ACT) to Acting S, E3 HQ, 9 July 1984, ASIO records.

84 Minute, E3A to A, SE1, 11 July 1986; and minute, 24 December 1987, both from ASIO records.

85 Memo, SLO Washington, 5 May 1989, ASIO records.

86 Memo, 26 October 1983, ASIO records.

87 Telex, H, HLG to ADG E, n.d., ASIO records.

88 Minute, C, R4, to DDG IO, 29 October 1986, ASIO records.

89 Memo, Marshall, RD ACT, to C, ADG HQ, 31 October 1986, ASIO records.

90 Memo, G.P. Walsh, Acting DG ASIO, to A.D. Campbell, Acting Secretary DFA, 6 January 1987, ASIO records.

91 Ibid.

92 ASIO records.

93 Letter, Bowen to Hawke, 28 March 1989, ASIO records.

94 Minute, S, E6 to C, R2, 11 January 1984, ASIO records.

95 Memo, 20 January 1984; and telex, S, R ACT, to C, R2 HQ, 23 January 1984, both from ASIO records.

96 Memo, 4 January 1985, ASIO records.

97 Note, September 1985, ASIO records.

98 Report, 12 December 1993, ASIO records.

99 Report, 23 February 1984, ASIO records.

100 Report, 3 May 1984, ASIO records.

101 Telex, EO, DG, to DG ASIO, 24 October 1984, ASIO records.

102 Report, EE6 to RD WA, 2 August 1989, ASIO records.

103 Ibid.

104 Memo, RD Victoria to HQ ASIO, 5 May 1983, ASIO records.

105 Telexes, E2-0 HQ to C, Ops NSW, 22 August 1984; HQ to C, Ops SA, 3 September 1984; and SA2 Victoria to S, E2 HQ, and S, E NSW, 18 August 1986, all from ASIO records.

106 Minute, Acting C, Ops Victoria, to RD Victoria, 5 February 1987, ASIO records.

107 Memo, to ASIO, 7 January 1988, ASIO records.

108 Memo, to ADG IA, 11 January 1988, ASIO records.

109 Telex, S, E NSW, to ADG IA, 12 January 1988, ASIO records.

110 Telex, A-S, E NSW to ADG IA HQ, 15 January 1988, ASIO records.

111 Minute, EE1 to C, SB, 12 February 1988, ASIO records.

112 Note, n.d., ASIO records.

113 Handwritten note to Acting DG ASIO, on minute, EE1 to Acting ADG IA, 3 June 1988, ASIO records.

114 Telex, C, Ops ACT, to ADG R, 8 March 1985, ASIO records.

115 Minute, EE1 to ADG IA, 22 October 1987, ASIO records.

116 Report, T1 B2, n.d., ASIO; and memo, 24 January 1989, both from ASIO records.

117 Letter, DG ASIO, 17 March 1989; and memo, 4 May 1989, both from ASIO records.

118 Letter, Bowen to Hawke, 28 March 1989, ASIO records.

119 Memo, 21 August 1987; letter, DG ASIO to K.C. Beazley, Minister for Defence, 28 September 1987; report, February 1989; and report, October 1989, all from ASIO records.

120 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

121 Note, AS ASIA, 20 April 1990, ASIO records.

122 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

123 Letter, Bowen to Hawke, 28 March 1989, ASIO records.

124 Ibid.

125 Memo, PM to Codd, Secretary to the Cabinet, ‘Increment to ASIO Budget 1988–89 and Forward Three Year Estimates 1989–92’, n.d., ASIO records.

126 Report, July 1988, ASIO records.

127 See for example, ‘Why Johns Pulled the Plug on ABC News’, Sydney Morning Herald, 27 May 1995, p. 37; ‘The Battle to Publish Spy Report’, Sydney Morning Herald, 27 May 1995, p. 1; D. Lague & M. Millett, ‘How We Spied on China’, Sydney Morning Herald, 27 May 1995, p. 1; G. Kitney, ‘Bungling Cover-up Worsened Problem’, Sydney Morning Herald, 29 May 1995, p. 6; D. Lague, ‘Beijing May Demand New Building’, Sydney Morning Herald, 29 May 1995, p. 6; J. Curtin, ‘Injunction against Herald Dissolved’, Sydney Morning Herald, 30 May 1995, p. 6; D. Lague & C. Skehan, ‘Lavarch Gave Approval for Embassy Bugs’, Sydney Morning Herald, 30 May 1995, p. 1; T. Ferguson, ‘In Defence of the Top Secret Life of ASIO’, The Age, 11 March 2004; and M. Corcoran, ‘The Chinese Embassy Bugging Controversy’, ABC News, 8 November 2013.

