Modern history

Notes

INTRODUCTION

1. Cambon, vol. 3, p. 292.

2. Temperley, History, vol. 1, pp. 243–46.

3. Webster, p. 15.

4. Ribot, p. 255.

5. Callwell, vol. 2, p. 197.

CHAPTER 1: WOODROW WILSON COMES TO EUROPE

1. Beers, p. 148; Seymour, p. 8; Shotwell, pp. 67–69.

2. Willert, p. 166.

3. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 128–37; Walworth, Woodrow Wilson, vol. 2, p. 215.

4. Link, Road to the White House, pp. 2–4; Nordholt, pp. 13, 33.

5. Villard, p. 226; Library of Congress, Baker Papers, Group 1, notebooks, 8.3.19.

6. C. T. Thompson, p. 190; F. Palmer, p. 400.

7. Beers, pp. 52–53, 100; Armstrong, p. 104; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 9; F. Palmer, p. 363.

8. Bailey, pp. 87, 92–101; House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, pp. 220–26.

9. Nordholt, p. 195; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 18.10.18.

10. Fried, p. 309.

11. PWW, vol. 55, p. 120; vol. 56, p. 128; Scott, p. 386.

12. Seymour, pp. 9–10.

13. Link, Confusions and Crises, pp. 11–14.

14. National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, vol. 2, letter of 20.3.19; Yale University Library, Auchincloss Papers, Group 580, series I, diary, 22.12.18; Hecksher, pp. 347–53, 498–99.

15. Seymour, pp. 22–26; Shotwell, pp. 75–78; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 41–44.

16. Scott, p. 367; C. T. Thompson, p. 369.

17. Seymour, p. 24.

18. Link, The New Freedom, pp. 324–27; Department of State, Lansing Papers, vol. 2, p. 461.

19. Department of State, Lansing Papers, vol. 2, pp. 461–62; Link, The New Freedom, pp. 375, 386.

20. Link, The New Freedom, pp. 67, 398; British Library, Balfour Papers, 49734/186–192.

21. Zivojinovic, p. 44; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 46.

22. Seymour, p. 25.

23. Roosevelt, p. 97; Fried, pp. 309, 318, 332; Sharp, “The Genie,” passim; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 275; PWW, vol. 55, p. 463; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 294.

24. Lansing, Peace Negotiations, pp. 97–98; Temperley, History, vol. 1, p. 439.

25. Sharp, “The Genie,” p. 10; Wambaugh, vol. 1, pp. 3–5, 13–14, 17; Davies, White Eagle, Red Star, p. 35; FRUS, vol. 12, p. 515.

26. Temperley, History, vol. 4, p. 429; Spector, p. 243.

27. Seymour, p. 25.

28. Link, Wilson the Diplomatist, pp. 14–15, 96–97; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 5.11.18.

29. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 296, 407.

30. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 43; Seymour, p. 23; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 223–24.

31. Zeine, p. 85, n. 11; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 35–42; Nordholt, pp. 285–86; Bailey, pp. 27–28; PWW, vol. 54, p. 432; R. W. Curry, pp. 210–11; Schwabe, Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, and Peacemaking, pp. 180–81.

32. PWW, vol. 53, pp. 378–79, 397; Seymour, pp. 38–39; Shotwell, pp. 81–84.

33. Shotwell, pp. 85–88; PWW, vol. 53, pp. 382–84.

CHAPTER 2: FIRST IMPRESSIONS

1. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 23.12.18.

2. George and George, pp. 76–79.

3. Link, New Freedom, p. 95; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 16.12.18; Esposito, pp. 741–56; George and George, p. 231.

4. Link, New Freedom, pp. 93–94; George and George, pp. 92–93.

5. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 88; Yale University Library, House Papers, series II, c, diary.

6. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 1, pp. 93–95; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 78; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 245–46; Yale University Library, House diary, 1.4.19; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 3.4.19.

7. See D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 6, chapter 85; D. Stevenson, First World War, pp. 225–35; Rudin, pp. 271–83.

8. Floto, p. 78; FRUS, vol. 1, p. 333.

9. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, pp. 252–53.

10. Walworth, Woodrow Wilson, vol. 2, p. 217; Tillman, p. 66; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 181–82.

11. PWW, vol. 53, p. 520; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 185–201.

12. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 149–50, pp. 193–94.

13. PWW, vol. 53, pp. 707–8; vol. 54, p. 175.

14. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 386–96; House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 243, n. 1; PWW, vol. 54, p. 235; Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N72, Conférence de la Paix, memorandum of 18.12.18; C. T. Thompson, pp. 56–58; Shotwell, p. 100, n. 2.

15. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 132; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 68; F. Stevenson, p. 192; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 41; Watson, pp. 401–7; D. Stevenson, “France at the Peace Conference,” p. 13.

16. Times, 21.12.18.

17. Seymour, p. 42; Shotwell, p. 88; FRUS, vol. 11, p. 498; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 225; Toynbee, pp. 200–2.

18. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, pp. 269–71; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 18.12.18.

CHAPTER 3: PARIS

1. National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, letter of 14.1.19; Shotwell, pp. 112, 115.

2. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, pp. 218–19; FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 119–23; Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N72, Conférence de la Paix, Pichon to Jusserand, 7.11.18; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 147–48; Yale University Library, Wiseman Papers, series I, 7/178, Peace Conference diary, 19.1.19.

3. Williams, p. 246; Watson, p. 220.

4. Kleine-Ahlbrandt, p. 39.

5. Aldcroft, Versailles to Wall Street, pp. 13–19.

6. Nevakivi, p. 109; Laroche, pp. 58–60; Keylor, “Versailles and International Diplomacy,” p. 483, n. 41; Guiral, p. 309.

7. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 118; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 20; Yale University Library, House diary, 28.4.19; Orlando, p. 369.

8. F. Stevenson, p. 286.

9. Williams, p. 28.

10. Ibid., pp. 16, 280–82.

11. Ibid., p. 278.

12. Watson, p. 136; F. Stevenson, p. 212; D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 5, p. 2675.

13. Williams, pp. 249, 254–55.

14. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 5, p. 2681; Williams, pp. 72–74, 165; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 2, p. 343, vol. 3, p. 5.

15. Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, p. 30; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 206; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 274; Watson, pp. 338–39; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix, 60 (Conditions de la Paix), notes préliminaires sur la réorganisation de l’Allemagne, 27.10.17.

16. Churchill College, Hankey Papers, 4/11, Hankey to Esher, 10.2.19; Headlam-Morley, p. 102; Library of Congress, Beer Collection, diary, 1.3.19; Yale University Library, House diary, 24.1.19.

17. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 20.

18. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 106; Watson, pp. 278–79, 341; Williams, pp. 203–4; PWW, vol. 57, p. 513; F. Lloyd George, p. 155.

19. Hardinge, p. 242; F. Stevenson, p. 192; Nitti, p. 95.

20. Repington, p. 389; Williams, p. 286; Keiger, pp. 92, 98, 210, 223; Adamthwaite, p. 8; Hughes, Policies and Potentates, pp. 223–27; Watson, pp. 250–58.

21. Keiger, pp. 234–36, 246–47, 251–52, 255, 256–59.

22. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 191; Duroselle, pp. 721–28.

CHAPTER 4: LLOYD GEORGE AND THE BRITISH EMPIRE DELEGATION

1. Watson, p. 226; D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 5, pp. 2678–79, 2686; Mordacq, Clemenceau au soir de sa vie, vol. 1, pp. 256–57.

2. Rowland, p. 419; Cecil, Great Experiment, p. 67.

3. Grigg, Young Lloyd George, pp. 100–2.

4. Grigg, From Peace to War, p. 225; Churchill, Aftermath, pp. 4–5.

5. Grigg, Young Lloyd George, pp. 210–12.

6. Harrod, p. 257.

7. Grigg, Young Lloyd George, p. 67.

8. Ibid., pp. 33–36.

9. Grigg, The People’s Champion, p. 338; Harrod, p. 240.

10. Grigg, The People’s Champion, p. 77.

11. Ibid., p. 358.

12. Ibid., p. 125, n. 3.

13. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Europe, 1918–1929, EU18–40, Grande Bretagne, vol. 7, Les comptes-courants, 1.3.23; PWW, vol. 58, p. 103; Grigg, The People’s Champion, pp. 327–30.

14. Grigg, From Peace to War, pp. 212, 478; Dugdale, pp. 131–33.

15. Beaverbrook, p. 303; Grigg, From Peace to War, p. 477.

16. Dockrill and Steiner, pp. 55–86; Dugdale, p. 199.

17. Fry, vol. 1, pp. 246–48, 255; Amery, vol. 1, p. 240; Vansittart, p. 248; Grigg, From Peace to War, p. 420.

18. Dockrill and Steiner, p. 77.

19. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 42.

20. Grigg, Young Lloyd George, pp. 212, 285, 296–97.

21. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 4, pp. 1731–32.

22. Cook, p. 385; MacMillan, pp. 67–69, 72–73; Fitzhardinge, The Little Digger, vol. 2, pp. 91–94, 300; D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 4, p. 1744.

23. Fitzhardinge, Little Digger, vol. 2, p. 354; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/28/2/9; Roskill, vol. 2, pp. 29–30; R. C. Brown, vol. 2, p. 152.

24. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 482–86, 531–33; Public Record Office, CAB29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 1 (13.1.19).

25. Zimmern, p. 30; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, 490; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/5/5, Botha to Lloyd George, 15.5.19; Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 240; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix, 1914–1920, vol. 287, travaux préparatoires de la conférence, Paul Cambon to Pichon 6.11.18; see, for example, Yale University Library, House diary, entries for 28.10.18 and 6.2.19.

26. Garran, p. 257; Steed, vol. 2, p. 265; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 44–45.

27. National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, letter of 9.2.19.

28. Shotwell, p. 170.

29. National Archives of Canada, Christie Papers, vol. 4, file 9; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 45; Toynbee, p. 205.

30. E. Howard, p. 288.

31. National Archives of Canada, Christie Papers, vol. 7, file 20; Borden, vol. 2, p. 844.

32. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 4, p. 1754; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/5/2/28, Borden to Lloyd George, 23.11.18.

33. Louis, Great Britain and Germany’s Lost Colonies, pp. 82–83.

34. Fitzhardinge, Little Digger, vol. 2, pp. 74–75.

35. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 113, 229; National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, vol. 2, letter to Mrs. Biggar, 7.3.19.

CHAPTER 5: WE ARE THE LEAGUE OF THE PEOPLE

1. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 253–54; Shotwell, pp. 175–77; Seymour, pp. 154–55; House and Seymour, p. 181; Riddell et al., The Treaty of Versailles, p. 15; PWW, vol. 54, p. 5.

2. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 469.

3. Churchill, Aftermath, pp. 13–14; Gelfand, pp. 227–28, 259.

4. National Archives of Canada, Borden Papers, vol. 431, file 53; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 26; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 535–37; Tardieu, pp. 88–91.

