Notes

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CHAPTER I

1. Rousseau, The Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, I, 22.

2. Ibid., 4.

3. I, 156-57; II,70, 321.

4. Saintsbury, History of the French Novel, I, 391.

5. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 174.

6. Lanson, G., Histoire de la littérature française, 801.

7. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIX, 587a.

8. Rousseau, The Confessions, I, 3.

9. Ibid., 8.

10. 9.

11. 11.

12. 13.

13. 9.

14. 16.

15. 22.

16. 41.

17. 44.

18. Ibid.; Lemaître, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 290; Mann, Thomas, Three Essays, 156.

19. Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau, I, 51 f

20. Rousseau, The Confessions, I, 69.

21. Rousseau, Les Confessions, I, 140.

22. The Confessions, I, 117-19.

23. Ibid., 76.

24. 76.

25. 106.

26. 91.

27. 92.

28. 96.

29. 104.

30. 107.

31. 116.

32. 122.

33. 130.

34. 154

35. 138.

36. 148.

37. 160.

38. 178.

39. Les Confessions, I, 238.

40. Ibid.; The Confessions, I, 178.

41. Ibid., 224.

42. 195.

43. Josephson, J.-J. Rousseau, III .

44. Ibid., 113-14.

45. The Confessions, I, 247, 250.

46. Ibid., 259.

47. 262.

48. 265.

49. Ibid.

50. 296.

51. 295.

52. 300.

53. Josephson, 132.

54. Ibid., 133.

55. The Confessions, 1,305.

56. Letter of Frederick, 1762, in Gooch, Frederick the Great, 145.

57. The Confessions, I, 309.

58. Ibid., 310.

59. Ibid., II, 139.

60. Martin, Henri, Histoire de France, XVI, 83; Collins, J. C, Bolingbroke, and Voltaire in England, 209.

61. Josephson, 140.

62. Morley, John, Rousseau and His Era, I, 127; Hendel, C. W., Citizen of Geneva, 208.

63. Diderot, Essai sur les règnes de Claude et Néron, Ch. 67.

64. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 321.

65. The Confessions, II, 21.

66. Ibid., 32.

67. Rousseau, Discourse on Arts and Sciences, in Social Contract and Discourses, 130.

68. Ibid., 132.

69. 134.

70. 134.

71. 146.

72. 151.

73. 142.

74. 151.

75. 135.

76. 139.

77. 153.

78. 153.

79. Rousseau, preface to Narcisse.

80. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 371.

81. Grimm, Correspondance litt é raire, IX, 49.

82. Bayle, Pierre, Réponse aux questions d’un provincial.

83. Rousseau, Reveries of a Solitary, Book VI, pp. 127-32.

84. The Confessions, II, 21.

85. Lemaître, 92.

86. Letter of July 15, 1756, in Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 142.

87. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 321.

88. The Confessions, II, 34.

89. Ibid., 48.

90. 49.

91. 51.

92. 56; Goncourt, E. and J. de, Madame de Pompadour, 143.

93. Faguet, Rousseau artiste, 192.

94. Grimm, II, 307.

95. Rousseau, Reveries, 111 .

96. In Faguet, Rousseau artiste, 193.

97. Musée, St.-Quentin.

98. Levey, Michael, Painting in 18th-century Venice, 155.

99. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 169.

100. Épinay, Mme. d’, Memoirs and Correspondence, II, 52.

101. Ibid.; Masson, La Religion de Rousseau, I, 184-85.

102. Preface to Narcisse.

103. Masson, I, 182.

104. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 428.

105. The Confessions, II, 63.

106. Ibid., 58.

107. Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, in Social Contract . . ., 157.

108. Ibid., 159.

109. 160.

110. 239.

111. Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra, 129.

112. Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, loc. cit., 181.

113. Ibid., 169.

114. 175.

115. 222.

116. Rousseau, Social Contract, Book I, Ch. ii.

117. Second Discourse, in Social Contract … , 214.

118. Ibid., 207.

119. 220-22.

120. 238.

121. 242-44.

122. Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques, in Cas-sirer, The Question of Rousseau, 54.

123. Second Discourse, loc. cit., 236.

124. End of second Discourse.

125. Mumford, Lewis, The Condition of Man, 275.

126. Helvétius, Treatise on Man, II, xx.

127. Duclos, Consid é rations sur les moeurs, 11.

128. Lemaître, 122.

129. Second Discourse, loc. cit., 175, 246.

130. Voltaire, Works, XXIa, 227-30.

131. Ibid.

132. The Confessions, II, 65.

133. Social Contract, 271.

134. Ibid., 272.

135. 281.

136. 269.

137. 262.

138. 253.

139. 260.

140. 256.

141. The Confessions, II, 40.

142. Ibid.

143. Masson, I, 181.

144. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 181.

145. The Confessions, II, 40.

146. Grimm, Correspondance, II, 239.

147. Sainte-Beuve, II, 195n.

148. Ibid., 180.

149. 191.

150. 213.

151. Morley, Rousseau, I, 272.

152. Macdonald, Frederika, Jean Jacques Rousseau, II, 83.

153. Source lost.

154. Toth, Karl, Woman and Rococo in France.

155. Hobbes, De Corpore, Ch. xxv.

156. Toth, 194; Josephson, 194; Faguet (Vie de Rousseau, 214) thought Mme. d’Épinay had been infected by Dupin de Francueil.

157. Épinay, II, 85.

158. Ibid., 130.

159. Josephson, 149.

160. The Confessions, II, 81.

161. Ibid., 66.

162. Letter to Malesherbes, Jan. 26, 1762.

163. Épinay, II, 128; Sainte-Beuve, II, 187; Morley, Rousseau, I, 274.

CHAPTER II

1. Frederick the Great, Mémoires, I, 4.

2. Frederick the Great, Histoire de la guerre de Sept Ans, 388.

3. Dorn, W. L., Competition for Empire, 306.

4. Mahan, A. T., Influence of Sea Power upon History, 74.

5. Aldis, Janet, Madame Geoffrin, 200.

6. Goodwin, A., The European Nobility in the 18th Century, 113.

7. Coxe, Wm., History of the House of Austria, III, 346.

8. Walpole, H., Memoirs of … the Reign of George the Second, II, 73; Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 175.

9. Carlyle, History of Friedrich the Second, V,72.

10. Levron, Jacques, Pompadour, 174.

11. Treitschke, H. von, Life of Frederick the Great, 149.

12. Mann, Thos., Three Essays, 163.

13. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 15.

14. Treitschke, Frederick, 181.

15. Carlyle, Friedrich, V, 263-69; Martin, H., Histoire de France, XV, 497; Reddaway, Frederick the Great, 198; Coxe, History of … Austria, III, 370.

16. Reddaway, 199.

17. Gooch, G. P., Frederick the Great, 334.

18. Reddaway, 201.

19. Dorn, 300; Cambridge Modern History, VI, 251.

20. Gooch, Frederick, 334.

21. CMH, VI, 402.

22. Coxe, History of … Austria, III, 369.

23. Ibid.

24. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, 33.

25. Gooch, Frederick, 43.

26. Coxe, 379.

27. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 369; Carlyle, Friedrich, V, 479.

28. Ibid., 523.

29. 527.

30. 534; Sainte-Beuve, II, 373

31. Ibid., I, 219; Brandes, Voltaire, II, 77.

32. Sainte-Beuve, II, 372.

33. Martin, H., France, XV, 522.

34. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 402.

35. Dorn, 323.

36. Michelet, V, 402.

37. Carlyle, VI, 22.

38. Ibid., V, 547.

39. Jahn, Life of Mozart, I, 47.

40. Carlyle, VI, 42; Robinson, J. H., Readings in European History, 395.

41. Macaulay, Critical and Historical Essays, II, 173.

42. Acton, Lord, Lectures on Modern History, 297.

43. Carlyle, VI, 63.

44. Martin, XV, 527.

45. Ibid., 528.

46. Carlyle, VI, 63.

47. Dorn, 338.

48. Carlyle, VI, 115.

49. CMH, VI, 290.

50. Wilhelmine, Memoirs, vii.

51. Ibid., ix.

52. Frederick, Guerre de Sept Ans, 44.

53. Carlyle, VI, 265.

54. Coxe, History, III, 407.

55. Voltaire and Frederick the Great, Letters, 259.

56. Carlyle, VI, 322, 386.

57. Martin, XV, 533.

58. Dorn, 363.

59. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 262; Carlyle, VI, 399.

60. Martin, XV, 565.

61. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 271.

62. Coxe, III, 425.

63. Dec. 25, 1761, by the Russian calendar.

64. Frederick, Guerre de Sept Ans, 229.

65. Ibid., 227.

66. 295.

67. Gooch, Frederick, 64.

68. Frederick, Guerre de Sept Ans, 305.

69. Macaulay, Essays, II, 185.

70. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 245; Mann, Three Essays, 210.

71. Gooch, Frederick, 64.

72. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 192.

CHAPTER III

1. Du Hausset, Memoirs of Mme. de Pompadour, 97.

2. Goncourts, Madame de Pompadour, 338-42.

3. Ibid., 200.

4. Aldis, Madame Geoffrin, 129.

5. Lewis, D. B. Wyndham, Four Favorites, 42.

6. Goncourts, Mme. de Pompadour, 317.

7. Ibid., 319; Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 451.

8. Mitford, Nancy, Madame de Pompadour, 234.

9. Levron, Jacques, Pompadour, 260.

10. Bancroft, George, Literary and Historical Miscellanies, 91.

11. See Stryienski, Eighteenth Century, 189.

12. Mitford, Pompadour, 234.

13. Ercole, Lucienne, Gay Court Life, 236.

14. Mitford, 234-35.

15. Taine, H., Ancient Regime, 338.

16. Tocqueville, L’Ancien R é gime, 181-82; Martin, H., France, XVI, 236.

17. Barnes, H. E., Economic History of the Western World, 253.

18. Nussbaum, F. L., History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 213.

19. Martin, H., Age of Louis XIV, I, 54.

20. Mousnier and Labrousse, Le Dix-buiti ème Siècle, 135.

21. Du Hausset, Memoirs, 27.

22. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 352.

23. Rousseau, La Nouvelle Hélo ï se, in Du-cros, Louis, French Society in the 18th Century, 193.

24. Parton, James, Life of Voltaire, II, 329.

25. Voltaire, Works, Vllb, 56.

26. Goldoni, Memoirs, 359.

27. Taine, Ancient Regime, 308.

28. Cru, R. L., Diderot as a Disciple of English Thought, 61.

29. Ducros, French Society, 325.

30. Martin, H., France, XVI, 163; Acton, Lectures on Modern History, 326.

31. Higgs, Henry, The Physiocrats, 18.

32. Say, Léon, Turgot, 47, 67.

33. Turgot, Éloge de Gournai, in Martin, France, XVI, 165.

34. Mirabeau père in Higgs, 21

35. Higgs, 24.

36. Wolf, A., History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the 18th Century, 730.

37. Higgs, 37.

38. Warwick, C. F., Mirabeau and the French Revolution, 146.

39. Higgs, 68.

40. In Sè e, Henri, Les Id ées politiques en France au xviiie siècle, 161.

41. Pomeau, René, La Religion de Voltaire, 405.

42. Hume, letter to Morellet, July 10, 1769.

43. Voltaire, Works, lb, 247-48, 265.

44. In Gay, P.eter, Voltaire’s Politics, 169n.

45. Smith, Adam, Wealth of Nations, Book IV, Ch. ix.

46. Higgs, 135.

47. In Frankel, Charles, The F’aith of Reason, 121.

48. Bury, J. B., The Idea of Progress, 157.

49. Say, Turgot, 27.

50. Dakin, Turgot, 10.

51. Say, 29.

52. Dakin, 19.

53. Turgot, Reflections on the Formation and the Distribution of Wealth, No. 6.

54. Ibid., No. 68.

55. See The Age of Voltaire, Ch. xviii, Sec. 111.

56. Morelly, Code de la nature, in Hearn-shaw, F. J., ed., Social and Political Ideas of Some Great French Thinkers of the Age of Reason, 224.

57. In Tocqueville, L’Ancien R é gime, 173.

58. Martin, H., France, XVI, 147.

59. In Martin, Kingsley, The Rise of French Liberal Thought, 254.

60. Ibid.

61. 256.

62. Taiman, J. L., Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, 58.

63. Hazard, Paul, European Thought in the 18th Century, 178.

64. Hearnshaw, 238.

65. Jaurè s, Jean, Histoire socialiste de la R évolution fran ç aise, I, 158.

66. Martin, Kingsley, 247.

67. Hearnshaw, 243.

68. Ibid., 244.

69. Mornet, Daniel, Les Origines intellectuelles de la R évolution fran ç aise, 233.

70. Hearnshaw, 217.

71. Marquis D’Argenson in Taine, Ancient Regime, 82.

72. Crocker, L. G., The Embattled Philosopher, 78.

73. Ducros, 81.

74. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 452.

75. Loomis, Stanley, Du Barry, 33.

76. Ibid., 57.

77. Ercole, 263-66.

78. Parton, II, 394.

79. Loomis, Du Barry, 175.

80. Michelet, Histoire, V, 454.

81. Diderot, Salons, in Oeuvres complètes, II, 357.

82. Loomis, 89.

83. Lefebvre, Coming of the French Revolution, 41.

84. Stryienski, Eighteenth Century, 162.

85. Ibid., 163.

86. Lecky, W. E., History of England in the 18th Century, V, 327.

87. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 234.

88. Ibid., 232.

89. 236.

90. Dorn, 352.

91. Voltaire, XVIa, 231.

92. Ibid., 226.

93. Cobban, A., History of Modern France, I, 127.

94. Voltaire, XVIa, 227.

95. See Age of Voltaire, pp. 765 f.

96. Martin, H., France, XVI, 243.

97. Ibid.

98. Voltaire, letter to Thieriot, Aug. 9, 1769.

99. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher, 352.

100. Martin, H., XVI, 281.

101. Ibid.

102. 283.

103. Voltaire, letter to Mignot, June 24, 1771.

104. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher, 352.

105. Walpole, H., letters of Oct. 19 and 28, 1765.

106. Collins, J. C, Bolingbroke . . .47; Cum-ming, Ian, Helvétius, 168.

107. Grimm, Correspondance, January, 1768.

108. Loomis, 131.

109. Ibid., 140.

110. Du Hausset, Memoirs, 36.

111. Ibid.

112. Loomis, 151.

113. Martin, H., France, XVI, 308.

114. Loomis, 154.

CHAPTER IV

1. Funck-Brentano, F. (L’Ancien R égime, 180), gives another form: “Qui n’a pasvécu avant 1789 n’a pas connu la douceurde vivre.”

2. Wilson, A. M., Diderot: The Testing Years, 135.

3. Hazard, European Thought, 256.

4. Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 112.

5. Crébillon fils, The Sofa, introduction.

6. Ségur, Julie de Lespinasse, 237.

7. Goncourts, Woman, 143.

8. Ibid., 142; Michelet, Histoire, V, 454.

9. Ellis, Havelock, Sexual Inversion, 207.

10. Westermarck, Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, II, 482.

11. Rousseau, Émile, 145.

12. Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, Letter xv.

13. Toth, Woman and Rococo, 271.

14. Casanova, Memoirs, I, 51.

15. Boehn, Modes and Manners, IV, 196.

16. Ibid., 211.

17. Ducros, French Society, 340.

18. La Fontainerie, French Liberalism and Education, 63.

19. Vigée-Lebrun, Mme., Memoirs, 27.

20. Láng, Music in Western Civilization, 722.

21. Jahn, Life of Mozart, I, 38.

22. Rolland, Essays in Music, 194.

23. Voltaire, M élanges litt é raires, in Tiersot, Jean, Gluck and the Encyclopedists.

24. Goncourts, Woman, 87.

25. Taine, Ancient Regime, 154.

26. Herold, Love in Five Temperaments, 264.

27. Ibid., 267.

28. 277.

29. Diderot, Paradox of Acting, 15.

30. Herold, Love in Five Temperaments, 281.

31. Ibid., p. 288.

32. 326.

33. Mornet, Origines intellectuelles, 121.

34. In Aldis, Madame Geoffrin, 223.

35. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 102, 120.

36. Marmontel, Moral Tales, I, 18.

37. In Martin, Kingsley, Rise of French Liberal Thought, 101.

38. Hazard, 63.

39. Brunetiè re, Manual of the History of French Literature, 371.

40. Faniel, French Art of the 18th Century, 119D.

41. Litchfield, Illustrated History of Furniture, 240.

42. This statue has disappeared.

43. Letter of May 11, 1770.

44. Grimm, Correspondance, VII, 23.

45. Diderot, Salons, I, 370.

46. Louvre. Another form in Huntington Art Gallery, San Marino, Calif.

47. Louvre.

48. Huntington Art Gallery.

49. Louvre.

50. In Muther, History of Modern Painting, I, 98.

51. Ibid.

52. Dilke, Lady E., French Architects and Sculptors of the 18th Century, 36.

53. Diderot, Dialogues, 163.

54. Vigée-Lebrun, 160.

55. Both in the Louvre.

56. Goncourts, French 18th-Century Painters, 213.

57. Ibid., 233.

58. Prado.

59. Turin.

60. Victoria and Albert Museum.

61. Musée Condé, Chantilly.

62. National Gallery, Edinburgh.

63. Goncourts, French Painters, 216.

64. Louvre.

65. Louvre.

66. Wallace Collection.

67. Louvre.

68. Diderot, Salons, I, 243.

69. Louvre.

70. Goncourts, 224.

71. Ibid., 228.

72. 239.

73. École des Beaux-Arts, Paris.

74. Goncourts, 266.

75. Catalogue of the Fragonard Exhibition, Bern, 1954, Plate XIII.

76. Diderot, Salons, I, 544.

77. Leningrad.

78. All in the Louvre.

79. Louvre.

80. Louvre.

81. Hume in Mossner, Life of David Hume, 449.

82. Aldis, 11.

83. Batiffol, The Great Literary Salons, 155.

84. Ibid., 131.

85. Goncourts, Woman, 321.

86. Musée de Montpellier.

87. Batiffol, 158.

88. Aldis, 198.

89. Toth, 269.

90. Aldis, 287.

91. Ibid., 356.

92. 355.

93. 357.

94. Koven, Anna de, Horace Walpole and Mme. du Deffand, 81; Lespinasse, Julie de, Letters, introd. by Sainte-Beuve, 25.

95. Ségur, Julie de Lespinasse, 129.

96. Bertrand, J., D’Alembert, 101.

97. Ibid., 59-60.

98. 86.

99. Koven, 76.

100. Ségur, Lespinasse, 98.

101. Ibid., 103.

102. 102.

103. 104.

104. 83.

105. 125.

106. Du Deffand, Marquise, Lettres à Voltaire, 12.

107. Ibid., 26.

108. Ségur, Lespinasse, 132.

109. Ibid., 133.

110. 134.

111. In Lespinasse, Letters, 1.

112. Ibid., 33.

113. Mossner, Life of Hume, 4777.

114. Marmontel, Memoirs, I, 259.

115. Miranda in The Tempest.

116. Ségur, Lespinasse, 336.

117. Ibid., 293.

118. 296.

119. 295.

120. Lespinasse, 44 (letter of May 15, 1773).

121. Ibid., 45 (May 23, 1773).

122. In Ford, Miriam de, Love Children, 212.

123. Lespinasse, 52.

124. Ségur, Lespinasse, 211, 321-22.

125. Ibid., 271.

126. Lespinasse, 204.

127. Ségur, 322.

128. Lespinasse, 234 (letter of July 3, 1775).

129. Ségur, 387.

130. Lespinasse, 327.

131. Ségur, 395.

132. Ibid., 398.

CHAPTER V

1. Chaponniè re, Voltaire chez les calvinistes, 202.

2. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 262.

3. Ibid., 263-65.

4. Besterman in Voltaire, Love Letters to His Niece, 9.

5. Chaponniére, 203.

6. Parton, II, 475.

7. Letter of July 4, 1782, in Desnoiresterres, Voltaire, VI, 288.

8. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 283.

9. Ibid., 293.

10. 302.

