Modern history


The Bibliography, arranged according to chapter, is confined (with one or two exceptions) to those sources cited in the Notes and is not intended to be either systematic or thorough. It is simply a list of what I used, often of what I stumbled on, weighted heavily toward primary personal accounts. It is noticeably light on secondary interpretative studies. When I needed their guidance I used those as nearly contemporary to their subjects as possible, not because they are better books than today’s but because they are closer in spirit to the society and the time of which I was writing. Modern scholarship, nevertheless, has given me a firm underpinning in many places, notably Halévy’s great and reliable encyclopedia of English affairs, Pinson’s and Kohn’s studies of Germany, Morison’s edition of Roosevelt’s letters and two superbly informative biographies of subjects who were at the heart and core of their age, Goldberg’s Jaurès and Mendelssohn’s Churchill. Each, while focusing on an individual, is a detailed history of his surrounding period, amply and carefully documented. In a narrower field Ginger’s Debs and in a still more restricted one Painter’s Proust achieve the same result.

Several remarkable investigations made at the time I could hardly have done without: Bateman’s study of landed income in England, Jack London’s and Jacob Riis’s studies of the poor, and Quillard’s study of the contributors to the Henry Subscription. Certain novelists, such as V. Sackville-West, Anatole France, and Proust, were invaluable as social historians, as were certain memoirists: Blum and Daudet on opposite sides, Lady Warwick, Sir Frederick Ponsonby, Lord Esher, Wilfrid Blunt, Baroness von Suttner, Stefan Zweig, and especially Vandervelde, who alone among the Socialists provided an intimate personal view of his milieu, of the kind in which the ruling class is so prolific. Even more valuable, perhaps, are those occasional individuals endowed both with a peculiar extra insight into their time and a gift for expressing it; who illumine what is happening around them by a sudden flash of understanding Romain Rolland is one, Masterman another. Although less central to this book, Trotsky, as revealed in his matchless phrase about the Serbian infantry, has that same mysterious ability to perceive—almost to feel—the historical meaning of the moment and to convey it in words.

Of all the sources listed, the outstanding work is unquestionably Reinach’s (of which more is said in the Notes to Chapter 4); the most consistently informative and brilliant writer is A. G. Gardiner; the most striking fact to emerge from the assembled bibliography is the absence (except for Henry Adams, whom I find disagreeable) of first-rate memoirs by an American.

In an effort to keep the Notes to manageable length, I have given a reference only for those statements whose source is not obvious. When no reference is given, the reader may assume that any act or quotation by, or statement made to, a person whose memoirs or other work appears in the Bibliography, was taken from that person’s account. For example, in Chapter 4, should a reader wish to know what is my source for the statement that Léon Blum and his friend Pierre Louÿs took opposite sides in the Affair and thereafter never saw each again, he should check the Bibliography under the names of the participants in the episode and, in this case, on finding a book by Blum, assume that Blum was my authority. When Mme Melba’s guests throw peaches out the window or Lord Ribblesdale is quoted on the status of a lord, it may be assumed that the work of each cited in the Bibliography is the authority. Often, as when Strauss visits Speyer or makes a passing remark to Beecham, the source is the memoirist, not the principal. In general, when no reference is given, the name of the person mentioned in a particular conversation, correspondence or incident is the key to the source. While this method requires anyone interested to find the page number in the original book for himself, it has the advantage of not perpetuating mistakes, and any other method would have stretched out the Notes to a length equal to the text.

In cases where a book has served in several places it is listed under the chapter of its primary concern. DNB refers to the Dictionary of National Biography, DAB to the American ditto, The Times to the London newspaper, NYT to the New York Times. An asterisk denotes a source of particular value or interest.

1. The Patricians


ADAMS, WILLIAM SCOVELL, Edwardian Heritage, 1901–6, London, Muller, 1949.

ASQUITH, EARL OF OXFORD AND, Fifty Years of British Parliament, 2 vols., Boston, Little, Brown, 1926.

ASQUITH, MARGOT (Countess of Oxford and Asquith), Autobiography, Vols. I and II, London, Butterworth, 1920.

AUSTIN, ALFRED, Autobiography, 2 vols., London, Macmillan, 1911.

BALFOUR, LADY FRANCES, Ne Obliviscaris, 2 vols., London, Hodder & Stoughton, n.d.

*BATEMAN, JOHN, The Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland, 4th ed., London, Harrison, 1883.

BATTERSEA, CONSTANCE, LADY, Reminiscences, London, 1922.

BENNETT, ARNOLD, Journals, 3 vols., New York, Viking, 1932.

BENSON, E. F., As We Were, New York, Longmans, 1930.

BIRKENHEAD, FIRST EARL OF, Contemporary Personalities, London, Cassell, 1924.

BLUNT, WILFRID SCAWEN, My Diaries, 2 vols., New York, Knopf, 1921.

BUCHAN, JOHN, Pilgrim’s Way (English title: Memory hold-the-door), Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1940.

CARPENTER, RT. REV. WILLIAM BOYD, Some Pages of My Life, New York, Scribner’s 1911.

CECIL, LADY GWENDOLYN, Life of Robert, Marquis of Salisbury, 4 vols., London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1921–32.

CHAMBERLAIN, SIR AUSTEN, Down the Years, London, Cassell, 1935.

CHANDOS, VISCOUNT (OLIVER LYTTELTON), Memoirs, London, Bodley, 1962.

CHURCHILL, RANDOLPH SPENCER, Fifteen Famous English Homes, London, Verschoyle, 1954.

——, Lord Derby, London, Heinemann, 1959.

CHURCHILL, WINSTON S., A Roving Commission: My Early Life, New York, Scribner’s, 1930.

COOPER, LADY DIANA (MANNERS), The Rainbow Comes and Goes, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1958.

CREWE, MARQUESS OF, Lord Rosebery, New York, Harper, 1931.

CURZON, LORD, Subjects of the Day, New York, Macmillan, 1915.

DUGDALE, BLANCHE E. C., Arthur James Balfour, 2 vols., New York, Putnam’s, 1937.

ESHER, VISCOUNT REGINALD, Journals and Letters, ed. Maurice V. Brett, 3 vols., London, Nicholson & Watson, 1934–48.

FITZROY, SIR ALMERIC, Memoirs, 2 vols., London, Hutchinson, n.d.

FORD, FORD MADOX, Return to Yesterday, New York, Liveright, 1932.

*GARDINER, A. G. (editor of the Daily News), Pillars of Society, New York, Dodd, Mead, 1914.

*——, Prophets, Priests and Kings, London, Dent, 1914 (new edition, first published 1908).

*HALÉVY, ÉLIE, A History of the English People in the 19th Century, Vol. V, 1895–1905; Vol. VI, 1905–14, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1961.

HAMILTON, LORD ERNEST, Forty Years On, New York, Doran, 1922.

HAMILTON, LORD FREDERICK, The Days Before Yesterday, New York, Doran, 1920.

HARRIS, FRANK, Oscar Wilde, His Life and Confessions, New York, The Author, 1916.

HOLLAND, BERNARD (former private secretary to the Duke), Life of the Duke of Devonshire, London, Longmans, 1911.

JEBB, LADY, With Dearest Love to All: The Life and Letters of Lady Jebb, ed. Mary Reed Bobbitt, London, Faber, 1960.

KENNEDY, A. L., Salisbury, 1830–1903: Portrait of a Statesman, London, Murray, 1953.

KIPLING, RUDYARD, Something of Myself, London, Macmillan, 1951.

LAMBTON, HON. GEORGE, Men and Horses I Have Known, London, Butterworth, 1924.

LEE, SIR SIDNEY, King Edward VII, 2 vols., New York, Macmillan, 1927.

LESLIE, SHANE, The End of a Chapter, New York, Scribner’s, 1916.

LONDONDERRY, MARCHIONESS OF, Henry Chaplin: A Memoir, London, Macmillan, 1926.

LOWELL, ABBOTT LAWRENCE, The Government of England, 2 vols., New York, Macmillan, 1908.

LUCY, SIR HENRY, Diary of a Journalist, New York, Dutton, 1920.

——, Memories of Eight Parliaments, 1868–1906, London, Heinemann, 1908.

LYTTELTON, EDITH, Alfred Lyttelton, London, Longmans, 1917.

MACKINTOSH, ALEXANDER (a parliamentary correspondent for the provincial press), From Gladstone to Lloyd George, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1921.

MAGNUS, SIR PHILIP, Edward VII, New York, Dutton, 1964.

——, Gladstone, New York, Dutton, 1954.

MARSH, EDWARD, A Number of People, New York, Harper, 1939.

MELBA, NELLIE, Melodies and Memories, New York, Doran, 1926.

MIDLETON, EARL OF (ST. JOHN BRODRICK), Records and Reactions, London, Murray, 1939.

MONEY, SIR LEO GEORGE CHIOZZA, M.P., Riches and Poverty, 10th rev. ed., London, Methuen, 1911.

MORLEY, JOHN, VISCOUNT, Recollections, 2 vols., New York, Macmillan, 1917.

MOUNT, CHARLES MERRILL, John Singer Sargent, London, Cresset, 1957.

NEVILL, RALPH, London Clubs, London, Chatto and Windus, 1911.

NEVINS, ALLAN, Henry White, New York, Harper, 1930.

NEVINSON, HENRY W., Changes and Chances, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1923.

——, More Changes and Chances, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1925.

NEWTON, LORD, Lord Lansdowne, London, Macmillan, 1929.

——, Retrospection, London, Murray, 1941.

NICOLSON, HAROLD, Helen’s Tower, London, Constable, 1937.

NORDAU, MAX, Degeneration, tr., New York, Appleton, 1895.

PLESS, DAISY, PRINCESS OF, Better Left Unsaid, New York, Dutton, 1931.

PONSONBY, ARTHUR, The Camel and the Needle’s Eye, London, Fifield, 1910.

——, The Decline of Aristocracy, London, Unwin, 1912.

*PONSONBY, SIR FREDERICK (First Lord Syonsby), Recollections of Three Reigns, New York, Dutton, 1952.

PONSONBY, SIR HENRY, His Life from His Letters, ed. Arthur Ponsonby, New York, Macmillan, 1943.

RAVERAT, GWEN, Period Piece, New York, Norton, 1952.

RIBBLESDALE, THOMAS, LORD, Impressions and Memories, London, Cassell, 1927.

RONALDSHAY, EARL OF, Life of Lord Curzon, 3 vols., London, Benn, 1928.

RUSSELL, GEORGE W. E., Prime Ministers and Some Others: A Book of Reminiscences, New York, Scribner’s, 1919.

*SACKVILLE -WEST, V., The Edwardians, London, Hogarth, 1930.

SITWELL, SIR OSBERT, Left Hand, Right Hand, Boston, Little, Brown, 1944.

——, Great Morning, London, Macmillan, 1948.

STRACHEY, JOHN ST. LOE (editor of the Spectator), The Adventure of Living, New York, Putnam’s, 1922.

VICTORIA, QUEEN, Letters, ed. G. E. Buckle, Vol. III, 1896–1901, New York, Longmans, 1932.

*WARWICK, FRANCES, COUNTESS OF, Life’s Ebb and Flow, New York, Morrow, 1929. (Notes refer to this book unless otherwise stated.)

——, Discretions, New York, Scribner’s, 1931.

WHARTON, EDITH, A Backward Glance, New York, Appleton-Century, 1934.

WILDE, OSCAR, Letters, ed. Rupert Hart-Davis, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1964.

WILLOUGHBY DE BROKE, RICHARD GREVILLE VERNEY, LORD, The Passing Years, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, n.d.

WILSON -FOX, ALICE, The Earl of Halsbury, Lord High Chancellor, London, Chapman & Hall, 1929.

*WYNDHAM, GEORGE, Life and Letters, ed. J. W. MacNeil and Guy Wyndham, 2 vols., London, Hutchinson, n.d.

YOUNG, KENNETH, Arthur James Balfour, London, Bell, 1963.


1 “An almost embarrassing wealth”: H. H. Asquith, I, 273, 275.

2 “Nerve storms”: Kennedy, 353.

3 Family threw cushions: Frances Balfour, I, 311.

4 “Poor Buller”: Young, 168; talking to Lord Roberts: Russell, 54–55.

5 Horse an “inconvenient adjunct”: Cecil, I, 176.

6 He told Dumas fils: The Times, Aug. 24, 1903.

7 “Jump on behind”: Kennedy, 241.

8 Pepys on Hatfield garden: q. R. Churchill, Fifteen Homes, 74.

9 “Jump, dammit …!”: ibid., 71.

10 “Quite exceptional stupidity”: Cecil, I, 1.

11 Birkenhead on the Cecils: Birkenhead, 177.

12 Disraeli quoted: Mackintosh, 50–51.

13 “That black man”: ibid.

14 Morley, “blazing indiscretion”: q. H. H. Asquith, II, 277.

15 “Every sentence,” said a fellow member: Ribblesdale, 173.

16 “I thought he was dead”: National Review, “Lord Salisbury: His Wit and Humor,” Nov., 1931, 659–68.

17 “When will all this be over?”: Carpenter, 237.

18 Colleagues complained: Cecil, III, 177.

19 “Just a little more off here”: Ribblesdale, 174.

20 His charm “no small asset”: Hicks-Beach, q. Cecil, III, 178.

21 “I think I have done them all”: National Review, op. cit., 665.

22 Gladstone quoted: Mackintosh, 50–51.

23 “Not excluding the House of Commons”: Lucy, Eight Parliaments, 114.

24 Queen Victoria quoted: Carpenter, 236.

25 “Bad on his legs”: F. Ponsonby, 67.

26 “Oh, I daresay”: Benson, 164.

27 “Splitting it into a bundle”: Quarterly Review, Oct., 1883, 575.

28 Articles in Quarterly Review: quotations in this and the following two paragraphs are from Cecil, I, 149, 157–60, 196.

29 Speech against Disraeli’s policy: July 5, 1867, Hansard, 3rd Series, Vol. 188, 1097 ff.

30 “Grim acidity”: Gardiner, Prophets, 150.

31 “Rank without power”: Cecil, II, 5.

32 Curzon quoted: Ronaldshay, I, 282.

33 “Secure and comfortable”: Buchan, 75.

34 Duke of Devonshire on Harcourt’s Budget: Annual Register, 1894, 121.

35 “Germ planted”: The Times, July 17, 1895, leader.

36 “Dominant influences”: q. Magnus, Gladstone, 433.

37 Dufferin taught himself Persian: Nicolson, 246.

38 “Those damned dots”: Leslie, 30–31.

39 Stanley “an upper class servant”: T. P. O’Connor, q. R. Churchill, Derby, 45.

40 Eton’s “scugs”: Willoughby de Broke, 133.

41 Cecil Balfour forged a check: Young, 11.

42 Sargent asked Ribblesdale to sit: Mount, 418.

43 “Ce grand diable”: Ribblesdale, xvii.

44 “A race of gods and goddesses”: Clermont-Tonnerre (see Chap. 4), I, 175.

45 “Divinely tall”: E. Hamilton, 7.

46 Gentlemen sighed and told each other: Sackville-West, 122.

47 “Bohemia in Tiaras”: Benson, 157.

48 Prince of Wales to Churchill: W. Churchill, 155.

49 “I shall call you the Souls”: q. Nevins, 81.

50 Two sets of eyebrows: Melba, 226.

51 “I don’t like poets”: Wyndham, I, 67.

52 Harry Cust’s “fatal self-indulgence”: Margot Asquith, q. Nevins, 81.

53 Lord Morley’s detective: Fitzroy, II, 463.

54 “Brilliant and powerful body”: W. Churchill, 89.

55 “Knew each other intimately”: Willoughby de Broke, 180.

56 Jowett’s choice of undergraduates: Newton, Lansdowne, 6.

57 “No end of good dinners”: Willoughby de Broke, 30.

58 “Effortless superiority”: Leslie, 43.

59 “Poor fellow, poor fellow”: Marsh, 183.

60 “Born booted and spurred”: Gardiner, Prophets, 214.

61 “When I looked at life from the saddle”: Warwick, Discretions, 78.

62 Chauncey Depew’s telegram: Robert Rhodes James, Rosebery, London, 1963, 355.

63 “Even policemen were waving their helmets”: Lee, II, 421.

64 Londesborough’s “gloss, speed and style”: Sitwell, Left Hand, 154.

65 “Because the carriage had to go home”: Raverat, 178.

66 Blunt’s sonnet: “On St. Valentine’s Day.”

67 Duke of Rutland’s chaplain: Cooper, 20.

68 Squire Chaplin in the hunting field: Lambton, 133; Londonderry, 227, 240.

69 “Sure of themselves”: Sitwell, Great Morning, 10, 121–22.

70 Colonel Brabazon described: W. Churchill, 67; testimony quoted: Esher, I, 362.

71 Figures on income and acreage: Bateman, passim.

72 The “poverty line”: set by B. S. Rowntree at 21s. 8d. for a family of five. In Poverty, A Study of Town Life, 1901.

73 “Eau de Nil satin”: Warwick, 230.

74 “Then bwing me another”: W. Churchill, 68.

75 “Squalid throng of homeless outcasts”: A. Ponsonby, Camel, 12.

76 Kipling on venting chauvinism: American Notes (see Chap. 3), 45.

77 “Knew his own mind and put down his foot”: Whyte (see Chap. 5), II, 115.