5. Hankey, pp. 29–31; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 553–56.

6. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 492, 537.

7. Ibid., pp. 600, 607, 618.

8. White, Autobiography, p. 555.

9. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 609–13; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 106; Villard, pp. 387–88.

10. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 546–47, 551.

11. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 102; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 614, 620–22.

12. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 91.

13. Mazower, “Minorities,” p. 50; Library of Congress, Bliss Papers, box 244, letter of 26.2.19.

14. R. W. Curry, p. 211.

15. National Archives of Canada, Borden Papers, 444/158; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 1022–23; Shotwell, p. 179.

16. Shotwell, pp. 144–45; Seymour, p. 128.

17. Hoover, p. 88; Mitchell, pp. 92–96; FRUS, vol. 2, p. 635; vol. 3, p. 513.

18. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 516.

19. Hoover, pp. 91–99; FRUS, vol. 2, pp. 658–61; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Tardieu Papers, 166/195, “Conférence interallié de Londres, 2 et 3 décembre 1918”; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 23–24.

20. Hoover, pp. xv–xx; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 305–6; FRUS, vol. 2, pp. 713–14.

21. Temperley, History, vol. 1, pp. 304–8; Hoover, pp. 99–114.

22. Aldcroft, “Versailles Legacy,” pp. 8–14; Silverman, chapters 7 and 8.

CHAPTER 6: RUSSIA

1. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 88; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 159–64; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 243.

2. Ullman, vol. 2, p. 111, n. 22; pp. 174–75.

3. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 326–27.

4. Watson, pp. 315, 372.

5. Headlam-Morley, pp. 7–8.

6. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 2, p. 64; National Archives of Canada, C1864, Borden diary, 13.2.19; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 46.

7. Klein, passim; National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, vol. 2, letters of 20.1.19, 4.4.19, 5.2.19.

8. J. M. Thompson, pp. 175–76; Ullman, vol. 2, pp. 141–42.

9. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, pp. 227, 277–79, 355–56, 375; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 325.

10. Ullman, vol. 1, pp. 68–70; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 583; PWW, vol. 56, p. 247; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 330–31; Davies, White Eagle, Red Star, p. 90.

11. Duroselle, p. 809; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 591–92; Shotwell, p. 77; Ashmead-Bartlett, p. 201.

12. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 321; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 491.

13. Watson, pp. 48–55; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F3/4/5, Balfour to Lloyd George, 18.1.19.

14. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 369; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 20.

15. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 581–84; Yale University Library, Wiseman diary, 19.1.19.

16. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 2 (20.1.19).

17. Churchill, Aftermath, pp. 243–44.

18. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 231.

19. Mamatey, p. 297; J. M. Thompson, pp. 5–6, 46–50; Knock, pp. 156–57.

20. Noble, p. 270; Ullman, vol. 2, chapter 1.

21. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, pp. 226–27, 230–33; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 8 (17.2.19).

22. Azan, p. 239; Kenez, pp. 180–91; Pipes, pp. 74–75.

23. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 471–73; vol. 4, pp. 122–23, 379–82; F. Palmer, p. 378.

24. Hovi, pp. 216–17 and passim; FRUS, vol. 4, p. 121; Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 254; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 8 (17.2.19).

25. Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N72, notes of a conversation at 10 Downing Street, London, 11.12.19; Churchill College, Churchill Papers, Charwell Group, Char 16/20, Lloyd George to Churchill, 16.2.19; Churchill, Aftermath, pp. 266–67; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 771, 19.2.19, Lloyd George to Kerr, 19.2.19.

26. Figes, p. 575; Ullman, vol. 2, pp. 212–14.

27. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, pp. 264, 286; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/89/2/20, Lloyd George to Kerr, 16.2.19.

28. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 647–53; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 13; C. T. Thompson, p. 133.

29. Debo, p. 18.

30. Fischer, pp. 101–3.

31. J. M. Thompson, pp. 90–91; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 643–46.

32. National Archives of Canada, Borden diary, 23.1.19; J. M. Thompson, pp. 115–16.

33. J. M. Thompson, pp. 119–22; E. Howard, p. 300.

34. J. M. Thompson, pp. 110–11, 122; Yale University Library, Wiseman diary. 19.1.19; Poincaré, p. 131; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1216, Kerr to Lloyd George, 11.2.19.

35. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 368; Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, pp. 239–43; Churchill, Aftermath, p. 173; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 1041–44.

36. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 8 (17.2.19); FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 10–21, 28; Yale University Library, House diary, 17.2.19; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 170; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 21.

37. Churchill, Aftermath, pp. 176–77; Churchill College, Churchill Papers, Char 16/20, Lloyd George to Churchill, 16.2.19; J. M. Thompson, pp. 141–43; Tillman, p. 141.

38. J. M. Thompson, pp. 149–52.

39. Brownell and Billings, pp. 18–21, 29–33; Farnsworth, pp. 30–33.

40. Steffens, p. 791; Farnsworth, pp. 35–39; J. M. Thompson, pp. 152–58.

41. Farnsworth, p. 40; Steffens, pp. 797–98.

42. Steed, vol. 2, p. 302–6.

43. Ullman, vol. 2, pp. 153–57.

44. Brownell and Billings, pp. 93–98; Farnsworth, pp. 62–63.

45. Hoover, pp. 118–19, 247–49.

46. Ibid., pp. 120–22.

47. Huntford, pp. 488–89; J. M. Thompson, pp. 263–67.

48. Pipes, pp. 9–14.

49. Churchill, Aftermath, p. 186; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 193–95, 333–34.

CHAPTER 7: THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

1. Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 28.1.19, 29.1.19.

