Modern history

The Pledge: A History of the Pledge of Allegiance

The Pledge: A History of the Pledge of Allegiance

For more than a century, reciting the Pledge of Allegiance has been a central part of the American Experience. And perhaps because of its ubiquity, this simple flag salute has served not only as a unifying ritual but also as a lightning rod for bitter controversy.

Congress's 1954 decision to add "under God" to the Pledge has made it the focus of three U.S. Supreme Court cases and at least one other landmark appellate decision. The debate continues today, but along with it exists a widely held admiration and support for this simple affirmation of our shared patriotism.

Chapter 1. AN AMERICAN RITUAL

Chapter 2. THE ERA OF THE PLEDGE

Chapter 3. HOW IT HAPPENED

Chapter 4. THE REVEREND FRANCIS BELLAMY

Chapter 5. A NATIONAL CELEBRATION

Chapter 6. I PLEDGE ALLEGIANCE: THE FABRIC OF LIFE

Chapter 7. WHO WROTE IT?

Chapter 8. THE COURTS AND THE CONSTITUTION

Chapter 9. A VICTORY FOR JEHOVAH

Chapter 10. POLITICAL BATTLES

Chapter 11. UNDER GOD

Chapter 12. THE ROLE OF THE PLEDGE TODAY

BIBLIOGRAPHY