78 “A series of microscopic advantages”: q. Monthly Review, Oct., 1903, “Lord Salisbury,” 8.

79 Morley Roberts: q. Peck (see Chap. 3), 428.

80 “All his bad qualities”: Hyndman (see Chap. 7), 349.

81 “I was a problem”: to More Adey, Nov. 27, 1897, Letters, 685.

82 Lord Arthur Somerset: Magnus, Edward VII, 214–15.

83 Swinburne “absolutely impossible”: H. Ponsonby, 274.

84 “Join it”: Hyndman (see Chap. 7), 349.

85 “I dare not alter these things”: Marsh, 2.

86 Austin on Germans and Alfred the Great: q. Adams, 76, n. 3.

87 Salisbury on Austin’s poem: Victoria, Letters, 24.

88 An American observer quoted: Lowell, II, 507.

89 Austin’s Jubilee wish: Blunt, I, 280.

90 Lord Newton on the Lords: Retrospection, 101.

91 Rosebery complained: Crewe, 462.

92 Halsbury “invariably objected”: Newton, Lansdowne, 361; “jolly cynicism”: Gardiner, Prophets, 197; Carlton Club: Wilson-Fox, 122; Lord Coleridge: ibid., 124.

93 “Rule by a sort of instinct”: q. Halévy, V, 23, n. 2.

94 “Greatest gentleman of his day”: Newton, Lansdowne, 506.

95 “A new sense of duty”: Holland, II, 146. All quotations, anecdotes and other material about the Duke are from this source unless otherwise specified.

96 “Take things very easy”: H. Ponsonby, 265.

97 “This is damned dull”: Mackintosh, 113.

98 Duchess “one of the handsomest women”: F. Hamilton, 201.

99 “No face was more suited”: F. Ponsonby, 52.

100 “Certain hereditary governmental instincts” and “a debt to the State”: Esher, I, 126.

101 “He was always losing them”: H. Ponsonby, 265 n.

102 Duke at coronation rehearsal: Lucy, Diary, 193.

103 “Do you feel nervous, Winston?”: R. Churchill, Fifteen Homes, 105.

104 “The best of company”: F. Ponsonby, 294.

105 Spectator and subsequent quotations in this paragraph: Strachey, 406 and 398; Holland, II, 211, n. 1; The Times, Mar. 25, 1908.

106 “Go and tell him he is a pig”: Mackintosh, 91.

107 “A point of honor to stand for their county”: Sir George Otto Trevelyan, q. A. Ponsonby, Decline, 101.

108 Long and Chaplin described: Gardiner, Pillars, 217; Prophets, 212.

109 “Calm, ineradicable conviction”: Gardiner, Prophets, 213.

110 “How did I do, Arthur?”: Londonderry, 171.

111 “Sit on his shoulder blades”: q. Young, 100.

112 “The finest brain”: q. Chamberlain, 206.

113 William James: letter of Apr. 26, 1895, The Letters of William James, ed. H. James, Boston, 1920.

114 “Oh dear, what a gulf”: Battersea, Diary for Sept. 6, 1895.

115 “Lovely bend of the head”: Margot Asquith, I, 166.

116 “No, that is not so”: Margot Asquith, I, 162.

117 Darwin on Frank Balfour: Young, 8.

118 Cambridge friends: Esher, I, 182; society friends: Russell, 63.

119 Balfour on Judaism: Dugdale, I, 324.

120 Harry Cust’s dinner: Bennett, I, 287.

121 Daisy White congratulated: Nevins, 81.

122 “Quite a good fellow”: Frances Balfour, II, 367; “A sympathetic outlook”: ibid., II, 93.

123 “A natural spring of youth”: ibid.; “a freshness, serenity”: Fitzroy, I, 28.

124 Lord Randolph: Life of Lord Randolph Churchill, by Winston Churchill, II, 459–60.

125 Balfour on Socialism: q. Halévy, V, 231.

126 “What exactly is a Trade Union?”: Lucy Masterman (see Chap. 7), 61.

127 “My uncle is a Tory”: Margot Asquith, I, 154.

128 Churchill used the word “wicked”: Blunt, II, 278.

129 “Relentless as Cromwell”: Young, 105.

130 Morley, “took his foes by surprise”: q. Russell, 66.

131 “The most courageous man alive”: Blunt, II, 278.

132 Debated with “dauntless ingenuity”: Morley, I, 225–27.

133 “If he had a little more brains”: q. Buchan, 156.

134 “A bullet on a bubble”: Andrew White (see Chap. 5), II, 430.

135 “I never lose my temper”: q. Morley, I, 227.

136 “This damned Scotch croquet”: Lyttelton, 204.

137 Reply to Lady Rayleigh: Fitzroy, II, 491; charmed Frau Wagner: Esher, I, 312.

138 “Supreme energy of Arthur”: ibid., 340.

139 “He never reads the papers”: Whyte (see Chap. 5), II, 120.

140 Prince felt Balfour condescended: Halévy, VI, 231.

141 The Queen admired him: F. Ponsonby, 69.

142 Queen “much struck”: Journal, Sept. 11, 1896, Victoria, 74.

143 Proust’s housekeeper: q. Havelock Ellis (see Chap. 4), 377.

144 Queen Victoria, “No one ever”: q. Hector Bolitho, Reign of Queen Victoria, 366.

145 Kipling, “a certain optimism”: Kipling, 147.

146 Sir Edward Clarke, “The greatest poem”: q. Amy Cruse, After the Victorians, London, 1938, 123.

147 “Joe’s War”: Kennedy, 315.

148 Salisbury on Chamberlain: Dugdale, I, 67.

149 Balfour to Lady Elcho: Young, 129.

150 Entertaining three duchesses: Frances Balfour, II, 211.

151 “The difference between Joe and Me”: q. Julian Amery, Life of Joseph Chamberlain, IV, 464.

152 “Let us defy someone”: q. Adams, 78.

153 Duke of Argyll: Frances Balfour, II, 318.

154 Salisbury to German Ambassador: Hatzfeld to Foreign Office, July 31 1900, Grosse Politik (see Chap. 5), XVI, 76.

155 Lady Salisbury: Frances Balfour, II, 290.

156 Le Temps, “What closes today?”: q. The Times, July 15, 1902.

157 “Go up at once, Sir James”: Blunt, I, 366.

2. The Idea and the Deed


ARCHER, WILLIAM, The Life, Trial and Death of Francisco Ferrer, New York, Moffat, Yard, 1911.

BARNARD, HARRY, Eagle Forgotten: The Life of John Peter Altgeld, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1938.

BERKMAN, ALEXANDER, Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist, New York, Mother Earth Publishing Co., 1912.

BRENAN, GERALD, The Spanish Labyrinth, Cambridge, University Press, 1950.

CHANNING, WALTER, “The Mental Status of Czolgosz, the Assassin of President McKinley,” American Journal of Insanity, October, 1902, 233–78.

CHARQUES, RICHARD D., The Twilight of Imperial Russia, London, Phoenix, 1958.

CORTI, COUNT EGON, Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1936.

*Crapouillot, Numéro Spécial, I’ Anarchie, Paris, January, 1938.

CREUX, V. C., Canovas del Castillo, sa carrière, ses œvres, sa fin, Paris, Leve, 1897.

DAVID, HENRY, History of the Haymarket Affair, New York, Farrar & Rhinehart, 1936.

*ELTZBACHER, PAUL, Anarchism, tr. S. T. Byington, New York, Benjamin Tucker, 1908.

GOLDMAN, EMMA, Living My Life, Vol. I, New York, Knopf, 1931.

HAMSUN, KNUT, Hunger, New York, Knopf, 1921.

HARVEY, GEORGE, Henry Clay Frick, New York, Scribner’s, 1928.

HUNTER, ROBERT, Poverty, New York, Macmillan, 1904.

ISHILL, JOSEPH, Peter Kropotkin, New Jersey, Free Spirit Press, 1923.

——, ed., Elisée and Elie Reclus, in Memoriam, New Jersey, Oriole Press, 1927.

KERENSKY, ALEXANDER, The Crucifixion of Liberty, New York, John Day, 1934.

KROPOTKIN, PRINCE PETER, The Conquest of Bread, New York, Putnam’s, 1907.

——, Mutual Aid, London, Heinemann, 1902.

*——, Paroles d’un Révolté, Paris, Flammarion, 1885.

——, “Anarchism,” in Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed.

*LONDON, JACK, People of the Abyss, New York, Macmillan, 1903.

*MAITRON, JEAN, Histoire du Mouvement Anarchiste en France, 1880–1914, Paris, Société Universitaire, 1951.

MALATESTA, ENRICO, A Talk Between Two Workers, tr., 8th ed., London, Freedom Press, n.d.

MALATO, CHARLES, “Some Anarchist Portraits,” Fortnightly Review, September, 1894.

MILIUKOV, PAUL, SEIGNOBOS, CHARLES, and EISENMANN, L., Histoire de Russie, Vol. III, Leroux, n.p., n.d.

MIRSKY, D. S., Russia: A Social History, London, Cresset, 1931.

NEVINSON, HENRY W., The Dawn in Russia: Scenes in the Russian Revolution, New York, Harper, 1906.

NICOLAEVSKY, BORIS, Azev, the Spy, tr. George Reavey, New York, Double-day, Doran, 1934.

*NOMAD, MAX, Apostles of Revolution, Boston, Little, Brown, 1939.

——, Rebels and Renegades, New York, Macmillan, 1932.

PILAR, PRINCESS OF BAVARIA, and CHAPMAN -HUSTON, MAJOR D., Alfonso XIII: A Study of Monarchy, New York, Dutton, 1932.

REGIS, DR . EMMANUEL, Les Régicides dans I’ histoire et dans le présent, Paris, Masson, 1890.

*RIIS, JACOB A., How the Other Half Lives, New York, Scribner’s, 1890.

*SAVINKOV, BORIS V., Memoirs of a Terrorist, tr. Joseph Shaplen, New York, Boni, 1931.

SOREL, GEORGES, Réflexions sur la violence, Paris, Pages Libres, 1908.

VIZETELLY, ERNEST ALFRED, The Anarchists, London, John Lane, 1911.

WOODCOCK, GEORGE, and AVAKUMOVIC, IVAN, The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Prince Kropotkin, London, Boardman, 1950.

Three useful books have appeared since this chapter was written: Anarchism, by George Woodcock, The Anarchists, by James Joll, and The Anarchists, an anthology, edited by Irving L. Horowitz.


I have not thought it necessary, in this chapter, to give separate references for each incident and quotation since they group themselves, according to subject, into easily identifiable sets of sources, as follows:

For the conditions of the poor, Riis, London, Hunter and Chiozza Money (see Chap. 1) were my chief contemporary sources. For the ideas and theories of Anarchists of all countries and for excerpts from their writings, Eltzbacher was particularly useful. For French Anarchism all quotations, unless otherwise stated, are from Maitron or Malato (himself one of the French Anarchists of the time), supplemented by Crapouillot and Vizetelly. For Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman their own memoirs are the sources for all quotations. For Johann Most the chapter on him in Nomad’s A postles was the chief source. In the sections on Spanish Anarchists the quotations are taken chiefly from contemporary reports in the American press, as noted. For Czolgosz the essential primary source is Channing. For the Russians, Savinkov, himself a member of the Terror Brigade, and Nicolaevsky are primary (and indeed so fascinating that my first version of the Russian incidents, having grown altogether out of proportion, had to be condensed to a fifth of its original length).

Facts and quotations not covered by the foregoing, and which seem to require a specific reference, are separately noted.

1 “A daydream of desperate romantics”: Nomad, Rebels, 13.

2 Proudhon, “Whoever lays his hand on me”: from his Confessions of a Revolutionary. “To be governed is to be …”: from his Idée générale de la révolution au vingtiéme siécle, Epilogue.

3 “Abstract idea of right”: Bakunin said this was Proudhon’s point of departure, q. Nomad, Apostles, 15.

4 “Their power will be irresistible”: q. Eltzbacher, 138.

5 “We reckoned without the masses”: q. Nomad, Apostles, 205.

6 “The gentry had murdered the Czar” and “Broken and demoralized”: Kerensky, 44–45.

7 Henry James, “sinister anarchic underworld”: from his Preface to Princess Casamassima, his novel with Anarchist characters first published in 1886. Johann Most is said to have inspired the conception of the unseen Anarchist leader Hoffendahl in the novel. Another literary exercise in the theme was Joseph Conrad’s rather shallow story “An Anarchist,” published in Harper’s Weekly for Aug., 1906, of which the chief point seems to be that Anarchists are people of “warm hearts and weak heads.” It was followed in 1907 by his novel The Secret Agent, dealing with plot and conspiracy. Neither James nor Conrad was concerned with the underlying social origins or social philosophy of Anarchism.

8 August Spies quoted: David, 332–39.

9 “I want the Day of Judgment!”: a story told by Robert Blatchford, q. London, 298.

10 “What is Property?”: the title of his second treatise, Qu’est ce que la propriété? 1840.

11 “All mankind’s tormentors”: from his Dieu et I’Etat, 2nd ed., 1892, 11.

12 Woman who made match boxes and young man in the river: Riis, 47 and London, 205–07.

13 “Eight hours of work”: q. Maitron, 186.

14 Nevinson on Kropotkin: Changes and Chances (see Chap. 1), 125.

15 Shaw on Kropotkin: q. Woodcock, 225.

16 “Galloping decay” of states: Paroles, 8–10.

17 “Inertia of those who have a vested interest”: Paroles, 275–76.

18 Brousse, “The idea is on the march”: q. Crapouillot, 15.

19 “By dagger, gun and dynamite”: q. ibid., 15.

20 “Men of courage … the deed of mutiny”: Paroles, 285.

21 “A single deed …”: ibid., 285.

22 La Révolte of March, 1891; q. Maitron, 240.

23 Argument with Ben Tillett and Tom Mann: Ford (see Chap. 1), 110.

24 Plans for Anarchist society: Kropotkin’s Revolutionary Studies, Conquest of Bread, I’Anarchie dans I’évolution social. Malatesta’s Talk Between Two Workers.

25 Shaw: Tract No. 45, read to the Society Oct. 16, 1891, published July, 1893.

26 Royal Geographic Society’s dinner: Woodcock, 227.

27 Elisée Reclus, “irresistible magnetism”: Vandervelde (see Chap. 8), 37.

28 Jean Grave, “simple, silent, indefatigable”: Malato, 316.

29 Malatesta’s adventures: Nomad, Rebels, 1–47.

30 “Just as we saw him last”: Ishill, Kropotkin, 40.

31 “All are awaiting the birth”: ibid., 9.

32 “A shining moral grandeur”: Victor Serge in Crapouillot, 5.

33 “Breathe hatred and revolt”: Malato, 317.

34 Kropotkin and Malatesta repudiate Ravachol: in La Révolt, Nos. 17 and 18, Jan., 1892, and I’En Dehors, Aug. 28, 1892, q. Maitron, 204, 221.

35 “Miniature Borgias”: Nomad, Rebels, 26.

36 The shooting of Frick: in addition to Berkman, Harvey’s Frick and Harper’s Weekly, Aug. 6, 1892.

37 Altgeld and the pardon: Barnard, 217, 246; NYT, June 28, 1893.

38 “Madrid is sad …”: Pilar, 50.

39 Pallas’ attempt on Martinez de Camos: Creux, 295–96; Crapouillot; NYT, Sept. 25, 30, 1893.

40 Barcelona Opera House bombing: NYT, Nov. 9, Dec. 20, 1893, Jan. 3, 1894.

41 Montjuich tortures: Brenan, 168, n. 1.

42 Asquith-Balfour exchange on the Anarchists: Spectator, Nov. 18, 1893, 706, Dec. 2, 791; NYT, Nov. 11, 1893.

43 Paris “absolutely paralyzed”: Ford (see Chap. 1), 107.

44 Laurent Tailhade, “a blessed time”: Nomad, Apostles, 11.

45 Octave Mirbeau: Daudet (see Chap. 4), 70.

46 “That there need be no misery”: Suttner (see Chap. 5), I, 313.

47 President caricatured in soiled pajamas: in Père Peinard, July 4, 1897.

48 Sebastien Faure’s “harmonious voice”: Malato, 316.

49 “Qu’importe les victimes …”: q. Maitron, 217. (This is frequently quoted as Qu’importes les vagues humanités pourvu que le geste soit beau? but this seems to have a ring of the morning after.)

50 Duchesse d’Uzès: Maitron, 215.

51 Clemenceau on Henry’s execution: in La Justice, May 23, 1894, q. Maitron, 226.

52 Trial of the Thirty, Felix Fenéon: Roman (see Chap. 4), 59, 95.

53 “Every revolution ends …”: q. Nomad, Apostles, 6.

54 Corpus Christi bomb: NYT, June 9, Nov. 25, Dec. 2, 22, 1896.

55 Canovas: Pilar, 40; Millis (see Chap. 3), 80–81; Nation, Aug. 12, 1897; Review of Reviews, Nov., 1897.

56 Letter from prisoner of Montjuich: q. Crapouillot.

57 Angiolillo: Creux, 301–15; Nomad, Rebels, 23.

58 Empress Elizabeth and Luigi Lucheni: Corti, 456–93.

59 Plot to assassinate the Kaiser: Spectator, Oct. 22, 1898; NYT, Oct. 15/16, 1898.

60 Bakunin, Germans not fit for Anarchism: Nomad, Apostles, 169, n. 5.

61 International Conference of Police in Rome: Maitron; Vizetelly, 238.

62 King Humbert and Gaetano Bresci: Outlook, Aug. 10, 1900; Harper’s Weekly, Aug. 4, 1900; NYT, Aug. 3, 1900; Review of Reviews, Sept., 1900, 316–22.