2. Henig, pp. 164–66.

3. Kissinger, p. 161; M. Howard, chapters 1–3.

4. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 31–32.

5. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/117/1/3, Imperial War Cabinet, 1918, minutes of meetings, 46 (24 December 1918); Egerton, “The Lloyd George Government,” p. 431; Cecil, All the Way, pp. 153–56.

6. Noble, pp. 99–104; PWW, vol. 54, p. 235; Cecil, Great Experiment, p. 59.

7. Temperley, vol. 1, p. 447.

8. Willert, pp. 152–53; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 122.

9. Egerton, Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations, pp. 65–69; Willert, pp. 152–53.

10. National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, letter of 30.3.19; Jones, vol. 1, p. 28.

11. Hancock, pp. 1–51.

12. Hancock and van der Poel, vol. 4, pp. 10–16.

13. Clemenceau, p. 141; Public Record Office, CAB 29/12, memorandum of 3.12.18.

14. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 2, pp. 23–60; Hancock and van der Poel, vol. 4, p. 34.

15. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 34–36; Hancock and van der Poel, vol. 4, pp. 41–42; PWW, vol. 55, p. 266; Tillman, p. 73.

16. Clemenceau, p. 138; Cecil, Great Experiment, pp. 11–16; Cecil, All the Way, pp. 13–18.

17. Cecil, Great Experiment, p. 63; Raffo, p. 166; PWW, vol. 54, p. 152.

18. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 176–201.

19. PWW, vol. 54, pp. 152–54; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 120–21, 124–26; Temperley, vol. 6, pp. 434–35; Yale University Library, House diary, 4.2.19.

20. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 1, 242–43; House and Seymour, p. 403.

21. Cecil, Great Experiment, pp. 64–65.

22. Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N72, Conférence de la Paix, memorandum of 18.12.1918; Yale University Library, House diary, 28.4.19; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 30; PWW, vol. 54, p. 489; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 256–57; Poincaré, p. 283.

23. Willert, p. 152; Egerton, Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations, pp. 134–35; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 209–10, 216–17.

24. Lansing, Peace Negotiations, p. 49; Widenor, pp. 306–7; Steed, vol. 2, p. 282; Cecil, Great Experiment, p. 78; Egerton, Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations, p. 142; Egerton, “The Lloyd George Government,” pp. 432–33; Callwell, vol. 1, pp. 184, 213.

25. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 195–96; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F5/5/28, Borden to Lloyd George, 23.11.18; Brown, vol. 2, pp. 155–56; Department of External Affairs, Ottawa, vol. 2, pp. 58–63.

26. C. T. Thompson, pp. 187–88; Steed, vol. 2, p. 282; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 209–10, 216–17, 344–46; PWW, vol. 56, pp. 164–65; Poincaré, p. 150.

27. PWW, vol. 55, p. 120; Cecil, Great Experiment, p. 72.

28. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 1002; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 279–80.

29. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 17 (3.4.19. P.M.); House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 285; Mayer, pp. 378–80.

30. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 656.

31. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 210–15; PWW, vol. 55, pp. 160.

32. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 27 (21.4.19); Tillman, pp. 280–83.

33. Tillman, pp. 287–94; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 337–38; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 27 (21.4.19).

34. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 442–50; Walworth, Woodrow Wilson, vol. 2, pp. 302–3.

35. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 285–319; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 497; Cecil, All the Way, p. 152.

36. Tillman, p. 133.

CHAPTER 8: MANDATES

1. Scottish Record Office, GD 40, Lothian Papers, 883/2, notes by Headlam-Morley, 2.4.19.

2. Temperley, vol. 3, p. 221.

3. Louis, Great Britain and Germany’s Lost Colonies, pp. 7–9; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 622–25; Louis, Great Britain and Germany’s Lost Colonies, p. 119; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 5 (28.1.19).

4. C. T. Thompson, p. 160.

5. Poincaré, p. 104; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 192.

6. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 803–4; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 115–16, 501–3; Hankey, pp. 143–44; Marston, pp. 185–86.

7. Farwell, pp. 73–75; Bodleian Library, Milner Papers, dep. 380/2/8–10 and 380/3/11.

8. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 722–23, 740–45.

9. Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 71; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 720–22; W. J. Hudson, pp. 17, 78; Rowley, pp. 276–79.

10. Hiery, pp. 157–59, 177, 206.

11. C. T. Thompson, pp. 159–61; National Library of Australia, Eggleston Papers, 423/6/58–92, private Peace Conference diary, 29.1.19.

12. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 759–63, 768.

13. Ibid., pp. 743, 765–66, 771; PWW, vol. 54, p. 308; House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 297.

14. Roskill, p. 53; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 4 (27.1.19); D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 538; Yale University Library, House diary, 27.1.19, 29.1.19; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 109; Garran, p. 265.

15. Borden, pp. 906, 908; Sharp, Versailles Settlement, p. 162.

16. Riddell, Intimate Diary, pp. 16–18; Fitzhardinge, “Hughes and the Treaty of Versailles,” pp. 136–37; House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 299; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 542; National Archives of Canada, Borden diary, 30.1.19; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 37; National Library of Australia, Eggleston Papers, 423/6/8–31, “The Paris Peace Conference.”

17. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 542–46; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 797–802.

18. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 106–7.