11. Low, D. M., Edward Gibbon, 144.

12. Desnoiresterres, VI, 290; Chaponnière, 202.

13. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 481.

14. Ibid.

15. Desnoiresterres, I, 131.

16. Noyes, A., Volatire, 550.

17. Torrey, N. L., The Spirit of Voltaire, 189.

18. Desnoiresterres, VII, 335.

19. Ibid., 335.

20. Parton, II, 480.

21. Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Malady—Medicine.”

22. Moliè re, Le Malade imaginaire.

23. Chaponnière, 202; Parton, II, 480.

24. Voltaire, art. “Malady.”

25. Parton, I, 529.

26. Chaponnière, 202.

27. Brandes, Voltaire, II, 312.

28. Parton, II, 263.

29. Desnoiresterres, V, 324.

30. Parton, II, 471.

31. Chaponnière, 202.

32. Lanson, Voltaire, 197.

33. Desnoiresterres, VII, 482.

34. Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 201.

35. Faguet, Literary History of France, 507.

36. Lanson, Voltaire, 197.

37. Torrey, 34.

38. Lanson, 197.

39. Voltaire, Oeuvres complètes, XXXIX, 546.

40. Works, VIIIb, 286.

41. Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Ancients and Moderns.”

42. Michelet, Histoire, V, 426.

43. Parton, II, 489.

44. Brunetière, 361.

45. Torrey, 176.

46. Letter of Mar. 12, 1766.

47. Voltaire, Age of Louis XV, II, Ch. xxxix.

48. Lanfrey, L’Église et les philosophes, 335.

49. Letter of Frederick to Voltaire, June 10, 1759.

50. Letter of July 2, 1759.

51. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 266.

52. Ibid., 358.

53. 363.

54. Brandes, II, 241.

55. Desnoiresterres, VI, 391.

56. Phil. Dict., art. “Peter the Great.”

57. Robespierre, speech of 18 Floréal, Year II, in Hazard, European Thought, 265.

58. Parton, II, 260.

59. Chaponnière, 238.

60. Gibbon, Memoirs, 154n.

61. Parton, II, 556.

62. Voltaire, Mémoires, in Parton, I, 141.

63. Letter to Frederick, January, 1737, in Voltaire and Frederick, 41.

64. Phil. Dict., art. “Property.”

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid.

67. Letter to Dr. Daquir in Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, I, 228.

68. Phil. Dict., art. “Equality.”

69. Lacroix, Paul, The Eighteenth Century in France, 47.

70. Phil. Dict. , art. “Country” (“Pays”).

71. Voltaire, L’ A, B, C, in Sée, Les Id é es potinques, 84.

72. Phil. Dict., art. “Laws.”

73. Essai sur les moeurs, xii, 161, in Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 181.

74. Mérope, Act. II, Sc. ii.

75. Michelet, French Revolution, 47.

76. In Parton, II, 544.

77. Desnoiresterres, VI, 240.

78. Casanova, Memoirs, II, 406-7.

79. Letter of Oct. 28, 1773.

80. Phil. Dict., art. “Democracy.”

81. Letter of Sept. 20, 1760.

82. In Gay, 236.

83. Phil. Dict., art. “Government,” Sec. 3.

84. Ibid., Sec. 6, slightly transposed.

85. Phil. Dict., art. “Equality.”

86. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 415.

87. Quoted in Black, Art of History, 48.

88. Phil. Dict., art. “Law, Civil and Ecclesiastical.”

89. In Hearnshaw, Social … Ideas of Some Great French Thinkers, 157.

90. Art. “Execution.”

91. Art. “Torture.”

92. In Gay, 307.

93. Art. “Wit.”

94. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 146.

95. Ibid., 228.

96. Black, 29.

97. Candide, last chapter.

98. In Pomeau, 261.

99. Desnoiresterres, V, 24.

100. Brandes, Voltaire, I, 118.

101. Torrey, 10.

102. Letter of Aug. 28, 1751.

103. Brandes, Creative Spirits of the 19th Century, 138.

104. Ibid., 142; Höffding, H., Jean Jacques Rousseau and His Philosophy, 80; Desnoiresterres, VI, 310.

105. Ibid.

106. Mme. de Graffigny in Parton, I, 392.

107. Hume, letter of Apr. 26, 1764, in Gay, 81.

108. Torrey, 131.

109. Letter to Thieriot, Dec. 10, 1738.

110. Torrey, 131.

111. Ibid.

112. Voltaire, English Notebooks, in Gay, 353.

113. Phil. Dict., art. “Solomon.”

114. Desnoiresterres, V, 157; Parton I, 106.

115. See letter of March, 1737, to Moussinot, in Works, XXIa, 190.

116. Parton, II, 520.

117. Ibid., I, 507.

118. Ibid., 144.

119. Morley, Voltaire, in Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 96.

120. Parton, II, 600.

121. In Noyes, Voltaire, 536.

122. Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 61.

123. Pomeau, 462.

124. Desnoiresterres, II, 239.

125. In Torrey, 197.

126. Desnoiresterres, VI, 287.

127. Torrey, 91.

CHAPTER VI

1. Rousseau, Émile, p. 371.

2. The Confessions, II, 84.

3. Josephson, 190.

4. Ibid.; The Confessions, II, 84.

5. The Confessions, II, 88.

6. Diderot, Le Fils naturel, Act. IV, Sc. iii.

7. Brockway, W., and Winer, B., Second Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 195.

8. Ibid., 201.

9. The Confessions, II, 107.

10. Ibid., 99.

11. Rousseau, Collection Complète Des Oeuvres, I, 424.

12. Ibid., I, 428.

13. 431.

14. 438.

15. 442.

16. 449.

17. 443.

18. Desnoiresterres, V, 141.

19. The Confessions, II, 105.

20. Épinay, Mme. d’, Memoirs, II, 329.

21. Ibid., 334.

22. The Confessions, II, 102.

23. Josephson, 213.

24. The Confessions, II, 114-15, 110.

25. Ibid., 113.

26. 114-16.

27. Josephson, 220.

28. The Confessions, II, 118.

29. Ibid., 121.

30. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 195.

31. The Confessions, II, 133. Several of Mme. d’Houdetot’s letters to Rousseau survive, and a few of his to her; see Martin, H., France, XVI, 91n.

32. The Confessions, II, 136.

33. Sainte-Beuve, II, 213.

34. The Confessions, II, 144.

35. Ibid., 146.

36. 147.

37. Épinay, III, 130-32; Josephson, 249.

38. Épinay, III, 140-42.

39. Ibid., 186.

40. The Confessions, II, 154.

41. Josephson, 252.

42. The Confessions, II, 155.

43. Letter of Nov. 26, 1758, in Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 160.

44. Lemaître, Rousseau, 174.

45. Josephson, 308.

46. The Confessions, II, 165.

47. Rousseau, Politics and the Arts, 7.

48. Ibid ., 121.

49. 125-26.

50. The Confessions, II, 165.

51. Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire, 97, 105.

52. Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 169; Desnoiresterres, VI, 85.

53. Chaponnière, 169; Josephson, 278.

54. Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau, 111, 33.

55. Josephson, 279.

56. Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques, Part I, LetteI.

57. Letter II.

58. Letter iv.

59. Letter v.

60. Letter xiv.

61. Rousseau juge, p. 139.

62. Ibid., Part IV, Letter xv11.

63. Part V, Letter v.

64. Rousseau juge, p. 186.

65. Ibid., Part V, Letter x.

66. The Confessions, II, 163.

67. In Hendel, J.-J . Rousseau, Moralist, II, 47.

68. Rousseau juge, Part VI, Letter v1.

69. Part V, Letter v.

70. The Confessions, I, 101.

71. Kant, Fragment 618, in Cassirer, Rousseau, Kant, and Goethe, 6.

72. Texte, J., Rousseau and the Cosmopolitan Spirit, 236.

73. Desnoiresterres, VI, 87.

74. Michelet, Histoire, V, 427.

75. Ibid.

76. The Confessions, II, 213.

77. Ibid., 211.

78. Maritain, Three Reformers: Luther, Descartes, Rousseau, 119.

79. Taine, Ancient Regime, 271.

CHAPTER VII

1. Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 179.

2. Ibid ., 195.

3. Rousseau, Social Contract, Book I, Ch. v.

4. Ibid ., IV, ii.

5. IV, i.

6. I, vii.

7. I, viii.

8. I, vii.

9. II, iv.

10. I, viii.

11. Vaughn, Political Writings of Rousseau, I, 81.

12. Social Contract, Book III, Ch. v.

13. III, iv.

14. III, xv.

15. III, xviii.

16. III, i.

17. I, ix.

18. II, xi.

19. I, end.

20. II, i.

21. Letter to Mme. d’Étang, in Cobban, Rousseau and the Modern State, 193.

22. Cobban, Rousseau, 211.

23. Social Contract, IV, viii.

24. II, vii.

25. IV, viii.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. IV, vi.

31. In Cobban, Rousseau, 55.

32. Émile, p. 157.

33. Ibid.

34. Cobban, In Search of Humanity, 168.

35. Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 332.

36. Havens, Voltaire’s Marginalia, 68, in Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 268.

37. Cf. Social Contract, II, iv; Taiman, Origin of Totalitarian Democracy; Crocker, Rousseau et la philosophie politique , p. 111.

38. Social Contract, II, v.

39. Faguet, Rousseau penseur, 397.

40. Ibid.

41. Émile, preface.

42. Boyd, Educational Theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau, 297.

43. Rousseau, Émile, 13.

44. Ibid., 216.

45. 26.

46. 256.

47. 118.

48. 133.

49. 27.

50. 92.

51. 50.

52. 21-22, 46.

53. 56-58.

54. 341.

55. 253.

56. 251.

57. 254.

58. 53.

59. 58.

60. 167.

61. 149, 306.

62. 160.

63. Martin, H., France, XVI, 98.

64. Rousseau, Émile, 158.

65. Ibid., 220.

66. 230.

67. 261-62.

68. 263.

69. 257.

70. 272.

71. 232.

72. Ibid.

73. 238-49.

74. 245-47.

75. Letter of Oct. 5, 1758, in Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 152.

76. Émile , 261.

77. 223.

78. 275.

79. See Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 256.

80. Émile, 272.

81. 271-72.

82. 179.

83. 192.

84. 298-99.

85. Letter of Nov. 5, 1758, in Hendel, Citizen, 158.

86. In Faguet, Rousseau penseur , III.

87. Émile, 351; Hendel, J.-J. Rousseau, II, 23.

88. Émile, 330, 370.

89. 340.

90. 341, 371.

91. 337. 350.

92. 350.

93. 349.

94. 320.

95. 357.

96. 443.

97. 444.

98. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 125.

99. Seilliè re, J. J. Rousseau, 132, in Maritain, Three Reformers, 125.

100. Rousseau, Collection Complète Des Oeuvres, IXb, 157.

101. Plato, Republic, No. 592.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 232.

2. The Confessions, II, 243.

3. Collection complète, IXa, pp. v-x.

4. The Confessions, II, 253.

5. Collection, IXb, 4.

6. The Confessions, II, 255.

7. In Torrey, Spirit of Voltaire , 110.

8. Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau, III, 33.

9. Voltaire, letter of July 26,1764.

10. In Brandes, Voltaire, II, 97.

11. Ibid., 98; Desnoiresterres, VI, 320-23.

12. Hendel, J.-J. Rousseau, II, 252.

13. The Confessions, II, 257.

14. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 226.

15. In Gooch, Frederick the Great, 138.

16. The Confessions, II, 264.

17. Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 252.

18. The Confessions, II, 265.

19. Ibid., 259.

20. 270.

21. 265-66.

22. Letter of July 22, 1764, in Masson, P. M., La Religion, III, 171.

23. In Goncourts, Woman of the 18th Century, 287.

24. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 138.

25. Masson, III, 73-75.

26. 2 Timothy iii, 1 f.

27. Collection complète, IXa, pp. xi-xiii.

28. Ibid., p. xiii.

29. P. xiv.

30. P. xvi.

31. P. xxxix.

32. 1.

33. 2.

34. 4.

35. 7.

36. 8.

37. 26-28.

38. 55.

39. 63.

40. 65-66.

41. 70-71.

42. 121-22.

43. 8.

44. 15.

45. 42.

46. 44.

47. 47.

48. 50.

49. 83.

50. 86.

51. 87-89.

52. Exodus vii, 9-12.

53. Matthew xxiv, 24.

54. Collection complète, IXa, 201-2.

55. Ibid., 210-12.

56. 244-45.

57. 334.

58. Letter of Mar. 8, 1765, in Masson, P. M., La Religion, III, 206-7.

59. Collection complète, IXa, 184-85.

60. Morley, Voltaire, in Voltaire, Works, XXIb,97.

61. In Faguet, Vie de Rousseau, 318-20.

62. Rousseau juge de J.-J., I, ii-iv.

63. Grimm, Correspondance, May 15, 1763, Dec. 15, 1763, Jan. 15, 1765; see also Masson, P. M., II, 126-40.

64. Boileaux-Despréaux, Nicolas, L’Art poétique, lines 37-38.

65. Goethe, Faust, Part I, Everyman’s Library translation, p. 116.

66. Collection complete, I, 196n.

67. Horace Walpole, letter of Dec. 31, 1769, to Horace Mann.

68. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switz., 150.

69. Ibid., 215.

70. 217.

71. 219.

72. 229.

73. 230-31.

74. 254.

75. 258-68.

76. In Vaughn, Political Writings of Rousseau, II, 293.

77. Macdonald, Frederika, Jean Jacques Rousseau, II, 118.

78. Vaughn, II, 369n.

79. Ibid., 350.

80. 338.

81. Letter of Feb. 26, 1770.

82. Morley, Rousseau and His Era, II, 94.

83. Letter of Mar. 10, 1765.

84. Letter of Mar. 29, 1765.

85. Macdonald, F., II, 123.

86. The Confessions, II, 301.

87. Ibid.

88. Letter of Oct. 1, 1765.

89. The Confessions, II, 302.

90. Ibid.

91. Rousseau, Reveries, 106.

92. Ibid., 108; cf. The Confessions, 308.

93. Morley, Rousseau, II, 117.

94. The Confessions, II, 312.

95. Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 326.

96. Burton, Life of David Hume, II, 299.

97. Macdonald, F., II, 166.

98. Ibid., 213-14.

99. Walpole, Letter of Jan. 12, 1766.

100. Macdonald, II, 168.

101. Lemaître, 322; Macdonald, II, 172.

102. Ibid., II, 171.

103. Morellet, Mémoires, in Mossner, Life of Hume, 575.

104. Ibid., 517.

105. 518.

106. Faguet, Vie de Rousseau, 332.

107. In Burton, Hume, II, 304, 309.

108. Hume, letter to Lord Charlemont, in Mossner, 523.

109. Mossner, 519.

110. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Italy, Corsica, France, 279.

111. But summarized by Col. Robert Isham, who read them before their destruction by the executors.

112. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Italy … , 277-81.

113. Mossner, 521.

114. Ibid., 523.

115. Letter of May 10, 1766, in Hendel, Citizen of Geneva, 336.

116. Letter of Apr. 24, 1766, in Hendel.

117. Josephson, 460.

118. Macdonald, F., II, 186-209.

119. Mossner, 529.

120. Macdonald, II, 171.

121. Ibid., 174.

122. Josephson, 464; Morley, Rousseau, II, 133.

123. Josephson, 467.

124. Morley, II, 135.

125. Ibid.

126. Josephson, 471.

127. Faguet, Vie de Rousseau, 361; Ségur, Julie de Lespinasse, 203.

CHAPTER IX

1. Vaussard, La Vie quotidienne en Italie au xviiie siècle, 27.

2. Ibid., 107.

3. 105.

4. 125.

5. Smith, D. E., History of Mathematics, I, 519.

6. Baedeker, Northern Italy, 471.

7. James, E. E., Bologna, 178-80.

8. Casanova, Memoirs, I, 14.

9. Rolland, Romain, Musical Tour through the Land of the Past, 167.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Réalités, November, 1954, p. 45.

13. Láng, Music in Western Civilization, 354.

14. Grout, D. J., Short History of Opera, 196.

15. Kirkpatrick, R., Domenico Scarlatti, 94.

16. Einstein, Alfred, Gluck, 101.

17. Lee, Vernon, Studies of the 18th Century in Italy, 206.

18. Vaussard, 82.

19. De Sanctis, History of Italian Literature, II, 825.

20. Vaussard, 83.

21. Ibid., 86.

22. 88.

23. Campbell, T. J., The Jesuits, 424.

24. McCabe, Jos., Candid History of the Jesuits, 287.

25. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 276.

26. Chesterfield, Letters, Feb. 28, 1749.

27. Einstein, Gluck, 15.

28. Gatti-Cazazza Collection, Venice.

29. Private collection, Venice.

30. Ibid.

31. Museo Cívico, Bassano.

32. Voltaire, Works, VIIIa, 5.

33. Molmenti, P., Venice, Part III: The Decadence, I, 37.

34. Ibid., 49.

35. Molmenti, The Decadence, II, 17, 146.

36. Ibid., 48.

37. 49.

38. Rousseau, The Confessions, I, 301; Molmenti, II, 93.

39. Vaussard, 180.

40. Goldoni, Memoirs, 178.

41. Rousseau, The Confessions, I, 292.

42. Molmenti, I, 169; Vaussard, 195.

43. Grove’s Dictionary of Music, 111, 314.

44. Pincherle, Vivaldi, 16.

45. Ibid., 17.

46. Rolland, Musical Tour, 187.

47. Pincherle, 67.

48. E. g., Violin Concerto in E, Concerto Grosso in D Minor.

49. Pincherle, 61.

50. Ibid., 229-32.

51. Time, Nov. 29, 1963.

52. Lord Walpole Collection.

53. Brera Gallery, Milan.

54. Boston Museum of Fine Arts; Wallace Collection.

55. National Gallery, London.

56. Wallace Collection.

57. London, Vienna, Geneva.

58. New York.

59. Turin.

60. Louvre.

61. Duke of Devonshire Collection.

62. Levey, Painting in 18th-Century Venice, 92.

63. Anon., Tiepolo, 34.

64. Ospedaletto, Venice.

65. E.g., Sitwell, S., Southern Baroque Art, 35.

66. Molmenti, Tiepolo, 19; Venturi, L., Italian Painting from Caravaggio to Modi-gliani, 74.

67. Letter of Mar. 13, 1734, in Rolland, Musical Tour, 149.

67a. Goldoni, Memoirs, 184.

68. Casanova, Memoirs, II, 276.

69. Kirkpatrick, Scarlatti, 29; Vaussard, 193.

70. Goldoni, Memoirs, 1, 4.

71. Ibid., 179.

72. 183.

73. Garnett, R., History of Italian Literature, 323.

74. Gozzi, Carlo, Memoirs, II, 110 f.

75. Molmenti, Venice: Decadence, I, 168.

76. Goldoni, Memoirs, 346.

77. Ibid., introd., xi.

78. Gibbon, Edward, Memoirs, 7.

79. Goldoni, Memoirs, xxi.

80. Sitwell, S., German Baroque Art, 70.

81. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, VI, 675.

82. Ranke, History of the Popes, 111, 472.

83. New Cambridge Modern History, VII, 284.

84. Funk, F. X., Manual of Church History , II, 180.

85. Macaulay, Essays, II, 179.

86. De Brosses in McCabe, Jos., Crises in the History of the Papacy , 354.

87. Correspondance De Benoît XIV , II, 268, in McCabe, Crises , 354.

88. CMH , VI, 591.

89. Ford, Miriam de, Love Children , 205.

90. Lanfrey, P., L’Église et les Philosophes, 190.

91. Putnam, G. H., Censorship of the Church of Rome , II, 60.

92. Sime, James, Lessing , I, 92.

93. Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain , IV, 1393.

94. Gershoy, Leo, From Despotism To Revolution , 146.

95. CMH , VI, 598.

96. Ibid ., 599.

97. Robertson, Short History Of Freethought , II, 369.

98. Vico, Giambattista, Autobiography , 111.

99. Croce, B., Philosophy Of Giambattista Vico , 252.

100. Vico, The New Science , No. 31.

101. Ibid ., Nos. 916-18; we have ventured to improve the translation.

102. Nos. 922-24.

103. 925-27.