63 Czolgosz: Channing; Nomad, Apostles, 298–99; NYT, Sept. 9, 1901.

64 Harper’s and Century quoted: Harper’s Weekly, Dec. 23, 1893, Aug. 28, 1897. “The Assassination of Presidents,” by J. M. Buckley, in Century, Nov., 1901.

65 Roosevelt on Anarchists: NYT, Dec. 5, 1901.

66 Blackwood’s: July, 1906, 128, apropos of attempt on King Alfonso.

67 Lyman Abbott: Outlook, Feb. 22, 1902.

68 Assassination of Canalejas: Literary Digest, Nov. 23, 1912; Living Age, Dec. 12, 1912.

69 “Outraged beyond endurance”: in his Preface to Major Barbara, dated June, 1906, apropos of the attempt on King Alfonso.

70 Russian Socialist-Revolutionaries: in addition to Savinkov and Nicolaevsky, general background from Charques, Miliukov and Kerensky.

71 Plehve, “We must drown the revolution”: Miliukov, 1056.

72 Grand Duke Sergei “conspicuous for his cruelty”: Nevinson.

73 “A formless mass 8 or 10 inches high”: Savinkov, 106–7.

74 Czar and brother-in-law on the sofa: Bülow (see Chap. 5), II, 178.

3. End of a Dream


There are two full-length biographies of Reed, one by Samuel McCall, who served with him in Congress and was later Governor of Massachusetts, and one by Professor Robinson, both listed below. Among friends, reporters, Congressional colleagues and other contemporaries who wrote about him are the following:

BROWMAN, W. H., “Thomas Brackett Reed,” New England Magazine, April, 1890.

DAY, HOLMAN F., “Tom Reed Among His Neighbors,” Saturday Evening Post, January 3, 1903.

DE CASSERES, BENJAMIN, “Tom Reed,” American Mercury, February, 1930.

FULLER, HERBERT B., Speakers of the House, Boston, Little, Brown, 1909.

HINDS, ASHER C., “The Speaker of the House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, May, 1909.

KNIGHT, ENOCH, “Thomas Brackett Reed: An Appreciation,” New England Magazine, April, 1904.

LEUPP, FRANCIS E., “Personal Recollections of Thomas Brackett Reed,” Outlook, September 3, 1910.

*LODGE, HENRY CABOT, “Thomas Brackett Reed,” reprinted in The Democracy of the Constitution and Other Essays, New York, Scribner’s, 1915.

*MCCALL, SAMUEL, The Life of Thomas Brackett Reed, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1914.

MCFARLAND, HENRY, “Thomas Brackett Reed,” American Review of Reviews, January, 1903.

PORTER, ROBERT P., “Thomas Brackett Reed of Maine,” McClure’s, October, 1893.

*ROBINSON, WILLIAM A., Thomas B. Reed, Parliamentarian, New York, Dodd, Mead, 1930.

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE, “Thomas Brackett Reed and the 51st Congress,” Forum, December, 1895.

Other Sources

ADAMS, HENRY, The Education of Henry Adams, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1918.

——, Letters, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford, 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1930–38.

ALEXANDER, DE ALVA STANWOOD, History and Procedure of the House of Representatives, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1916.

BARRY, DAVID S. (Washington Correspondent of New York Sun and Providence Journal), 40 Years in Washington, Boston, Little, Brown, 1924.

BISHOP, JOSEPH BUCKLIN, Theodore Roosevelt and His Times, 2 vols., New York, Scribner’s, 1920.

BOWERS, CLAUDE G., Beveridge and the Progressive Era, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1932.

BRYCE, JAMES, The American Commonwealth, 3 vols., London, Macmillan, 1888.

*CLARK, CHAMP, My Quarter Century of American Politics, 2 vols., New York, Harper, 1920.

CROLY, HERBERT, Marcus Alonzo Hanna, New York, Macmillan, 1912.

CULLOM, SENATOR SHELLY M., Fifty Years of Public Service, Chicago, McClurg, 1911.

DUNN, ARTHUR WALLACE, From Harrison to Harding, 2 vols., New York, Putnam’s, 1922.

DUNNE, FINLEY PETER, Mr. Dooley in Peace and War, Boston, Small, Maynard, 1898.

FOULKE, WILLIAM DUDLEY, A Hoosier Autobiography, Oxford Univ. Press, 1922.

FUESS, CLAUDE MOORE, Carl Schurz, Reformer, 1829–1906, New York, Dodd, Mead, 1932.

GARRATY, JOHN A., Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography, New York, Knopf, 1953.

GODKIN, EDWIN LAWRENCE, Life and Letters, ed. Rollo Ogden, 2 vols., New York, Macmillan, 1907.

GOMPERS, SAMUEL, 70 Years of Life and Labour, 2 vols., London, Hurst & Blackett, 1925.

GRIFFIN, SOLOMON B., People and Politics Observed by a Massachusetts Editor, Boston, Little, Brown, 1923.

HARRINGTON, FREDERICK, “The Anti-Imperialist Movement in the United States,” Miss. Valley Hist. Rev., September, 1935.

HOAR, SENATOR GEORGE FRISBIE, Autobiography of 70 Years, 2 vols., New York, Scribner’s, 1905.

HOWE, M. A. DE WOLFE, Moorfield Storey: Portrait of an Independent, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1932.

JAMES, HENRY, Charles William Eliot, 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1930.

KIPLING, RUDYARD, American Notes, New York, Munro’s, 1896.

KOHLSAAT, H. H., From McKinley to Harding: Personal Recollections of Our Presidents, New York, Scribner’s, 1923.

LANZAR, MARIA C., “The Anti-Imperialist League,” Philippine Social Science Revue, August and November, 1930.

LODGE, HENRY CABOT, ed., Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and H. C. Lodge, 2 vols., New York, Scribner’s, 1925.

LONG, JOHN D., The New American Navy, 2 vols., New York, Outlook, 1903.

LYON, PETER, Success Story: The Life and Times of S. S. McClure, New York, Scribner’s, 1963.

MC ELROY, ROBERT, Grover Cleveland, 2 vols., New York, Harper, 1925.

MAHAN, CAPTAIN ALFRED THAYER, The Influence of Sea Power on History, New York, Sagamore Press, 1957.

——, From Sail to Steam (autobiography), New York, Harper, 1907.

——, The Interest of America in Sea Power, Boston, Little, Brown, 1897. (Collected articles from Atlantic Monthly, Harper’s Monthly, Forum and North American Review, 1890–97.)

MILLIS, WALTER, The Martial Spirit, New York, 1931.

MITCHELL, EDWARD P., Memoirs of an Editor, New York, Scribner’s, 1924.

NORTON, CHARLES ELIOT, Letters, ed. Sara Norton and M. A. DeWolfe Howe, 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1913.

PECK, HARRY THURSTON, Twenty Years of the Republic, New York, Dodd, Mead, 1906.

PERRY, R. B., Thought and Character of William James, Harvard Univ. Press, 1948.

PETTIGREW, SENATOR RICHARD F., Imperial Washington, 1870–1920, Chicago, Kerr, 1922.

PLATT, THOMAS COLLIER, Autobiography, New York, Dodge, 1910.

POWERS, SAMUEL LELAND, Portraits of Half a Century, Boston, Little, Brown, 1925.

PRINGLE, HENRY F., Theodore Roosevelt, New York, Harcourt, 1931.

PULESTON, CAPTAIN WILLIAM D., Mahan, Yale Univ. Press, 1939.

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE, An Autobiography, New York, Scribner’s, 1920.

*——, The Letters, ed. Elting E. Morison, Vols. I and II, Harvard Univ. Press, 1951.

SCHURZ, CARL, Reminiscences, Vol. III (continued by Frederic Bancroft), New York, McClure, 1908.

SPRING -RICE, CECIL, The Letters and Friendships, ed. Stephen Gwynn, 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1929.

STEALEY, ORLANDO O., Twenty Years in the Press Gallery, New York (author), 1906.

STOREY, MOORFIELD, The Conquest of the Philippines by the United States, New York, Putnam’s, 1926.

SULLIVAN, MARK, Our Times, Vols. I and II, New York, Scribner’s, 1926.

TAYLOR, CHARLES CARLISLE, The Life of Admiral Mahan, New York, Doran, 1920.

VANDERBILT, KERMIT, Charles Eliot Norton, Harvard Univ. Press, 1959.

VILLARD, OSWALD GARRISON, Fighting Years, New York, Harcourt, 1939.

WOLFF, LEON, Little Brown Brother, New York, Doubleday, 1961.


All biographical facts, anecdotes and quotations by or about Reed are from Lodge, McCall or Robinson except where otherwise stated. All quotations from Roosevelt are from the Morison edition of his Letters, for which I have given the dates and dispensed with volume and page references.

1 “Out of whose collar”: De Casseres. The following quotations in this paragraph, in order, are from Clark, I, 287; Leupp; McCall, 248; Dunn, I, 165; Foulke, 110; Porter. “The ablest running debater” was said by Rep. John Sharp Williams, Democratic Leader of the House; “the greatest parliamentary leader” by Lodge; “far and away the most brilliant” by Clark, II, 10.

2 Henry Adams on his brother John: Sept. 1, 1894, Letters, II, 55.

3 Bryce, “apathy …”: III, 326–28.

4 Lewis Morris, “Damn the consequences”: “Biographical Sketches of the Four Signers from New York,” Americana, Aug., 1914, 627.

5 “A human frigate” and “How narrow”: Day.

6 “Calculated … to obstruct legislation”: Rep. Frye of Maine.

7 “All the wisdom”: Clark, I, 286.

8 “Voting for him on the sly”: Porter.

9 Palmerston’s popularity: Peck, 276.

10 Choate anecdote: Barry, 142.

11 On Balzac: Porter.

12 “We asked the Tom Reeds”: Lodge, Corres., I, 77, 120.

13 “Theodore, if there is one thing more than another”: q. George Stimpson, A Book About American Politics, New York, 1952, 342.

14 “Theodore will never be President”: Leupp.

15 “Ambitious as Lucifer”: Cullom, 243.

16 “It becomes a tyranny”: Dunn, I, 35.

17 “The largest human face”: Clark, I, 277–78.

18 ff. “The Chair directs”: All remarks by the Speaker and Representatives in the account of the Quorum fight are from the Congressional Record, 51st Congress, First Session.

19 ff. “Pandemonium broke loose”: Dunn, I, 27. Reporters and other eyewitnesses quoted on the Quorum fight are Dunn, I, 24–32; Peck, 200–202; Fuller, 219–21. The New York Times gave the story four columns on page 1 on both Jan. 30 and 31.

20 Reed’s Rules: Fuller, 228.

21 Roosevelt on Reed’s reform; Forum, Dec., 1895.

22 “Biting a green persimmon”: Mount (see Chap. 1), 192. Sargent had difficulty with the portrait and destroyed his first version. “His exterior somehow does not correspond with his spirit. What is a painter to do?… I could have made a better picture with a less remarkable man. He has been delightful.” Reed claimed that he liked it although “I am willing to admit that the picture is not so good-looking as the original.” The portrait now hangs in the Speaker’s Lobby in the Capitol. As it seems to the author to convey little of Reed’s personality, it is not reproduced here.

23 “They might do worse”: Brownson.

24 “White House Iceberg”: Platt, 215.

25 “The House has more sense”: Alexander, 27.

26 “Look outward”: “The United States Looking Outward,” Dec., 1890.

27 “A voice … of our external interests”: Puleston, 133. All subsequent biographical facts, anecdotes and quotations by or about Mahan are from Puleston unless otherwise stated.

28 “Don’t tell Grover”: Clark, I, 281–82.

29 Roosevelt read it “straight through”: May 12, 1890, Letters, I, 221.

30 Origin of “Sea Power”: Mahan, From Sail to Steam, 276–77.

31 Kaiser on Mahan: q. Taylor, 131.

32 Secretary White: Fuller, 211.

33 Mahan on the Jews: From Sail to Steam.

34 Lodge in “desperate earnest”: q. Garraty, 52.

35 Comments of Senators Morgan, Frye and Cullom: Millis, 29.

36 Union League Club, NYT, Dec. 18, 1895.

37 “Admirals? Never!”: q. Taylor, 12.

38 “A towering influence”: q. Godkin, I, 221.

39 Lowell on the Nation: Godkin, I, 251; Bryce on the Evening Post: ibid., 232; Governor Hill: Villard, 123.

40 Godkin on the United States in 1895: Life and Letters, II, 187, 202.

41 William James on “fighting spirit”: to Frederic Myers, Jan. 1, 1896, Perry, 244.

42 Norton, “shout of brutal applause”: NYT, Dec. 30, 1895.

43 “Supremely urbane”: Daniel Gregory Mason, “At Home in the Nineties,” New England Quarterly Review, Mar., 1936, 64.

44 Students on Norton: William D. Orcutt, Celebrities on Parade, 41; Josephine Preston Peabody, Diary and Letters, 73.

45 Norton to Godkin and to English friend: q. Vanderbilt, 211; to Leslie Stephen, Jan. 8, 1896, Letters, II, 236.

46 Henry Adams: “dead water of the fin de siècle” is from The Education, 331. Other quotations in this paragraph are from the Letters, Vol. II, in order, as follows: Sept. 9, 1894, 55; Aug. 3, 1896, 114; Apr. 1, 1896, 103; Apr. 25, 1895, 68; July 31, 1896, 111; Feb. 17, 1896, 99; Sept. 25, 1895, 88.

47 Norton, “How interesting our times”: to S. G. Ward, Apr. 26, 1896, Letters, II, 244.

48 “The Czar commands you”: Fuller, 238.

49 “Tranquil greatness”: Powers.

50 Reading Richard Burton: Stealey, 413.

51 “A policy no Republican”: Knight.

52 Roosevelt on Reed campaign: Oct. 18, 1895; Dec. 27, 1895; Jan. 26, 1896.

53 Reed’s campaign: Robinson, 326–34; Griffin, 344; Platt, 313.

54 Henry Adams on Reed: to Brooks Adams, Feb. 7, 1896, Letters, II, 96.

55 “Chocolate eclair”: Robinson, 362, calls it Reed’s “alleged” statement. Kohlsaat, 77, gives it to Roosevelt and Peck says it was a “favorite saying” of Roosevelt although this does not exclude its having originated with Reed. To the present author it bears the stamp of Reed’s picturesque turn of phrase.

56 Roosevelt to Reed: McCall, 228; to Lodge: Mar. 13, 1896.

57 “In a word, my dear boy”: Pringle, 159.

58 Altgeld to Darrow: q. Ginger (see Chap. 8), 188.

59 “The whistle would not blow”: ibid., 191.

60 “Mark Hanna’s era”: Norman Hapgood, The Advancing Hour, 1920, 76–77.

61 What sells a newspaper, “War”: Kennedy Jones, q. Halévy (see Chap. 1), V, 9.

62 Eliot’s speech in Washington: New York Evening Post, May 18, 1896.

63 “Degenerated sons of Harvard”: Roosevelt to Lodge, Apr. 29, 1896.

64 Eliot characterized: In addition to James’s biography, the sources used were:

BROWN, ROLLO WALTER, Harvard Yard in the Golden Age, New York, 1948.

HOWE, M. A. DE WOLFE, Classic Shades, Boston, 1928.

MORISON, SAMUEL ELIOT, Three Centuries of Harvard, Harvard Univ. Press, 1937.

SEDGEWICK, ELLERY, The Happy Profession, Boston, 1946.

65 “Eliza, do you kneel …”: James, I, 33–34; “Misunderstood”: Morison, 358; “I had a vivid sense”: Brown, 27; “An oarsman’s back”: Sedgewick, 371–72; “A noble presence”: Howe, 185; “A gentlemen who is …”: ibid.; “Throwing it in ANOTHER!”: James, II, 69; “First private citizen”: ibid., 92; “An emblem of triumph”: Sedgewick, 371–72.

66 “If ever we come to nothing”: Apr. 29, 1896.

67 Secretary Long on Roosevelt: Bishop, I, 71; Lodge to Roosevelt: Mar. 8, 1897, q. ibid.

68 McClure to co-editor: Lyon, 148; to Page: ibid., 167.

69 “Do nothing unrighteous”: q. Puleston, 182; Roosevelt’s reply: May 3, 1897.

70 Schurz’s visit to McKinley: Fuess, 350.

71 Spectator on the Treaty: June 19, 1897.

72 “Empire Can Wait”: Illustrated American, Dec., 1897.

73 Bryce in the Forum: Dec., 1897, “The Policy of Annexation for America.”

74 “Far distant, storm-beaten ships”: from his Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution.

75 Reed on Senator Proctor: Dunn, I, 234.

76 “The taste of Empire”: q. Morison and Commager, Growth of the Amercan Republic, II, 324.

77 “Dissuade a cyclone”: NYT, Apr. 7, 1898.