19. Lewis, pp. 574–76, 577–78.

20. National Archives of Australia, Borden Papers, vol. 431, file 5; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 28/3/34, Hughes to Milner, 3.5.19; F 28/3/35 and F 28/3/37, Hughes to Lloyd George, 9.5.19; F36/4/10, Allen to Massey, 15.5.19; F36/4/15, Massey to Milner, 15.5.19; Guardian Weekly, 4.7.93; 11.7.93; 4.11.99.

21. Bodleian Library, Milner Papers, 390, Costa to Clemenceau, 4.5.19; Louis, Great Britain and Germany’s Lost Colonies, pp. 151–52.

22. FRUS, vol. 5, p. 420; Marks, Innocent Abroad, pp. 46–47; Louis, Great Britain and Germany’s Lost Colonies, pp. 64–66.

23. Marks, Innocent Abroad, p. 320.

CHAPTER 9: YUGOSLAVIA

1. Banac, pp. 89–90.

2. PWW, vol. 54, p. 149.

3. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 247; Mitrovic, pp. 207–8.

4. Dragnich, Serbia, Pasic and Yugoslavia, p. 226; Sforza, Fifty Years, pp. 113, 146–47; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 802; Banac, pp. 158–59.

5. Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 925, notes of an interview between Lloyd George and Pašić, 15 October 1918.

6. Banac, p. 59; Armstrong, p. 261.

7. Sforza, Fifty Years, pp. 8–9; Durham, p. 95.

8. Block, p. 51; Durham, pp. 209, 232–33.

9. Lederer, p. 92.

10. Armstrong, p. 364; West, p. 366.

11. Lederer, p. 86; C. A. Macartney, Hungary and Her Successors, p. 365; Sforza, Fifty Years, p. 157; Tanner, p. 125.

12. Albrecht-Carrié, Italy at the Paris Peace Conference, pp. 30–31.

13. Tanner, p. 115; Steed, vol. 2, pp. 165–66; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 56/2/18, Rennell Rodd to Arthur Balfour, 11 November 1918.

14. Tanner, p. 116.

15. Dragnich, “Serbian Government,” pp. 43–44; Steed, vol. 2, pp. 235–39.

16. Seton-Watson and Seton-Watson, pp. 313, 319; Temperley, vol. 4, pp. 202–3.

17. Tanner, pp. 119–20; FRUS, vol. 12, p. 475.

18. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 487–88.

19. B. Jelavich, vol. 2, pp. 150–52.

20. Lederer, p. 113; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 88; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 488, 503.

21. Shotwell, p. 146.

22. Cruttwell, p. 235; West, p. 1051; Durham, p. 118; Banac, p. 276.

23. Department of State, Lansing Papers, vol. 2, p. 123; Calder, p. 232, n. 63.

24. Lederer, chapters 4 and 5 passim, p. 165.

25. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 45–53; Seton-Watson and Seton-Watson, p. 150.

26. House and Seymour, p. 142.

27. Dockrill and Goold, pp. 89–92.

28. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 3, p. 333.

CHAPTER 10: RUMANIA

1. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 265–66.

2. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 227.

3. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 813–15.

4. Callimachi, p. 266; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 248; Spector, pp. 18–19; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 102, n. 90.

5. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 254.

6. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 818–34.

7. Ibid., pp. 827, 854.

8. Ibid., pp. 850–51.

9. Wolff, p. 36; Dillon, pp. 215, 237.

10. Callimachi, pp. 56–58.

11. Gregory, pp. 52–53, 122; Cruttwell, p. 293; Callimachi, p. 49.

12. Seymour, pp. 97–98.

13. Lederer, p. 100.

14. Spector, p. 230; Anderson, p. 332, n. 2.

15. Rattigan, p. 192; Cruttwell, p. 295; Spector, pp. 44, nn. 96, 97; FRUS, vol. 2, p. 844; Lederer, p. 142.

16. Spector, p. 89; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 851–54.

17. Dockrill and Goold, p. 93; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 269.

18. Marston, p. 117; Macartney, Hungary and Her Successors, pp. 380–90, 393–94.

19. Seymour, pp. 158, 241.

20. Tihany, pp. 297–320; Seymour, pp. 173, 268; Spector, pp. 72, 125; Yale University Library, House Papers, 2/570 26.4.19, minutes of a conversation with Brătianu; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 169–71.

21. Pakula, p. 274.

22. Callimachi, p. 98; Wolff, p. 127; Pakula, p. 276; British Library, Balfour Papers, Add. MS 49744, correspondence, 267–68.

23. Yale University Library, House diary, 8.3.19; British Museum, Balfour Papers, Add. MS 49744, correspondence, 267–68; F. Stevenson, p. 171; Spector, p. 112, n. 46.

24. Pakula, pp. 285–87; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 455.

25. Macartney, Hungary and Her Successors, pp. 404, 410–25.

CHAPTER 11: BULGARIA

1. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 717–18, 749–51.

2. Dockrill and Goold, pp. 94–95.

3. Wolff, p. 41.

4. Roosevelt, p. 382; Constant, p. 187; Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 160, n. 29; Groueff, p. 59; Dockrill and Goold, p. 95.

5. Fitzherbert, p. 235; Repington, p. 356; Groueff, p. 68.

6. Groueff, p. 75.

7. Groueff, pp. 61, 68, 78; Petsalis-Diomidis, pp. 87, 167; See, for example, Ekmecic, p. 20; Lederer, p. 125.

8. FRUS, vol. 2, pp. 246–47, 254.

9. Ibid., p. 249; Genov, p. 20; Temperley, vol. 4, p. 450.

10. Genov, p. 33.

11. Ibid., p. 31; Spector, p. 72; FRUS, vol. 2, pp. 264–66.

12. Genov, pp. 25, 49.

13. FRUS, vol. 8, p. 84.

14. Temperley, vol. 4, pp. 412–15; Bowman, pp. 163–64; Groueff, p. 65.

15. Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 264.

