Modern history



Anderson, George. General William J. Palmer: A Decade of Colorado Railroad Building. Colorado Springs: Colorado College Publication, 1936.

Athearn, Robert G. Rebel of the Rockies: The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1962.

Bain, David Haward. Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad. New York: Penguin Books, 1999.

Bell, William A. New Tracks in North America: A Journal of Travel and Adventure Whilst Engaged in the Survey for a Southern Railroad to the Pacific Ocean in 1867–1868. London: Chapman and Hall, 1870.

Best, Gerald M. Mexican Narrow Gauge. Berkeley, Calif.: Howell-North Books, 1968.

Black, Robert C., III. Railroad Pathfinder: The Life and Times of Edward L. Berthoud. Evergreen, Colo.: Cordillera Press, 1988.

———. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1952.

Borkin, Joseph. Robert R. Young: The Populist of Wall Street. New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

Borneman, Walter R. Marshall Pass: Denver and Rio Grande Gateway to the Gunnison Country. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Century One Press, 1980.

Bowers, John. Chickamauga and Chattanooga: The Battles That Doomed the Confederacy. New York: Avon Books, 1995.

Bowles, Samuel. Across the Continent: A Summer’s Journey to the Rocky Mountains, the Mormonsand the Pacific States, with Speaker Colfax. Springfield, Mass.: Samuel Bowles & Company, 1865.

Bradley, Glenn D. The Story of the Santa Fe. Revised and expanded second edition of 1920 original. Palmdale, Calif.: Omni Publications, 1995.

Bryant, Keith L., Jr. History of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1974.

Burgess, George H., and Miles C. Kennedy. Centennial History of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1846–1946. Philadelphia: The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1949.

Chaffin, Tom. Pathfinder: John Charles Frémont and the Course of American Empire. New York: Hill and Wang, 2002.

Chase, C. M. The Editor’s Run in New Mexico and Colorado. Fort Davis, Tex.: Frontier Book Company, 1968.

Clark, Ira G. Then Came the Railroads: The Century from Steam to Diesel in the Southwest. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.

Cleaveland, Norman, with George Fitzpatrick. The Morleys—Young Upstarts on the Southwest Frontier. Albuquerque: Calvin Horn Publisher, 1971.

Crampton, C. Gregory. Ghosts of Glen Canyon. Salt Lake City, Utah: Cricket Productions, 1986.

Daggett, Stuart. Chapters on the History of the Southern Pacific. 1922. Reprint, New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1966.

Davis, Elmer O. The First Five Years of the Railroad Era in Colorado. Golden, Colo.: Sage Books, 1948.

DeArment, Robert K. Bat Masterson: The Man and the Legend. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979.

Deverell, William. Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad, 1850–1910. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Devine, David. Slavery, Scandal, and Steel Rails: The 1854 Gadsden Purchase and the Building of the Second Transcontinental Railroad Across Arizona and New Mexico Twenty-five Years Later. New York: iUniverse, 2004.

Dodge, Grenville M. How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, and Other Railway Papers and Addresses. Washington: GPO, 1910.

Ducker, James H. Men of the Steel Rails: Workers on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, 1869–1900. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

Duke, Donald. Santa Fe … The Railroad Gateway to the American West, Vol. 1, Chicago-Los Angeles-San Diego. San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Books, 1995.

———. Santa Fe … The Railroad Gateway to the American West, Vol. 2, Passenger and Freight Service, et al. San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Books, 1997.

Duke, Donald, and Stan Kistler. Santa Fe … Steel Rails Through California. San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Books, 1963.

Evans, Cerinda W. Collis Potter Huntington. Newport News, Va.: Mariners’ Museum, 1954.

Fisher, John S. A Builder of the West: The Life of General William Jackson Palmer. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, 1939.

Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850–1930. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Glaab, Charles N. Kansas City and the Railroads. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1962.

Goetzmann, William H. Army Exploration in the American West, 1803–1863. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

Gordon, Sarah H. Passage to Union: How the Railroads Transformed American Life, 1829–1929. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.

Grattan, Virginia L. Mary Colter: Builder upon the Red Earth. Grand Canyon, Ariz.: Grand Canyon Natural History Association, 1992.

Grodinsky, Julius. Transcontinental Railway Strategy, 1869–1893. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962.