78 Roosevelt to Mahan: Mar. 21, 1898.

79 Mr. Dooley on the Philippines: Dunne, 43. When Mr. Dooley asked Hinnissy if he could tell where the Philippines were, Hinnissy, representing public opinion, replied, “Mebbe I cudden’t, but I’m f’r takin’ thim in, annyhow.” Mr. Dooley wasn’t so sure. “Th’ war is still goin’ on; an’ ivry night, whin I’m countin’ up the cash, I’m askin’ mesilf will I annex Cubia or lave it to the Cubians? Will I take Porther Ricky or put it by? An’ what shud I do with the Ph’lippeens? Oh, what shud I do with thim?”: ibid., 46–47.

80 McKinley on the Philippines: Kohlsaat, 68.

81 Lodge, must not. “let the islands go”: to Henry White, May 4, 1898, Nevins (see Chap. 1), 136.

82 Norton, “We jettison …”: text of the speech in Letters, II, 261–69. The politician who proposed lynching was the Hon. Thomas J. Gargan.

83 The Anti-Imperialists: Lanzar, Harrington, Howe, Fuess.

84 “An abominable business”: Mark Twain-Howells Letters, Harvard Univ. Press, 1960, II, 673, n. 4. See also Mark Twain’s “To The Person Sitting in Darkness,” North American Review, Feb., 1901.

85 Godkin on “inferior races”: Mar. 24, 1898, 216.

86 Carl Schurz, same argument: Schurz, 441.

87 Beveridge’s speeches: Bowers, 68–70, 76; Storey, 38; W. E. Leuchtenberg, “Progressivism and Imperialism, 1898–1916,” Miss, Valley Hist. Rev., Dec., 1952.

88 “We’re a gr-reat people”: Dunne, 9.

89 Roosevelt, “my power for good”: Mar. 29, 1898.

90 Beveridge on Reed: to George W. Perkins, May 31, 1898, Bowers, 71.

91 “Opposition exclusively from Reed”: May 31, 1898, Lodge, Corres., I, 302.

92 Reed begged Clark: Dunn, I, 289.

93 Lodge, “one of the great world powers”: to Henry White, Aug. 12, 1898, Nevins’ White, 137.

94 Mahan, “the jocund youth” and “Deus Vult!”: Puleston, 201.

95 Schurz, “the great neutral power”: Fuess, 354.

96 Saratoga conference: NYT, Aug. 20, 1898.

97 Carnegie, “Let us stand together”: Harvey, Gompers (see Chap. 8), 89–90.

98 Reed “terribly bitter”: Dec. 20, 1898, Lodge, Corres., I, 370.

99 Bryan and the Treaty: Dunn, I, 283; Hoar, I, 197; II, 110; Pettigrew, 206. The dealing in judgeships and other bribes by the Republicans is discussed in W. S. Holt, Treaties Defeated by the Senate, Johns Hopkins, 1933, 171, and in Garraty, Lodge, 201–2.

100 “Closest, hardest fight”: ibid.

101 William James: Letters, II, 289; Perry, 240.

102 Norton, “lost her unique position”: Nov. 18, 1899, Letters, II, 290.

103 Moorfield Storey, “We are false”: Howe, 221.

104 “Most influential man”: Mar. 3, 1898, Letters, II, No. 976.

105 Storey to Hoar: Howe, 218–19.

106 “Touching a match”: NYT, Apr. 23, 1899.

107 “Moody and ugly”: Dunn, I, 298.

108 “Fatigue and disgust”: NYT, Feb. 21, 1899.

109 Tribune: q. Robinson, 380; Times, Apr. 19 and 23, 1899.

110 Godkin on Reed: Letters, II, 239, 241.

111 “The public!”: NYT, Apr. 20, 1899.

112 “How is the horse feeling?”: Pringle, Life and Times of William Howard Taft, 1939, I, 236.

113 Beveridge, “We will not renounce”: q. Wolff, 303.

114 Godkin, “the military spirit”: Life and Letters, 243.

115 Admiral Dewey on the Presidency: Sullivan, I, 311.

116 “Evil genius”: Fuess, 366.

117 Third party and Plaza Hotel meeting: Pettigrew, 320–21; Fuess, 362–63.

118 Aguinaldo on the election: Wolff, 252.

119 “Hold your nose”: Lanzar, 40.

120 Nation’s dissatisfied reader: Oct. 18, 1900, 307.

121 Lodge on Manila; q. Wolff, 304.

122 Roosevelt on expansion: ibid., 332.

123 Dumdum bullets; ibid., 305.

124 Norton’s elegy: to S. G. Ward, Mar. 13, 1901, Vanderbilt, 217. An effort to heal the breach between the Anti-Imperialists and the Administration was made by Senator Hoar in the spring of 1901, with embarrassing results. As President of the Harvard Alumni Association, he offered an honorary LL.D. to McKinley without consulting the Harvard Corporation. Although President Eliot regarded McKinley as a “narrow-minded commonplace man” (James, II, 118), the Corporation gave its approval. But when the Board of Overseers, which contained a number of Anti-Imperialists, was asked for its concurrence a storm was raised, led by Moorfield Storey and Wendell Phillips Garrison. Bitter feeling developed, debate was “very sharp,” and Theodore Roosevelt, thrown into a frenzy, and denouncing Storey as a “scoundrel,” marshaled the votes of the waverers by mail. Leaked to Godkin, who published it in the Nation, Apr. 25, 1901, the opposition in the Overseers became known to McKinley. Although the Board finally voted for his degree, reportedly by 26 to 3, he did not appear at Commencement, with the result that the LL.D., which could not be conferred in absentia, was not conferred at all. Roosevelt, Letters, III, Nos. 2010, 2012; Howe, 177; NTT, May 3 and 9, 1901.

125 “That damned cowboy”: Kohlsaat, 100.

126 Twenty-three poker hands: A. B. Paine, Mark Twain, III, 1163.

127 Joe Cannon said of him: q. McFarland.

4. “Give Me Combat”


BARCLAY, SIR THOMAS, Thirty Years: Anglo-French Reminiscences, 1876–1906, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1914.

*BARRÈS, MAURICE, Scènes et doctrines du Nationalisme, Paris, Plon, 1925.

BENDA, JULIEN, La Jeunesse d’un clerc, Paris, Gallimard, 1936.

BERTAUT, JULES, Paris, 1870–1935, New York, Appleton-Century, 1936.

*BLUM, LÉON, Souvenirs de l’Affaire, Paris, Gallimard, 1935.

BORDEAUX, HENRY, Jules Lemaître, Paris, Plon, 1920.

BOUSSEL, PATRICE, L’Affaire Dreyfus et la Presse, Paris, Colin, 1960.

BRUNETIÈRE, FERDINAND, Après le Procés: Réponse à Quelques “Intellectuels,” Paris, Perrin, 1898.

CAMBON, PAUL, Correspondence, 1870–1924, 3 vols., Paris, Grasset, 1940.

CASTELLANE, MARQUIS BONI DE, How I Discovered America, New York, Knopf, 1924.

*CHAPMAN, GUY, The Dreyfus Case: A Reassessment, New York, Reynal, 1955.

CLARETIE, JULES, “Souvenirs du Dîner Bixio,” La Revue de France, June 15, July 1 and 15, August 1 and 15, 1923.

CLEMENCEAU, GEORGES, Contre la Justice, Paris, Stock, 1900.

CLERMONT -TONNERRE, ELIZABETH (DE GRAMONT), DUCHESSE DE, Mémoires, 3 vols., Paris, Grasset, 1928.

*DAUDET, LÉON, Au Temps de Judas: Souvenirs de 1880 à 1908, Paris, NLN, 1920.

DELHORBE, CECILE, L’Affaire Dreyfus et les Ecrivains Français, Paris, Attinger, 1932.

ELLIS, HAVELOCK, From Rousseau to Proust, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1935.

FRANCE, ANATOLE, M. Bergeret à Paris, Paris, Calmann-Lévy, 1902.

GARD, ROGER MARTIN DU, Jean Barois, Paris, Gallimard, 1921.

GARRIC, ROBERT, Albert de Mun, Paris, Flammarion, 1935.

GIRAUD, VICTOR, Les Maîtres du l’Heure (Jules Lemaître). Vol. II, Paris, Hachette, 1919.

GOLDBERG, HARVEY, The Life of Jean Jaurès, Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1962.

GUILLEMINAULT, GILBERT, ed., La Belle Epoque, 3 vols., Paris, Denoël, 1957.

HERZOG, WILHELM, From Dreyfus to Petain, tr. Walter Sorell, New York, Creative Age Press, 1947.

HYNDMAN, H. M., Clemenceau, New York, Stokes, 1919.

IBELS, H. G., Allons-y!: Histoire Contemporaire, Paris, Stock, 1898.

JAURÈS, JEAN, Les Preuves: Affaire Dreyfus, Paris, La Petite République, 1898.

LETHEVE, JACQUES, La Caricature et la presse sous la Troisième République, Paris, Colin, 1961.

LONERGAN, W. F. (correspondent of the Daily Telegraph), Forty Years of Paris, New York, Brentano’s, 1907.

MARTET, JEAN, Le tigre (Clemenceau), Paris, Albin Michel, 1930.

MASUR, GERHARD, Prophets of Yesterday, New York, Macmillan, 1961.

MEYER, ARTHUR, Ce que mes yeux ont vu, Paris, Plon, 1912.

——, Ce que je peux dire, Paris, Plon, 1912.

*PAINTER, GEORGE D., Proust: The Early Years, Boston, Little, Brown, 1959.

PALÉOLOGUE, MAURICE, An Intimate Journal of the Dreyfus Case, New York, Criterion, 1957.

PÉGUY, CHARLES, “Notre Jeunesse,” Cahiers de la Quinzaine, 1910. (This was a reply to Daniel Halévy’s essay on the Affair written at Péguy’s invitation and published by him in the Cahiers de la Quinzaine. It is reprinted in English translation by Alexander Dru in Temporal and Eternal. New York, Harper, 1958.)

POUQUET, JEANNE SIMON, Le Salon de Mme Arman de Caillavet, Paris, Hachette, 1926.

PROUST, MARCEL, A la recherche du temps perdu, Paris, Gallimard, 1921–27.

*QUILLARD, PIERRE, Le Monument Henry: Liste des Souscripteurs, Paris, Stock, 1899.

RADZIWILL, PRINCESS CATHERINE, France Behind the Veil, New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1914.

*RADZIWILL, PRINCESS MARIE, Lettres au Général du Robilant, Vol. II, 1896–1901 (the Appendix contains her correspondence with General de Galliffet), Bologna, Zanichelli, 1933.

**REINACH, JOSEPH, Histoire de l’Affaire Dreyfus, 7 vols., Paris, Charpentier, 1901–11.

ROLLAND, ROMAIN, Mémoires, Paris, Albin Michel, 1956.

ROMAN, JEAN, Paris Fin de Siècle, New York, Arts, Inc., 1960.

SOREL, GEORGES, La Révolution Dreyfusienne, Paris, Rivière, 1911.

VIZETELLY, ERNEST ALFRED, Emile Zola, London, John Lane, 1904.

——, Paris and Her People, New York, Stokes, n.d. (1918).

ZEVAÈS, ALEXANDRE, L’Affaire Dreyfus: Quelques Souvenirs personnels, La Nouvelle Revue, January, February, March, 1936, Vols. 141 and 142.

ZOLA, EMILE, La Vérité en Marche (collected ed.), Paris, Bernouard, 1928.


Since my purpose in this chapter was not to retell the story of the Dreyfus Affair but rather to show French society reacting to it, I have not thought it necessary to document the historical events of the case unless they are controversial or obscure. The basic and essential source is still Reinach’s stupendous work overflowing with facts, texts, documentation, insights, comments, eyewitnessed scenes, character portraits of the leading figures he knew and his own direct experiences, such as the moment in the Chamber during de Mun’s speech when “I felt on my head the hatred of three hundred hypnotized listeners.” Everything that anyone said or did connected with the Affair he made it his business to collect and record, including, besides obvious matters, thousands of peripheral details such as Scheurer-Kestner’s disgust with the reporter or Count Witte’s flash of clairvoyance. As a major actor in, not merely an observer of, the events, Reinach was vilified, calumniated, and caricatured more than anyone excepting Zola. Under these circumstances to have put together a work of such historical value is a feat perhaps unequaled, certainly unsurpassed, in historiography. The reader may take it that any statement or quotation in this chapter not otherwise accounted for is to be found in Reinach, to be located through his Index, which occupies the entire seventh volume.

The most thoughtful expression of the Nationalist point of view is Barrès’ while the most vivid and vicious is Daudet’s. The best modern account—reliable, objective and of readable length—is Chapman’s. For the riots at Auteuil and Longchamps I relied on the contemporary press.

1 “Would have divided the angels themselves”: in Journal des Débats, Mar. 8, 1903, on death of Gaston Paris, q. Barrès, 9.

2 “At your age, General”: q. Lonergan, 76.

3 Lavisse on the Grande Armée: Histoire de France Contemporaine, III, 379.

4 Anatole France, “all that is left”: The character is M. Panneton de la Barge in M. Bergeret à Paris, 65–70.

5 Comte de Haussonville quoted: Paléologue, 147.

6 “France loves peace and prefers glory”: said by Albert Vandal, member of the French Academy, q. Figaro, Sept. 25, 1898.

7 Ladies rose for General Mercier: Proust, Guermantes, II, 150. The Duchesse de Guermantes caused a sensation at the soirée of the Princesse de Lignes by remaining seated when other ladies rose. It was this action which helped to defeat the Duc for the Presidency of the Jockey Club.

8 “You can have it back”: Reinach, I, 2.

9 “If Dreyfus is acquitted, Mercier goes”: Paléologue, 44.

10 Observer reminded of Dante: ibid., 198–99.

11 Bülow, “There are three Great Powers”: C. Radziwill, 298.

12 Gossip on de Rodays bribed: Radziwill, Letters, 106.

13 Zola, a “shameful disease”: l’Aurore, May 13, 1902, q. Boussel, 216.

14 Ernest Judet’s fear of Clemenceau: Daudet, 43.

15 Arthur Meyer’s career: C. Radziwill, 297–307.

16 Rochefort and Kaiser’s supposed letter: Blum, 78–80; Boussel, 157–59. The story of the letter appeared in l’Intransigeant, Dec. 13, 1897.

17 Boisdeffre and Princess Mathilde: Radziwill, Letters, 133–35. Princess Radziwill told the story to the Kaiser who commented, “It’s a good thing for me that such a man heads the French General Staff … and all I wish is that they leave him where he is.”

18 The “Syndicate”: The Right’s conception of the Syndicate is expressed in all seriousness by Daudet, 11–17, and satirized by Anatole France in Chapter 9 of M. Bergeret. The Dépěche de Toulouse on Nov. 24, 1897, affirmed the existence of a Syndicat D. and its expenditure of 10,000,000 francs: q. Boussel, 138. Other charges from Libre Parole l’Intransigeant, Jour, Patrie, Eclair, Echo de Paris given with dates by Reinach, III, 20; also “Le Syndicat,” l’Aurore, Dec. 1, 1897, in Zola, 13–19.

19 “Something very great”: Count Harry Kessler, q. Masur, 297.

20 Henry Adams on reading Drumont: July 27 and Aug. 4, 1896, Letters, 110, 116.

21 “Clandestine and merciless conspiracy”: q. Herzog, 30.

22 Duc d’Uzès felt gratified: ibid., 31.

23 “They bore us with their Jew”: q. Goldberg, 216.

24 Socialist review of Lazare’s pamphlet: Zevaès, v. 141, 21.

25 “The Duc de Saint-Simon himself”: Reinach, II, 618, n. 1.

26 Esterhazy, “hands of a brigand”; “elegant and treacherous”: C. Radziwill, 326–27; Benda, 181.

27 Scheurer-Kestner like a 16th-century Huguenot: Rolland, 290.

28 Crowds in the Luxembourg gardens: described by Clemenceau in 1908 in a speech dedicating a statue to Scheurer-Kestner.

29 Clemenceau on Monet: q. J. Hampden Jackson, Clemenceau and the Third Republic, New York, 1962, 81.

30 “Only the artists”: Martet, 286.

31 Clemenceau on Esterhazy, Jesuits, justice: q. Boussel, 143; Reinach, III, 265. The degree to which contemporary attention was focused on the Affair may be judged from Clemenceau’s five volumes of collected articles: L’Iniquité (162 articles froml’Auroreand La Justice up to July, 1898); Vers la Réparation, 1899 (135 articles from l’Aurore, July-Dec., 1898); Des Juges, 1901 (40 articles from l’Aurore, Apr.-May, 1899); Injustice Militaire, 1902 (78 articles from l’Aurore, Aug.-Dec., 1899); La Honte, 1903 (65 articles from La Dépěche de Toulouse, Sept., 1899-Dec., 1900).

32 “Generals of debacle” et seq.: Reinach, III, 258.

33 Anton Radziwill “loves to talk English”: Spring-Rice (see Chap. 3), I, 184.

34 Witte, “I can see only one thing”: Reinach, II, 542, n. 1.

35 Jules Ferry, “to organize mankind”: q. Goldberg, 39.

36 Léon Bourgeois to the Ralliés: q. Chapman, 23.

37 De Mun’s speech to the Academy: Mar. 10, 1898. Reprinted in his Discours politiques et Parlementaires.

38 De Mun’s career: Garric, passim; on Socialism, ibid., 94.

39 Galliffet, “continue to understand nothing”: to Princess Radziwill, Sept. 22, 1899, 342.

40 Comtesse de Noailles, “too beautiful to be real” and “merely smiled”: C. Radziwill, 337–38.

41 “Certitude of superiority”: Clermont-Tonnerre, 113.