104. Vico, Autobiography , 171.

105. The New Science , No. 1104.

106. 1105.

107. 417-24.

108. 873-80.

109. 361.

110. Autobiography , 173.

111. The New Science , No. 1110.

112. Croce, Philosophy Of Vico , 269.

113. Ibid ., 274.

114. Croce, Filosofia di G. B . Vico (1911).

115. Grout, Opera, 200.

116. Ibid ., 208.

117. Oxford History of Music, IV , 185.

118. Burney, Charles, General History of Music , II, 917.

119. Grove’s Dictionary , II, 785.

120. Ibid .

121. Ibid .

122. Beckford, Wm., Travel Diaries , II, 167.

123. Lee, Vernon, Studies , 194.

124. Kirkpatrick, Scarlatti , 21.

125. Ibid ., 32.

126. 33.

127. Introd. to the Victor Album of Scarlatti’s Sonatas.

128. Kirkpatrick, 58.

129. Ibid ., 103.

130. Especially delightful: Nos. 13, 23, 25, 104, and 338, in the Longo numbering.

131. Coxe, Wm., Memoirs of the Kings of Spain , IV, 231.

CHAPTER X

1. Beckford, Travel Diaries , II, 171.

2. Cheke, Marcus, Dictator of Portugal , 4.

3. Day, Clive, History of Commerce , 186; History Today , November, 1955, p. 730.

4. Frederick the Great, MÉmoires , I, 28; Stirling-Maxwell, IV, 1385.

5. New CMH , VII, 289.

6. Stephens, H. M., Story of Portugal , 354.

7. Enc. Brit., XX , 981b.

8. History Today, November , 1955, p. 731.

9. Campbell, The Jesuits, 431.

10. Cheke, 50.

11. Ibid ., 111.

12. History Today , November, 1955, p. 733.

13. See The Age of Reason Begins , 249-51.

14. Cheke, 106.

15. McCabe, The Jesuits , 262.

16. Lanfrey, L’ÉGlise Et Les Philosophes , 258; Cheke, 114.

17. Our account follows Cheke, 118 f.

18. Lanfrey, 259.

19. Cheke, 132.

20. Lanfrey, 260.

21. McCabe, Jesuits , 263.

22. Campbell, Jesuits , 462.

23. Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution , 152; Cheke, 140.

24. Voltaire, Works , XVIa, 243.

25. Cheke, 155.

26. Ibid ., 157.

27. Voltaire, XVIa, 243.

28. Gershoy, 153; Cheke, 204.

29. Gershoy, 154.

30. Stephens, Portugal , 367.

31. Lea, H. C, History of the Inquisition In Spain , III, 310n.

32. Bell, Aubrey, Portuguese Literature , 277.

33. Cheke, 251.

34. Ibid ., 268.

35. Ibid .

CHAPTER XI

1. Altamira, R., History of Spain , 482, 466; Ogg, D., Europe in the 17th Century , 22; New CMH , VII, 271.

2. Herr, Richard, The Eighteenth-Century Revolution In Spain , 106; see also Altamira, 467-68.

3. Herr, 96.

4. Altamira, 460; Stokes, Hugh, Francisco Goya , 187.

5. Klingender, F. D., Goya in the Democratic Tradition , 4n.

6. Ibid ., 4-5; Campbell, Jesuits , 424.

7. Kany, C. E., Life and Manners in Madrid , 1750-1800, 375.

8. Vallentin, A., This I Saw , 26.

9. Lea, Inquisition in Spain , III, 308-10; IV, 523.

10. Martin, H., France , XV, 114-15.,

11. Ticknor, Geo., History of Spanish Literature , III, 244.

12. Lea, IV, 530.

13. Buckle, H. T., Introd. to the History of Civilization in England , 11a, 61.

14. CMH , VI, 124.

15. Voltaire, XlXa, 214.

16. Burney, Charles, History of Music , II, 815-16.

17. Kany, 392.

18. Coxe, Memoirs of The kings Of spain, IV, 141-43.

19. Trevor-Roper, Historical Essays , 268.

20. Herr, 75.

21. Letter of d’Alembert to Voltaire, May 13, 1773, in Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought , II, 372.

22. Herr, 63.

23. Ibid ., 77.

24. Ségur, Lespinasse , 254.

25. Altamira, 508.

26. Lea, Inquisition , IV, 307.

27. Herr, 210.

28. Michelet, Histoire De France , V, 439.

29. Stokes, Goya , 147.

30. Coxe, Kings of Spain , IV, 235.

31. Letters of an English officer, 1788, in Buckle, 1la, 92.

32. Coxe, IV, 236.

33. Hume, Martin, Spain: its Greatness and Decay , 397.

34. Coxe, IV, 408.

35. Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution , 163.

36. Coxe, IV, 341.

37. Ibid ., 361.

38. Campbell, Jesuits , 511-12.

39. Ibid .; Lanfrey, L’Église et les philosophes , 280.

40. Coxe, IV, 362.

41. Ibid ., 363.

42. Lanfrey, 282.

43. Campbell, 517-18.

44. Ibid ., 519; Lanfrey, 281.

45. Coxe, IV, 368.

46. Herr, 23.

47. Ibid .

48. 205.

49. 29.

50. 208.

51. Kany, 356-57.

52. Ruckle, 11a, 86; Robertson, Freethought , II, 372.

53. Herr, 210; Robertson, 373.

54. Herr, 35; Trevor-Roper, 264.

55. Coxe, IV, 412-16; Casanova, Memoirs , II, 344.

56. Altamira, 438.

57. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, History of Spanish Literature , 357.

58. Rev. Geo. Edmundsen, in CMH , VI, 384.

59. Vallentin, 5.

60. Herr, 54.

61. Ibid ., 57.

62. Buckle, 11a, 98.

63. Ibid ., 94.

64. Herr, 128.

65. CMH , VI, 383.

66. Herr, 148.

67. Ibid ., 141-42.

68. 150.

69. Kany, 24; Vallentin, 26.

70. Kany, 38.

71. Ibid ., 18.

72. Hume, Martin, Spain , 411.

73. Stokes, 188; Kany, 214.

74. Laborde, Spain , in Buckle, 11a, 114.

75. Kany, 24.

76. Ibid ., 280.

77. Casanova, II, 348.

78. Kirkpatrick, Scarlatti , 132.

79. Altamira, History of Spanish Civilization , 183.

80. Trevor-Roper, 264.

81. Kany, 345; Buckle, 11a, 95.

82. Ticknor, III, 256; Herr, 165.

83. Ticknor, III, 262.

84. Ibid ., 273.

85. Vallentin, 144.

86. Calvert, A. F., Royal Falaces of Spain , 97.

87. Cathedral of Salamanca.

88. Prado.

89. Private collection, Zurich.

90. Prado.

91. Poore, Charles, Goya , 156.

92. Calvert, Goya , 55.

93. Poore, 48.

94. One in Frick Collection, New York.

95. Prado.

96. Prado.

97. Vallentin, 93.

98. Trevor-Roper, 266.

99. Vallentin, 111.

100. Ibid ., 112.

101. E.g., Malraux in Goya, Drawings From the prado , xiv.

102. Lassaigne, J., Spanish Painting: From Velazquez to Picasso , 89.

103. Vallentin, 112.

104. Ibid ., 119.

105. Duke of Alba Collection.

106. Goya, Drawings , Plate 4.

107. Collection of the Hispanic Society, New York.

108. Vallentin, 195.

109. Ibid ., 203.

110. Prado.

111. Vallentin, 183.

112. Academy of San Fernando, Madrid.

113. National Gallery, Washington.

114. Academy of San Fernando, Madrid.

115. Klingender, Goya , 92.

116. Goya, Drawings , 123.

117. Ibid., 130.

118. 170.

119. Academy of San Fernando.

120. Goya, Drawings, 112.

121. Ibid., 89-117.

122. 118.

123. Vallentin, 223.

124. Both in the Prado.

125. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

126. In Goya, The Disasters of War, No. 23.

127. Ibid., No. 12.

128. No. 44.

129. No. 47.

130. No. 18.

131. These pictures from the Quinta del Sordo are in the Prado.

132. Lassaigne, Spanish Painting: From Vel á zquez to Picasso, 106.

CHAPTER XII

1. Goethe, Letters from Italy, Sept. 16, 1786.

2. Ibid., Sept. 12 and 17, 1786.

3. Gozzi, Carlo, Memoirs, II, 7.

4. Ibid., 100-03.

5. Hazlitt, W. C, The Venetian Republic, 11, 323.

6. Casanova, Memoirs, II, 110.

7. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 275.

8. Pearson, Hesketh, Johnson and Boswell, 171.

9. Goethe, Letters from Italy, Oct. 25, 1786.

10. CMH, VI, 601.

11. Winckelmann, J., History of Ancient Art, I, 48.

12. Goethe, Letters from Italy, Mar. 17, 1787.

13. Vaussard, 74.

14. Friedländer, Ludwig, Life and Manners under the Early Empire, II, 78.

15. Goethe, Oct. 27, 1786.

16. Vaussard, 84.

17. Ibid., 89.

18. Bury, J. B., History of Freedom of Thought, 122.

19. McCabe, The Jesuits, 346.

20. E.g., Lanfrey, Histoire politique des papes, 384; id., L’Église et les philosophes, 305.

21. Campbell, Jesuits, 536.

22. McCabe, Jesuits, 346.

23. Ranke, History of the Popes, II, 449-50.

24. Campbell, 538.

25. Ibid., 541.

26. McCabe, 355.

27. Campbell, 563.

28. Mozart, letter of Aug. 4, 1770, in Anderson, Emily, Letters of Mozart, I, 227.

29. Jahn, Life of Mozart, I, 151.

30. Blom, Eric, Mozart, 57.

31. Goethe, Letters from Italy, Nov. 24, 1786.

32. Vaussard, 141-43.

33. Beccaria, Dei delitti e delle pene (1766 ed.), p. 11.

34. Carlyle, “Count Cagliostro,” in Essays (Works, III), 187-92.

35. Goethe, Letters, Apr. 13 and 14, 1787.

36. Casanova, I, 13.

37. Ibid., 14.

38. 123.

39. Introd. xx.

40. 210.

41. 211.

42. 219.

43. 287.

44. 330.

45. 406-7.

46. II, 370, 393.

47. Ibid., 340.

48. Gilbert, O. P., The Prince de Ligne, 157.

49. Winckelmann, I, 3.

50. Ibid., 9.

51. 18.

52. 21.

53. Pater, Walter, The Renaissance, 155.

54. In Brandes, Goethe, II, 244.

55. Winckelmann, I, 31.

56. In Muther, History of Modern Painting, I, 81.

57. Pater, Renaissance, 148.

58. Winckelmann, I, 46.

59. Ibid ., 60.

60. II, 319.

61. 1, 64.

62. Ibid.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid.

65. 1, 70.

66. 287.

67. 77.

68. 76, 84.

69. 86.

70. In Pater, 147.

71. Both in Museo Correr, Venice.

72. Good examples in Morgan Library, New York, and Metropolitan Museum of Art.

73. Levey, Painting in Venice, 103.

74. Poldi-Pezzoli Museum, Milan.

75. Louvre.

76. Ältere Pinakothek, Munich.

77. Muther, I, 86.

78. Winckelmann, 1,407.

79. Prado.

80. Jahn, Mozart, III, 1, 15.

81. Burney, Fanny, Diary, 72-73.

82. Burney, Charles, History of Music, II, 886-91.

83. Einstein, Albert, Gluck, 151.

84. Grove’s Dictionary, IV, 174.

85. Ibid., 509.

86. Einstein, Gluck, 149.

87. Grove’s, I, 650.

88. Translation by Richard Garnett (History of Italian Literature, 300).

89. In De Sanctis, II, 831.

90. Alfieri, Vittorio, Autobiography, Epoch I, Ch. i.

91. Ibid., Epoch II, Ch. iv.

92. III, iii.

93. III, xii.

94. Alfieri, Of Tyranny, 102.

95. Ibid., Book I, Section 1.

96. II, VII.

97. II, VIII.

98. I, IX.

99. I, VIII.

100. “Forethought” to Of Tyranny.

101. Autobiography, Epoch IV, Ch. viii.

102. Epoch I, Ch. viii.

103. IV, v.

104. IV, xx.

105. IV, xvi.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Gilbert, Prince de Ligne, 29, 57.

2. Ibid., 135.

3. Mowat, R. B., Age of Reason, 96.

4. Frederick the Great, Guerre de Sept Ans, 386.

5. Gooch, G. P., Maria Theresa , 3.

6. Jahn, Mozart, I, 65.

7. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 167.

8. Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution, 89.

9. Campbell, Jesuits, 433.

10. Paulsen, F., German Education, 147-49.

11. Schoenfeld, Hermann, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 297.

12. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, 100.

13. Casanova, Memoirs, I, 147.

14. Frederick, Guerre de Sept Ans, 387.

15. Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 305.

16. Padover, 20.

17. Stryienski, Eighteenth Century, 64.

18. Ibid.

19. Jahn, I, 67.

20. Frederick, Guerre de Sept Ans, 387.

21. Casanova, 1,148.

22. Enc. Brit., XIII, 151b.

23. Padover, 34.

24. Enc. Brit., i.c.

25. Padover, 34.

26. Ibid., 37.

27. 41.

28. Gooch, Maria Theresa, 14.

29. Padover, 47.

30. Mann, Thos., Three Essays, 165.

31. Gooch, 21-29; Padover, 67.

32. Gooch, 29.

33. Padover, 134.

34. Ibid., 134, 30.

35. 136.

36. 84; Gooch, 29.

37. Padover, 89.

38. Gooch, 65.

39. Ibid ., 66.

40. Padover, 77.

41. Gooch, 41.

42. Padover, 90-93.

43. Lewis, D. B. Wyndham, Four Favorites, 202.

44. pershoy, 89.

45. Riedl, Frederick, History of Hungarian Literature, 77-81.

46. Hazard, European Thought, 109.

47. Padover, 73.

48. Ibid., 74.

49. 81.

50. Gooch, 70.

51. Martin, France, XVI, 392.

52. Ibid., 391.

53. Padover, 94; CMH, VI, 628.

54. Parton, James, Daughters of Genius, 402.

55. Cf. Coxe, History of the House of Austria, III, 485-86.

56. Richard, Ernst, History of German Civilization, 380.

57. Padover, 181.

58. Ibid., 178.

59. 279.

60. 281.

61. 285; Gershoy, 100.

62. Gershoy, 101.

63. Padover, 286.

64. Coxe, House of Austria, III, 491n.

65. Lanfrey, L’ Église et les philosophes, 356.

66. Padover, 212.

67. Jahn, Mozart, II, 401.

68. Padover, 214-15.

69. Ibid.

70. History Today, September, 1955, p. 615.

71. Padover, 246.

72. Coxe, III, 493.

73. Padover, 243.

74. Vambéry, The Story of Hungary, 385.

75. Padover, 299.

76. Ibid., 311.

77. Coxe, III, 526.

78. Padover, 329.

79. Ibid., 345.

80. 373.

81. 360.

82. 364.

83. 383.

84. History Today, September, 1955, p. 620.

85. Gilbert, O. P., Prince de Ligne, 193.

86. Coxe, III, 541.

87. Carlyle, History of Friedrich the Second, VII, 492.

88. Padover, 287.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Jahn, Mozart, II, 202.

2. Weinstock, Herbert, Handel, 268.

3. Rolland, Musical Tour, 208.

4. Rolland, Essays in Music , 176.

5. Einstein, Gluck , 59.

6. In Brockway and Weinstock, The Opera , 66.

7. Einstein, Gluck; Grove’s Dictionary of Music , II, 401.

8. Láng, P. H., Music in Western civilization , 659.

9. Faguet, E., Rousseau Artiste , 191; Einstein, Gluck , 137.

10. Brockway and Weinstock, Opera , 97.

11. Einstein, 138.

12. Faguet, Rousseau Artiste , 191.

13. Grove’s , II, 400.

14. Rolland, Essays , 197-98.

15. Kobbé’s Complete Opera Book , 42.

16. Rolland, Essays , 179.

17. Einstein, 146.

18. Burney, C, History of Music , II, 973.

19. Einstein, 151.

20. Vigée-Lebrun, Mme., Memoirs, 70.

21. Kobbé’s , 52.

22. Grove’s , IV, 174.

23. Einstein, 182.

24. Pratt, W. S., History of Music , 362.

25. Clark, Robert, Herder , 108, 429.

26. Grove’s , II, 566.

27. Geiringer, Karl, Haydn , 44.

28. Grove’s , II, 568.

29. Geiringer, 52-54.

30. Ibid ., 55.

31. Grove’s , II, 570.

32. Jahn, II, 349.

33. Geiringer, 77.

34. Ibid ., 89.

35. 99.

36. Grove’s , II, 574.

37. Geiringer, 108.

38. Ibid ., 110.

39. 121.

40. Jacob, H. E., Joseph Haydn , 222.

41. Ibid ., 267.

42. Geiringer, 168.

43. Ibid ., 167.

44. McKinney and Anderson, Music in History , 465.

45. Grove’s , II, 582.

CHAPTER XV

1. Jahn, Mozart , II, 437.

2. Ibid ., I, 21n.

3. I, 28.

4. 33.

5. Blom, Mozart , 26.

6. Biancolli, Mozart Handbook , 129.

7. Jahn, I, 39.

8. Ibid ., 107.

9. 119.

10. 129.

11. 132.

12. 137.

13. Ibid .

14. Wyzewa and Saint-Foix, W. A. Mozart , I, 470.

15. Ibid ., 474.

16. Jahn, I, 149.

17. Ibid ., 344.

18. Anderson, E., Letters of Mozart , I, 403.

19. Ibid ., 395.

20. Einstein, Mozart , 41.

21. Anderson, II, 686-88.

22. Ibid ., 695.

23. 681-83.

24. 700-09.

25. Einstein, Mozart, 30-31.

26. Anderson, II, 925.

27. Blom, 88; Jahn, II, 65-66.

28. Letter of May 6, 1781, in Einstein, 54.

29. Jahn, II, 171.

30. Ibid ., 176.

31. 179.

32. 184.

33. Anderson, II, 1100.

34. Letter of July 25, 1781, in Anderson, II, 1121.

35. Anderson, III, 1166-69.

36. Einstein, 458.

37. Jahn, II, 413.

38. Ibid ., 419.

39. 420.

40. 439.

41. 337, 422.

42. Einstein, 238.

43. Letter of Leopold Mozart, Feb. 14, 1785, in Anderson, III, 1321.

44. Anderson, 1329.

45. Letter of Apr. 10, 1784, in Einstein, 265.

46. Grove’s , III, 563.

47. Einstein, 223.

48. Biancolli, 345.

49. Einstein, 214.

50. Biancolli, 355.

51. Ibid ., 374.

52. 367-69; Blom, 183.

53. Einstein, 280.

54. Goethe, Poetical Works , 120. In Works .

55. “His Master’s Voice” Record C 2736.

56. Jahn, II, 440; Nettle, Paul, Mozart and Masonry , 112.

57. Biancolli, 132.

58. Rolland, Essays , 246.

59. Ibid .

60. E.g., in the letter of Nov. 5, 1777: “I wish you good night, but first shit into your bed.” And on Nov. 13: “I’ve been shitting, so ’tis said, nigh twenty-two years through the same old hole, which is not yet frayed one bit.” (Anderson, II, 525, 546).

61. Letter of Jan. 31, 1778.

62. Letter of Sept. 26, 1777.

63. Nettle, 122.

64. Jahn, II, 269-71.

65. Ibid.

66. E.g., letters of Apr. 13, 1789, and Sept. 30, 1790.

67. Letter of June 7, 1783.

68. Letter of Feb. 20, 1784.

69. Letter of July 31, 1782.

70. Anderson, II, 826.

71. Nettle, 115; Ghéon, In Search of Mozart, 216.

72. Anderson, III, 1450.

73. Jahn, II, 304; Nettle, 120.

74. Einstein, 57.

75. Jahn, II, 295.

76. Ibid.

77. 298.