16. Groueff, p. 100; Crampton, pp. 96–98.

17. B. Jelavich, vol. 2, p. 255.

CHAPTER 12: MIDWINTER BREAK

1. PWW, vol. 55, pp. 152–53, 480.

2. Shotwell, pp. 108, 153–55, 167; Cecil, Great Experiment, p. 69; Seymour, pp. 152–57; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 104–8, 257.

3. Churchill College, Hankey Papers, 4/11, Hankey to Esher, 10.2.19; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1240, Kerr to Lloyd George, 3.3.19; Yale University Library, House diary, 24.2.19; 25.2.19; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 52/3/11, Derby to Lloyd George, 14.3.19; Silverman, pp. 20–39.

4. PWW, vol. 54, p. 235; Villard, p. 389; Klotz, p. 105; Hardinge, p. 231; National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, letter of 20.3.19; Shotwell, p. 157.

5. PWW, vol. 55, pp. 1, 41, 153; vol. 56, pp. 86–87.

6. Shotwell, pp. 136, 187; Seymour, p. 161; E. Howard, p. 301.

7. Temperley, vol. 1, pp. 243–44; Hugessen, p. 22; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 142; A. L. Kennedy, p. 364.

8. Glyn, pp. 256–57; Fromkin, Time of the Americans, pp. 225–27; F. Lloyd George, p. 155.

9. Maxwell, pp. 133, 136.

10. Seymour, p. 144; Churchill College, Hankey Papers, 3/24 3–29, 18.1.19; Villard, pp. 398–99; Glynn, p. 245.

11. Mee, p. 106; National Archives of Canada, Biggar Papers, letter of 26.1.19; PWW, vol. 57, pp. 502–3; Maxwell, p. 142.

12. Huddleston, pp. 113–14; F. Stevenson, p. 172.

13. Maxwell, pp. 137–38, 162; Villard, p. 454; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 287.

14. Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 25.1.19; Hugessen, p. 25; Armstrong, p. 71; F. Lloyd George, p. 149.

15. E. Howard, p. 308; Dillon, p. 31; F. Stevenson, p. 175.

16. Seymour, p. 138; Shotwell, pp. 189–90; White, Autobiography, p. 556.

17. Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 21.4.19; Shotwell, pp. 234–39, 270–93, 280; Seymour, pp. 195–200.

18. Lansing, Peace Negotiations, p. 107; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 42; Beers, p. 149; White, Autobiography, p. 566; PWW, vol. 57, p. 141.

19. Hankey, chapter 9; Seymour, p. 169.

20. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 175–76 [my translation].

21. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 133–35; C. T. Thompson, p. 218; F. Stevenson, p. 172.

22. Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 771, Lloyd George to Kerr, 19.2.19.

23. Mee, p. 101; Repington, p. 189; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 138–43; Poincaré, pp. 167, 177; PWW, vol. 57, p. 332; Steed, vol. 2, p. 325.

24. Jones, vol. 1, pp. 76, 79; Rowland, pp. 507–9.

25. Cooper, pp. 55, 57–59, 70; Hecksher, pp. 537–38.

26. Nordholt, pp. 317–21.

27. Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, pp. 182–83; Widenor, pp. 283–87, 305.

28. Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 59; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 264; PWW, vol. 55, p. 410; Nordholt, pp. 322–23; Yale University Library, Auchincloss Papers, 002–029, Wilson to House, 4.3.19.

29. Ambrosius, pp. 93–96; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 256.

30. Fried, pp. 367–68.

CHAPTER 13: PUNISHMENT AND PREVENTION

1. Rudin, p. 370.

2. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, PA-AP 42, Paul Cambon papers, vol. 68, report of interview between Paul Cambon and Lloyd George, 12.11.18; Steed, vol. 2, p. 252; French, p. 79 and passim.

3. Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, p. 156.

4. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 705–14, 895–925, 950, 978.

5. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/147/3/4, note from Foch, Bliss, Wilson and Diaz, 9.4.19; St. Antony’s College, Oxford, Malcolm Papers, 1/12, diary entries for 20.4.19, 21.4.19, 25.4.19; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 493–500.

6. F. Lloyd George, p. 162; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 933–34.

7. Temperley, vol. 1, p. 321; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 904–5; PWW, vol. 55, p. 161; Keynes, Two Memoirs, pp. 61–62.

8. Epstein, pp. 293–94; Temperley, vol. 1, pp. 313–17; Marks, “Smoke and Mirrors,” p. 352, n. 62; FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 274–93.

9. PWW, vol. 53, p. 708.

10. Fried, p. 324; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, p. 51.

11. Röhl, chapter 1.

12. Rose, p. 229.

13. Rowland, pp. 463, 466–69; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 149; Rose, p. 231; Lentin, Lloyd George, p. 29; J. Campbell, pp. 449–59; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/117/1/3, minutes of the Imperial War Cabinet, 37 (20.11.18); Goldstein, Winning the Peace, p. 224.

14. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 189, 193.

15. Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 215, n. 51; House and Seymour, pp. 231–58; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 110.

16. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 27; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 92.

17. Röhl, pp. 210–11; Eyck, vol. 1, pp. 187–88.

CHAPTER 14: KEEPING GERMANY DOWN

1. Tillman, pp. 164–65; Reynolds, p. 121.

2. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 930; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F23/4/39, Hankey to Lloyd George, 19.3.19.