42 Aimery de la Rochefoucauld: “fossil rigidity” was Proust’s phrase for the Prince de Guermantes, for whom de Rochefoucauld served as a model. “Mere nobodies in the year 1000”: q. Painter, 189.

43 Duc d’Uzès, “we were always killed”: Painter, 200.

44 Gratin not hospitable: Clermont-Tonnerre, 113.

45 English visitor of Duc de Luynes: Wyndham (see Chap. 1), I, 346, 480.

46 Thiers on Comte de Paris: q. Spender, Campbell-Bannerman (see Chap. 5), II, 59.

47 Gamelba: Lonergan, 120–21.

48 “All this Dreyfus business” and “Perfectly intolerable”: Proust, Guermantes, I.

49 “Colossus with dirty feet”: Flaubert, Correspondence, Apr. 18, 1880.

50 “Pornographic pig,” “Merde!” and other reactions: du Gard, 8.

51 Björnson, “stupor and distress”: Reinach, III, 314.

52 “The scene is France”: q. Herzog, 144.

53 Chekhov on Zola’s trial: Ernest J. Simmons, Chekhov: A Biography, Boston, 1962, 412–13.

54 “Smelled of suppressed slaughter”: Paléologue, 131.

55 “Paris palpitated”: Hyndman (see Chap. 7), 301.

56 Zola’s trial: Paléologue, 131–33; Hyndman, Clemenceau, 176–77; Vizetelly, 450–56; et al.

57 Labori “not an intellect”: q. Chapman, 175.

58 Zola, “Listen to them!”: Guilleminault, I, 189.

59 Clemenceau, “not a single Dreyfusard”: Hyndman (see Chap. 7), 301.

60 Henry Adams on Zola verdict: Feb. 26, 1898, Letters, 151.

61 Anatole France got out of bed: from unpublished diary of Daniel Halévy, q. Delhorbe, 95–96.

62 “Altogether one of us”: Daudet, 66.

63 Monet quarreled with Degas: Stephen Gwynn, Claude Monet, New York, Macmillan, 1934, 92, 201 Degas read Libre Parole: Chapman, 182; on arrivistes: q. George Slocombe, Rebels of Art: Manet to Matisse, New York, 1939, 158.

64 Debussy and Puvis de Chavannes: Painter, 356; Reinach, III, 248, n. 2.

65 “If I sign” said a school principal: Clemenceau in l’Aurore, Jan. 18, 1898.

66 Emile Duclaux, Revision in the laboratory: Reinach, III, 169.

67 “He paints with his hands in my pockets”: René Gimpel, Carnets, Paris, 1963.

68 Gaston Paris: Reinach, IV, 150, n. 5; Paul Stapfer: Zevaès, v. 141, 202.

69 Whole villages took sides: Barclay, 135.

70 Dîner Bixio: Claretie. All anecdotes of Dîner Bixio are from this source.

71 Opening of “Les Loups”: Rolland, 291–95.

72 “We needed reassurance, ideals”: Adolphe Brisson on “l’Aiglon,” in Figaro, Mar. 13, 1900.

73 Ranc, “warned not to sleep at home”: q. Reinach, IV, 151.

74 The salons: Bertaut, 163–73; Wharton (see Chap. 1), 261, 273; Painter, 130, 201, 281; for Mme Straus, see esp. Bertaut, Painter, 110–16, Paléologue; for Mme Arman, esp. Pouquet, passim; Clermont-Tonnerre, I, 4–5, 13; Blum, 98; for Mme Aubernon: Paléologue, 114; Suttner (see Chap. 5), I, 282–84; for Mme de Loynes: esp. Meyer, Ce que je peux dire, 250–53, 287; Castellane, 195.

75 Lemaître, “The Republic cured me”: q. Giraud, 72.

76 “Que faite vous, Maître?”: Barclay, 142.

77 Meetings of Ligue des Patriotes: Meyer, Ce que je peux dire, 253–63; Daudet, 89–90.

78 De Vogüé, “Now the odious case”: Paléologue, 151.

79 Reciting 17th-century poetry: Goldberg, 226.

80 His “splendid amplitude”: Rolland, 298; “Like a huge cat with a mouse”: ibid.

81 Socialists on Zola’s trial: Jaurès’ Œuvres, VI, 197, q. Goldberg; Reinach, III, 255, IV, 148; Zevaès, v. 141, 97, 199.

82 Jaurès, “how tormented I am”: q. Goldberg, 220.

83 “Because we seem to oppose”: from a letter of Nov. 7, 1898, in the Guesde Archives, Amsterdam, q. Goldberg, 243.

84 Socialist Committee of Vigilance: Zevaès, v. 141, 203.

85 André Buffet telegraphed Pretender: Details of the right-wing conspiracy and its financing were obtained from evidence at the subsequent trial of Déroulède, Reinach, IV, 332–42.

86 “Eve of a new Commune”: Radziwill, Letters, 155.

87 “Soul of a second lieutenant”: André Maurois, The Miracle of France, New York, 1948, 404.

88 “Sanctuary of treason,” et seq.: Paléologue, 187–90.

89 Anarchists on Dreyfus “parade”: Boussel, 170–72: Maitron (see Chap. 2), 307–18.

90 Mme de Greffulhe wrote to the Kaiser: André Germain, Les clés de Proust, 1953, 43. (I am indebted for this source to Mr. George D. Painter, the biographer of Proust.)

91 Change in the Guermantes: recorded in Sodome and La Prisonnière.

92 An officer said to Galliffet: Claretie, 50.

93 Jaurès, “If war breaks out”: q. Goldberg, 245.

94 Contributors to the Henry Subscription: Quillard, passim.

95 Loubet’s election: Paléologue, 203; “The Republic will not founder”: q. Chapman, 254.

96 Lemaître on driving Loubet out: q. Goldberg, 247.

97 Anti-Semitic League funds: Reinach, IV, 573, n. 4; V, 113, 254, n. 1, from evidence at Déroulède trial.

98 Le Temps, “What other country”: June 6, 1899.

99 William James, “one of those moral crises”: June 7, 1899, Letters, II, 89.

100 -8 The attack on Loubet at Auteuil: Figaro, June 5, 1899.

101 Next Sunday at Longchamps: Le Temps, June 12/13, 1899. Henri Léon, the Nationalist leader and cynic in M. Bergeret à Paris, describes how hooligans yelled “Pa-na-ma! De-mis-sion!” under his orders. “I beat time for them and they yell the separate syllables. It was really done with taste.”

102 Lucien Herr’s argument: from Vie de Lucien Herr, by Charles Andler, q. Goldberg, 254.

103 Socialists split on support for Government: Zevaès, v. 142, 47.

104 Marquis de Galliffet, silver-plated stomach: Castellane, 99; “air of a bandit chief”: Reinach, V, 168–69; on arresting members of his club: Radziwill, Letters, 340; “courage and effrontery”: Reinach, loc. cit.

105 Millerand, “cat in a downpour”: Suarez (see Chap. 8), I, 259.

106 “Invite those chaps to dinner”: from Louis Thomas, Le Général de Galliffet, 1910, 247 (supplied by Mr. Painter).

107 Rennes trial: eyewitness accounts by Marcel Prévost, New York Herald, Aug. 8/9; Severine and others, q. in Reinach, V; Barrès, 146; Zevaès, v. 142, 53; Benda, 211; London Times, New York Tribune, Aug. 8/9. Evidently it is a rule that discrepancies in observation increase with intensity of emotion: Dreyfus’ hair was “white” according to The Times, “auburngrey” according to the Tribune; his moustache “jet black” according to The Times, “frankly red” according to the Tribune.

108 G. A. Henty: Hyndman, 184.

109 Galliffet, “I don’t budge from my office”: Radziwill, Letters, 340.

110 Labori “looked like Hercules”: Meyer, Mes Yeux, 152.

111 “I’ve just killed the Dreyfus”: Paléologue, 241.

112 Queen Victoria’s telegram: Reinach, V, 544.

113 Clemenceau: In l’Aurore, Sept. 10, 1899.

114 Comtesse de Noailles weeping: Painter, 299.

115 Foreign reaction to Rennes verdict: The Times, Sept. 12, 13, 14, 1899; Barclay, 162.

116 Grieg’s “Indignation”: Finck, Grieg (see Chap. 6), 104.

117 Galliffet, “That’s something to see”: Lonergan, 369.

5. The Steady Drummer


Official publications of the proceedings of the two Peace Conferences at The Hague are the following:

FRANCE, MINISTÈRE DES AFFAIRES ETRANGÈRES, Documents Diplomatiques, Conférence Internationale de la Paix, 1899, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1900.

——, Deuxième Conférence Internationale de la Paix, 1907, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1908.

*GERMANY, AUSWARTIGEN AMT, Die Grosse Politik der Europäischen Kabinette, Berlin, 1924–25. Band 15: Rings um die Erste Haager Friedenskonferenz. Band 23: Die Zweite Haager Friedenskonferenz. (Referred to in Notes as GP.)

GREAT BRITAIN, FOREIGN OFFICE, Correspondence respecting the Proposal of HM the Emperor of Russia for a Conference on Armaments, Russia, No. 1 (1899), Cd. 9090, London, HMSO.

——, Correspondence respecting the Peace Conference held at The Hague in 1899, Misc. No. 1 (1899), Cd. 9534, London, HMSO. (The material in these two volumes is referred to in the Notes as F.O. 83, 1695–6-7–8-9 and 1700. These are the reference numbers for the autograph originals in the Public Record Office which I consulted in preference to the published version.)

——, Correspondence respecting the Second Peace Conference held at The Hague in 1907. Misc. No. 1 (1908), Cd. 3857, London, HMSO.

——, Further Correspondence, Cd. 4174, Misc. No. 5 (1908).

HAGUE, THE, The Proceedings of The Hague Peace Conference, 4 vols. Translation of the official texts (originally published by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs), prepared in the Division of International Law of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; ed. James Brown Scott, Oxford Univ. Press, 1920–21, Vol. I, 1899; Vol. II, III, IV, 1907.

UNITED STATES, The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, ed. James Brown Scott, 2 vols., Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1909. The second volume contains the instructions to and reports of the American delegates and the correspondence in 1904 and 1906 relating to the calling of the Second Conference.

Other Sources

ADAM, PAUL, “Physionomie de la Conférence de la Haye,” Revue de Paris, August 1, 1907, 642–72.

BACON, ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD HUGH, The Life of Lord Fisher of Kilverstone, 2 vols., London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1929.

BERGENGREN, ENK, Alfred Nobel, tr., London, Nelson, 1962.

BLOCH, IVAN S., The Future of War, tr., with a “Conversation with the Author” by W. T. Stead, Boston, Ginn, 1902.

BÜLOW, BERNHARD, PRINCE VON, Memoirs, 4 vols., Boston, Little, Brown, 1931–32.

CHIROL, SIR VALENTINE, Fifty Years in a Changing World, New York, Harcourt, 1928.

CHOATE, JOSEPH HODGES, The Two Hague Conferences, Princeton Univ. Press, 1913.

CURTI, MERLE, Peace or War: The American Struggle, 1636–1936, New York, Norton, 1936.

DAVIS, CALVIN DE ARMOND, The United States and the First Hague Peace Conference, Cornell Univ. Press, 1962.

DILLON, E. J., The Eclipse of Russia, New York, Doran, 1918.

FISHER, JOHN ARBUTHNOT, LORD, Records, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1919.

FISHER, JOHN ARBUTHNOT, LORD, Fear God and Dread Nought: Correspondence of Lord Fisher, ed. Arthur J. Marder, Vol. 1, 1854–1904, Harvard Univ. Press, 1952; Vol. 2, 1904–14, London, Cape, 1956.

FULLER, J. F. C., Armament and History, New York, Scribner’s, 1945.

HENDRICK, BURTON J., The Life of Andrew Carnegie, 2 vols., Garden City, Doubleday, 1932.

HULL, WILLIAM I., The Two Hague Conferences, Boston, Ginn, 1908.

JESSUP, PHILIP G., Elihu Root, 2 vols., New York, Dodd, Mead, 1938.

LEMONON, ERNEST, La Seconde Conférence de le Paix, Paris, 1908.

MOWAT, ROBERT B., Life of Lord Pauncefote, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1929.

NEF, JOHN J., War and Human Progress, Harvard Univ. Press, 1950.

NOWAK, KARL FRIEDRICH, Germany’s Road to Ruin, New York, Macmillan, 1932.

PALMER, FREDERICK, With My Own Eyes, Indianapolis, Bobbs Merrill, 1932.

PINSON, KOPPEL S., Modern Germany, New York, Macmillan, 1954.

SPENDER, J. A., The Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1924.

STEAD, W. T., “Character Sketch: Lord Fisher,” Review of Reviews, February, 1910.

*SUTTNER, BERTHA VON, Memoirs, 2 vols., Boston, Ginn, 1910.

TATE, MERZE, The Disarmament Illusion, New York, Macmillan, 1942.

*Temps, Le, Reports of Special Correspondent at The Hague.

USHER, ROLAND, Pan-Germanism, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1913.

*WHITE, ANDREW D., Autobiography, 2 vols., New York, Century, 1905.

*WHYTE, FREDERIC, Life of W. T. Stead, London, Cape, 1925.

WITTE, COUNT SERGEI, Memoirs, New York, Doubleday, 1921.

WOLFF, THEODOR (editor of Berliner Tageblatt), The Eve of 1914, tr. E. W. Dickes, New York, Knopf, 1936.


As primary sources for what was said and what occurred at The Hague, I used the delegates’ reports to their Governments contained in the Foreign Office Correspondence and Grosse Politik; the account in diary form by Andrew White in his Autobiography, and the reports of the Special Correspondent of Le Temps. Written while events were still hot, these make livelier reading than the tedious verbatim proceedings, collected and edited afterward. (Le Temps’ correspondent signed himself X or sometimes XX, suggesting the possibility of two different people. Inquiries to Le Monde, successor of Le Temps, and to the Archivist of the Quai d’Orsay failed to penetrate his anonymity.) Unless otherwise stated all quotations by the delegates are from these sources; specific references are given only where it seems important. All material relating to Baroness von Suttner, including Nobel’s letters, is from her Memoirs. All quotations from Roosevelt are from his Letters (see Chap. 3).

118 “The Czar with an olive branch”: Neue Freie Presse, q. Figaro, roundup of press comment, Aug. 30, 1898.

119 “It will sound like beautiful music” and other press quotations in this paragraph: ibid.; also The Times and Le Temps, roundup of foreign press comment, same date.

120 Kipling: The poem was first published in Literature, Oct. 1, 1898.

121 “A sword stroke in water”: q. Figaro, Aug. 31, 1898. “Our future”: Nowak, 237.

122 Liebknecht: Suitner, II, 198.

123 Godkin, “splendid summons”: Evening Post, Aug. 29, 1898.

124 Olney on defeat of Arbitration Treaty: Mowat, 171.

125 Julien Benda: (see Chap. 4), 203.

126 Figures on world’s mechanical energy: W. S. and E. S. Woytinsky, World Population and Production, New York, 1953, 930, Table 394.

127 “We are sailing with a corpse”: q. Masur (see Chap. 4), 237.

128 Salisbury’s Guildhall speech: The Times, Nov. 10, 1897.

129 Czar and his mother’s chambermaids: q. David Shub, Lenin, 72.

130 Czar’s letter to his mother: Secret Letters of the Last Czar, ed. E. J. Bing, New York, 1938, 131.

131 Kuropatkin and genesis of Peace Conference: Witte, 96–97; Report of German Ambassador Radolin to Chancellor Hohenlohe, July 13, 1899, GP, XV, No. 4350; Dillon, conversation with Kuropatkin, 275–77.

132 “Keep people from inventing things”: q. White, II, 70.

133 “Except at the price of suicide,” et seq.: Bloch, xxxi, lxii, 349, 355–56.

134 British Ambassador’s report: Sir Charles Scott to Salisbury, Aug. 25, 1898, Cd. 9090.

135 “It is the greatest nonsense”: Warwick, 138.

136 Diplomatic reactions: GP, XV, Nos. 4223, 4224, 4236, 4237, 4248, 4249; also Foreign Office, Plunkett from Brussels, Jan. 11, 1899; Rumbold from Vienna, Feb. 3, 1899.

137 Kaiser, “Idiot”: GP, XV, No. 4233.

138 “To my People”: Pinson, 279; “When your Emperor commands”: ibid., 278; “There is only one master”: ibid.; “Me and my 25 army corps”: q. Bernadotte Schmitt, The Coming of the War, 1914, New York, 1930, I, 29; “Ally of my House”: q. Chirol, 275.

139 Prince of Wales, “how different” and not so absurd: q. White, II, 113–14.

140 Kaiserin on Kaiser’s annoyance: Bülow, I, 275; Eulenberg quoted: ibid. 241 Kaiser’s telegram to Czar and subsequent comments: GP, XV, Nos. 4222, 4216, 4228, 4231.

141 Muraviev told Eulenberg: ibid., 4231.

142 Kuno Francke pictured Germany: “German Ideals of Today,” Atlantic Monthly, Dec., 1905.

143 Pan-German program and “We want territory”: Encyc. Brit., “Pan-Germanism.”

144 Admiral Dewey, on German bad manners: Palmer, 115.

145 Hay, “To the German mind”: q. A. L. P. Dennis, in S. F. Bemis, ed., American Secretaries of State, IX, 124.

146 “Sheepsheads”: Pinson, 278.