128 Note, AS ASIA, 20 April 1990, ASIO records.

129 Minute, G.P. Walsh, DDG, to ADG FI, 5 December 1990, ASIO records.

Chapter 19: Looking for Moles

1 See Mitrokhin’s notes on the KGB in Australia, Churchill Archives Centre, MITN 1/7.

2 These cases are discussed in Volume I of this history.

3 ASIO records.

4 For more on the relationship between Angleton and Golitsyn, and some of the problems that resulted from it, see Mangold, Cold Warrior.

5 Interview, J.C. Griffiths, 17 March 2009.

6 ASIO records. For more on the early counterintelligence areas of ASIO, see Volume II of this history.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 RCIS, Supplement to the Fourth Report, NAA: A8908, 4D. All references to this supplement in this chapter are taken from the NAA redacted copy, available online from the link at naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/DetailsReports/SeriesDetail.aspx?Series_no=A8908>, accessed 15 June 2016.

10 Andrew & Gordievsky, KGB, pp. 541–42.

11 Ibid.

12 O. Kalugin, interview transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

13 ASIO records.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Woodward, One Brief Interval, pp. 159–60.

17 I. Frykberg, ‘Hint of KGB in ASIO, Inquiry Told’, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 May 1977.

18 RCIS, Supplement to the Fourth Report, NAA: A8908, 4D.

19 ASIO records.

20 Doc. A103, in RCIS, Fourth Report, vol. III, p. 24, ASIO records.

21 RCIS, Fourth Report, vol. III, pp. 58, 77, ASIO records.

22 ASIO records.

23 RCIS, Supplement to the Fourth Report, NAA: A8908, 4D.

24 Ibid.

25 Interview, G. Brownbill, 7 September 2011.

26 Ibid.

27 Minute, to DDG and ADGs, 6 February 1978, ASIO records.

28 ASIO records.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Memo, Barnett, DDG, to ASIO managers, 11 March 1977, ASIO records.

32 ASIO records.

33 Interview, I.M. Thomas, 21 March 2013.

34 Hall, The Secret State, p. 94.

35 Interview, G. Brownbill, 7 September 2011.

36 Handwritten note for record, P. Barbour, ASIO records.

37 Message, DG ASIO to A. Dyster, PM’s Department, ‘Re your Request for Comments on Book “The Secret State” ’, 20 September 1978, ASIO records.

38 Woodward, One Brief Interval, pp. 159–60.

39 Letter, DG ASIO to J.D. Enfield, 14 April 1981, ASIO records.

40 Ibid.

41 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 186.

42 ASIO records.

43 Ibid.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Ibid.

49 Report, 24 August 1971, ASIO records.

50 Draft minute, n.d., ASIO records.

51 Minute, 4 August 1971, ASIO records.

52 ASIO records.

53 Memo, SSO D2 to PSO D2, 7 September 1971, ASIO records.

54 Minute, 22 June 1972; draft report, DG ASIO, ‘Submission to the Attorney-General’, n.d., both from ASIO records.

55 Note for record, DG ASIO, ‘Discussion between the Prime Minister, the Hon. E.G. Whitlam, QC, and the Director General, in Canberra on 19 December 1972’, 21 December 1972, NAA: A12384, K/2/2/1.

56 Quoted in C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the Heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014.