78. Einstein, 57.

79. Anderson, III, 1253.

80. Ibid., 1206.

81. In Biancolli, 138.

82. Jahn, II, 412.

83. Einstein, 442.

84. Jahn, III, 134.

85. Ibid., 140.

86. Goethe to Schiller, Dec. 30, 1797.

87. Anderson, III, 1360.

88. Blom, 138.

89. Ibid.

90. Letters of Dec. 14, 1789, in Anderson, III, 1383-85.

91. Brockway and Weinstock, Opera, 91.

92. Anderson, III, 1398-99.

93. Jahn, II, 278-80.

94. Nettle, 116.

95. Biancolli, 421.

96. Jahn, III, 285.

97. Einstein, 363.

98. Grout, Short History of Opera, 294.

99. Biancolli, 554.

100. Nettle, 117.

101. Stendhal in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies of the World, 999.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters, I, 372; cf. Macdonald, Duncan, The Religious Attitude to Life in Islam, 126.

2. Lane, Edward W., Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, I, 148; Macdonald, Duncan, Development of Muslim Theology, 283; Wherry, E. M., Commentary on the Quran, I, 281.

3. Macdonald, D., Religious Attitude, 126.

4. Doughty, Charles M., Travels in Arabia Deserta, II, 99.

5. Halsband, Robert, Life of Lady Mary Worthy Montagu, 73.

6. Lane-Poole, Stanley, Story of Turkey, 319.

7. Burton, Sir Richard, Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Mec-cah, II, 94.

8. Letter of Apr. 18, 1717, in Montagu, Letters, I, 318.

9. Letter of Apr. 1, 1717, in same, 286.

10. Friedländer, L., Roman Life and Manners, II, 201.

11. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 55.

12. Sir Wm. Petty, Political Arithmetic (1683).

13. Halsband, 74.

14. See The Age of Louis XIV, 425-26.

15. Lane, I, 272.

16. Lane-Poole, Cairo, 180.

17. Lane, I, 98.

18. Ibid., 66.

19. Enc. Brit., I, 618a.

20. Ibid., XV, 816d.

21. Toynbee, A Study of History, I, 162.

22. Browne, Edward G., Literary History of Persia, IV, 135.

23. Ibid., 136; Sykes, Sir Percy, History of Persia, II, 260.

24. Ibid., 267.

25. Enc. Brit., XII, 705b; Pope, Arthur U., Survey of Persian Art, IV, 470, 497-506.

26. Sykes, II, 201.

27. Pope, Arthur U., Introduction to Persian Art, 140.

28. Browne, E. G., IV, 282.

29. Ibid., 292-96.

CHAPTER XVII

1. Frederick the Great, Mémoires, I, 207.

2. Lyashchenko, Peter, History of the National Economy of Russia, 271-73.

3. Ibid.

4. Réau, Louis, L’Art russe, II, 88.

5. Florinsky, M. T., Russia: A History and an Interpretation, I, 575.

6. Mavor, James, Economic History of Russia, I, 477.

7. Réau, II, 88.

8. Mavor, I, 498-99.

9. Bernal, J. D., Science in History, 360.

10. Coxe, Wm., Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, I, 281-82.

11. Castéra, J., History of Catherine II, 174.

12. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 70.

13. Florinsky, I, 600; Brückner, A., Literary History of Russia, 113.

14. Coxe, Travels, I, 322.

15. Masson, Memoirs of Catherine II and Her Court, 250.

16. Pougin, Arthur, Short History of Russian Music, 10 f.

17. Réau, II, 55.

18. Brückner, 78.

19. Waliszewski, K., History of Russian Literature, I, 57.

20. Wiener, Leo, Anthology of Russian Literature, I, 224-29.

21. Rambaud, Alfred, History of Russia, II, 170.

22. Waliszewski, Peter the Great, 224.

23. Waliszewski, Russian Literature, 83.

24. Ibid.

25. 85.

26. Catherine the Great, Memoirs , 60.

27. Waliszewski, Romance of an Empress, 47.

28. Ibid.

29. 25.

30. Kluchevsky, V. O., History of Russia, IV, 354.

31. Catherine, Memoirs, 58.

32. Gooch, G. P., Catherine the Great, 11.

33. CMH, VI, 317.

34. Carlyle, History of Frederich the Second, V, 294.

35. Waliszewski, Romance of an Empress, 34.

36. Kluchevsky, IV, 358.

37. Casanova, Memoirs, I, 33-34.

38. CMH, VI, 658.

39. Catherine, Memoirs, 28.

40. Ibid., 44-45.

41. 29-30.

42. 54.

43. 62.

44. 63.

45. 65.

46. CMH, VI, 659.

47. Waliszewski, Romance, 78.

48. Ibid.

49. Kluchevsky, IV, 360.

50. Castéra, 122-23.

51. Waliszewski, Romance, 91.

52. Catherine, Memoirs, 203.

53. Castéra, 89.

54. Walpole, H., Memoirs of the Reign of King George III, I, 145.

55. Catherine, Memoirs, 208.

56. Gooch, Catherine, 8.

57. Catherine, 301.

58. Ibid., 240.

59. 255 f:

60. Waliszewski, Romance, 102; Crocker, The Embattled Philosopher, 378.

61. Catherine, 271-74; Waliszewski, Romance, 119.

62. Ibid ., 125.

63. Catherine, 282.

64. Waliszewski, Romance, 145.

65. Brit., XVII, 645b.

66. Castéra, 153.

67. Rambaud, II, 175.

68. Kluchevsky, IV, 366.

69. Castéra, 147, 157.

70. Ibid., 156; CMH, VI, 328.

71. Kluchevsky, IV, 362.

72. Castéra, 152.

73. Waliszewski, Romance, 166.

74. Ibid., 166; Castéra, 158.

75. Waliszewski, 166.

76. Ibid., 164.

77. Gooch, Catherine, 16.

78. Catherine, 343.

79. Ibid.

80. Waliszewski, Romance, 176.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Letter of Catherine to Potemkin, Aug. 2, 1762, in Catherine, Memoirs, 347.

2. Kluchevsky, IV, 371.

3. Catherine, 345.

4. Kluchevsky, IV, 371.

5. Catherine, 345.

6. Florinsky, I, 502.

7. CMH, VI, 663.

8. Waliszewski, Romance of an E?npress, 199.

9. Ibid.

10. Catherine, 370.

11. Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution, 303.

12. Rambaud, II, 207.

13. Florinsky, I, 504.

14. Brandes, Voltaire, 253.

15. Florinsky, I, 504.

16. Catherine, 263-72.

17. Masson, Memoirs of Catherine II and Her Court, 97.

18. Waliszewski, Romance, 383-88; Gooch, Catherine, 38.

19. Waliszewski, 4-6.

20. Masson, Memoirs, 98.

21. Ibid.

22. Catherine, 360.

23. Ibid., 20.

24. Lewis, D. B. W., Four Favorites, 197.

25. Catherine, 376.

26. Ibid., 48.

27. Gooch, Catherine the Great, 45.

28. Masson, Memoirs, 116.

29. Waliszewski, Romance, 448.

30. Masson, 118.

31. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 386; Gooch, 58.

32. Voltaire, letter of May 18, 1767, in Desnoiresterres, VI, 380.

33. Parton, II, 388.

34. Desnoiresterres, VI, 380.

35. Letter of Sept. 7, 1764.

36. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher, 373.

37. Diderot, Oeuvres, 28.

38. In Ellis, Havelock, The New Spirit, 47.

39. Morley, John, Diderot, II, 113.

40. Ibid., 114.

41. In Faguet, Dix-huitième Siècle, 242.

42. Crocker, 380.

43. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 215.

44. Padover, Revolutionary Emperor, 161.

45. Sainte-Beuve, II, 216.

46. Catherine, 365.

47. Castéra, 226; cf . Waliszewski, Romance , 371-82.

48. Coxe, Travels in Poland , III, 156; Castéra, 385.

49. Quoted by Voltaire in Philosophical Dictionary , II, 102.

50. Florinsky, I, 511; CMH , VI, 686.

51. In Gooch, Catherine , 69.

52. Voltaire to Catherine, Feb. 26, 1769.

53. In Rambaud, II, 206.

54. Voltaire, Phil. Dict ., art. “Power.”

55. Mavor, Economic History of Russia , I, 241; Rambaud, II, 211.

56. Waliszewski, Romance , 365.

57. Garrison, F., History of Medicine , 400.

58. Castéra, Catherine , 297; Rambaud, II, 212.

59. Mavor, I, 313-14.

60. Ibid ., 472.

61. CMH , VI, 690.

62. Waliszewski, Romance , 298.

63. Lyashchenko, 273.

64. Mavor, I, 204-08.

65. Gershoy, 125.

66. Catherine, Memoirs, 385.

67. Gershoy, 123.

68. Florinsky, I, 567-68.

69. Waliszewski, Romance , 321.

70. Ibid .

71. Rambaud, II, 192; Cambridge History of Poland , II, 103.

72. Gooch, Catherine , 63.

73. Rambaud, II, 192.

74. CMH , VI, 674.

75. Quoted by George Bancroft in Literary and Historical Miscellanies , 359.

76. Gooch, Catherine, 51.

77. Lewis, Four Favorites , 213.

78. Ibid ., 179.

79. 215; Bain, R. N., The Last King of Poland , 175.

80. Florinsky, I, 531.

81. Catherine, 15.

82. Gilbert, Prince De Ligne, 139; Waliszewski, Romance , 209.

83. Castéra, 575.

84. Gooch, Catherine , 96.

85. Reddaway, Frederick the Great , 340.

86. Waliszewski, Romance , 233, 287.

87. Ibid ., 388.

88. Catherine, 377.

89. CMH , VI, 696.

90. Waliszewski, Romance, 237.

91. Wiener, Anthology of Russian Litera-Ture , I, 272-76.

92. Ibid ., 385.

93. 390.

94. 381.

95. Waliszewski, History of Russian Literature , 103.

96. Brückner, Literary History of Russia , 102.

97. Ibid ., 115.

98. 116.

99. 105-07.

100. Waliszewski, Romance of an Empress , 342.

101. Réau, L’art russe , II, 111.

102. Ibid ., 68.

103. Waliszewski, Romance, 349.

104. Enc. Brit ., XIX, 747b.

105. Waliszewski, Romance , 346.

106. Réau, II, 76.

107. Ibid .

108. 79.

109. Masson, Memoirs of Catherine II and Her Court , 93.

110. Gilbert, Prince De Ligne , 143.

111. Brückner , 112.

112. Morley, John, Diderot , II, 128; Rambaud, II, 245.

113. Ibid ., 247.

114. Masson, Memoirs , 303-06.

115. Catherine, 20.

116. Masson, 66.

117. Gooch in introd. to Catherine, Memoirs , 10.

118. Otto Hötzsch in CMH , VI, 701.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution , 37.

2. Goodwin, The European Nobility , 161.

3. Waliszewski, Poland the Unknown , 127.

4. Bain, R. Nisbet, The Last King of Poland, 22; Friedlä nder, L., Roman Life and Manners , II, 162.

5. Bain, 43.

6. Cambridge History of Poland , II, 75.

7. Ibid ., 76-77; Coxe, Wm., Travels in Poland , II, 125.

8. New CMH , VII, 374; Lewinski-Corwin, E. H., Political History of Poland , 286.

9. Staël, Mme. de, Germany , I, 73.

10. Bain, Last King of Poland , 100.

11. Ibid ., 59.

12. 31-32.

13. See The Age of Louis XIV , 374, 385-87.

14. CHP , II, 24.

15. Lewinski-Corwin, 289.

16. Bain, Last King , 55.

17. Ibid ., 56.

18. Aldis, Madame Geoffrin , 248,

19. Florinsky, Russia , I, 517.

20. Aldis, 251.

21. Ibid ., 282.

22. CHP , II, 116; Bain, 161.

23. Bain, Last King , 121.

24. Rambaud, History of Russia , II, 188.

25. CHP , II, 118.

26. CHP , II, 97-98; Bain, 77-78.

27. Rambaud, II, 188.

28. Bain, Last King, 78.

29. CHP, II, 120.

30. Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, art. “Superstition,” Sec. III.

31. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XVI, 267.

32. CHP, II, 102.

33. Ibid., 103.

34. Ibid.; Bain, 108.

35. Bain, Last King, 108.

36. Ibid., 2.

37. Enc. Brit., XVIII, 143d.

38. Treitschke, Life of Frederick the Great, 164.

39. CMH, VI, 670.

40. Lewis, D. B. W., Four Favorites, 202.

41. Gershoy, 180.

42. Morley, John, Life of Voltaire, in Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 346; Florinsky, I, 537.

43. Coxe, Travels in Poland, I, 159.

44. Bain, Last King, 121.

45. CHP, II, 181-82.

46. Bain, 102.

47. CHP, II, 181-83.

48. Ibid., 135.

49. Bain, Last King, 249.

50. Ibid., 278.

51. CHP, II, 155.

CHAPTER XX

1. In Gooch, Frederick the Great, 65.

2. MacLaurin, C, Mere Mortals, 195.

3. Mowat, R. B., The Age of Reason, 61.

4. Gooch, Frederick, 141.

5. Mann, Thos., Three Essays, 213.

6. Sir James Harrison in Gooch, Frederick, 149.

7. In Rolland, Musical Tour, 214.

8. New York Times, Mar. 10, 1929.

9. Frederick, letter of Oct. 30, 1770, in Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 314.

10. Crocker, Lester, Age of Crisis, 133.

11. Gooch, Frederick, 138.

12. Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution, 86.

13. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 249.

14. Frederick to Voltaire, July 2, 1759, and Oct. 31, 1760, in Letters, 256, 270.

15. Bertaut, J., Napoleon in His Own Words, 463.

16. Treitschke, Life of Frederick, 182.

17. In Hazard, Paul, European Thought in the 18th Century, 333.

18. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century, II, 344.

19. Ibid., 347.

20. In Mowat, 105.

21. Morley, in Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 195.

22. Sainte-Beuve, I, 220-21.

23. Voltaire and Frederick, Letters, 282.

24. Carlyle, History of Friedrich the Second, IV, 179n.

25. Frederick to Voltaire, Feb. 10, 1767.

26. Chesterfield to his son, Letters, June 23, 1752.

27. Schoenfeld, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 299.

28. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 106; Gershoy, 75.

29. Paulsen, German Education, 142.

30. Gershoy, 284.

31. Carlyle, Friedrich, VII, 201.

32. Gershoy, 76; Renard and Weulersee, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 297.

33. Ibid., 299.

34. Bruford, W. H., Germany in the 18th Century, 186.

35. CMH, VI, 718.

36. Gershoy, 84.

37. Frederick, Testament (1768), in CMH, VI, 723.

38. Bruford, 22.

39. Casanova, Memoirs, I, 349.

40. Burke, Thoughts on French Affairs, in Reflections on the French Revolution, 296.

41. Pascal, Roy, The German Sturm und Drang, 75-76.

42. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, I, 163.

43. Sime, James, Lessing, II, 131.

44. Schiller, Poems, 219-20. In Works.

45. Eckermann and Soret, Conversations with Goethe, 79.

46. Staél, Mme. de, Germany, I, 44.

47. Bruford, 39.

48. Enc. Brit., IX, 132b.

49. Padover, Revolutionary Emperor, 289; Campbell, Thos., The Jesuits, 611.

50. Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture, II, 404.

51. Smith, N. K., Commentary to Kant’s “Critique of Pure Reason ,” 6.

52. Eckermann, introduction.

53. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 118.

54. Ibid., 116-17.

55. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 251. In Works.

56. F. C. Schlosser in Monroe, Paul, Textbook in the History of Education, 580.

57. Morley in Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 153.

58. Nettle, Mozart and Masonry, 9.

59. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 318.

60. Ibid.

61. 331.

62. Sime, Lessing, I, 27.

63. Garland, H. B., Lessing, 154.

64. Ibid., 118.

65. Lessing, Laocoön, 190; Ch. xxvi, ad. ink.

66. Bosanquet, History of Aesthetic, 221n.

67. Lessing, Laocoön, 56.

68. Ibid., 57.

69. Sime, II, 4.

70. Ibid., 55.

71. Lessing, Hamburgische Dramaturgie, No. 70, in Garland, 64.

72. Lessing, Säamtliche Schriften, X, 53, in Sime, II, 206.

73. Sime, II, 85.

74. Casanova, II, 271.

75. See The Age of Voltaire, 502.

76. Sime, II, 348.

77. Lessing, Education of the Human Race, No. 74 (Harvard Classics, Vol. XXXII, 212).

78. Ibid., Nos. 85-86.

79. Brandes, Goethe, I, 434; Cassirer, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 190.

80. Sime, II, 300; Brandes, Goethe, I, 434.

81. Sime, II, 346.

82. Ibid., 330.

83. Klopstock, The Messiah, ad finem.

84. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, I, 79; II, 5. In Works.

85. Penguin Book of German Verse, 175.

86. Ibid., 178-90.

87. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 350. In Works.

88. Eckermann, 370 (Feb. 18, 1829).

89. Boehn, Max von, Modes and Manners, IV, 238.

90. Pascal, Roy, The German Sturm und Drang, 5.

91. Ibid., 31.

92. Francke, Kuno, History of German Literature, 312.

93. Ibid., 310.

94. Boehn, 124.

95. Schloss Tiefurt, near Weimar.

96. Schlossmuseum, Weimar.

97. Sanssouci Palace, Potsdam.

98. Winckelmann, II, 36.

99. Leipzig, Museum der Bildenden Künste.

100. Munich, Neue Pinakothek.

101. Dresden Gemäldegalerie.

102. Winterthur, Museum des Kunstvereins.

103. Schlossmuseum, Weimar.

104. Dresden Gemäldegalerie.

105. Weimar Museum.

106. Jahn, Mozart, III, 235.

107. Láng, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 589.

108. Grove’s Dictionary of Music, I, 175.

109. Jahn, II, 65.

110. Grove’s, I, 145-55, 177-81.

111. Gooch, Frederick, 298.

112. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 56 f.

113. Gooch, 309.

114. Ibid., 305.

115. 319.

116. 323.

117. Frederick, Mémoires, I, 56.

118. Gooch, Frederick, 319.

119. Ibid., 280.

120. 292.

121. 287.

122. 287.

123. 291.

124. 89.

125. 294.

126. In Hauser, Arnold, Social History of Art, II, 602.

127. Pascal, Roy, Sturm und Drang, 42.

128. MacLaurin, Mere Mortals, 201.

129. Gooch, Frederick , 110.

CHAPTER XXI

1. Paulsen, Immanuel Kant, 26n.

2. Überweg, F., History of Philosophy, II, 139.

3. T. M. Greene in introd. to Kant, Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, xxviii.

4. Ibid., xxx.

5. Paulsen, Kant, 37.

6. Wilson, E. C, Immanuel Kant, 3.

7. Herder, Briefe zur Beförderung der Hu-manitat, in Paulsen, Kant, 40.

8. Williams, H. S., History of Science, III, 27-28.

9. Lovejoy, Arthur, The Great Chain of Being, 266.

10. Harlow Shapley in Wilson, Immanuel Kant, 51.

11. Kant, Critique of Judgment, II, 78; Paulsen, 272n.

12. Überweg, II, 150.

13. Paulsen, 272n.

14. In Smith, N. K., Commentary, xix.

15. Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1st ed., 13 (preface).

16. Critique of Judgment, I, 3.

17. Pure Reason, 1st German ed., 10 (preface) .

18. Pure Reason, 2d German ed., xliii.

19. Ibid., xxx, xxxiv.

20. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, 9 (preface).

21. In Paulsen, 96.

22. Pure Reason, 1st Germ, ed., 112.

23. Ibid., 125; Prolegomena, No. 36.

24. Pure Reason, 42.

25. Ibid., 307, 375.

26. Pure Reason, 2d Germ, ed., 131-33, 136, 139, 143.

27. Ibid., 428.

28. First ed., 622-23.

29. Ibid., 627.

30. 671-73, 675.