147 “Not even the tamest liberal”: Wolff, 310.

148 “Always wear a good black coat”: q. Pinson, 286.

149 Bülow and the lapels: Nowak, 226.

150 Holstein’s explanation and Bülow’s instructions: GP, XV, Nos. 4255, 4217, 4245–6-7.

151 Public resolutions: F.O. 83, 1699.

152 Balfour, “A sanguine view”: ibid.

153 Stead: All the material on Stead in these pages is from Whyte’s biography with the exception of the story about Charles II, which is from Esher, I, 229; the Prince of Wales’s opinion of the Czar as “weak as water,” which is from Warwick, 136; and the Russian complaint of being “embarrassed,” which was relayed by Ambassador Sir Charles Scott, Jan. 14, 1899, F.O. 83, 1699.

154 Henley, “the battle spirit”: from “Rhymes and Rhythms,” No. XVI, first published in Poems, 1898.

155 Nevinson: Changes and Chances (see Chap. 1), 130.

156 Mahan, “no greater misfortune”: q. Puleston (see Chap. 3), 171.

157 “Assured of certain certainties”: T. S. Eliot, “The Waste Land.”

158 Yeats’ poem: in his autobiography, The Trembling of the Veil, 415.

159 Boston Peace Crusade “permanent tribunal”: Davis, 62.

160 McKinley urged to appoint Eliot: ibid., 68.

161 Kaiser on Mahan, “Our greatest foe”: GP, XV, n. to 4250.

162 Bourgeois, “amiable, elegant”: Zevaès (see Chap. 4), v. 141, 202; “cultivated fine beard”: Suarez (see Chap. 8), I, 420.

163 “To renounce war”: General Barail, q. Figaro, Aug. 31, 1898.

164 Mme Adam, “I am for war”: Suttner, II, 233.

165 “Beating empty air”: q. Davis, 88.

166 Baron Stengel’s pamphlet: Drummond to F.O., Apr. 6, 1899; Tate, 230, n. 44.

167 “Never give way”: Mowat, 300; “soul of honor”: ibid., 295.

168 “When Peel lost his temper”: Birrell (see Chap. 7), 126–27.

169 Fisher: the material in these three paragraphs is from Bacon’s biography except for the last line, “So I did,” which is from Fisher’s Records, 55.

170 The Hague during the Conference: chiefly from reports by the correspondent of Le Temps, May 10, 20, 24, 25; Figaro, May 20; White, Mowat, Suttner. The Huis ten Bosch was visited by author in 1963.

171 “A printer’s error”: q. Davis, 86.

172 Beernaert “greatest cynic”: Neal Ascherson, The King Incorporated, London, 1963, 142.

173 Münster, “political riff-raff”: GP, XV, 4327.

174 Reichstag deputies: The Times, May 11, 1899.

175 Fisher, “humanizing war!” et seq.: Stead, Review of Reviews, Feb., 1910, 117.

176 Hotel Kurhaus: Letters, I, 142.

177 Stead on Fisher: q. Bacon, I, 121.

178 He learned from German naval delegate: ibid., 128, 177.

179 “Deepest seriousness”: q. Taylor (see Chap. 3), 99.

180 Fisher on neutral coal: Bacon, I, 128.

181 Captain Siegel’s argument: GP, XV, 4274.

182 Ardagh’s speech on dumdums: June 14, F.O. 83, 1695.

183 “The angel of arbitration”: q. Reinach (see Chap. 4), V, 173, n. 2.

184 Society’s “awful conscience”: Hunter (see Chap. 8), 30.

185 D’Estournelles’ story of Jaurès: White, 300.

186 Kaiser, “this whole hoax”: GP, XV, 4276.

187 Efforts to persuade Germany on arbitration: White, II, 265–313. Pauncefote Memorandum, June 19, F.O. 83, 1695, and other reports in F.O. 83, 1700; GP, XV, 4276, 4280, 4284, 4317, 4320, 4349.

188 Kaiser’s disgust, “I consented …”: GP, XV, 4320.

189 “Zeal almost macabre”: Le Temps, editorial, July 27.

190 Mahan blocks arbitration: Puleston (see Chap. 3), 211; White, 338–41.

191 As if the hand of God: Clynes (see Chap. 7), 98; “With a kind of shiver”: M. Radziwill, Letters (see Chap. 4), Jan. 2, 1900, 237.

192 Kaiser to Fritz Krupp: from the Krupp archives, q. William Manchester, “The House of Krupp,” Holiday, Dec., 1964, 110.

193 Three hundred men “all acquainted”: q. Kessler (see Chap. 8), 121.

194 “Then in 1900,” wrote Yeats: Introduction to Oxford Book of Modern Verse.

195 Henry Adams expecting a bomb: Education, 494–95.

196 Exposition: l’illustration and Le Monde Illustré, passim through the summer; Outlook, Sept. 8, Nov. 10, 1900, Jan. 5, 1901; Harper’s Monthly, Sept., 1900; Blackwood’s, July, 1900; Nation, June 28, 1900.

197 “It seemed merely a matter of decades”: Zweig (see Chap. 6), 3.

198 Balfour wished to appoint Mahan Regius Professor: Magnus, Edward VII, 306.

199 Jusserand and Philander Knox on Roosevelt: Jules Jusserand, What Me Befell, Boston, 1934, 241; Sullivan (see Chap. 3), II, 438 n.

200 Roosevelt’s visit to Eliot: James, Eliot (see Chap. 3), II, 159.

201 Roosevelt, “foolish theory”: to Spring-Rice, Dec. 21, 1907, VI, 871; “weakening of fighting spirit”: ibid.; “I abhor men like Hale: to Speck von Sternberg, July 16, 1907, V, 721; “General softening of fibre”: to White-law Reid, Sept. 11, 1905, V, 19.

202 Kaiser, “That’s my man!”: Bülow, I, 658.

203 D’Estournelles’ visit to Roosevelt: Suttner, II, 390–91.

204 Hay, “I have it all arranged”: Tyler Dennett, John Hay, New York, 1933, 346.

205 Fisher proposes to “Copenhagen” German fleet: Bacon, II, 74–75.

206 “Ach, that damned Reichstag!”: Bülow, II, 36–37.

207 Czar’s hint conveyed to Washington: Roosevelt to Carl Schurz, Sept. 15, 1905, V, 30–31. The letter to Root, Sept. 14, 1905, V, 26.

208 C.-B., “so straight, so good-tempered”: Lee (see Chap. 1), II, 442.

209 C.-B., “What nobler role”: at Albert Hall, Dec. 21, 1905, Spender, II, 208.

210 Damnable, Domineering and Dictatorial: Bacon, I, 207.

211 Izvolsky, “a craze of Jews”: GP, XXIII, 7879.

212 C.-B., “Long live the Duma!”: C.-B. delivered the speech in French, Spender, II, 264.

213 Kaiser hoped Conference “would not take place”: GP, XXIII, 7815. On King Edward’s visit: ibid.; also 7823, 7825–26.

214 “Alert, aggressive, military”: to Oscar Straus, Feb. 27, 1906, V, 168.

215 “Maudlin extreme”: to Reid, Aug. 7, 1906, V, 348; talk with Count Gleichen: Lee, II, 437. Another visitor who found American amenities less than satisfactory was Count Witte. During his mission to the Portsmouth Peace Conference he said the only decent meal he had had in America was on board Morgan’s yacht (Witte, 169).

216 Navy “more potent for peace”: Sept. 22, 1906, V, 421.

217 Carnegie agreed to donate Peace palace: Hendrick, II, 164.

218 Root, “failures necessary steps”: Jessup, II, 70.

219 First issue of the Nation: Mar. 2, 1907.

220 “I suppose he will support”: Lee, II, 467.

221 Sir Edward Grey and all other diplomatic exchanges: Nevins (see Chap. 1), 249, 252, 258–59; Hull, 49–50; U. S., Scott, Vol. II; GP, XXIII, 7750, 7869, 7927, 7986.

222 Carnegie’s visit to Kaiser: Hend rick. II, 299–318.

223 Mahan, “prepossession of the public mind”: Puleston (see Chap. 3), 270, 280.

224 German officers drank to “The Day”: Usher, 1.

225 Visiting Englishman at spa near Bayreuth: Buchan (see Chap. 1), 55.

226 Root, “tendency toward war”: Jessup, II, 25.

227 Landsowne on Old Age Pensions: The Times, July 21, 1908.

228 Marquis de Soveral: Warwick, Discretions, 20; also F. Ponsonby, 216 (both Chap. 1).

229 “A damned good fellow”: q. Mowat, 297.

230 Baron Marschall’s appearance and habits: Gardiner, Pillars (see Chap. 1), 160–68; Barclay (see Chap. 4), 281. His opinions of delegates: to Bülow, July 28, 1907, GP, XXIII, 7961.

231 Austin’s letter to The Times: Oct. 17, 1907.

232 Domela Nieuwenhuis: Adam, 655.

233 Fry’s speech and comments: Hull, 72–74; White, II, 291.

234 Proceedings of the Conference: Scott, I, 110, et seq. Baron Marschall’s report to Bülow, GP, XXIII, 7963; Grey’s instructions on limiting “prospective liability” is No. 11 in F.O. correspondence, Cd. 3857.

235 Roosevelt, “I have not followed”: July 2, 1907, V, 700; “Utterly disgusted”: July 16, 1907, V, 720–21.

236 “Decayed Oriental states”: M. W. Hazeltine, “The Second Peace Conference,” North American Review, Nov., 1907.

237 “Was it a Peace Conference?”: q. Choate, 40.

238 “Gradual, tentative, delicate”: Choate, 22.

6. “Neroism Is in the Air”


ALDRICH, RICHARD (music critic of the New York Times for this period), Concert Life in New York, 1902–23, New York, Putnam’s, 1941.

BAUMONT, MAURICE, L’Affaire Eulenberg et les Origines de la guerre mondiale, Paris, Payot, 1933.

BEECHAM, SIR THOMAS, A Mingled Chime, New York, Putnam’s, 1943.

——, Frederick Delius, New York, Knopf, 1960.

BERTAUX, FELIX, A Panorama of German Literature, 1871–1931, tr., New York, Whittlesey, 1935.

BIGELOW, POULTNEY, Prussian Memories, 1864–1914, New York, Putnam’s, 1915.

BRANDES, GEORG, Friedrich Nietzsche, New York, Macmillan, n.d.

CLADEL, JUDITH, Rodin, New York, Harcourt, 1937.

*DEL MAR, NORMAN, Richard Strauss, New York, Free Press of Glencoe, 1962.

DUKES, ASHLEY, Modern Dramatists, Chicago, Sergel, 1912.

EKMAN, KARL, lean Sibelius, New York, Knopf, 1938.

FINCK, HENRY T., Grieg and His Music, London, John Lane, 1909.

*——, Richard Strauss, Boston, Little, Brown, 1917.

——, Success in Music, New York, Scribner’s, 1909.

GILMAN, LAWRENCE, Nature in Music and Other Studies, London, John Lane, 1914.

GOOCH, G. P., Germany, New York, Scribner’s, 1925.

GRIGORIEV, S. L. (stage manager for Diaghilev), The Diaghilev Ballet, 1909–29, London, Penguin Ed., 1960.

HAMBURGER, see Hofmannsthal.

HASKELL, ARNOLD L. (director of the Covent Garden Royal Ballet), Diagileff, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1935.

HELFFERICH, KARL, Germany’s Economic Progress and National Wealth, 1888–1913, Berlin, Stilke, 1913.

HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON, Selected Plays and Libretti, ed. Michael Hamburger, New York, Bollingen-Pantheon, 1963.

HUNEKER, JAMES, Overtones, New York, Scribner’s, 1904.

JEFFERSON, ALAN, The Operas of Richard Strauss in Britain, London, Putnam’s, 1963.

KARSAVINA, TAMARA, Theatre Street, London, Constable, 1948.

KESSLER, COUNT HARRY, Walter Rathenau, London, Howe, 1929.

KOHN, HANS, The Mind of Germany, New York, Scribner’s, 1960.

LAWTON, MARY, Schumann-Heink, New York, Macmillan, 1928.

LEHMANN, LOTTE, Five Operas and Richard Strauss, New York, Macmillan, 1964.

LOWIE, ROBERT HARRY, Toward Understanding Germany, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1954.

MAY, ARTHUR J., The Hapsburg Monarchy, Harvard Univ. Press, 1951.

MILLER, ANNA IRENE, The Independent Theatre in Europe, 1887 to the Present, New York, Long & Smith, 1931.

NEMIROVITCH -DANTCHENKO, VLADIMIR, My Life in the Russian Theatre, Boston, Little, Brown, 1936.

NEWMAN, ERNEST, Richard Strauss, London, John Lane, 1908. (With a valuable Memoir by Alfred Kalisch.)

NIJINSKY, ROMOLA, Nijinsky, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1934.

POLLARD, PERCIVAL, Masks and Minstrels of New Germany, Boston, Luce, 1911.

*ROLLAND, ROMAIN, Correspondance; Fragments de Journal (No. 3 in Cahiers Romain Rolland), Paris, Albin Michel, 1951.

——, “Souvenirs sur Richard Strauss,” in Les Œuvres Libres, Nouv. Serie, No. 27, Paris, 1948. (Much of this duplicates material in the Correspondance and Journal and parts of both appear in Rolland’s Musicians of Today, New York, Holt, 1914.)

ROSENFELD, PAUL, Musical Portraits, New York, Harcourt, 1920.

——, Discoveries of a Music Critic, New York, Harcourt, 1936.

SCHOENBERNER, FRANZ, Confessions of a European Intellectual, New York, Macmillan, 1946.

SHAW, GEORGE BERNARD, The Sanity of Art (originally published 1895), New York, Boni, 1907.

SHAW, STANLEY, William of Germany, New York, Macmillan, 1913.

SOKOLOVA, LYDIA, Dancing for Diaghilev, New York, Macmillan, 1961.

SPEYER, EDWARD, My Life and Friends, London, Cobden-Sanderson, 1937.

*STRAUSS, RICHARD, and HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON, tr., Correspondence, London, Collins, 1961.

STRAVINSKY, IGOR, Autobiography, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1936.

TERRY, ELLEN, The Russian Ballet, London, Sidgwick, 1913.

THOMAS, ROSE FAY, Memoirs of Theodore Thomas, New York, Moffat, Yard, 1911.

THOMPSON, OSCAR, Debussy, Man and Artist, New York, Dodd, Mead, 1937.

TOVEY, DONALD FRANCIS, A Musician Talks, 2 vols., Oxford Univ. Press, 1941.

VAN VECHTEN, CARL, “The Secret of the Russian Ballet” and “Igor Stravinsky: A New Composer,” in Music After the Great War and Other Studies, New York, Schirmer, 1915.

WERFEL, ALMA MAHLER, And the Bridge Is Love, New York, Harcourt, 1958.

WOOD, SIR HENRY, My Life of Music, London, Gollancz, 1938.

WYLIE, I. A. R., The Germans, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1911.

*ZWEIG, STEFAN, World of Yesterday, New York, Viking, 1943.


All biographical facts about Strauss not otherwise identified and all quoted comments about him by German critics and musicologists are from Finck. Separate references for comments or anecdotes by Rolland, Beecham, Newman, Mme Mahler (Werfel), Speyer, Stravinsky and others whose works are listed above are given only when the source is not obvious. By good fortune the celebration by major orchestras of Strauss’s centenary in 1964, the year in which this chapter was written, enabled me to hear all his major works within the space of several months. Many of the program notes for these concerts, though ephemeral and therefore not listed in the Bibliography, were useful.

1 “Tremble as they listened”: Rolland, Journal, 125.

2 Frankfurt’s musical life: Speyer, 79.

3 Bayreuth: Stravinsky, 60; Beecham, 55; Ekman, 125.

4 Shades of evening fell three times: Grove’s Dictionary of Music, “Program Music.”

5 “Oh, they are only imitators”: q. Speyer, 143.

6 “Stop Hanslick”: Werner Wolff, Anton Bruckner, New York, 1942, 103.

7 “So young, so modern”: q. Current Biography, 1944, “Strauss.”

8 “Positive horror of his countrymen”: Brandes, 113.

9 Rodin on Nietzsche: Anne Leslie, Rodin, New York, 1937, 200.

10 “Too much music in Germany”: Souvenirs, 232–33.

11 Brunhilde’s horse: Haskell, 156.

12 Philip Ernst: Current Biography. 1942, “Max Ernst.”

13 North and South Germans: Wylie, 29–38.

14 Max Liebermann on statues: Frederic William Wile, Men Around the Kaiser, Philadelphia, 1913, 168.

15 Berlin Landlady’s bill: Zweig, 113.

16 “Extremely rough”: Chirol (see Chap. 5), 266.

17 Berlin women: Wylie, 192–93.

18 Seven meals a day: However unlikely, this was the report of the American Ambassador, James W. Gerard, My Four Years in Germany, New York, 1917, 56.

19 Number of university students in Prussia: Charles Singer, el al., A History of Technology, Oxford Univ. Press, 1958, V, 787–88.

20 Barnum and Bailey’s circus: Dexter Fellows, This Way ta the Big Show, New York, 1936, 22; H. L. Watkins, Barnum and Bailey in the Old World, 1897–1901, 45. (I am indebted for these references to Mrs. Janise Shea.)