Hauck, Cornelius W. Narrow Gauge to Central and Silver Plume. Colorado Rail Annual. No. 10. Golden, Colo.: Colorado Railroad Museum, 1972.

Hauck, Cornelius W., and Robert W. Richardson, eds. “The Santa Fe’s D&RG War No. 2.” Colorado Rail Annual. Golden, Colo.: Colorado Railroad Museum, 1965.

Heimburger, Donald J., and Carl R. Byron. The American Streamliner: Postwar Years. Forest Park, Ill.: Heimburger House, 2001.

———. The American Streamliner: Prewar Years. Forest Park, Ill.: Heimburger House, 1996.

Helmers, Dow. Historic Alpine Tunnel. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Century One Press, 1971.

Hofsommer, Don L. The Southern Pacific, 1901–1985. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1986.

Jacobs, Timothy. The History of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Greenwich, Conn.: Bonanza Books, 1988.

Kelsey, Harry E., Jr. Frontier Capitalist: The Life of John Evans. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado and Pruett, 1969.

Kennan, George. E. H. Harriman: A Biography. Vol. 1. Reprint of 1922 edition. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1967.

Klein, Maury. The Life and Legend of E. H. Harriman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

———. The Life and Legend of Jay Gould. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.

———. Union Pacific: The Birth of a Railroad, 1862–1893. New York: Doubleday, 1987.

———. Union Pacific: The Rebirth, 1894–1969. New York: Doubleday, 1989.

Kroeger, Brooke. Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist. New York: Times Books, 1994.

Lavender, David. Bent’s Fort. New York: Doubleday, 1954.

———. Colorado River Country. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1982.

———. The Great Persuader. New York: Doubleday, 1970.

———. River Runners of the Grand Canyon. Tucson: Grand Canyon Natural History Association and the University of Arizona Press, 1985.

Lewis, Oscar. The Big Four: The Story of Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins, and Crocker, and of the Building of the Central Pacific. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1938.

Leyendecker, Liston Edgington. Palace Car Prince: A Biography of George Mortimer Pullman. Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1992.

MacGregor, Bruce A., and Ted Benson. Portrait of a Silver Lady: The Train They Called the California Zephyr. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett, 1977.

Malone, Michael P. The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864–1906. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981.

Martin, Albro. Railroads Triumphant: The Growth, Rejection, and Rebirth of a Vital American Force. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

McLuhan, T. C. Dream Tracks: The Railroad and the American Indian, 1890–1930. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1985.

Middleton, William D. Landmarks on the Iron Road: Two Centuries of North American Railroad Engineering. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Miner, H. Craig. The St. Louis–San Francisco Transcontinental Railroad: The Thirty-fifth Parallel Project, 1853–1890. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1972.

Myrick, David F. New Mexico’s Railroads: A Historical Survey. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993.

———. Railroads of Arizona. Vol. 1. The Southern Roads. Berkeley, Calif.: Howell-North Books, 1975.

———. Railroads of Arizona. Vol. 4. The Santa Fe Route. Wilton, Calif.: Signature Press, 1998.

———. Railroads of Arizona. Vol. 5. Santa Fe to Phoenix. Berkeley and Wilton, Calif.: Signature Press, 2001.

Norris, L. David, James C. Milligan, and Odie B. Faulk. William H. Emory: Soldier-Scientist. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1998.

Ormes, Robert M. Railroads and the Rockies: A Record of Lines in and near Colorado. Denver: Sage Books, 1963.

Orsi, Richard J. Sunset Limited: The Southern Pacific Railroad and the Development of the American West, 1850–1930. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Osterwald, Doris B. Rails Through the Gorge: A Mile by Mile Guide for the Royal Gorge Route. Hugo, Colo.: Western Guideways, 2003.

Overton, Richard C. Gulf to Rockies: The Heritage of the Fort Worth and Denver–Colorado Southern Railways, 1861–1898. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1970.

Palmer, William J. Report of Surveys Across the Continent, in 1867–’68, on the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-second Parallels, for a Route Extending the Kansas Pacific Railway to the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco and San Diego. Philadelphia: W. B. Selheimer, printer, 1869.

Perkins, J. R. Trails, Rails, and War: The Life of General G. M. Dodge. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1929.

Pletcher, David M. The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon, and the Mexican War. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1973.