31. 468.

32. 683-92, 698.

33. 700.

34. Karl Reinhold in Paulsen, 114.

35. Prolegomena, 13 (preface).

36. Pure Reason, first ed., 298, 752.

37. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 337.

38. Pure Reason, 2d ed., xxx, xxxiv.

39. Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Ethics, 35.

40. Kant, Critique of Practical Reason, 313.

41. Ibid., 248, 259.

42. 142.

43. Fundamental Principles, 68.

44. Ibid., 57.

45. Practical Reason, 108-9, 146.

46. Pure Reason, 2d ed., 571-73.

47. Ibid., xxviii, 566-69, 580-81; Practical Reason, 164 f.

48. Ibid., 259 f.

49. 260.

50. Pure Reason, 1st ed., 819.

51. Cassirer, Rousseau, Kant, and Goethe, 25.

52. Heine, H., Religion and Philosophy in Germany, in Paulsen, 8a.

53. Critique of Judgment, I, 18, 15.

54. Ibid.

55. 46.

56. Critique of Judgment, II, 89.

57. Ibid., 117.

58. Kant, Werke, VI, 129, in Cassirer, Rousseau, Kant, and Goethe, 39.

59. Überweg, II, 141.

60. Kant, Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, 3.

61. Ibid., 8.

62. 8.

63. 28.

64. 29.

65. Kant, Education, No. 19.

66. Kant, Religion, 35.

67. Kant, “Conjectural Beginning of the History of Man,” in Überweg, II, 186.

68. Kant, Religion, 51.

69. Ibid., 147, 159-61.

70. 142-43.

71. 91.

72. 63.

73. 117.

74. 57, 134.

75. 186.

76. 183-85.

77. 153, 164-65, 168, 112.

78. Ibid., xxxiv.

79. Kant, A Philosophical Treatise on Perpetual Peace, 10.

80. Ibid., 28.

81. 32.

82. Practical Reason, 34m.

83. Perpetual Peace, 78.

84. Paulsen, 351.

85. Perpetual Peace, 29-30; Smith, N. K., Commentary, Ivii.

86. Education, No. 30.

87. Ibid., No. 7.

88. Paulsen, 374.

89. Practical Reason, 326n.

90. Ibid., introd. by T. G. Abbott, xliii.

91. Ibid., xliv.

92. Paulsen, 45.

93. Ibid., 47; Klinke, Kant for Everyman, 105.

94. Stuckenberg, Life of Kant, 340-54, in Robertson, J. M., Freethought, II, 343.

95. Robertson, II, 345.

96. Letter of Apr., 1766, in Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, introd., xxxvi.

97. Paulsen, 52.

98. Vaihinger, The Philosophy of “As if,” 313.

99. Ibid., 316-17.

100. Witte, Schiller, 46.

101. Schiller, Poems, 290.

102. Eckermann, 79 (Apr. 14, 1824).

103. Emerson, lecture of 1842 on “The Transcendentalist,” in Wilson, E. C, Immanuel Kant, 23.

CHAPTER XXII

1. Eckermann, 138 (Apr. 27, 1825).

2. Levvisohn, L., Goethe , I, 134.

3. Schiller to Körner, Aug. 8 and Sept. 10, 1787, in Schiller and Körner, Correspondence, I, 140-43.

4. Brandes, Goethe, I, 307.

5. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 101.

6. Francke, History of German Literature, 253.

7. Wieland, History of Agathon, I, xxiv.

8. Francke, 255.

9. Agathon, I, 123 (Book III, Ch. ii).

10. Ibid., Book III, Ch. iii.

11. In Francke, 258.

12. Eckermann, 285 (Sept. 26, 1827).

13. Mann, Thos., Three Essays, 8.

14. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, I, 385. In Works.

15. Ibid., 155 f.

16. 209-30.

17. 178.

18. 175.

19. 233.

20. 318.

21. Goethe, Works, VII, 27.

22. Truth and Fiction, I, 306. In Works.

23. Ibid., 367.

24. 368.

25. Brandes, Goethe, I, 71.

26. Autobiography of Heinrich Jung-Stilling in Lewisohn, I, 49.

27. In Ludwig, Emil, Goethe, 31.

28. Truth and Fiction, I, 407.

29. In Ludwig, 42.

30. Eckermann, 291 (Oct. 8, 1827).

31. E.g., Truth and Fiction, II, 43.

32. Ibid., 75.

33. Letter of June, 1771, in Lewisohn, I, 57.

34. Truth and Fiction, II, 120.

35. Ibid., 143.

36. Brandes, I, 140.

37. Ludwig, 57.

38. Goethe, Gotz von Berlichingen, Act I, Sc. ii.

39. Truth, II, 167.

40. From Kestner’s diary, in Lewisohn, I, 71.

41. Truth, II, 188.

42. Ibid., 214

43. 214.

44. Brandes, I, 273.

45. In Ludwig, 87.

46. Lewisohn, I, 101.

47. Truth, II, 216-17.

48. Eckermann, 52 (Jan. 2, 1824).

49. Goethe, Werther, letters of July 19 and 21 and Aug. 30, 1771.

50. Goethe, letter to Kestner, Nov. 20, 1774, in Lewisohn, I, 105.

51. Sime, Lessing, II, 200.

52. Lewisohn, I, 101.

53. Kestner, letter to Hennings, Nov. 18, 1772, in Pascal, German Sturm und Drang, 108.

54. Truth, Book XII.

55. In Ludwig, 94.

56. Lavater’s diary, June 28, 1774, in Lewisohn, I, 99.

57. Goethe’s letter of Nov. 12, 1816, in Lewisohn, II, 262.

58. Lewisohn, I, 295.

59. Truth, II, 261, 309.

60. Translation in Carus, Paul, Goethe, 245-47.

61. Truth, II, 318, 327.

62. Ibid., 366.

63. Clark, Robert, Herder, 160.

64. Truth, II, 11.

65. Ibid., 16.

66. In Pascal, German Sturm und Drang, 225.

67. Heiseler, B. von, Schiller, 49.

68. Schiller, Poems, 7. In Works.

69. Ibid., 9.

70. Carlyle, Life of Schiller, 15. In Works.

71. Schiller, The Robbers, Act I, Sc. ii.

72. Ibid., II, iii.

73. Ibid.

74. V, i.

75. Heiseler, 47.

76. Ungar, Frederick, Friedrich Schiller, 34.

77. Witte, Schiller, 131.

78. Heiseler, 83.

79. Schiller, Philosophical Letters, p. 376 (Letter 1). In Works.

80. Ibid., 385 (Letter IV).

81. Schiller and Körner, Correspondence, I, 12.

82. Ibid., 13-16.

83. Heiseler, 85.

84. Ibid.

85. Schiller and Körner, Correspondence, I, 30-33.

86. Körner to Schiller, July 8, 1785, in Correspondence, I, 36.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Einstein, Mozart, 19.

2. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, I, 291. In Works.

3. Schiller to Körner, July 28 and Aug. 29, 1787.

4. Schiller and Körner, Correspondence, I, 85.

5. Ibid., 90, 168.

6. Wieland, Oberon, introd.

7. Brandes, Goethe, II, 266-69.

8. Lewisohn, II, 209.

9. Schiller and Körner, I, 85.

10. Pascal, German Sturm und Drang, 17.

11. Ibid., 18.

12. 17.

13. Goethe to Jacobi, Nov. 12, 1783.

14. Goethe to Lavater, December, 1783.

15. Schiller and Körner, I, 85.

16. Clark, Herder, 240.

17. Bancroft, Geo., Literary and Historical Miscellanies, 173.

18. Herder to Hamann, Jan. 13, 1777, in Pascal, 95.

19. Clark, Herder, 274-77.

20. Herder to Jacobi, Feb. 6 and Dec. 30, 1784, in Pascal, 104.

21. Pascal, 104.

22. Clark, 340.

23. Pascal, 106.

24. Clark, 303.

25. Ibid., 322.

26. 357.

27. 368.

28. Lewisohn, I, 133.

29. Ibid.

30. 153.

31. Eckermann, 285 (Sept. 26, 1827).

32. Lewisohn, I, 134.

33. Ibid., 135.

34. 137-40.

35. 141.

36. 146.

37. 150.

38. Goethe to Charlotte von Stein, May 24, 1776.

39. Lewisohn, I, 151.

40. Ibid., 156.

41. 222.

42. Brandes, I, 335.

43. Lewisohn, I, 327.

44. Ibid., 236.

45. 271.

46. 306.

47. Eckermann, 251 (Apr. 25, 1827).

48. Goethe’s diary, in Lewisohn, I, 215.

49. Ludwig, 440.

50. Translation by Longfellow.

51. Lewisohn, I, 232.

52. See The Age of Reason Begins, 259-65.

53. Goethe, Tasso, Act I, Sc. ii.

54. Ibid., II, i.

55. I, II.

56. Ibid.

57. Letter of Apr. 24, 1783, in Lewisohn, I, 266.

58. Ludwig, 155.

59. Lewisohn, I, 309.

60. Ludwig, 217.

61. Letter of Oct. 8, 1786, in Letters from Italy, 177.

62. Ludwig, 222.

63. Städelsches Museum, Frankfurt.

64. Lewisohn, I, 320.

65. Ibid., 322.

66. Eckermann, 133, 201 (Jan. 30, 1825, and Jan. 18, 1827).

67. Letters from Italy, Dec. 3, 1786, and Feb. 16, 1787.

68. Ibid., Dec. 1 and 3, 1786.

69. Feb. 3, 1787, in Lewisohn, I, 327.

70. In McKinney and Anderson, Music in History, 511.

71. Eckermann, 213 (Jan. 29, 1827).

72. Taine, Philosophy of Art, in Brandes, Goethe, I, 457.

73. Letter of Dec. 13, 1786, in Lewisohn, I, 323. .

74. Lewisohn, I, 353.

75. Brandes, I, 469.

76. Lewisohn, I, 257.

77. Goethe, Poetical Works, 34-42. In Works.

78. Lewisohn, I, 368.

79. Ludwig, 300.

80. Brandes, II, 50.

81. Letter of Jan. 3, 1781, in Lewisohn, I, 229.

82. Examples in Lewisohn, I, 101-2, 186-88, 196-97, 229, 379.

83. Ludwig, 246.

84. Schiller and Körner, Correspondence, I, 112.

85. Ibid., 89 (Aug. 28, 1787).

86. Letters of July 28 and Aug. 18, 1787.

87. Don Carlos, Act III, Sc. x.

88. Schiller to Körner, Apr. 15, 1786.

89. Körner to Schiller, November, 1788.

90. Schiller to Körner, Sept. 12, 1788.

91. Schiller and Körner, Correspondence, II, 330.

92. Letter of May 28, 1789.

93. Carlyle, Life of Schiller, 103. In Works.

94. Letter of Dec. 7, 1787.

95. Heiseler, 114.

96. Letter of Mar. 1, 1790.

97. Heiseler, 119.

98. Schiller to Körner, Feb. 22, 1791.

99. Letter of May 24, 1791.

100. Schiller, Essays, 203. In Works.

101. On the Aesthetic Education of Mankind, Letters VII and V in Essays, 45, 53.

102. Letter of May 5, 1792.

103. Ludwig, 326.

104. Schiller, Poems, 272. In Works.

105. Schiller to Goethe, Aug. 17, 1795, in Schiller and Goethe, Correspondence, I, 88-89.

106. On Naïve and Sentimental Poetry.

107. Eckermann, Oct. 7, 1827.

108. Cf. letter to Körner, Aug. 29, 1787.

109. Schiller to Goethe, Aug. 23, 1794.

110. Schiller to Goethe, Aug. 31, 1794.

111. Goethe, “Happy Incident,” in Carlyle, Life of Schiller, 305. In Works.

112. Schiller and Goethe, Correspondence, I,

113. Ibid., 5.

114. 6.

115. Schiller to Körner, Feb. 1, 1796.

116. In Ungar, Schiller, 129.

117. Ibid., 140.

118. Schiller, Essays, 286, 321. In Works.

119. Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, I, 324.

120. Schiller to Körner, Dec. 9, 1794, Feb. 22, 1795, June 15, 1795, July 2, 1796.

121. Letters of July 2-9, Oct. 9, and Oct. 23, 1796.

122. Goethe to Schiller, July 7, 1796.

123. Eckermann, Mar. 23, 1829.

124. Ludwig, 385-86.

125. Eckermann, Mar. 22, 1825.

126. Lewes, G. H., Life of Goethe, II, 202.

127. Goethe to Schiller, Jan. 18, 1797.

128. Hermann and Dorothea, 56-57. In Works.

129. Brandes, II, 470.

130. Schiller to Körner, Jan. 5, 1800.

131. Eckermann, July 23, 1827.

132. Heiseler, 143.

133. Ludwig, 386.

134. Schiller to Charlotte Schimmelmann.

135. Goethe to Schiller, Feb. 28, 1801.

136. Eckermann, Oct. 7, 1827.

137. Lewisohn, I, 61.

138. Letter of Jan. 20, 1801.

139. Heiseler, 170.

140. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 182.

141. Schiller to Goethe, Dec. 21, 1803, in Lewisohn, II, 92.

142. Ibid.

143. Staël, 23-24.

144. Lewisohn, II, 293.

145. Heiseler, 189.

146. Eckermann, Jan. 18, 1827.

147. Witte. Schiller, 38.

148. Goethe to Zelter, June 1, 1805, in Lewisohn, II, 107.

CHAPTER XXIV

1. Cf. final lines of Faust, Part II.

2. Brandes, Goethe, II, 250.

3. Recollections of Friedrich von Müller, in Lewisohn, II, 161.

4. Brandes, 263-64.

5. Ibid.

6. Eckermann, Mar. 15, 1829.

7. For the historical background of the Faust legend see The Reformation, 852.

8. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 21-22. In Works.

9. Lewisohn, I, 123.

10. Ibid.

11. Eckermann, Feb. 10, 1829.

12. Brandes, 305.

13. In the Gesamtausgabe by Breitkopf and Härtel.

14. Translation by Albert Latham in Everyman’s Library ed. of Faust.

15. Eckermann, Jan. 10, 1825.

16. Latham’s translation, p. 52.

17. Ibid., 117-19.

18. 116.

19. Brandes, 229.

20. Lewisohn, II, 174.

21. Elective Affinities, English tr., 335. In Works.

22. Ibid., 180.

23. 218.

24. Ludwig, 427.

25. Ibid., 429.

26. 453.

27. Lewisohn, II, 202-4.

28. Ludwig, 445.

29. Lewisohn, II, 250.

30. Ibid., 303.

31. 334.

32. 306-8.

33. Ungar, Frederick, Goethe’s World View, 9.

34. Magnus, Rudolf, Goethe as a Scientist , 221.

35. Ibid., xvi-xviii, 209.

36. 167.

37. 178.

38. Goethe’s letter of May 17, 1787.

39. Magnus, 73.

40. Ibid., 78; Brandes, 462.

41. Ibid., 429.

42. Magnus, 42.

43. Ludwig , 188.

44. Magnus, 136.

45. Eckermann, Apr. 16, 1825.

46. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 31.

47. IB id., 77.

48. Faust, Part II, line 1754.

49. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 9, 105.

50. Letter of Jan. 6, 1798.

51. Ungar, 99.

52. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 108. In Works.

53. Quoted in Mann, Three Essays, 49.

54. Truth and Fiction, Part III, Book 11.

55. Ludwig, 3.

56. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 47.

57. Ibid.

58. Truth and Fiction, II, 272-73.

59. Lewisohn, I, 255.

60. Truth and Fiction, Book XIV.

61. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 47.

62. Ibid., 41.

63. 37.

64. 37.

65. 43-45; Smith, Preserved, Age of the Reformation, 712.

66. Truth and Fiction, II, 311 f.

67. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 55.

68. Ludwig, 206.

69. Ibid., 457.

70. Recollections of Johann Falk, in Lewisohn, II, 210.

71. Goethe to Zelter, May 11, 1820.

72. Brandes, I, 437.

73. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 81.

74. Ibid., 6.

75. Eckermann, Apr. 2, 1829.

76. Ungar, 167.

77. Ibid., 129.

78. 139.

79. 16.

80. 89.

81. Truth and Fiction, I, 421.

82. Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, Book VII, Ch. iii.

83. Ibid., Book V, Ch. iii.

84. Carus, Goethe, 168.

85. Faust, Part II, Act II.

86. Eckermann, Jan. 4, 1824.

87. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 59.

88. Eckermann, Feb. 13, 1829.

89. Ungar, 141.

90. Ibid.

91. 91.

92. Lewisohn, II, 438.

93. Faust, Part II, p. 341.

94. Ibid., 407.

95. Friedrich von Miiller, in Lewisohn, II, 370.

96. Ibid., 371.

97. 376.

98. 430.

99. Goethe to Zelter, Dec. 14, 1830.

100. Lewisohn, II, 411.

101. Ungar, Goethe’s World View, 131.

102. Mann, Three Essays, 63.

103. Truth and Fiction, II, 246.

104. Ludwig, 293.

105. Ibid., 472.

106. In Mann, 47.

107. Lewisohn, II, 254.

108. In Friedell, Egon, Cultural History of the Modern Age, I, 272.

109. In Mann, 64.

110. We have followed the account given by K. W. Müiller in 1832, in Lewisohn, II, 449 f.

111. Eckermann, 572.

CHAPTER XXV

1. In Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau, II, 240.

2. See “Sermon of Rabbi Akib,” and art. “Jews” in Philosophical Dictionary.

3. Ibid., Sec. III.

4. Sec. iv.

5. See The Age of Voltaire, Ch. xiii, Sec. VII.

6. Cf. Black, J. B., The Art of History, 49-50.

7. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, V, 346.

8. Gay, Voltaire’s Politics, 352.

9. Graetz, V, 347.

10. Rousseau, Émile, 267-68.

11. Sombart, W., The Jews and Modern Capitalism, 56.

12. Lea, H. C, History of the Inquisition in Spain, III, 308-11.

13. Altamira, History of Spain, 462.

14. Parton, Life of Voltaire, I, 161.

15. Bell, Aubrey, Portuguese Literature, 280.

16. Lea, III, 310.

17. Abbott, G. F., Israel in Europe, 209.

18. Abrahams, I., Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, 224.

19. Ibid.

20. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, 252.

21. Jewish Encyclopedia, XII, 434; Padover, 253 f; Graetz, V, 357.

22. Padover, 257.

23. Letter of May 17, 1717, in Montagu, Lady Mary W., Letters and Works, II, 321.

24. Dubnow, S. M., History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, I, 255-58; Florinsky, Russia, I, 490.

25. Dubnow, I, 307.

26. Ibid., 189.

27. 169-71.

28. 173.

29. 172-79.

30. 179-80.

31. 182-86.

32. Roth, Cecil, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization, 28.

33. Sombart, 23.

34. Jew. Enc, XIX, 418a.

35. Ibid., 415-18.

36. Corti, Egon C, Rise of the House of Rothschild, I, 19.

37. George, M. Dorothy, London Life in the 18th Century, 127.

38. Besant, Sir Walter, London in the 18th Century, 178.

39. Roth, 242.

40. Finkelstein, Louis, ed., The Jews, I, 260.

41. Besant, 180.

42. Browne, Lewis, The Wisdom of Israel, 551.

43. Dubnow, I, 233.

44. Ibid., 222 f.; Baron, Salo, Social and Religious History of the Jews, II, 54 f.: Graetz, V, 374 f; Howe and Greenberg, Treasury of Yiddish Stories, 15 f.

45. Graetz, V, 294.

46. Hensel, S., The Mendelssohn Family, 4.

47. Sime, Lessing, I, 133.

48. Graetz, V, 298.

49. In Wolf, A., History of Science … in the 18th Century, 781.

50. Graetz, V, 309.

51. Ibid., 311.

52. Hensel, 10.

53. Graetz, V, 317.

54. Jew. Enc, VIII, 482d.

55. Graetz, V, 365.

56. Ibid., 355.

CHAPTER XXVI

1. Voltaire, Works , Ib, 302.

2. In Herold, J., The Swiss without Halos, 106.

3. Oechsli, W., History of Switzerland, 290.

4. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 458.