21 Kaiser at the Moscow Art Theater: Nemirovitch-Dantchenko. Material in this and the following four paragraphs is chiefly from the chapter “The Kaiser and the Arts” in the book by Stanley Shaw. The prize to Wildenbruch is from Lowie, 41; the Rhodes scholars from the Letters of Cecil Spring-Rice, II, 119; the adventure with Peer Gynt from Finck’s Grieg, 145–46.

22 “Bismarck has broken”: q. Kohn, 187–88.

23 Strauss’s interview with the Kaiser was told to Rolland, q. Del Mar, 280–81.

24 Strauss becomes engaged: ibid., 121–22.

25 Frau Strauss, character and habits: Lehmann, chaps. 2 and 3.

26 “Screaming like hell”: Del Mar, 182.

27 Toast at the Speyers’: Wood, 216.

28 “Jetzt gehst componieren”: q. William Leon Smyser, in The New Book of Modern Composers, ed. David Ewen, New York, 1961, 396. “Put down that pencil”: q. F. Zweig, Stefan Zweig, New York, 1946, 103.

29 “Neroism is in the air”: Journal, Jan. 22, 1898, 118.

30 “Arbeitsmann” as Socialist anthem: Pinson (see Chap. 5), 262.

31 Made critics pay for seats: Huneker, in NYT, Nov. 24, 1912.

32 Debussy, “If people insist”: Thompson, 183.

33 Sibelius, “Play the record again”: Told by William Golding, q. Maurice Dolbier, in New York Herald Tribune, Apr. 21, 1964.

34 Debussy on Strauss: Thompson, 182–83.

35 Strauss on Debussy: Caesar Searchinger, “Richard Strauss As I Knew Him,” Saturday Review of Literature, Oct. 29, 1949.

36 Sargent and gypsy band: Mount (see Chap. 1), 217.

37 Thomas, “the greatest musician”: Thomas, 502.

38 “Big, broad, ample and simple”: Charles Moore, The Life and Times of Charles Follen McKim, Boston, 1929, 85.

39 Tiffany’s house: Werfel, 47–48.

40 “A day in my family life”: Gilman, Harper’s Weekly, Mar. 9, 1907.

41 “All the sacred elephants in India”: Beecham, Delius, 129.

42 Grieg to Delius: ibid., 129.

43 “Lack of courtesy” at Strasbourg: Rolland, 213.

44 “Tyrian purple and tired silver”: Wilde to Frances Forbes Robertson, Feb. 23, 1893, Letters (see Chap. 1), 333.

45 Salome denounced by The Times: q. ibid., 335 n.

46 Beardsley’s drawings: ibid., 344, n. 3.

47 “See life as ferocious and sinister”: to A. C. Benson, June 29, 1896, Henry James: Letters to A. C. Benson, London, 1930, 35.

48 “A torrent of sex”: Horace B. Samuel, Modernities, London, 1914, 135.

49 Star of Bethlehem: Del Mar, 281.

50 Kaiserin’s hats: Mary Ethel McAuley, Germany in War Time, Chicago, 1917, 183; double bed: Palmer (see Chap. 5), 222; canceled Feuersnot: Del Mar, 236.

51 Kaiser on Salome and Strauss’s reply: Del Mar, 281.

52 Salome in New York: Outlook, Feb. 9, 1907; Gilman, Harper’s Weekly, Feb. 9, 1907; Aldrich, 172–79.

53 Salome in London: Beecham, 161, 168–73.

54 Von Hofmannsthal: Zweig, 46–48; Hamburger, xxvii; Bertaux, 95.

55 “Capua of the mind”: Bertaux, 92.

56 “Es gibt nur eine Kaiserstadt”: May, 309.

57 “Affably tolerant” and Franz Joseph never read a book: Zweig, 19, 21.

58 Roosevelt on the “Austrian gentleman”: q. Wharton (see Chap. 1), 277.

59 Karl Luger: Zweig, 105; May, 311.

60 Hofmannsthal’s notes on Greek themes: Hamburger, xxxii. The common assumption that Hofmannsthal’s Elektra was influenced by Freud is historical conclusion-jumping for which there is no evidence. Ernest Jones, Freud’s biographer, points out (Freud, I, 360, and II, 8) that the publication of The Interpretation of Dreams in Nov., 1899, awakened no interest in Viennese intellectual circles. Although Hofmannsthal owned a copy, there is no evidence when he acquired it and his correspondence does not discuss it. Hamburger, xxxiii.

61 “Summit of contemporary fame”: Dukes, 68.

62 Eulenberg affair: Baumont; Wolff (see Chap. 5).

63 Hulsen-Haeseler’s death: Zedlitz-Trutzschler, Robert, Graf von. Twelve Years at the Imperial German Court, New York, 1924. The episode is discussed in every biography of the Kaiser.

64 Rhodes Scholars: Spring-Rice, II, 119.

65 Professor Simmel: Schoenberner, 55–56.

66 University of Berlin centenary: ibid., 58.

67 Strauss’s income in 1908: Finck, Success in Music, 14.

68 Elektra rehearsals: Schumann Heink (Lawton, 322–25). According to this version, Strauss said, “I still can’t hear the Heink’s voice,” meaning, presumably, that he was addressing his “Louder!” to her. Finck, on the other hand, who says he obtained the story directly from Schumann-Heink herself, gives it the other way around, and his version is the one generally repeated. To the present author, it is a puzzle why Strauss should have wanted to drown out the singer’s voice in a part he himself had composed, but since I am not the first to find his actions occasionally baffling, I have given the accepted version of the incident.

69 Premiere of Elektra: Arthur Abell, in Musical Courier, Feb. 17, 1909; Hermann Bahr’s article, q. Rosenfeld, Discoveries, 141–42.

70 Elektra in London: Finck, 252–53; Beecham, 147; Jefferson, 22; GBS in the Nation, Mar. 19, 1910.

71 Strauss’s explanation for female Octavian: Lehmann, chap. 2.

72 Comtesse de Noailles, “something new”: q. Haskell, 184.

73 Rodin, “classical sculpture”: q. Albert E. Elsen, Rodin, New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1964.

74 “A soaring of feelings” on Blériot’s triumph: Zweig, 196.

75 Quoted descriptions of Rubinstein, Pavlova, Karsavina: Haskell, 188.

76 Bakst jumped on a chair: Grigoriev, 39.

77 Schéhérazade: Terry, 41–44.

78 Karsavina, vice “with verisimilitude”: Van Vechten, 81.

79 Premiere of Firebird: Unless otherwise stated, Stravinsky is the source for this and other performances of his works for the Ballet.

80 “It was exciting to be alive” and “night after night entranced”: Leonard Woolf, Beginning Again, New York, 1963–64, 37.

81 Premiere of Faun: Nijinsky, 172–74; Cladel, 218–21; Le Gaulois, May 30; Le Temps, May 31; Figaro, May 29–31; Current Lit., Aug., 1912, “The Faun That Has Startled Paris.”

82 Incident in Vienna: Nijinsky, 194–95.

83 Kaiser on Cleopatra: Stravinsky, 67.

84 Premiere of Sacre: Stravinsky, 72; Nijinsky, 202; Figaro, May 31; Le Temps, June 3; Le Gaulois, June 1, 1913; Van Vechten (q.v.) was the American who was hit on the head.

85 Kessler, “too scrupulous an accuracy”: q. Lit. Digest, June 20, 1914.

86 Crown Prince’s book: q. The Times. May 1, 1913.

87 “Muss-Preussen”: Ford (see Chap. 1), 402–3.

88 Rathenau’s “Festal Song”: Zukunft, Oct. 26, 1912, 128–36. The poem was signed “Herwart Raventhal.”

89 Zabern, “finis Germaniae” and “Keep it up!” (Immer feste darauf!): Wolff (see Chap. 5), 341–44. Full accounts of the Zabern affair are given by J. Kaestlé, l’Affaire de Saverne, Strasbourg, n.d., and Charles D. Hazen, Alsace-Lorraine Under German Rule, New York, 1917.

90 Gilman in January: North American Review, Jan., 1914.

91 Ballet’s London season of 1914: Annual Register, Part II, 73.

92 Night of the performance at Drury Lane: Siegfried Sassoon, The Weald of Youth, 245.

93 Strauss at Oxford: The Times, June 25, 1914.

7. Transfer of Power

(in addition to those listed for Chapter 1)

BIRKENHEAD, EARL OF, Contemporary Personalities, London, Cassell, 1924.

BIRKENHEAD, SECOND EARL OF, F. E., Earl of Birkenhead, by his son, London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1960.

BIRRELL, AUGUSTINE, Things Past Redress, London, Faber, 1937.

BROCKWAY, FENNER, Inside the Left, London, Allen & Unwin, 1942.

BRYCE, JAMES, VISCOUNT, The Hindrances to Good Citizenship (Yale Lectures), Yale Univ. Press, 1909.

CLYNES, JOHN ROBERT, Memoirs, Vol. I, London, Hutchinson, 1937.

FULFORD, ROGER, Votes for Women, London, Faber, 1957.

GARDINER, A. G., Portraits and Portents, New York, Harper, 1926.

HEARNSHAW, F. J. C., ed., Edwardian England, 1901–10, London, Benn, 1933.

HOBSON, JOHN ATKINSON, The Social Problem, London, Nisbet, 1901.

HUGHES, EMRYS, Keir Hardie, London, Allen & Unwin, 1956.

HYNDMAN, HENRY M., The Record of an Adventurous Life, New York, Macmillan, 1911.

JENKINS, ROY, Mr. Balfour’s Poodle, London, Heinemann, 1954.

JONES, THOMAS, Lloyd George, Harvard Univ. Press, 1951.

*MASTERMAN, C. F. G., The Condition of England, London, Methuen, 1909.

MASTERMAN, LUCY, C. F. G. Masterman: A Biography, London, Nicholson, 1939.

*MENDELSSOHN, PETER DE, The Age of Churchill, 1874–1911, London, Thames & Hudson, 1961.

NICOLSON, HAROLD, King George the Fifth, London, Constable, 1952.

NOWELL -SMITH, SIMON, ed., Edwardian England, 1901–14, Oxford Univ. Press, 1964.

PANKHURST, E. SYLVIA, The Suffragette, New York, Sturgis, 1911.

——, The Suffragette Movement (re-issue), London, Longmans, 1932.

POPE -HENNESSY, JAMES, Lord Crewe: The Likeness of a Liberal, London, Constable, 1955.

SAMUEL, HERBERT, Grooves of Change (English title: Memoirs), Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1946.

——, Liberalism, London, Richards, 1902.

SOMERVELL, D. C., The Reign of George the Fifth, New York, Harcourt, 1935.

SPENDER, J. A., Life of H. H. Asquith, 2 vols., London, Hutchinson, 1932.

TROTTER, WILFRED, Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, London, Allen & Unwin, 1916 (also Oxford Univ. Press, 1953, with a Foreword by F. M. R. Walshe).

ULLSWATER, VISCOUNT (JAMES LOWTHER), A Speaker’s Commentaries, 2 vols., London, Arnold, 1925.

WALLAS, GRAHAM, Human Nature in Politics, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1909 (also 3rd ed., New York, Knopf, 1921).

WEBB, BEATRICE, Our Partnership, London, Longmans, 1948.

WELLS, H. G., Experiment in Autobiography, New York, Macmillan, 1934.

WILLIAMS, MRS . HWFA (FLORENCE), It Was Such Fun, London, Hutchinson, 1935.

(For all sources not listed above, see Chap. 1)

1 Chinese Slavery: Lyttelton, 320–21; Pope-Hennessy, 69; Wallas, 127; Hearnshaw, 94.

2 Yellow press: the phrase was in use in England at that time: Lucy Master-man, 216.

3 “Outdoor relief for the aristocracy”: q. Cecil, I, 167.

4 Education Act, “greatest betrayal”: q. Adams, 123.

5 Economist, a matter of £.s.d.: q. Adams, 103.

6 One water faucet and one privy: This and subsequent facts about the living conditions of the poor are from the chapter “Domestic Life,” by Marghanita Laski, in Nowell-Smith.

7 Contract labour in British Guiana: Alfred Lyttelton speaking in the House of Commons, March 21, 1904, demonstrated that these contracts, negotiated under Gladstone and Rosebery, were for longer duration (five years as against three) and more severe conditions than the South African contracts. (Hansard, IV series, v. 132, 283 ff.).

8 Cries of “Rat!”: Mackintosh, 222.

9 Balfour on Tariff issue: Fitzroy, I, 191, 220; Spender, C.-B., II, 102.

10 Cust quoted: Sir Ronald Storrs, Memoirs, 37.

11 “Not to go out of office”: Young, 232.

12 “In chronic poverty”: Hobson, 12.

13 Conditions at Shawfield Chemical Works: Hughes, 91.

14 Hauled off to a day in gaol: Gompers (see Chap. 8), 29–30.

15 Army lowered minimum height: Nowell-Smith, 181.

16 Wells depicted it: Autobiography, 550.

17 A’s and B’s: Lord Beveridge, Power and Influence, 66–67.

18 William Morris, “gradually permeating”: Hunter (see Chap. 8), 97.

19 Beatrice Webb contemplated marrying Chamberlain: Margaret Cole, Beatrice Webb, New York, 1946, 21.

20 “I could not carry on”: q. Hesketh Pearson, Shaw, 68; “A slave class”: Hyndman, 397.

21 Hyndman, a Socialist from spite: White (see Chap. 5), I, 98.

22 Clemenceau, “a bourgeois class”: q. Hyndman, 300.

23 “Eternal verities irritate him”: Hunter, 120.

24 Keir Hardie: Hughes, passim; Brockway, 17–18.

25 “Well fed beasts” and “Every day in Rotten Row”: Hunter, 230.

26 “Religious necessity” and strikes as “outlet”: Clynes, 83, 85.

27 “If Burns with 80,000 men”: q. Webb, 23.

28 ILP’s declared aims: Hughes, 66–67.

29 “Most costly funeral” and Garvin quoted: Hughes, 76.

30 Fabians, “not in our line”: Edward Pease, q. Halévy, V, 263, n. 2.

31 “Imperfections of the Social Order”: Aug. 23, 1902.

32 “Mr. Balfour, coming back from dinner”: Parliamentary correspondent of the Daily News, q. Hughes, 113.

33 MacDonald-Gladstone secret pact: Mendelssohn, 322.

34 “Go the Tory way”: Hughes, 69.

35 “Hideous abnormality”: Willoughby de Broke, 249.

36 Burns congratulates C.-B.: Webb, 325; reminds Grey: q. Lucy Masterman, 112.

37 Balfour and Weizmann: Dugdale, I, chap. 19; Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error, New York, 1949, chap. 8.

38 Friend saw him “seriously upset”: Newton, Retrospection, 146–47.

39 Balfour’s letters on Election results: Letter to Knollys, q. in full in Lee, II, 449; others in Esher, II, 136; Young, 255.

40 “Like a second footman”: Dugdale, II, 49.

41 Blatchford predicted: q. The Times, Jan. 19, 1906.

42 “Never saying anything clever!”: Marsh, 150.

43 Categories of new M.P.’s: Jenkins, 7.

44 Few in “unconventional dress”: Newton, Retrospection, 149; Irish members’ bad manners: ibid., 99.

45 C.-B. impervious to Balfour’s charm: Birrell, 243.

46 “England is based on commerce”: q. Gardiner, Prophets, 136.

47 “Bring the sledgehammer”: Gardiner, Prophets, 54.

48 Took his own wife into dinner: Blunt, II, 300.

49 “No egotism, no vanity”: q. Gardiner, Pillars, 122.

50 Churchill motivated by Mrs. Everest: Roving Commission, 73. All subsequent statements by Churchill, unless otherwise noted, are from Mendelssohn.

51 F. E. Smith: Gardiner, Pillars, 95–103; Portraits, 122–28.

52 Salisbury on coming clash of Lords and Commons: Margot Asquith, 157; H. H. Asquith, Fifty Years, I, 174.

53 Conservatives “should still control”: The Times, Jan. 16, 1906.

54 Balfour warns Lansdowne: Newton, Lansdowne, 354.

55 “Something will happen”: at Llanelly, Sept. 29, 1906, Lee, II, 456.

56 Curzon “so infinitely superior”: Newton, Retrospection, 161.

57 Loreburn: Willoughby de Broke, 260; Curzon, Subjects of the Day, 228.

58 Rosebery, “eye like a fish”: F. Ponsonby, 382.

59 Churchill, in the Nation: Mar. 9, 1907.

60 Balfour on “hereditary qualification”: q. Young, 266.

61 “Portcullis” and “poodle”: These phrases graced the debate on the Lords’ rejection of the Licensing Bill, June 24, 1907.

62 Morley recalled Gladstone saying: q. Esher, II, 303.

63 “Backwoodsmen” meet at Lansdowne House: Willoughby de Broke, 246–47.

64 Churchill “perfectly furious”: Lucy Masterman, 114.

65 Victor Grayson: Brockway, 24–25; Halévy, VI, 105.

66 Kaiser’s proposal to save England: Blunt, II, 210.

67 King Edward on “hard times”: q. Magnus, 417.

68 Invasion psychosis: I. F. Clark, “The Shape of Wars to Come,” History Today, Feb., 1965.

69 Henry James, chimney pots: Jan. 8, 1909, Letters, ed. Percy Lubbock, New York, 1920, II, 121.

70 Suffragettes: In addition to Pankhurst and Fulford, the list of Suffragette assaults is most conveniently found in successive volumes of the Annual Register. The Albert Hall meeting is quoted from Nevinson, More Changes, 321–25, as is also “Those bipeds!”: 306.