3. Seymour, p. 159; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 190; Yale University Library, House diary, 24.1.19; PWW, vol. 53, p. 410; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 21.3.19.

4. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 905; Guiral, p. 291; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 265; Yale University Library, House diary, 14.4.19.

5. Liddell Hart, p. 413; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 65, 90–91; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1214/1; Ribot, p. 256.

6. See, for example, FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 704–14; PWW, vol. 54, pp. 178, 275, 301–2.

7. Lowry, pp. 20–22; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, pp. 48–49, 86–87; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 896–908, 970–79; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F23/4/22, Hankey to Lloyd George, 23.2.19.

8. FRUS, vol. 4, p. 186; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F3/4/15, Balfour to Lloyd George, 5.3.19.

9. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 213–30.

10. F. Palmer, p. 375; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/147/1, “Notes of an interview between M. Clemenceau, Colonel House and myself, 7.3.19”; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 173.

11. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 69–71.

12. Keiger, p. 258; British Library, Balfour Papers, 49744/184–190, 14.12.18, Derby to Balfour, 14.12.18; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 191; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 86–87.

13. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 387–9; Tardieu, p. 146.

14. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F3/4/2, Foch to Lord Robert Cecil, 8.1.19; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 153; Liddell Hart, p. 411; McCrum, p. 631.

15. McCrum, pp. 629–31; J. C. King, p. 80.

16. J. C. King, p. 41.

17. McCrum, pp. 628–32; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 23.2.19; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1229/2, Hankey memorandum 22.2.19; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 89/2/29, Kerr to Lloyd George, 22.2.19.

18. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 52/2/52, Derby to Balfour, 14.12.18; Keiger, pp. 251, 256–57; J. C. King, chapter 1.

19. Yale University Library, House diary, 9.2.19; Scott, p. 372; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 60/2/42, notes of an interview with the president, 23.1.18; F/147/1, “Notes of an interview between M. Clemenceau, Colonel House and myself, 7.3.19.”

20. Nelson, p. 113 [my translation].

21. McCrum, p. 626, n. 10.

22. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 386, 398–99; Tardieu, p. 171; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 118; Duroselle, p. 748; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1217, Lloyd George to Kerr, 12.2.19.

23. Churchill College, Hankey Papers, 1/5 diary, 27.8.18; PWW, vol. 56, p. 86; Nelson, pp. 204–5; Seymour, p. 226.

24. Tardieu, pp. 147–67; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 396; PWW, vol. 55, p. 480; Nelson, p. 209.

25. Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1174, notes of a conversation of 11.3.19.

26. PWW, vol. 55, pp. 488, 499.

27. D. Lloyd George Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 247–48; PWW, vol. 55, pp. 152–53.

28. PWW, vol. 55, p. 530; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 204; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 174.

29. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 601–3.

30. FRUS, vol. 4, p. 249; PWW, vol. 55, p. 522; Marder, vol. 5, p. 251.

31. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 224–25, 365; Marder, vol. 5, p. 254; Yale University Library, House Papers, series I/10 0293, Grey to House, 3.6.19; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 65/49–54, notes on Heligoland, 14.4.19; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 252–56.

32. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 475; Marder, pp. 257–62.

33. Dingman, p. 84; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 377; PWW, vol. 55, pp. 515–21; vol. 57, p. 92.

34. PWW, vol. 55, p. 458; vol. 57, p. 91; Marder, vol. 5, pp. 228–30, 263–64; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/147/1, “Notes of an interview between M. Clemenceau, Colonel House and myself, 7.3.19.”

35. PWW, vol. 56, pp. 338, 518–19; Marder, vol. 5, pp. 231–34.

36. Marder, vol. 5, p. 269.

CHAPTER 15: FOOTING THE BILL

1. House and Seymour, p. 259.

2. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 34 (1.6.19, P.M.).

3. See, for example, Schuker, American Reparations”; Marks, “Reparations Reconsidered”; Marks, “The Myths of Reparations.”

4. Keynes, Economic Consequences, pp. 41–45; Skidelsky, vol. 1, p. 389.

5. Keynes, Economic Consequences, p. 36; Keynes, Two Memoirs, p. 20.

6. Keynes, Economic Consequences, p. 7.

7. Skidelsky, vol. 1, pp. 384–91.

8. Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 1011–14, 1018; Silverman, p. 145, and chapter 5, passim; Schuker, The End of French Predominance, p. 9.

9. Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 1–10; Ministères des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix, 59, “Conditions de la Paix: Notes et études sur les conditions de la paix à obtenir et les clauses à insérer dans les traités de paix à signer. Résumé des voeux et avis du Bureau d’Etudes Economiques”; Duchêne, p. 40.

10. PWW, vol. 54, pp. 196, 431, 494; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F6/6/49, Cecil to Lloyd George, 31.5.19, and F89/2/35, Kerr to Lloyd George, 28.2.19; D. Lloyd George, Truth About Reparations and War Debts, chapter 9; House and Seymour, p. 484; Silverman, pp. 32–35; Kent, pp. 40–43.

11. Rowland, p. 494; C. T. Thompson, p. 236; Yale University Library, House diary, 21.2.19.

12. Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 31–32; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 13 (13.3.19).

13. Baruch, pp. 5–7.

14. Burnett, vol. 1, p. 34; Hardach, pp. 156–60; Schuker, American Reparations,” p. 20.

15. Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 33, 514; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 33 (1.6.19, A.M.).

16. Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 4–8, 21; B. Kent, p. 69.