5. Lewisohn, II, 238-39.

6. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 240-46, 252, 375, 398-404. In Works.

7. Holberg, Ludwig, Selected Essays, p. 48 (Epistle 48).

8. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, letters of Aug. 3 and 5, 1716, in Letters and Works, II, 226-27.

9. Desnoiresterres, Voltaire et la société française, I, 237.

10. Boswell in Holland, 288.

11. Cumming, Ian, Helvétius, 50.

12. Smith, Adam, Wealth of Nations, I, 81.

13. Parton, Life of Voltaire, I, 152.

14. Blok, P. J., History of the People of the Netherlands, Part V, 174 f.; Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, II, 353.

15. Blok, V, 183.

16. Ibid., 92.

17. 86.

18. Dillon, Edw., Glass, 295 f.; Sitwell, S., The Netherlands, 147.

19. George Dempter to Boswell, Aug. 26, 1763.

20. Boswell in Holland, 93.

21. Ibid., 317.

22. Herold, Mistress to an Age, 143.

23. Ibid., 144.

24. Blok, V, 56.

25. Ibid., 108.

26. Horn, F. W., History of the Literature of the Scandinavian North, 187.

27. Freedley and Reeves, History of the Theatre, 268.

28. Holberg, Seven One-Act Plays, 165-87.

29. Matthews, Brander, The Chief Europea Dramatists, 705.

30. Holberg, Journey of Niels Klim to the World Underground, 10.

31. Ibid., 18.

32. 32.

33. 109.

34. 191.

35. 109.

36. Translation by Longfellow, in Van Doren, Mark, Anthology of World Poetry , 981.

37. Horn, Scandinavian Literature , 217.

38. Goodwin, A., European Nobility , 136.

39. CMH , VI, 762.

40. Bain, R. N., Gustavus III , I, 56.

41. CMH , VI, 768.

42. Bain, Gustavus III , I, 124.

43. Andersson, Ingvar, History of Sweden , 281.

44. Higgs, The Physiocrats , 87.

45. Bain, Gustavus III , I, 163.

46. CMH , VI, 776.

47. Enc. Brit. , XXI, 653d; Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture , II, 460, 108.

48. Gustafson, Alrik, History of Swedish Literature , 112, 136.

49. Bain, Gustavus III , I, 260; Horn, 355.

50. Bain, II, 239.

51. Horn, 359 f.

52. Gustafson, 139 f.

53. Bain, Gustavus III , II, 286-88; Gustafson, 139 f.

54. Horn, 369.

55. Bain, II, 210.

56. Ibid ., I, 38.

57. Ibid ., II, 157.

CHAPTER XXVII

1. Shakespeare, Richard II , Act II, Sc. i.

2. Nussbaum, History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe , 130.

3. Namier, Sir Lewis, Crossroads of Power , 175.

4. Ashton, T. S., Economic History of England , 179.

5. Watson, J. S., Reign of George III , 28.

6. Nussbaum, 73.

7. Hammond, J. L. and Barbara, The village labourer , 17.

8. Usher, A. P., An Introd. to the Industrial History of England , 323.

9. Quennell, M. and C, History of Everyday Things in England , 79.

10. Mantoux, Paul, The Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century, 258.

11. Samuel Smiles, Lives of The Engineers , in History Today , April, 1956, 263.

12. Ibid ., 263, 265.

13. The Age of Voltaire , 517.

14. Mantoux, 326.

15. Usher, Introd. to Industrial History , 326.

16. Boswell, Life of Johnson , 598.

17. Lipson, E., Growth of English Society , 190.

18. Mantoux, 385; George, London Life , 206-7.

19. Smith, Adam, Wealth of Nations , I, 73.

20. Mantoux, 439; Smith, 60.

21. Ashton, 203.

22. Mantoux, 70.

23. Arthur Young in Turberville, Johnson’s England , I, 218.

24. Müller-Lyer, F., History of Social Development , 221.

25. Mantoux, 420.

26. Ibid ., 421.

27. Barnes, H. E., Economic History of the Western World , 313.

28. Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, History of Trade Unionism , 51.

29. Ashton, 235.

30. Traill, H. D., Social England , V, 336.

31. Mantoux, 411.

32. Ibid ., 413.

33. 413.

34. Lecky, History of England , III, 135-36.

35. Smith, Wealth of Nations , I, 59.

36. Rogers, J. E. T., Six Centuries of Work and Wages , 89.

CHAPTER XXVIII

1. George, M. D., England in Transition , 218 f.

2. Ibid ., 219.

3. 218.

4. Namier, Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III , 80.

5. New CMH , VII, 245.

6. Lecky, History of England , III, 172.

7. Wilson, P. W., William Pitt the Younger , 6.

8. Plumb, J. H., Men and Places , 11.

9. Namier, Structure of Politics , 77-79.

10. Ibid ., 150.

11. Lecky, III, 171.

12. Blackstone, Sir W., Commentaries on the Laws of England , 17 (p. 50 of orig. ed.).

13. Namier, Crossroads of Power , 133.

14. Thackeray, The Four Georges , 62.

15. CF . Butterfield, George III and the Historians , 175; Morley, John, Burke: A Historical Study , 9.

16. Lecky, III, II; Namier in History Today , September, 1953, p. 615.

17. Watson, J. S., The Reign of George III, 6.

18. Age of Voltaire , Ch. iii, Sec. IX; present volume, Ch. ii, Secs. II, IV.

19. Walpole, Horace, Memoirs of The reign of George III , II, 331.

20. Burke, Edmund, speech on American Taxation, in Speeches and Letters on American Affairs , 28.

21. Burke, Vindication of Natural Society , 9.

22. Ibid .

23. 12-20.

24. 20.

25. 22.

26. 44.

27. 21.

28. 48.

29. 50.

30. Morley, John, Burke, 13.

31. Vindication, 4 (preface).

32. Burke, On Taste, and On the Sublime and Beautiful, 45 f.

33. Ibid.

34. 93.

35. 95.

36. Macaulay, Essays, I, 454.

37. Morley, Burke, 30.

38. Ibid., 104.

39. Boswell, Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, 141.

40. Stephen, Sir Leslie, History of English Thought in the 18th Century, I, 222.

41. Parliamentary History, XXXVII, 363, in Buckle, H. T., An Introd. to the History of Civilization in England, I, 327.

42. Piozzi, Hester Thrale, Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, 138.

43. Morley, Burke, 107.

44. In Cambridge History of English Literature, XI, 9.

45. Enc. Brit., XI, 644d.

46. Moore, Thomas, Memoirs of the Life of Sheridan, I, 78.

47. Drinkwater, John, Charles James Fox, 9, 11.

48. Staël, Mme. de, Germany, I, 277.

49. Thackeray, Four Georges, 87.

50. Enc. Brit., IX, 568b.

51. Drinkwater, 195.

52. Walpole, Horace, Letters, Feb. 4, 1778.

53. Lecky, III, 468.

54. Gibbon, Edward, Memoirs, 54.

55. National Gallery, London; Dulwich College; National Gallery, Washington.

56. Moore, Sheridan, I, 17.

57. The Rivals, Act I, Sc. ii.

58. Ibid., Ill, iii.

59. In Taine, H., English Literature, 355.

60. Enc. Brit., XVII, 973b.

61. Wilson, P. W., William Pitt, 58.

62. Dorn, W. L., Competition for Empire , 75.

63. Walpole, letter of Oct. 31, 1760.

64. Laski, Harold, Political Thought in England, Locke to Bentham, 144.

65. Butterfield, George III, 173.

66. Lecky, III, 61.

67. Macaulay, Essays, I, 431.

68. Wilson, William Pitt, 44.

69. Gibbon, Edward, Journal, 145.

70. Enc. Brit., XXIII, 602b.

71. Ibid.

72. Sherwin, A Gentleman of Wit and Fashion: The Life and Times of George Selwyn, 47-53.

73. Jefferson, D. W., Eighteenth-Century Prose, 140.

74. Walpole, Memoirs of Reign of George III, I, 248.

75. Enc. Brit., XXIII, 603d.

76. Walpole, Reign of George III, I, 263.

77. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Italy, Corsica and France, 5.

78. Walpole, Reign of George III, III, 239.

79. Lecky, III, 151.

80. S. MacCoby, ed., The English Radical Tradition, 2.

81. Lecky, III, 175-76.

82. Ibid., 152.

83. MacCoby, 2.

84. Lecky, III, 153.

85. Junius, Letters, 3-6.

86. Junius, letter of Nov. 29, 1769.

87. Letters, pp. 134, 148.

88. Ibid., p. 29.

89. Lecky, II, 468.

90. Walpole, Reign of George III, IV, 78; Lecky, III, 143.

91. MacCoby, 31.

92. Enc. Brit., XXIII, 603d.

93. CMH, VIII, 714.

94. Lecky, III, 268.

95. Ibid., 300.

96. Watson, Reign of George III, 174.

97. Ashton, 158; Traill, V, 115.

98. Hammond, J. L. and Barbara, Rise of Modern Industry, 32.

99. Lecky, III, 299.

100. Drinkwater, 94.

101. CMH, VIII, 521.

102. Lecky, III, 331.

103. Beard, Charles and Mary, Rise of American Civilization, I, 212.

104. Peterson, Houston, Treasury of the World’s Great Speeches, 102-22.

105. Lecky, III, 530.

106. Ibid., 531.

107. 545.

108. Peterson, 143-46.

109. CHE, IX, 6.

110. Sherwin, 205.

111. Burke, Speeches and Letters on American Affairs, 84.

112. Ibid., 118-19.

113. Drinkwater, 145.

114. Walpole, letter of Sept. 11, 1775.

115. Lecky, IV, 82.

116. Churchill, Sir Winston, History of the English-Speaking Peoples, II, 116.

117. Lecky, IV, 221.

118. Namier, Crossroads, 130.

119. Enc. Brit., V, 833d.

120. Namier, Crossroads, 164.

121. Walpole, letter of Mar. 5, 1772.

122. Lecky, III, 491.

123. CMH, VI, 570.

124. Ibid., 572.

125. 578-80.

126. Walpole, letter of Mar. 2, 1773.

127. Wilson, William Pitt, 171.

128. Morley, Burke, 33; Namier, Crossroads, 165-67.

129. Watson, Reign of George III, 319.

130. Morley, Burke, 125.

131. G. G. S., Life of R. B. Sheridan, 113.

132. Macaulay, Essays, I, 633.

133. Peterson, Great Speeches, 179.

134. Gibbon, Memoirs, 334.

135. Macaulay, I, 644.

136. Burke, Observations on the State of the Nation (1769), in Lecky, V, 335n.

137. Burke, speech on “Relief of Protestant Dissenters” (1773), in Morley, Burke, 69.

138. Wilson, William Pitt, 226.

139. Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, I, 279.

140. Lecky, V, 449; Wilson, 235.

141. Burke, Reflections on the French Revolution, 8.

142. Enc. Brit., IV, 418c.

143. Burke, Reflections, 35.

144. Ibid., 18 f.

145. 36.

146. 73.

147. Enc. Brit., IV, 418d.

148. CHE, X, 285.

149. Morley, Burke, 179.

150. Ibid., 15.

151. Burke, Reflections, 93.

152. Ibid., 6.

153. CHE, XI, 11.

154. Letter to a Member of the National Assembly, in Reflections, 279.

155. Burke, 87.

156. Lecky, III, 218-19; Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, I, 251-52; Laski, 159, 171.

157. Laski, 147.

158. Sherwin, Selwyn, 275.

159. Taine, English Literature, 416.

160. Wilson, 325.

161. G. G. S., Life of Sheridan, 155.

CHAPTER XXIX

1. Eckermann and Soret, Conversations with Goethe, Mar. 12, 1827.

2. Lecky, England in the 18th Century, VI, 139.

3. Quennell, Everyday Things, 93.

4. George, London Life, 103.

5. Quennell, 90.

6. George, 26.

7. Boswell, Hebrides, 31.

8. Lecky, VI, 153.

9. Nussbaum, History of Economic Institutions, 128.

10. Boswell, Life of Johnson, 1, 781.

11. Sherwin, George Selwyn, 34.

12. Ibid., 125.

13. Drinkwater, Charles James Fox, 13.

14. Lecky, VI, 152.

15. Boswell, Johnson, 978.

16. Age of Voltaire, Ch. ii, Sec. VI.

17. Wealth of Nations, II, 276.

18. Stephen, English Thought, I, 421.

19. Besant, London, 282-83.

20. Sherwin, 288.

21. Vicar of Wakefield, Ch. xxiv.

22. Boswell, Johnson, 338.

23. Lecky, VI, 268; Drinkwater, 131.

24. Lecky, VI, 269.

25. Boswell, Johnson, 846.

26. Walpole, Mar. 22, 1780.

27. CMH, VI, 187.

28. Buckle, An Introd. to the History … of England, I, 321n.

29. George, London Life, 135.

30. Botsford, J. B., English Society in the 18th Century, 332 f.

31. Blackstone, Commentaries, 128-29.

32. Enc. Brit., XX, 780a.

33. Ibid., 780d.

34. Faÿ, Bernard, Franklin, 77.

35. Mowat, Age of Reason, 61.

36. Quennell, 9.

37. Watson, P. B., Some Women of France, 77.

38. Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, IV, 158.

39. Boswell, Johnson, 597.

40. Burke, Reflections, 86.

41. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Italy . . ., 184.

42. Robertson, Short History of Freethought, II, 206.

43. Boswell in Holland, 62.

44. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, V, 554.

45. Faÿ, La Franc-Maçonnerie, 273.

46. Age of Voltaire, pp. 528, 580.

47. Cowper, The Task, ii, lines 378-94.

48. Stephen, English Thought, II, 375.

49. Walpole, June 3, 1780.

50. Walpole, June 7, 1780.

51. June 16, 1780.

52. Lecky, V, 189.

53. Sir F. D. McKinnon, in Turberville, Johnson’s England, II, 289.

54. Bentham, Jeremy, A Fragment on Government, 22.

55. Blackstone, Commentaries, Vol. I, p. 3.

56. Commentaries (orig. ed.), Book I, Ch. vii.

57. Commentaries (1914 ed.), Vol. II, p. 129.

58. Lecky, VI, 261.

59. Ibid., 255-58; Turberville, I, 17-21; Johnson, The Idler, Jan. 6, 1759.

60. Besant, London, 608.

61. Bentham, Fragment, 10.

62. Ibid.

63. Ch. iv, No. 20.

64. Bentham, Fragment, 3.

65. Ibid., 56.

66. Age of Voltaire, 139, 149, 529,687.

67. Mack, M. P., Jeremy Bentham, 102-5.

68. Bentham, Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, 189.

69. Clark, G. N., Seventeenth Century, 127.

70. Davidson, W. L., Political Thought in England: The Utilitarians, 26.

71. Turberville, II, 178.

72. Mantzius, Karl, History of Theatrical Art, V, 388.

73. Krutch, Samuel Johnson, 272.

74. Barton, Margaret, Garrick, 53.

75. Ibid., 59.

76. 50.

77. Burney, Fanny, Diary, 12.

78. Hawkins, Sir John, Life of Samuel Johnson, 189.

79. Pearson, Hesketh, Johnson and Boswell, 282.

80. Johnson, Samuel, Works, I, 196.

81. Krutch, 37.

82. George, London Life, 288.

83. Boswell: The Ominous Years, 118.

84. Turberville, I, 195.

85. George, London, 171.

86. Ibid., 24.

87. Turberville, I, 171.

88. Boswell’s London Journal, 81.

89. Boswell, Johnson, 733.

CHAPTER XXX

1. Geiringer, Haydn, 95.

2. Ibid., 103.

3. Burney, Charles, History of Music, II, 868.

4. Walpole, June 23, 1789.

5. National Portrait Gallery, London.

6. Burney, II, 9.

7. Sherwin, Selwyn, 110.

8. Lewis, W. S., Horace Walpole, 107.

9. Turberville, II, 110.

10. Dillon, Glass, 299.

11. Samuel Smiles in Mantoux, Industrial Revolution, 385.

12. London, Royal Academy of Arts.

13. Turberville, II, 10.

14. Ibid., 91.

15. Wilson, William Pitt, 97.

16. Collection of Lady Ford.

17. Greenwich, Eng., National Maritime Museum.

18. London, National Gallery. (Unallocated pictures are in private collections.)

19. National Portrait Gallery.

20. Ibid.

21. Reynolds, Sir Joshua, Portraits, 110 .

22. National Portrait Gallery.

23. Ibid.

24. San Marino, Calif., Huntington Art Gallery.

25. Waterhouse, Reynolds, 110 .

26. Ibid., 127.

27. 79.

28. 87.

29. 63.

30. 267.

31. 291; London, National Gallery.

32. Waterhouse, 57.

33. Wallace Collection, London.

34. Reynolds, Fifteen Discourses, 3.

35. Wilenski, R. H., English Painting, 150.

36. Reynolds, Portraits, 167.

37. Boswell, Johnson, 651.

38. National Portrait Gallery.

39. Royal Academy of Arts.

40. Reynolds, Fifteen Discourses, 78 (Discourse VI), 8 (1).

41. Ibid., 7 (I).

42. 14 (II).

43. Ibid.

44. 30 (III).

45. Ibid.

46. 264 (XV).

47. Wilenski, 113.

48. Allan Cunningham in Clark, B. H., Great Short Biographies, 789.

49. Gillet, Louis, La Peinture, xviie et xviiie siècles, 416.

50. Washington, National Gallery.

51. Edinburgh, National Gallery.

52. Millar, Oliver, Thomas Gainsborough, 11.

53. Clark, B. H., Biographies, 796.

54. Craven, Thomas, Treasury of Art Masterpieces, 214.

55. Reynolds, Fifteen Discourses, 230 (xiv).

56. Waterhouse, Gainsborough, 36.

57. Pijoan, Joseph, History of Art, III, 479.

58. Reynolds, Fifteen Discourses, 227 (xiv).

CHAPTER XXXI

1. Lecky, England in the 18th Century, IV, 314.

2. New CMH, VIII, 28.

3. Ibid., 714.

4. Lecky, IV, 317.

5. D’Alton, E. A., History of Ireland, IV, 545; Enc. Brit., X, 659d.

6. Faÿ, La Franc-Maçonnerie, 399.

7. Smith, Adam, Wealth of Nations, I, 70.

8. Johnson, Works, II, 271, 345.

9. Boswell, Hebrides, 135.

10. Enc. Brit., XX, 169d.

11. Snyder, F. B., Life of Robert Burns, 189.

12. Age of Voltaire, 184.

13. Ibid., 507-86.

14. 586-602.

15. 139-61.

16. Reid, Thomas, Works, I, 7, 81, 91.

17. Ibid., 12.

18. 106.

19. Hume, David, Treatise of Human Nature, I, 254.

20. Reid, Works, 423.

21. Boswell’s Journal, Sept. 16, 1769 (Boswell in Search of a Wife, 293).

22. London National Portrait Gallery.

23. Edinburgh National Gallery.

24. Private Collection.

25. Carlyle, Schiller, 103.

26. Walpole, July 11, 1759.

27. Gibbon, Memoirs, 122.

28. Stewart, Dugald, Life of Robertson (1811), 305.

29. Gibbon, Memoirs, Appendix 22, p. 296.

30. Black, Art of History, 15.

31. Brandes, Goethe, I, 84.

32. See The Age of Faith, 498.

33. Thomson, Derick, The Gaelic Sources of Macphersorfs “Ossian,” 4-5, 80.

34. Macpherson, James, Poems, 40 (Fingal, Book I).

35. Ibid., 49, 52, 54.

36. 415-16.

37. Johnson, Works, XII, 375; Boswell, Hebrides, 163.

38. Boswell, Johnson, 496.

39. Thomson, Derick, 16 f.

40. Buckle, lb, 347.

41. Smith, Adam, Moral and Political Philosophy, 75.

42. Ibid., 255.

43. 191.