71 A gathering pessimism: Masterman, 84, 120, 289; Bryce, 15, 39, 228; Hobson and Hobhouse, q. C. H. Driver, “Political Ideas,” in Hearnshaw; Trotter described: DNB; quoted: 47; Wallas described: Wells, 509, 511; Cole, 222; quoted: 284–85.

72 “Cantankerous and uncomfortable”: DNB, Lowther.

73 “We all thought Papa would die”: Cooper, 11.

74 The Limehouse speech: July 30, 1909. The King’s displeasure was expressed in a letter to Lord Crewe, q. in full, Pope-Hennessy, 72–73. Other reactions and comments chiefly from the Annual Register. Rosebery’s Glasgow speech in Crewe, 511–12; Kipling’s poem appeared in the Morning Post, June 28, 1909, and only once since, in the Definitive Edition of his Verse, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1940. “Foolish and mean speeches”: q. Magnus, 431.

75 “Now King, you have won the Derby”: Fitzroy, I, 379.

76 Balfour and Salisbury on Finance Bill: Dugdale, II, 56; Annual Register, 1909, 118.

77 ff. Lords debate the Budget, et seq.: As the English love nothing so much as a political crisis, the literature on the Budget-Parliament Bill crisis is so extensive that it cannot be missed, or even avoided. In the recent publication of Churchill As I Knew Him, by Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, Asquith’s daughter, it is still going on. Every biography or autobiography of the principal figures involved and every political memoir of the period discuss it, the major sources being: Newton’s Lansdowne, Young’s Balfour, Spender’s Asquith, Lee’s Edward VII, Nicolson’s George V, Wilson-Fox’s Halsbury, Pope-Hennessy’s Crewe, Ronaldshay’s Curzon, Crewe’s Rosebery, Willoughby de Broke’s Memoirs and Roy Jenkins’ book on the whole affair, Mr. Balfour’s Poodle. The major parliamentary debates were quoted fully in The Times as well as verbatim in Hansard, and the big scenes were described at length and in detail in the daily and periodical press. For material in the following pages, therefore, references are given only for odd items whose source might be hard to locate.

78 Haldane on public apathy: q. Annual Register, 245.

79 Speaker Lowther on the Irish: Ullswater, II, 85; “sinister and powerful” and “direct, obvious”: Morley, II, 349–50.

80 “Antique bantam”: from a poem by an admirer which appeared in the Morning Post, q. Pope-Hennessy, 123.

81 Charwoman’s song: Sitwell, Great Morning, 57.

82 “He kept things together somehow”: Sackville-West, 307.

83 Laureate’s poem: Austin, II, 292.

84 “Our glorified grocers”: Lucy Masterman, 200, told to her by Lloyd George.

85 Asquith’s list: Spender, Asquith, I, Appendix.

86 “We are in grim earnest”: Grooves of Change, 39.

87 Transport strike, “it is revolution!” q. Halévy, VI, 456.

88 Tom Mann imprisoned: Clynes, 154.

89 Even the heat was “splendid”: Sir Edward Grey, Twenty-Five Years, London, 1925, I, 238.

90 Lady Michelham’s party: Williams, 192–93.

91 “Your bloody palace”: Birkenhead, 175.

92 “The golden sovereigns”: Cyril Connolly, reviewing Nowell-Smith, The Sunday Times, Oct. 18, 1964.

93 Last horse-drawn bus and preponderance of motor-taxis: Somervell, 28; Nowell-Smith, 122.

94 Hugh Cecil: Churchill, 201; also Churchill’s Amid These Storms, New York, 1932, 55; also Gardiner, Pillars, 39.

95 The Cecil scene: besides accounts in the daily press there are illustrations of the scene in Punch, Aug. 2 and 16; and Illus. London News, July 29.

96 “Disorderly assembly,” for the first time: The Times, parl. corres., July 25, 1911.

97 Of six peers at dinner, none had made up his mind: Midleton, 275.

98 “You’ve forgotten the Parliament Bill”: Christopher Hassall, Edward Marsh, London, 1959, 173–74.

99 “A real danger” and chagrined peer: Newton, Retrospection, 187.

100 Balfour, “nothing but politicians”: q. Young, 315.

101 Asquith’s tribute: Guildhall speech, Nov. 9, Fifty Years, II, 129–31.

102 Wyndham, “ice age”: Blunt, II, 339.

8. The Death of Jaurès


BALABANOFF, ANGELICA, My Life as a Rebel, New York, Harper, 1938.

BEER, MAX, The General History of Socialism and Social Struggles, Vol. II, New York, Russell & Russell, 1957.

BERNSTEIN, EDOUARD, My Years of Exile, New York, Harcourt, 1921.

BRAUNTHAL, JULIUS, In Search of the Millennium, London, Gollancz, 1945.

COLE, G. D. H., A History of Socialist Thought, Vol. III, The Second International, 1889–1914, Parts I and II, London, Macmillan, 1956.

COLEMAN, MC ALISTER, Eugene V. Debs, New York, Greenberg, 1930.

DE LEON, DANIEL, Flashlights of the Amsterdam Congress, New York, Labor News, 1929.

DESMOND, SHAW, The Edwardian Story, London, Rockliff, 1949.

DULLES, FOSTER RHEA, Labor in America, New York, Crowell, 1960.

(L’EGLANTINE), Jean Jaurès; Feuilles Eparses, Brussels, l’Eglantine, 1924.

FISCHER, LOUIS, The Life of Lenin, New York, Harper, 1964.

FYFE, HAMILTON, Keir Hardie, London, Duckworth, 1935.

GAY, PETER, The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism: Bernstein’s Challenge to Marx, New York, Collier, 1962.

GINGER, RAY, The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene Debs, Rutgers Univ. Press, 1949.

*GOLDBERG, HARVEY, The Life of Jean Jaurès, Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1962.

GOMPERS, SAMUEL, Labour in Europe and America, New York, Harper, 1910. (For autobiography, see Chap. 3.)

HARVEY, ROWLAND HILL, Samuel Gompers, Stanford Univ. Press, 1935.

HENDERSON, ARCHIBALD, Bernard Shaw, New York, Appleton, 1932.

HILLQUIT, MORRIS, Loose Leaves from a Busy Life, New York, Macmillan, 1934.

*HUNTER, ROBERT, Socialists at Work, New York, Macmillan, 1908.

INTERNATIONAL SOCIALIST CONGRESS, Proceedings; published variously. Nos. 1, 1889, Paris, and 3, 1893, Zurich, are in German, entitled Protokoll. No. 4, 1896, London, is in English; Nos. 2 and 5–8 are in French, entitled Compte rendu analytique. No. 5 was published by the Cahiers de la Quinzaine, Paris, 1901.

JAURÈS, JEAN, Bernstein et l’Evolution de la Méthode socialiste (text of lecture delivered to Socialist Student Conference, February 10, 1900. Erroneously dated 1910). Paris, Socialist Party pamphlet, 1926.

JOLL, JAMES, The Second International, 1889–1914, London, Weidenfeld, 1955.

KLEENE, G. A., “Bernstein vs. ‘Old-School’ Marxism,” Annals of Am. Academy, November, 1901, 1–29.

KRUPSKAYA, NADEZHDA K., Memories of Lenin, 2 vols., tr., New York, International, 1930.

LORWIN, LEWIS, L., Labor and Internationalism, New York, Brookings, 1929.

——, The International Labor Movement, revised ed. of the above, New York, Harper, 1953.

MANN, TOM, Memoirs, London, Labour Publishing Co., 1923.

ORTH, SAMUEL P., Socialism and Democracy in Europe, New York, Holt, 1913.

ROSENBERG, ARTHUR, The Birth of the German Republic, 1871–1918, New York, Russell & Russell, 1962.

SCHORSKE, CARL E., German Social Democracy, 1905–17, Harvard Univ. Press, 1955.

STEWART, WILLIAM, J. Keir Hardie, London, ILP, 1921.

SUAREZ, GEORGES, Briand, sa vie, son œuvre, Vols. I and II, Paris, Plon, 1938.

TROTSKY, LEON, My Life, New York, Scribner’s, 1930.

*VANDERVELDE, EMILE, Souvenirs d’un Militant Socialiste, Paris, Denoël, 1939.

VAYO, JULIO ALVAREZ DEL, The Last Optimist, New York, Viking, 1950.


Unless otherwise stated all quotations by Jaurès are from Goldberg, by Debs from Ginger, by Bernstein from Gay, by Gompers, in the case of biographical facts, from his autobiography, and in the case of comments on European labour, from his Labour in Europe and America; by Vandervelde, DeLeon and others, following the principle already established, from their own works.

103 In “almost religious silence”: Hunter, 319.

104 Vienna “paralyzed with fright”: Zweig (see Chap. 6), 61; Braunthal, 56.

105 Comments on Markham’s poem: Sullivan (see Chap. 3), II, 236–47.

106 Clemenceau on Fourmies: Alexandre Zevaès, Histoire de la 3me République, Paris, 1926, 342.

107 Taft on the Pullman strike: DAB, Taft.

108 Marxists accused the French Possibilists: Joll, 33.

109 “Don’t delay the revolution!”: Bülow (see Chap. 5), I, 672. Miquel in later life became a Conservative and Minister of Finance, 1890–1900.

110 “Nothing if not revolution”: DeLeon, 192.

111 Applause for Pablo Iglesias: Hyndman, 396.

112 Cipriani described: Vandervelde, 44.

113 Hunter on the Valley of the Tirano: in Socialists at Work, 55.

114 “Damned wantlessness of the poor”: The phrase was circulating at the time without a clear claim as to authorship. Minus the adjective it appeared anonymously in a Fabian Tract of 1884, Why Are the Many Poor, and has been ascribed by Professor Gay in his book on Bernstein to William Morris. As Verdammte Bedürfnislosigkeit it was quoted by Shaw in his Preface to Major Barbara, without attribution but suggesting a German origin. Although some German scholars are reluctant to specify an origin, the attribution to Lassalle is made on the authority of George Lichtheim in a letter to the author.

115 English pamphlet on Congress of 1896: Walter Crane, Cartoons for the Cause, 1886–96, London, 1896.

116 Zurich Congress: Vandervelde, 144.

117 Shaw on Liebknecht: Henderson, 220.

118 Kaiser on the Socialists: Michael Balfour, The Kaiser and His Times, London, 1964, 159.

119 “By Balfour to the Primrose League”: Joll, 76.

120 “General Strike is general nonsense”: ibid., 53, n. 2.

121 May Day in Munich: Krupskaya, I, 67.

122 Bebel a “shadow-Kaiser”: Rosenberg, 44.

123 Mommsen on Bebel: Hunter, 227; “savage accents”: ibid., 226; “deadly enemy”: q. Pinson, 212; “Look at those fellows”: Chirol (see Chap. 5), 274.

124 Adler characteristics: Braunthal. Trotsky, Balabanoff, Joll, 38; “Despotism mitigated by slovenliness”: Braunthal, 52.

125 “More profound than doctrine”: Hunter, 134.

126 Vandervelde “gushed” over: Balabanoff, 15.

127 “Firmly and recklessly”: Vandervelde, 46.

128 “Torquemada in eyeglasses”: Nomad. Rebels (see Chap. 2). 65.

129 “What will we Socialists do … ?”: Goldberg, 226.

130 Jaurès, “Jubilant and humorous”: Hyndman, 398; “His shoulders shook” and discussed astronomy at dinner party: Severine, in l’Eglantine, 7–8; “Thinks with his beard”: Clermont-Tonnerre (see Chap. 4), II, 251.

131 Vaillant on Jaurès: Hunter, 79.

132 Clemenceau, “all the verbs”: Roman (see Chap. 4), 91.

133 The London Congress: Vandervelde, 145.

134 Army Colonel in a Chicago club: Ginger, 139.

135 Injunction advised by Grosscup and Wood: Allan Nevins, Grover Cleveland, New York, 1932, 618.

136 Roosevelt on “shooting”: Pringle (see Chap. 3), 164.

137 Theodore Debs’s gold watch: Coleman, 201.

138 “Almost grotesque”: Hillquit, 93.

139 “Give ’em hell, Sam”: Harvey.

140 “These middle class issues”: q. Dulles, 181.

141 “I am a working man”: Hillquit, 95.

142 “I confess openly …”: Braunthal, 91; Gay, 74.

143 It was said of Adler: DeLeon, 37; his letter to Bernstein: Braunthal, 100.

144 “Tall, thin, desiccated” and “Down with Liebknecht!”: Goldberg, 262.

145 Erhard Auer’s regret: DeLeon, 66–67.

146 Knee-breeches debate at Dresden: Gay, 232, n. 39.

147 Rosa Luxemburg: Balabanoff, 22; Vayo, 61.

148 Georg Ledebour’s estimate: Trotsky, 215.

149 Dresden Resolution: Pinson, 215–16.

150Weltpolitik without war”: ibid., 214.

151 Amsterdam Congress: Vandervelde, 152–62; DeLeon, passim.

152 Bebel would shoulder a rifle: Vandervelde, 161.

153 Isvolsky on Briand and Viviani: Goldberg, 455.

154 “Fiendish massacre”: Clynes, 103.

155 Italians hail Russian Revolution: Balabanoff, 54.

156 Austrian suffrage strike: Braunthal, 64–68.

157 “Property, property, property”: q. Goldberg, 363.

158 Debs’s letter of December, 1904: Coleman, 227–28.

159 “Bundle of primitive instincts”: q. Dulles, 211.

160 “Slowly plowed its way”: Ernest Poole, q. Ginger, 281.

161 Mannheim Congress: Schorske, 56.

162 Noske’s speech in Reichstag: Pinson, 215.

163 Hervé; “We shall reply …”: D. W. Brogan. France Under the Republic, 429.

164 “At every railroad station”: M. Auclair, La Vie de Jean Jaurès, q. Goldberg, 381.

165 Hatfield visit: Vandervelde, in l’Eglantine, 38–40.

166 Mussolini described: Desmond, 207.

167 Police in balloons over Stuttgart: The Times, Aug. 19 and 20, 1907.

168 Queich incident: Balabanoff, 82; Trotsky, 205.

169 Georg von Vollmar quoted: Pinson, 215–16.

170 Clemenceau on Jaurès’ fate: in l’Homme Libre, Aug. 2, 1914.

171 “Infuriated” workers would rise: Braunthal, 106.

172 “Do not fool yourselves”: Desmond, 206.

173 Jaurès at Tubingen: Vandervelde, 167.

174 “That’s Lenin”: q. Fischer, 58.

175 Lenin’s parleys with Bebel: Supplied to the author by Louis Fischer from Lenin’s “The International Socialist Congress at Stuttgart,” Works, 5th ed., Moscow, 1961, XVI, 67–74, 514–15.

176 Stuttgart Resolution: Beer, II, 156.

177 Arbeiter-Zeitung of Vienna: q. Trotsky, 211.

178 Blatchford and Hyndman for conscription: Halévy (see Chap. 1), VI, 395.

179 Hardie believed “absolutely”: Clynes, 25.

180 “Ripe sonority”: report in Le Peuple, q. Vandervelde, 170.

181 8,000,000 Socialist voters: The Times, Aug. 31, 1910.

182 Hardie at Copenhagen: Cole, 83–84; Hughes, 197–98; Stewart, 302.

183 ITF and Boer War: Information supplied by K. A. Golding, Research Secretary, ITF, London.

184 ITF strike of 1911: Prior discussion of the strike at Copenhagen in 1910 from The Times, Aug. 25–29. Subsequent developments from Mr. Golding.

185 German Socialism appeared “irresistible”: Braunthal, 46.

186 Scheidemann debate: The Times, Feb. 19, Mar. 9, 1912.

187 “We revolutionaries?”: Trotsky, 213.

188 Basle Cathedral, “dangerous” consequences: Annual Register, 1912, 367.

189 Jaurès’ speech: Joll, 155.

190 A survey of French student life: Les Jeunes Gens d’Aujourd’hui, q. Wolff (see Chap. 5), 275.

191 “If these were my last words”: Brockway, 39.

192 Vorwärts on Austrian ultimatum: Vayo, 78.

193 “We relied on Jaurès”: Zweig (see Chap. 6), 199.

194 Jouhaux’s proposal to Legien: Joll, 162.

195 La Bataille Syndicaliste: ibid., 161.

196 Brussels Conference: Balabanoff, 4, 114–18; Vandervelde, 171; Stewart, 340; Joll, 164.

197 Hardie, “Only the binding together”: Fyfe, 136.

198 Jean Longuet quoted: Goldberg, 467.

199 Bethmann-Hollweg: Joll, 167.

200 Jaurès’ death: Humanité, Figaro, Echo de Paris, Aug.1/2.

201 Spanish Socialist in Leipzig: Vayo, 81.

202 Bernstein, “golden bridge”: Hans Peter Hanssen, Diary of a Dying Empire, Indiana Univ. Press, 1955, 15.

203 Kaiser, Deschanel, Jouhaux: The Times, Echo de Paris, Aug. 5.


1 Graham Wallas: Preface to 3rd ed. of Human Nature in Politics, 1921.

2 Emile Verhaeren: La Belgique sanglante, Paris, 1915, Dédicace, unpaged.

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