———. Rails, Mines, & Progress: Seven American Promoters in Mexico, 1867–1911. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1958.

Poling-Kempes, Lesley. The Harvey Girls: Women Who Opened the West. New York: Paragon House, 1989.

Saunders, Richard, Jr. Main Lines: Rebirth of the North American Railroads, 1970–2002. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003.

———. Merging Lines: American Railroads, 1900–1970. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2001.

Shally, Dorothy, and William Bolton. Scotty’s Castle: Death Valley’s Fabulous Showplace. Yosemite, Calif.: Flying Spur Press, 1973.

Signor, John R. The Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad Company: Union Pacific’s Historic Salt Lake Route. San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Press, 1988.

———. Tehachapi: Southern Pacific–Santa Fe. San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Books, 1983.

Snyder, Carl. American Railways as Investments. New York: Moody, 1907.

Spearman, Frank H. The Strategy of Great Railroads. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1904.

Sprague, Marshall. The Great Gates: The Story of the Rocky Mountain Passes. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1964.

Stansbury, Howard. An Exploration to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1852.

Stanton, Robert Brewster. Colorado River Controversies. 1932. Reprint, Boulder City, Nev.: Westwater Books, 1982.

———. Down the Colorado. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Strein, Robert, John Vaughan, and C. Fenton Richards, Jr. Santa Fe: The Chief Way. Santa Fe: New Mexico Magazine, 2001.

Treadway, William E. Cyrus K. Holliday: A Documentary Biography. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1979.

Wakeman, Frederic. The Hucksters. New York: Rinehart, 1946.

Ward, James A. J. Edgar Thomson: Master of the Pennsylvania. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Waters, L. L. Steel Trails to Santa Fe. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1950.

Wilkins, Tivis E. Colorado Railroads. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett, 1974.

Williams, John Hoyt. A Great & Shining Road. New York: Times Books, 1988.

Wilson, Neill C., and Frank J. Taylor. Southern Pacific: The Roaring Story of a Fighting Railroad. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1952.

Winther, Oscar Osburn. The Transportation Frontier: 1865–1890. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

Worster, Donald. A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Wright, Lyle H., and Josephine M. Bynum, eds. The Butterfield Overland Mail. San Marino, Calif.: The Huntington Library Press, 1942.


Barnes, Lela, ed. “Letters of Cyrus Kurtz Holliday, 1854–1859.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 6 (August 1937): 241–94.

Bishop, William Henry. “Southern California.” Harper’s New Monthly magazine (December 1882): 45–65.

Borneman, Walter R. “Ride the Historic Georgetown Loop.” American West 24, no. 3 (June 1987): 42–47.

Chappell, Gordon. “Scenic Line of the World.” Colorado Rail Annual 8 (1970): 3–96.

Crump, Spencer. “Western Pacific: The Railroad That Was Built Too Late.” Railway History Quarterly 1, no. 1 (January 1963): 1–48.

Ellis, David M. “The Forfeiture of Railroad Land Grants, 1867–1894.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 33 (June 1946): 27–60.

Farley, Alan W. “Samuel Hallett and the Union Pacific Railway Company in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 25, no. 1 (Spring 1959): 1–16.

Farnham, Wallace D. “The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862.” Nebraska History 43 (September 1962): 141–67.

———. “The Weakened Spring of Government.” American Historical Review 67 (April 1963): 662–80.

Fels, Rendigs. “American Business Cycles, 1865–79.” American Economic Review 41, no. 3 June 1951): 325–49.

Greever, William S. “Railway Development in the Southwest.” New Mexico Historical Review 32, no. 2 (April 1957): 151–203.

Hietter, Paul T. “ ‘No Better Than Murderers’: The 1889 Canyon Diablo Train Robbery and the Death Penalty in Arizona Territory.” Journal of Arizona History 47, no. 3 (Autumn 2006): 273–98.

Hoyt, Franklin. “The Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad.” Pacific Historical Review 20, no. 3 (August 1951): 227–39.

———. “San Diego’s First Railroad: The California Southern.” Pacific Historical Review 23, no. 2 (May 1954): 133–46.

Klein, Maury. “In Search of Jay Gould.” Business History Review 52, no. 2 (Summer 1978): 166–99.