57 Note for file, B25, 3 March 1975, ASIO records.

58 See Mitrokhin’s notes on the KGB in Australia, Churchill Archives Centre, MITN 1/7.

59 Brief, 1 July 1977, ASIO records.

60 ASIO records.

61 Ibid.

62 Ibid.

63 Confidential interview, 8 November 2011.

64 ASIO records.

65 Ibid.

66 Ibid.

67 Ibid.

68 Ibid.

69 Ibid.

70 Ibid.

71 Ibid.

72 Interview, A.R. Beard, 3 August 2012.

73 ASIO records.

74 Brian Toohey, ‘KGB Makes Deep Penetration in Australia’, National Times, 29 March – 4 April 1981.

75 ASIO records.

76 Note for file, Barnett, 25 October 1984, ASIO records.

77 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 20 March 1981; and briefing note, H.D. Strang, Acting Sr Assistant Secretary Criminal Law & Security Branch, Attorney-General’s Department, to Attorney-General, ‘Allegations about ASIO and Sir Roger Hollis’, 24 December 1984, both from ASIO records.

78 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 20 March 1981, ASIO records.

79 For more on this operation, see Vol. I of this history, pp. 532–3.

80 Letter, Woodward, DG ASIO, to Fraser, PM, 20 March 1981, ASIO records.

81 Interview, G. Brownbill, 7 September 2011.

82 ASIO records.

83 The line attributed to Angleton became the title of a book by D.C. Martin.

84 Woodward, One Brief Interval, p. 186.

85 ASIO records.

86 Interview, G. Brownbill, 7 September 2011.

87 ASIO records.

88 Ibid.

89 Interview, I.M. Thomas, 21 March 2013.

90 ASIO records.

91 Ibid.

92 Ibid.

93 Ibid.

94 C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the Heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014; and letter, former ASIO officer ‘Tas’ to Professor D. Ball, February 2001.

95 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

96 Kalugin with Montaigne, Spymaster, p. 170.

97 Confidential interview, 9 September 2014.

98 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

99 Ibid.

100 ‘ASIO Mole Leaked Secrets for 15 Years: Report’, Sydney Morning Herald, 1 November 2004.

101 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

102 Interview, G. Walsh, 12 June 2012.

103 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

104 C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014; transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

105 P. Monk, ‘Reds Really Were under the Beds’, The Australian, 9 June 2009.

106 C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the Heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014.

107 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

108 ISC, The Mitrokhin Inquiry Report, UK Government, London, June 2000. This report is also quoted in W. Reed & C.J. Ward, ‘Australian Intelligence: Confronting the Past for a Safer Future’, National Observer, no. 77, 22 December 2008.

109 P. Monk, ‘Christopher Andrew and the Strange Case of Roger Hollis’, Quadrant, April 2010; Andrew & Mitrokhin, The KGB in Europe and the West; Andrew & Mitrokhin, The KGB and the World.

110 P. Monk, ‘Reds Really Were under the Beds’, The Australian, 9 June 2009.

111 See, for example, P. Dorling, ‘Former Labor MP Albert James Listed as Secret KGB Informant on Russian Archives’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 August 2014.

112 See Mitrokhin’s notes on the KGB in Australia, Churchill Archives Centre, MITN 1/7.

113 C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the Heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014.

114 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

115 Reed & Ward, ‘Australian Intelligence: Confronting the Past for a Safer Future’, National Observer, no. 77, 22 December 2008.

116 P. Monk, ‘Reds Really Were under the Beds’, The Australian, 9 June 2009.

117 C. Stewart, ‘Spy Who Escaped from the Heat’, Weekend Australian, 8–9 November 2014.

118 Transcript, ‘Trust and Betrayal’, Four Corners, 2 November 2004, <www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2004/s1232663.htm>, accessed 15 June 2016.

119 Interview, G.P. Walsh, 12 June 2012.

120 ASIO records.

Conclusion

ASIO Report to Parliament, 1995–96, Canberra, 1996; ASIO Report to Parliament, 1989–90, Canberra, 1990; and ASIO Report to Parliament, 2001–2002, Canberra, 2002.

2 This included 1490 ongoing full-time, 27 non-ongoing full-time, 204 ongoing part-time, seventeen non-ongoing part-time, and 57 non-ongoing casual staff. See ASIO Report to Parliament, 2013–2014, Canberra, 2014.

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