44. Laski, Political Thought in England, 99, 101, 188; see also Age of Voltaire, 155.

45. Smith, Wealth of Nations, II, 107.

46. Ibid., 113.

47. 121.

48. See Age of Voltaire, 138.

49. Wealth of Nations, II, 180.

50. Ibid., I, 26, 29.

51. I, 119.

52. 129.

53. 129.

54. 42.

55. 75, 2.

56. 73.

57. 72, 345.

58. Rosebery, Lord, Pitt, 4.

59. Waterhouse, Reynolds, 329.

60. Burns’s autobiographical letter to John Moore, in Neilson, W. A., Robert Burns, I.

61. In Snyder, Burns, 54.

62. Ibid., 67.

63. 67.

64. 239.

65. See “The Ordination.”

66. Witte, Schiller and Burns, 10.

67. Hill, J. C, Love Songs and Heroines of Robert Burns, vii-x.

68. Burns, Robert, Works, I, 85, 75.

69. Ibid., 101.

70. Witte, Schiller and Burns, 10.

71. “The Rigs o’ Barley.”

72. Burns, Works, I, 85, 77.

73. Ibid., 50.

74. Brown, Hilton, There Was a Lad, 23, 50.

75. Carlyle, Essay on Burns, in Works, XIII, 294-96.

76. Burns, Works, 1,162.

77. Keith, Christina, The Russet Coat, 81.

78. Burns, Works, I, 141.

79. Brown, Hilton, 26.

80. Snyder, 297.

81. Ibid., 308.

82. Hill, J. C, 102.

83. Snyder, 360, 374, 379, 390.

84. Burns, Robert, and Mrs. Dunlop, Correspondence,II, viii.

85. Burns, Works, I, 24.

86. Currie, James, Life of Robert Burns, in Burns, Works, II, 58.

87. Robert Chambers in Snyder, 432.

88. Snyder, 432-35.

89. Ibid., 430.

90. Boswell’ London Journal, 108.

91. Pearson, 107.

92. Boswell’ London Journal, 66.

93. Ibid., 93.

94. 66.

95. 93.

96. 137.

97. 206-9.

98. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 44.

99. Boswell, Johnson, 237-40.

100. Boswell’s London Journal, 251, 281.

101. Boswell in Holland, Sept. 18, 1763.

102. Ibid., 387-90.

103. 46.

104. 157.

105. 259-61.

106. 314.

107. 328.

108. 330.

109. 349.

110. 368.

111. Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany, 134.

112. Ibid., 117.

113. 164-66.

114. 241.

115. Boswell in Search of a Wife, 24.

116. Ibid., 36-37.

117. 76.

118. 207.

119. 240.

120. Boswell for the Defense, 140.

121. Boswell: The Ominous Years, 34-48.

122. Ibid., 304-7.

123. Macaulay, Essays, II, 539-41.

124. Boswell: The Ominous Years, 338.

125. Boswell in Search of a Wife, 40.

126. Boswell: The Ominous Years, Introd., x.

CHAPTER XXXII

1. Johnson, The Idler, No. 40.

2. Brooke, Henry, The Fool of Quality, 80.

3. Cross, Wilbur, Life and Times of Laurence Sterne, 99.

4. Ibid., 179.

5. Ibid.

6. 183.

7. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 267.

8. Mossner, E. C, Life of David Hume, 503.

9. Sterne, Laurence, Tristram Shandy, Book VIII, Ch. ii.

10. Ibid., Book IV, Ch. xxxviii.

11. Cross, 263.

12. Sterne, Letters to Eliza, x.

13. Ibid., letter of Apr. 14, 1767.

14. Sterne, Journal, Apr. 24, 1767.

15. Moore, Thomas, Life of Lord Byron, in Taine, English Literature, 477.

16. Macaulay, Essays, II, 565 .

17. Burney, Fanny, Diary, 17.

18. Burney, Fanny, Evelina, 22.

19. Letter of Mar. 5, 1772.

20. Walpole, Feb. 28, 1769.

21. See Age of Voltaire, 95-98.

22. Lewis, Horace Walpole, 12n; Wharton, Grace and Philip, Wits and Beaux of Society, II, 28.

23. Walpole, “Reminiscences,” in Letters, I, xciii.

24. Letter of Mar. 2, 1773.

25. Nicolson, Harold, The Age of Reason, 249.

26. Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, II, 154.

27. Letter of Nov. 24, 1774.

28. Nicolson, 248.

29. Ibid., 249.

30. Letter of July 24, 1756.

31. Letter of Dec. 2, 1762.

32. Sherwin, Selwyn, 104.

33. Letter of Nov. 11, 1766.

34. Walpole, Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of the Reign of George the Second, p. xl.

35. Letter of June 15, 1768.

36. Oct. 1, 1782.

37. Nov. 11, 1763.

38. Lewis, Horace Walpole, 5.

39. Feb. 7, 1772.

40. Jan. 12, 1766.

41. Letter to John Chute, January, 1766.

42. Lewis, 20.

43. Wharton, II, 83.

44. Lewis, 81.

45. Jan. 18, 1759.

46. Gibbon, Memoirs, introd. by G. B. Hill, xxi; Robertson, J. M., Gibbon, 1.

47. Memoirs, 20.

48. Age of Voltaire, 127.

49. Memoirs, 45.

50. Ibid., 51, 54.

51. 65.

52. 69.

53. 105.

54. 106, 156.

55. Gambier-Parry, M., Madame Necker, 16.

56. Gibbon, Journal, introd., Ixxii.

57. Memoirs, 107.

58. Ibid., 120.

59. Gibbon, Essai sur l’étude de la littérature, in Miscellaneous Writings, No. 1.

60. Ibid., liii.

61. Memoirs, 143.

62. Journal, 22.

63. Ibid., 136.

64. Memoirs, 153.

65. Robertson, J. M., Gibbon, 117; Memoirs, 158.

66. Ibid., 167.

67. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, final page.

68. Memoirs, Appendix 30.

69. Ibid., 172.

70. 189.

71. 191n.

72. 193.

73. Robertson, Gibbon, 119; Drinkwater, Charles James Fox, 206.

74. Low, D. M., Edward Gibbon, 282.

75. Memoirs, 190.

76. Ibid., 195.

77. 195.

78. Decline and Fall, I, 316. Renan agreed with Gibbon about the Antonines; see his Marc Aurèle, 479, Calmann-Lévy, Paris, n.d.

79. Decline and Fall, I, 316.

80. Ibid., 250.

81. 9 and 10 William III, c. 22.

82. Decline and Fall, II, 72-73.

83. Ibid.

84. 102-5.

85. 182.

86. 244; see Voltaire’s view in The Age of Voltaire, 486.

87. Low, 260.

88. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 152-53.

89. Low, 258.

90. Gibbon, Miscellaneous Writings, 277.

91. Walpole, Jan. 27, 1781.

92. Memoirs, 211.

93. Decline and Fall, 432-33.

94. Memoirs, 213.

95. Ibid., 215.

96. Low, 302.

97. Memoirs, 214.

98. Walpole, June 5, 1788.

99. Decline and Fall, VI, 656 .

100. Memoirs, 225.

101. Ibid., 89n.

102. Fuglum, Per, Edward Gibbon, 15.

103. Memoirs, 240.

104. Boswell, Johnson, Mar. 19, 1781.

105. Low, 222-23.

106. Memoirs, 230-31.

107. Low, 320.

108. Memoirs, 228, 234; G. G. S., Life of Sheridan, 122.

109. Memoirs, Appendix 55.

110. Ibid., 24m.

111. Appendix 66.

112. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 159.

113. Memoirs, Appendix 66 .

114. Ibid., 339 and Appendix 62 .

115. Gibbon, Correspondence, II, 93, 298, in Memoirs, 339.

116. Correspondence, II, 255, in Robertson, Gibbon, 120.

117. Gibbon, Autobiography, Everyman’s Library ed., in Gay, P., Voltaire’s Politics,

118. Memoirs, introd. by G. B. Hill, xii.

119. Low, 344.

120. Gibbon, letter of Nov. 11, 1793.

121. Decline and Fall, 1776 ed., I, 206.

122. Bury, J. B., in Enc. Brit., X, 331d.

123. Decline and Fall, ed. J. B. Bury, I, xli.

124. Ibid., xlvii; Robertson, Gibbon, 15; Black, Art of History, 161.

125. Decline and Fall, IV, 673.

126. Ibid., 99.

127. I, 314.

128. Voltaire, Works, XVIa, 250-51.

129. Decline and Fall, III, 97.

130. VI, 337.

131. Cf. Fuglum, 136.

132. Decline and Fall, Ch. lxiv.

133. V, 237.

134. Ibid., 423.

135. Ill, 522.

136. Preface to Milman ed., p. 6.

137. CHE, X, 445.

138. Seebohm, Frederick, The Age of Johnson, 228.

139. Walpole, letter of Nov. 15, 1764; Reign of George III, II, 25.

140. Nevill, J. C, Thomas Chatterton, 96.

141. Chatterton, Complete Poetical Works, 207.

142. Ibid., 64.

143. Walpole, letters of June 19, 1777, and July 24, 1778.

144. Irving, Washington, Oliver Goldsmith, 266.

145. Stanza xlv.

146. Cowper, William, Poems, 135.

147. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 173.

148. Cowper, 188.

149. CHE, XI, 89.

150. Sainte-Beuve, English Portraits, 176-77.

151. Cowper, 87.

152. See Age of Voltaire, 331.

153. Cowper, The Task, Book I, line 749.

154. Ibid., line 718.

155. II, lines 1-7.

156. II, 11-28.

157. 206.

158. Cowper, Poems, 172.

159. Enc. Brit., X, 495a (by Macaulay).

160. Boswell, Johnson, 252.

161. Ibid., 305.

162. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 37, 170.

163. Thackeray, English Humourists, in Works, 28m.

164. Irving, 170.

165. Vicar of Wakefield, preface.

166. Boswell, Johnson, 449.

167. Barton, Garrick, 256.

168. E.g., Reynolds, Portraits, 38.

169. Irving, 121.

170. Garnett and Gosse, English Literature, III, 342; Irving, 320.

171. Boswell for the Defense, 167.

172. Thackeray, English Humourists, 291.

173. Ibid.

174. Goldsmith, Oliver, Select Works, 194.

CHAPTER XXXIII

1. Boswell, Johnson, 17.

2. Boswell, Hebrides, 142.

3. Krutch, Johnson, 12.

4. Pearson, Johnson and Boswell, 6.

5. Krutch, 10.

6. Boswell, Johnson, 564.

7. Enc. Brit., XIII, 109d.

8. Hill, G. Birkbeck, Johnsonian Miscellanies, II, 309; Greene, Donald, Politics of Samuel Johnson, 133.

9. Johnson, London, line 202.

10. Hawkins, Life of Samuel Johnson, 55-57.

11. Krutch, 49.

12. Ibid.

13. Turberville, Johnson’s England, I, 318n.

14. Boswell, Johnson, 94.

15. Enc. Brit., XIII, 110a.

16. Boswell, Johnson, 1177.

17. Hawkins, 66.

18. Hume, David, Essays, Literary, Moral, and Political, 52.

19. Johnson, Works, I, 213.

20. Ibid., 215.

21. 217.

22. Hawkins, 98.

23. Johnson, The Rambler, 257-64.

24. Boswell, Holland Journal, Sept. 23, 1763.

25. Davis, Bertram, Johnson before Boswell, 72.

26. Hill, G. B., Miscellanies, I, 136.

27. Boswell, Johnson, 165.

28. Ibid., 242.

29. Schuster, M. L., Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 130.

30. Boswell, Johnson, 992.

31. Ibid., 157.

32. Boswell for the Defense, 55 (Mar. 23, 1772).

33. Johnson’s Dictionary, preface; p. 20.

34. Ibid., 284.

35. Boswell, Johnson, 179.

36. Arthur Murphy in Johnson, Works, I, 89.

37. Works, V, 419.

38. Rasselas, Ch. vi.

39. Ibid., Ch. xix.

40. Ch. xxviii.

41. Ch. xli.

42. Boswell, Johnson, 228.

43. Ibid., 260.

44. Wharton, Grace and Philip, Wits and Beaux of Society, I, 366.

45. Krutch, 264.

46. Pearson, 184.

47. Boswell, Johnson, 272.

48. Bailey, John, Dr. Johnson and His Circle, 35.

49. Boswell, 542.

50. Boswell for the Defense, 175.

51. Boswell, Hebrides, 189.

52. Pearson, 195.

53. Boswell’s London Journal, 234.

54. Piozzi, Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, 190.

55. National Portrait Gallery.

56. National Gallery, London.

57. Hawkins, 293.

58. Turberville, I, 384.

59. Boswell, Johnson, 283; Hawkins, 147.

60. Boswell, Hebrides, 136.

61. Boswell, Johnson, 49.

62. Pearson, 81.

63. Boswell: The Ominous Years, 264.

64. Bailey, 29.

65. Boswell, Johnson, 955.

66. Ibid., 1197.

67. 293.

68. Piozzi, 181.

69. Hawkins, 122.

70. Rasselas, Ch. xliii.

71. Hawkins, 132.

72. Boswell, 586.

73. Turberville, II, 198.

74. Krutch, 369.

75. This is Hume’s report, in Krutch, 221, and Pearson, 48; the phraseology was made more decorous in Boswell.

76. Boswell, Hebrides, 144.

77. Walpole, May 26, 1791.

78. Irvine, Goldsmith, 183.

79. Piozzi, 70.

80. Ibid., 57.

81. Boswell, Johnson, 1124.

82. Ibid., 1126.

83. Bailey, 30.

84. Boswell, 351.

85. Krutch, 366.

86. Boswell, Hebrides, 200.

87. Boswell, Johnson, 343.

88. Boswell: The Ominous Years, 133.

89. Low, Gibbon, 223.

90. Love joy, Arthur, Essays in the History of Ideas, 39.

91. Walpole, Mar. 28, 1786.

92. In Gibbon, Memoirs, 220n.

93. Boswell, Hebrides, 11.

94. Boswell, Johnson, 222.

95. Hebrides, 140.

96. Johnson, 988.

97. Pearson, 262.

98. Greene, Donald, Politics of Samuel Johnson, 270.

99. Boswell, Johnson, 744.

100. Ibid., 1025.

101. 807.

102. 362.

103. Bailey, 104.

104. Boswell, Johnson, 807.

105. Ibid., 410.

106. 363.

107. 525.

108. 274.

109. Hawkins, 208.

110. Boswell, Johnson, 267, 414, 469, 514, 740; Boswell, London Journal, 276, 281.

111. Ibid., 253; Johnson, Works, XII, 111.

112. Boswell, Johnson, 787.

113. Ibid., 341.

114. 309.

115. 486.

116. Greene, 161.

117. Ibid., 167.

118. Taxation No Tyranny, in Works, XII, 225.

119. Boswell, Johnson, 508.

120. Johnson, Works, XII, 198n.

121. Hawkins, 222.

122. Boswell, Johnson, 505.

123. Ibid., 507.

124. 654.

125. In Greene, 195.

126. Boswell, Johnson, 33, 1051; Piozzi, 14.

127. Boswell, Johnson, 1102-3.

128. Ibid., 282.

129. 421; Bailey, 103.

130. Pearson, 252.

131. Ibid., 251.

132. Lives of the English Poets, I, 63 (“Milton”).

133. Rasselas, Ch. xxxi; Hawkins, 131.

134. Lives, I, 63.

135. Pearson, 248.

136. Boswell, Johnson, 352, 807.

137. Ibid., 309.

138. 308.

139. Hopkins, Marv A., Hannah More, 61.

140. Hawkins,. 198.

141. Johnson, Works, X, 169.

142. Ibid., 137, 149.

143. Krutch, 289.

144. Boswell, Hebrides, 178.

145. Ibid., 268.

146. Works, XII, 413.

147. Pearson, 237.

148. Boswell, Johnson, 685n.

149. Lives, 1, 93.

150. Walpole, Feb. 19, 1781.

151. Walpole, Apr. 14, 1781.

152. Piozzi, 186.

153. Krutch, 522.

154. Ibid., 509.

155. Schuster, Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 133.

156. Burney, Fanny, Diary, 92.

157. Boswell, Johnson, 1109.

158. Krutch, 547.

159. Boswell, Johnson, 1059.

160. Hawkins, 255.

161. Ibid., 259.

162. Krutch, 551.

163. Boswell, Johnson, 1181.

164. Davis, Bertram, Johnson before Boswell, vii.

165. CHE, X, 213.

166. Boswell: The Ominous Years, 103.

167. E.g., Boswell, Note Book, xvii, 1, 23; Krutch, Johnson, 384.

168. E.g., Boswell: The Ominous Years, ii .

169. Boswell, Johnson, x.

170. Hannah More, Letters, 102.

171. CHE, X, 213.

172. Letter of May 26, 1791.

CHAPTER XXXIV

1. Gooch, Maria Theresa, 124.

2. Ibid., 7.

3. 8.

4. Bearne, Mrs., A Court Painter, 323.

5. Ereole, Gay Court Life, 272.

6. Castelot, André, Queen of France, 20.

7. Zweig, Stefan, Marie Antoinette, 5.

8. Padover, Saul, Life and Death of Louis XVI, 30.

9. Gooch, Maria Theresa, 122.

10. Padover, 30.

11. Castelot, 37.

12. Ibid., 40.

13. Zweig, 21.

14. Castelot, 64.

15. Ibid., 73; Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Régime, 19.

16. Walpole, July 10, 1774.

17. Mathiez, Albert, The French Revolution, 9.

18. Tocqueville, L’ Ancien Régime, 122.

19. Maine, Sir Henry, Ancient Law, 48.

20. Cobban, Alfred, History of Modern France, I, 127.

21. Taine, The Ancient Regime, 95.

22. Ibid., 68-69.

23. Mathiez, 5.

24. Taine, Ancient Regime, 118, 98.

25. Ercole, 370.

26. Castelot, 85.

27. Campan, Mme., Memoirs, I, 317.

28. Mossiker, Frances, The Queen’s Necklace, 201.

29. Ibid., 163.

30. Castelot, 66, 158.

31. Lacroix, The Eighteenth Century, 35.

32. Vigée-Lebrun, Mme., Memoirs, 56.

33. Desnoiresterres, Voltaire et la société fran ç aise, VIII, 294.

34. Castelot, 174.

35. Cobban, Alfred, Historians and the Causes of the French Revolution, 5, 14.

36. Mme. Campan gives several examples (Memoirs, I, 190-94).

37. Cobban, History of Modern France, I, 115.

38. Castelot, 123.

39. Faÿ, Bernard, Louis XVI, ou La Fin d’un monde, 311.

40. Havens, G. R., The Age of Ideas, 392.

41. In Mossiker, Queen’s Necklace, 160.

42. Castelot, 119.

43. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, 119, 125.

44. Ibid., 119.

45. Castelot, 122.

46. Ibid., 121.

47. 124.

48. Zweig, Marie Antoinette, 137.

49. Padover, Louis XVI, 102.

50. Ségur, Marquis de, Marie Antoinette, 104.

51. Ibid.

52. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 491.

53. “The Good-natured King.”

54. Campan, Mme., Memoirs, I, 178.

55. Padover, Louis XVI, 118-19.

56. Funck-Brentano, L’Ancien R é gime, 545.

57. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ed. J. B. Bury, IV, 529.

58. Padover, Louis XVI, 23.

59. Campan, Mme., I, 185n.

60. Faÿ, Louis XVI, 8.

61. Taine, Ancient Regime, 304.

62. Funck-Brentano, 546.

63. Campan, I, 180.

64. Stryienski, Eighteenth Century, 213.

65. Gooch, Catherine the Great, 230.

66. Goethe, Truth and Fiction, II, 350.

67. Dakin, Turgot, 126.

68. Say, Léon, Turgot, 101.

69. Robinson, J. H., Readings in European History, 426.

70. See Age of Louis XIV, 160.

71. Voltaire, Works, XXIb, 347.

72. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 535.

73. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XVI, 340.