Lawrence, George C. “The Western Pacific.” Railroad Age Gazette 45, no. 15 (September 11, 1908): 902–10.

Le Massena, Robert A. “The Royal Gorge.” Denver Westerners Monthly Roundup 21, no. 11 (November 1965): 3–17.

Lesley, Lewis B. “The Entrance of the Santa Fe Railroad into California.” Pacific Historical Review 8, no. 1 (March 1939): 89–96.

———. “A Southern Transcontinental Railroad into California: Texas and Pacific Versus Southern Pacific, 1865–1885.” Pacific Historical Review 5, no. 1 (1936): 52–60.

Lipsey, John. “How Hagerman Sold the Midland in 1890.” Brand Book of the Denver Westerners, 1956: 266–85.

———. “J. J. Hagerman, Building of the Colorado Midland.” Brand Book of the Denver Posse of the Westerners for 1954: 95–115.

Lyman, Edward Leo. “From the City of Angels to the City of Saints: The Struggle to Build a Railroad from Los Angeles to Salt Lake City.” California History 70 (Spring 1991): 76–93.

Mock, S. D. “Colorado and the Surveys for a Pacific Railroad.” Colorado Magazine 17, no. 2 (March 1940): 54–63.

———. “The Financing of Early Colorado Railroads.” Colorado Magazine 18, no. 6 (November 1941): 201–9.

Overmeyer, Philip Henry. “George B. McClellan and the Pacific Northwest.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 32 (1941): 3–60.

Pletcher, David M. “The Building of the Mexican Railway.” Hispanic American Historical Review 30, no. 1 (February 1950): 26–62.

———. “General William S. Rosecrans and the Mexican Transcontinental Railroad Project.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 38 (March 1952): 657–78.

Snell, Joseph W., and Don W. Wilson. “The Birth of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 34, no. 2 (Summer 1968): 113–42.

———. “The Birth of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad—Concluded.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 35, no. 3 (Fall 1968): 325–56.

Spitzzeri, Paul R. “The Road to Independence: The Los Angeles and Independence Railroad and the Conception of a City.” Southern California Quarterly 83, no. 1 (Spring 2001):

Van Horn, Kurt. “Tempting Temecula: The Making and Unmaking of a Southern California Community.” Journal of San Diego History 20, no. 1 (Winter 1974), accessed online at

Ward, James. A. “Image and Reality: The Railway Corporate-State Metaphor.” Business History Review 55 (Winter 1981): 491–516.

Zega, Michael E. “Advertising the Southwest.” Journal of the Southwest 43, no. 3 (Autumn 2001): 281–315.


Butterfield Overland Mail–The Pinery. Guadalupe Mountains National Park brochure, 1988.

Emory, W. H. Notes on a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, in California, Including Parts of the Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila Rivers. 30th Cong., 1st sess, Ex. Doc. 41.

———. Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey. 34th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. Exec. Doc. 135.

Garrison, James, et al. Transcontinental Railroading in Arizona, 1878–1940: A Component of the Arizona Historic Preservation Plan. Prepared for the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office, December 1989, by Janus Associates, Phoenix.

Reports of the Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 33rd Cong., 2nd sess., H.R. Ex. Doc. 91 (cited as Pacific Railroad Reports).

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (cited as Official Records).


Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Collection, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver; cited as Santa Fe Collection by box and file folder (FF).

William A. Bell Collection, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver; cited as Bell Collection by box and file folder.

Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad Collection, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver; cited as Denver and Rio Grande Collection by box and file folder.

John Evans Collection, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver; cited as Evans Collection by box and file folder.

Timothy Hopkins Transportation Collection, Green Library, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, California.

Collis P. Huntington Papers, 1856–1901, microfilm edition in Western History Department, Denver Public Library, Denver; cited as Huntington Papers by series and reel number.

David Sievert Lavender Papers, Norlin Library, University of Colorado, Boulder.

William Jackson Palmer Collection, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver; cited as Palmer Collection by box and file folder.

Robert F. Weitbrec Collection, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver.


Benson, T. Lloyd, and Trina Rossman. “Re-assessing Tom Scott, the ‘Railroad Prince.’ ” A paper given for the Mid-America Conference on History, Furman University, September 16, 1995.

Storey, Britt Allan. “William Jackson Palmer: A Biography.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1968.


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