74. Dakin, 187; Padover, Louis XVI, 75.

75. Say, 12.

76. Dakin, 152; Tocqueville, 190.

77. Tocqueville, 190.

78. Say, 161-66; Funck-Brentano, 554.

79. Renard, Georges, Guilds in the Middle Ages, 125.

80. Martin, H., France, XVI, 371.

81. Ibid., 372.

82. Taine, Ancient Regime, 237.

83. Padover, Louis XVI, 92.

84. Dakin, 221.

85. Say, 185-91.

86. Dakin, 263; Martin, H., France, XVI, 379.

87. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 480.

88. Say, 43.

89. Warwick, Mirabeau and the French Revolution, 104. On L’Hôpital see The Age of Reason Begins, 337-45.

90. Jaurès, Jean, Histoire socialiste de la Révolution française, I, 159.

91. Martin, H., France, XVI, 387.

92. Taine, Ancient Regime, 302.

93. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 488.

94. Campan, Mme., 1,181.

95. Tocqueville, 191.

96. Lecky, History of England in the 18th Century, V, 39-41.

97. Padover, Louis XVI, 108; Martin, H., France, XVI, 416.

98. Becker, Carl, The Heavenly City of the 18th-Century Philosophers, 77.

99. Lecky, IV, 50.

100. History Today, October, 1957, 659.

101. Martin, H., France, XVI, 428.

102. Morris, R. B., The Peacemakers, 104-7.

103. CMH, VIII, 93.

104. Gooch, Catherine the Great, 97.

105. Martin, H., France, XVI, 500-1.

106. Ibid., 504.

107. Mahan, A. T., Influence of Sea Power upon History, 337.

108. Morris, Peacemakers, 178-81.

109. Lecky, IV, 256-59.

110. Ibid.

111. Morris, 277.

112. Ibid., 461.

113. Tocqueville, 155.

114. Ibid., 119.

CHAPTER XXXV

1. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 491.

2. Ibid., 496.

3. Pomeau, La Religion de Voltaire, 427.

4. Chaponniére, Voltaire chez les calvinistes, 262.

5. Faguet, Literary History of France, 508.

6. Lanson, Gustave, Voltaire, 158.

7. Torrey, N. L., The Spirit of Voltaire, 150.

8. Brandes, Voltaire, II, 317.

9. Wagnière in Parton, II, 564.

10. Ibid.

11. Note to Walpole, Letters, VII, 35.

12. Brandes, Voltaire, II, 322; Parton, II, 367.

13. Desnoiresterres, Voltaire et la société française, VIII, 199-200; Campan, I, 323; Martin, H., Histoire de France, XVI, 393.

14. Parton, Life of Voltaire, II, 568.

15. Brandes, II, 324.

16. Pomeau, 263.

17. Noyes, Voltaire, 583.

18. Pomeau, 307.

19. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 230.

20. Lanson, Voltaire, 200.

21. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 232-33.

22. Ibid., 235.

23. 236.

24. 245.

25. Wiener, Leo, Anthology of Russian Literature, I, 357.

26. Noyes, 600.

27. Brandes, Voltaire, II, 336.

28. Ibid., 337.

29. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 283-91.

30. Vigée-Lebrun, Memoirs, 199.

31. Ducros, French Society in the 18th Century, 121.

32. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 302.

33. Ibid., 306; Brandes, Voltaire, II, 340.

34. Strachey, Lytton, Books and Characters, 12m.

35. Brandes, II, 341.

36. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 334, 365.

37. Pomeau, 447.

38. Desnoiresterres, VIII, 359.

39. Ibid., 366; Créqui, Marquise de, Souvenirs, 235n.

40. Brandes, Voltaire, II, 348.

41. Gooch, Catherine the Great, 70.

42. In Brandes, Voltaire, II, 94n.; the order has been slightly changed.

43. Ibid., 354.

44. Parton, II, 494.

45. Voltaire, La Guerre de Genève, in Josephson, Rousseau, 479.

46. Hendel, Charles, Citizen of Geneva, 92.

47. Josephson, 481.

48. Hendel, Citizen, 98.

49. Ibid., 99 (letter of Oct. 10, 1769).

50. Ibid., 101 (letter of Jan. 17, 1770).

51. See Age of Voltaire, 565.

52. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 485.

53. Morley, Rousseau, II, 156.

54. Josephson, 495.

55. Rousseau, The Confessions, II, end.

56. Josephson, 501.

57. Ibid.

58. Desnoiresterres, VII, 488:

59. Vaughn, C. E., Political Writings of Rousseau, II, 445.

60. Ibid., 376, 381.

61. Rousseau, Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques, p. x.

62. Ibid., 19.

63. 64-67.

64. 120, 124.

65. 117-18.

66. 292, 302, 327.

67. Third Dialogue.

68. Rousseau Juge , 319 f.

69. Josephson, 508.

70. Reveries of a Solitary , Ninth Promenade.

71. Josephson, 518.

72. Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau , II, 213-15, 301-2.

73. Ibid ., 246.

74. Josephson, 502; Faguet, Vie de Rousseau , 399.

75. Josephson, 527.

76. Babbitt, Irving, Spanish Character and Other Essays , 225.

77. Cassirer, The Question of Rousseau , 39.

78. Lemaître, Rousseau , 247.

79. Lanson, Histoire de La Littérature Française , 798.

80. Goethe, Truth and Fiction , II, 236.

81. Schiller, “Rousseau,” in Poems , 25. In Works .

82. In Maritain, Three Reformers , 225.

83. Collection complète Des Oeuvres , I, 186.

84. Cassirer, Question of Rousseau , 39.

85. Pomeau, 340.

86. Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau , III, 239-44.

87. Ibid ., 74.

88. In Morley, Rousseau and His Era , II, 273.

89. Masson, La Religion , III, 227.

90. Burke, “Letter to a Member of the National Assembly,” in Reflections on The French Revolution, 262 .

91. Taine, Ancient Regime , 317.

92. Lemaître, 361.

93. Lanson, Histoire de la littérature Fran-çaise, 798.

94. Crocker, The Embattled Philosopher , 310.

95. Ségur, Julie de Lespinasse , 402.

96. Letter of Feb. 27, 1777, in Hazard, European Thought , 323.

97. Ford, Miriam de, Love Children , 212.

98. Havens, Age of Ideas , 351.

99. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher , 400.

100. Rousseau Juge de Jean-Jacques , “Avertissement,” v-vi.

101. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher , 433.

102. Sainte-Beuve, Portraits of the 18th Century , II, 213.

103. Schapiro, J. S., Condorcet , 69.

104. Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy , 722.

105. Schapiro, Condor cet , 91.

106. Martin, H., France , XVI, 525.

107. Schapiro, 96-97.

108. So reads the ms. in the Bibliothèque de l’ Institut.

109. See The Age of Voltaire, 775.

110. Condorcet, Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Mind, p. v.

111. Ibid ., 105.

112. 10.

113. 179.

114. Aulard, A., The French Revolution , I, 123.

115. Schapiro, 80, 88.

116. Condorcet, 193.

117. Ibid ., x-xi, 175.

118. 4.

119. 188.

120. 169.

121. 202.

122. Schapiro, 107.

123. Tocqueville, 8.

124. Taine, Ancient Regime , 317.

125. Aulard, I, 83.

126. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought , II, 284.

127. Aulard, I, 83.

128. Robertson, J. M., Short History , 288.

129. Tocqueville, 165.

130. In Sée, Henri, Economic and Social Conditions in France during the 18th Century, 107.

131. Padover, Louis XVI , 6, 7, 11.

132. Tocqueville, 156.

133. Masson, P. M., La Religion de Rousseau , III, 237.

CHAPTER XXXVI

1. Sée, Economic and Social Conditions, 61; Jaurès, Histoire socialiste, I, 60; Taine (The French Revolution, I, 168) estimated the value of church property at four billion livres.

2. Herbert, Sydney, The Fall of Feudalism in France , 40.

3. Mornet, Daniel, Les Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution Française, 278.

4. Ibid ., 274; Sée, 66.

5. Ibid .; Taine, French Revolution , I, 162-63.

6. Sée, 66 .

7. Taine, French Revolution, I, 167.

8. Burke, Edmund, Reflections on the French Revolution, 142.

9. Sanger, W., History of Prostitution , 131.

10. Sée, 23; Mornet, 276.

11. Vigée-Lebrun, Memoirs , 14.

12. Lacroix, Paul, The Eighteenth Century in France , 346.

13. Taine, Ancient Regime , 291.

14. Mornet, 335.

15. Lacroix, 265.

16. Mornet, 331.

17. Faÿ, Louis XVI , 280.

18. Martin, H., Histoire de France, XVI, 512.

19. Faÿ, 280.

20. Lecky, England in the 18th Century , V, 308.

21. Martin, H., France , XVI, 353.

22. Mornet, 212.

23. Funck-Brentano, L’ Ancien Régime , 554.

24. Martin, H., France , XVI, 585.

25. Tocqueville, 9.

26. Herbert, S., Fall of Feudalism , 84.

27. See Age of Voltaire , 776-80.

28. In Crocker, Age of Crisis , 392.

29. In Becker, Heavenly City , 80.

30. Carlyle, Essay on Diderot .

31. Restif de La Bretonne, La Vie de Mon Père , 90 f.

32. Taine, Ancient Regime , 380.

33. Lacios, Choderlos de, Les Liaisons dangereuses , Letter LXVI.

34. See Plato, The Republic , Nos. 338-44.

35. De Sade, Comte, Juliette , in Crocker, Age of Crisis , 15.

36. Guérard, Albert, Life and Death of an Ideal , 294.

37. Mme. d’Oberkirch in Taine, Ancient Regime , 163.

38. Kóhler, Carl, History of Costume , 366.

39. Boehn, Modes and Manners , IV, 215.

40. In Loomis, Du Barry , 169.

41. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , near end of Ch. xix.

42. Gibbon, Correspondence , II, 46, in Memoirs, 222n.

43. See Age of Voltaire , 301-2.

44. Walpole, Dec. 2, 1765.

45. Koven, Anna de, Horace Walpole and Mme. Du Deffand , 102, 116.

46. Ibid ., 127.

47. Watson, Paul, Some Women of France , 90.

48. Ibid .

49. 89; Koven, 157.

50. Ibid ., 195.

51. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher , 354.

52. Gambier-Parry, Madame Necker , 78.

53. Ibid ., 215.

54. Créqui, Marquise de, Souvenirs , 192-94.

55. Gambier-Parry, 250.

56. Anderson, E., Letters of Mozart , II, 787.

57. Einstein, Mozart , 356.

58. Lespinasse, Letters , 138.

59. Rolland, Romain, Essays in Music , 147.

60. Grove’s Dictionary of Music , II, 456.

61. Young, Arthur, Travels in France , 67.

62. Louvre.

63. In the Institute, Paris.

64. Dilke, Lady Emilia, French Architects and Sculptors , 130. It is now in the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

65. Time magazine, Jan. 31, 1764, p. 44.

66. Ibid .

67. All in the Louvre.

68. Both in the Louvre.

69. Vigée-Lebrun, 42.

70. Louvre.

71. Private collection.

72. Taine, French Revolution , I, 141; Mornet, Origines intellectuelles , 419; La Fon-tainerie, French Liberalism , 23.

73. Mornet, 443.

74. Lecky, V, 394.

75. Mornet, 426.

76. Enc. Brit. , XVI, 349d.

77. Lecky, V, 425.

78. Ducros, French Society , 314.

79. Ibid .

80. Faguet, Literary History , 539.

81. Chamfort, Sébastien, Maximes , 25.

82. Ibid ., 27.

83. 6.

84. 71.

85. 67.

86. 69.

87. 62.

88. 87.

89. 89.

90. 26.

91. 539.

92. Ibid ., preface, p. 50.

93. In Masson, La Religion de Rousseau , III, 137-38.

94. Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Paul et Virginie , 15, 34, 58.

95. In Bury, J. B., The Idea of Progress , 200; italics ours.

96. Restif de La Bretonne, La Vie de mon père , 75.

97. Palache, Four Novelists of the Old Regime , 172.

98. Ibid ., 191.

99. Restif, La Vie de mon père , 14.

100. Chadourne, Restif de la Bretonne , 185.

101. Ibid ., 354.

102. Palache, 246.

103. Chadourne, 223.

104. Ibid ., 219.

105. Restif, Les Nuits de Paris , Nos. 109-114.

106. Ibid ., No. 112.

107. No. 103.

108. Young, Arthur, 143.

109. Beaumarchais, letter of June 16, 1755, in Loménie, Beaumarchais and His Times , 55.

110. Ibid., 78.

111. 94.

112. Voltaire, letter of Jan. 3, 1774.

113. Loménie, Beaumarchais , 263, 269 f.

114. Havens, Age of Ideas , 368.

115. Beaumarchais, The Barber of Seville , Act I, in Matthews, Chief European Dramatists , 332.

116. Ibid .

117. Blom, Eric, Mozart , 119n.

118. Loménie, Beaumarchais , 250.

119. Ibid ., 252.

120. Le Manage D’ F igaro , directions to the players, in’Beaumarchais, Oeuvres , 184.

121. Ibid ., Act II, Sc. ii.

122. V, vii.

123. V, Xii.

124. II, xxi.

125. V, iii.

126. Preface, Oeuvres, 172.

127. Loménie, Beaumarchais, 351.

128. Ibid., 383-84.

129. Havens, 382.

130. Loménie, 348.

CHAPTER XXXVII

1. Sée, Economic and Social Conditions, 8.

2. Labrousse, C. E., in Cobban, Historians and … the French Revolution, 35.

3. Young, Arthur, Travels in France, 70.

4. Ibid., 19.

5. Herbert, Fall of Feudalism, 5-10.

6. Ibid., 12, 15.

7. Lefebvre, Georges, Coming of the French Revolution, 121.

8. Sée, Economic Conditions, 54.

9. Jaurès, Histoire socialiste, I, 36.

10. Mornet, Origines intellectuelles de la Révolution, 143.

11. Michelet, Histoire de France, V, 548.

12. Martin, H., France, XVI, 512n.

13. Tocqueville, 193; Taine, Ancient Regime, 300 f.; Taine, French Revolution, I, 157.

14. Goodwin, The European Nobility, 41.

15. Argenson, Marquis d’, Pensées sur la réformation de l’état, in Sée, Economic Conditions, 109.

16. Young, 24.

17. Herbert, Fall of Feudalism, 58; Sée, 5; Gershoy, From Despotism to Revolution, 310.

18. Chamfort, Maximes, 90.

19. Young, 125, 61.

20. Lefebvre, 116; see also Taine, Ancient Regime, 335-36.

21. Lefebvre, 118.

22. Ibid.

23. Jaurès, I, 76.

24. New CMH, VII, 237.

25. Mousnier and Labrousse, Le Dix-buitième Siècle, 137.

26. Stryienski, Eighteenth Century, 271.

27. Lefebvre, 87.

28. Lacroix, Eighteenth Century in France, 340.

29. French, Sidney, Torch and Crucible: The Life and Death of Antoine Lavoisier, 87.

30. Young, 103.

31. Lefebvre, 97.

32. Ibid., 21.

33. Sée, 183; Renard and Weuler sée, Life and Work in Modern Europe, 198.

34. Mousnier and Labrousse, 186.

35. Taine, Ancient Regime, 387.

36. Ibid., 388.

37. Jaurès, Histoire socialiste, I, 109.

38. Ibid., 110 .

39. Ibid.

40. Taine, Ancient Regime, 334.

41. Ibid., 361.

42. Lecky, V, 394; Gershoy, 308.

43. Jaurés, I, 69.

44. Ibid., 68.

45. Sée, 148.

46. Cobban, History of Modern France, I, 123.

47. Jaurès, I, 62; Sée, 197-98.

48. Taine, Ancient Regime, 351-52.

49. Lefebvre, 14.

50. Jaurès, I, 62.

51. Ibid., 98.

52. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 404.

53. Taine, 320.

54. Beard, Miriam, 352.

55. Lecky, V, 484.

56. See above, Ch. iii, Sec. v.

57. Lichtenberger, André, Le Socialisme et la Révolution française, 35; Martin, Kingsley, Rise of French Liberal Thought, 252.

58. Lichtenberger, 447.

59. Ibid., 446-50.

60. Enc. Brit., II, 238b.

61. Lichtenberger, 442 f.

62. Mornet, 360.

63. Ibid., 364; Lefebvre, 43.

64. Cumming, Ian, Helvétius, 126-28.

65. Ibid., 119.

66. Fülop-Miller, R., Power and Secret of the Jesuits, 436.

67. Faÿ, La Franc-Maçonnerie, 242.

68. Georgel, Memoirs, II, 310, in Buckle, lb, 665.

69. Mornet, 450.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

1. Young, Arthur, Travels in France, 15.

2. Ségur, Marie Antoinette, 121; Castelot, 184.

3. Faÿ, Louis XVI, 293.

4. Gooch, Maria Theresa, 168.

5. Vigée-Lebrun, Memoirs, 57.

6. Mossiker, Queen’s Necklace, 36.

7. Ibid., 37, 200. 203.

8. 105.

9. Vie de Jeanne de Valois, by herself, in Mossiker, 63.

10. Enc. Brit., VII, 321a.

11. Mossiker, 183-84.

12. Ibid., 226.

13. 273.

14. 269.

15. Faÿ, Louis XVI, 275.

16. Mossiker, ix.

17. Martin, H., France, XVI, 539.

18. Taine, Ancient Regime , 92.

19. Martin, H., XVI, 573.

20. Paine, Thomas, The Rights of Man , 80.

21. Stryienski, Eighteenth Century , 286.

22. Young, Arthur, 92.

23. Ibid ., 97.

24. Guérard, A., Life and Death of an Ideal , 308.

25. Martin, H., France , XVI, 597.

26. Lefebvre, 29; Cobban, History of Modern France , I, 128.

27. Martin, H., XVI, 608.

28. Stewart, J. H., Documentary Survey of the French Revolution , 27-29; Martin, H., XVI, 612.

29. Michelet, The French Revolution , 118.

30. Michelet, Histoire de France , V, 545.

31. Faÿ Louis XVI, 308; Taine, French Revolution , I, 2.

32. Aulard, I, 129; Michelet, French Revolution , 73.

33. Lichtenberger, 20; Martin, H., XVI, 630n.

34. Tocqueville, 121.

35. Herbert, Fall of Feudalism , 76, 87.

36. Ibid ., 76.

37. CMH , VIII, 128.

38. Barthou, Louis, Mirabeau , 11.

39. Ibid ., 62.

40. 68.

41. Michelet, Histoire de France , V, 515.

42. Crocker, Embattled Philosopher , 436.

43. Barthou, 91.

44. Ibid ., 97.

45. 118.

46. 138.

47. 162.

48. 163; Martin, H., France , XVI, 624.

49. Jaurès, I, 77.

50. Michelet, Histoire de France , V, 554.

51. Herbert, Fall of Feudalism , 95.

52. Taine, French Revolution , I, 17.

53. Taine, Ancient Regime , 378.

54. Martin, H., France , XVI, 625.

55. Lefebvre, 94.

56. Enc . Brit., XVI, 909d.

57. Faÿ Louis XVI, 312.

58. Ibid ., 305.

59. Enc . Brit., XII, 491b.

60. Taine, French Revolution , I, 28.

61. Enc . Brit., XII, 491b.

62. Taine, I, 28.

63. CMH , VIII, 133; Cobban, History of Modern France , I, 140.

64. Barthou, 171.

65. Young, Arthur, 153.

66. Lefebvre, 72.

67. Young, 176.

68. Lefebvre, 76.

69. Young, 176.

70. Lefebvre, 77.

71. Young, 177.

72. Michelet, French Revolution , 137; Lefebvre, 80-81.

73. Speech of July 8, 1789, in Barthou, 186.

74. Mme. Campan, Memoirs , I, 358.

75. Mme. de Staël, Considérations Sur la Révolution française, in Ducros, French Society , 316.

76. Kropotkin, Peter, The Great French Revolution , 61-63.

77. Michelet, French Revolution , 133.

78. Ibid ., 141.

79. Lefebvre, 86.

80. Taine, French Revolution , I, 42.

81. Michelet, French Revolution , 150.

82. Lefebvre, 101.

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