17. Bunselmeyer, p. 174, n. 9; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 33 (1.6.19, A.M.).

18. Silverman, p. 39; Burnett, vol. 1, p. 61; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/45/9/25, Smuts to Lloyd George, 4.12.18; F45/9/29, Smuts to Lloyd George, 26.3.19; F 45/9/33, Smuts to Lloyd George, 5.5.19; Hancock, pp. 539–41.

19. Burnett, vol. 1, p. 777.

20. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/117/1/3, Imperial War Cabinet, 1918, minute 38 (26.11.18); W. S. Wallace, pp. 193–95.

21. Lentin, “Lord Cunliffe,” pp. 50–86, 52, n. 12; Headlam-Morley, p. 180; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 350; Seymour, p. 276; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 474; Burnett, vol. 1, 711; Yale University Library, House diary, 24.3.19, 4.4.19.

22. Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 43–44; Lentin, “Lord Cunliffe,” pp. 50–86; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/213/5/6, Lamont to Wiseman, n.d.

23. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 34 (1.6.19, P.M.); Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 31; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 48–51.

24. British Library, Balfour Papers, 49744/258–263, notes of a conversation between Briand and Lloyd George, 18.3.19; Yale University Library, House diary, 6.3.19; PWW, vol. 56, p. 285.

25. Bunselmeyer, p. 141.

26. Ibid., pp. 129–33; Pugh, p. 128; F. Stevenson, p. 180; Rowland, p. 490.

27. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F28/2/16, Hughes to Lloyd George, 10.12.18.

28. A. J. P. Taylor, Troublemakers, p. 159.

29. Yale University Library, House diary, 28.4.19; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 473, 498; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 41–43; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 218; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 38; FRUS, vol. 13, p. 205; Keynes, Two Memoirs, p. 61; Noble, pp. 201–5; Poincaré, p. 286; PWW, vol. 56, p. 502; vol. 59, p. 314.

30. Noble, pp. 186–93, 195.

31. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 976; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, p. 43; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 441–44.

32. Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, p. 42, n. 49.

33. Tardieu, Truth, p. 290; Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 55, 64–66, 71; chapter 2, passim.

34. Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics, pp. 35–36; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/89/2/37, Kerr to Lloyd George, 2.3.19; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1236, Kerr to Lloyd George, 1.3.19.

35. Burnett, vol. 1, p. 59; PWW, vol. 56, p. 501.

36. FRUS, vol. 6, p. 796; See article 234 and annex 1, Treaty of Versailles.

37. Guhin, pp. 30–32; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 106, 147.

CHAPTER 16: DEADLOCK OVER THE GERMAN TERMS

1. Yale University Library, House diary. 12.3.19; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 203; PWW, vol. 56, p. 62.

2. Tardieu, pp. 176–82; PWW, vol. 56, p. 81; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 3/4/19, Balfour to Lloyd George, 18.3.19.

3. Tardieu, p. 182; Nelson, pp. 232–40.

4. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 41; Temperley, vol. 2, p. 178; Headlam-Morley, p. 33.

5. Callwell, vol. 2, p. 176; Hankey, pp. 98, 101.

6. F. Stevenson, p. 174.

7. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 404–16; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 31; Tardieu, p. 443; Nelson, p. 227.

8. PWW, vol. 56, pp. 247, 444.

9. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 33–34, 88; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 202.

10. PWW, vol. 56, p. 312.

11. Ibid., pp. 347–54; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 49–68; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 195, 205; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 1.4.19.

12. Callwell, vol. 2, p. 180; Shotwell, p. 255; National Archive of Canada, Biggar Papers, letter of 7.4.19; C. T. Thompson, p. 287; Noble, p. 315.

13. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 3.4.19; PWW, vol. 56, pp. 408, 540; Noble, pp. 315–16; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 180.

14. F. Stevenson, p. 178; PWW, vol. 57, pp. 50–51, 63.

15. Noble, pp. 322, 324–28; C. T. Thompson, p. 291; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 217; PWW, vol. 57, p. 99.

16. Liddell Hart, pp. 420–23; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 226–31.

17. Keiger, pp. 258–62; Poincaré, pp. 315–24.

18. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 45; C. T. Thompson, p. 288.

19. C. T. Thompson, p. 292; PWW, vol. 57, pp. 98–101, 146.

20. Yale University Library, House diary, 12.4.19 and 14.4.19; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 15.4.19; Schuker, “The Rhineland Question,” pp. 302–4.

21. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 220–21; Yale University Library, House diary, 15.4.19; Noble, pp. 331–32.

22. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 427; Schuker, “The Rhineland Question,” p. 304.

23. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 221, 245; Ribot, p. 274; Keiger, p. 262.

24. Watson, p. 361.

CHAPTER 17: POLAND REBORN

1. Davies, God’s Playground, vol. 2, p. 122, and chapter 3, passim.

2. Zamoyski, p. 178.

3. Jedrezejewicz, pp. 4–10.

4. Davies, God’s Playground, vol. 2, p. 385.

5. Roszkowski, p. 158; E. Howard, p. 342, n. 1.

6. Shotwell, p. 305; Wandycz, Lands of Partitioned Poland, pp. 291–93; Davies, God’s Playground, pp. 52–53; Gregory, p. 170.

7. Davies, White Eagle, Red Star, p. 62; Wandycz, Lands of Partitioned Poland, pp. 340–41; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 879/1, Esmé Howard, 17.2.19; Landau, pp. 146–47.

8. Kessler, p. 23; Wandycz, “Dmowski’s Policy,” pp. 119–20.

9. Lundgreen-Nielsen, Polish Problem, pp. 54–57; Wandycz, “Dmowski’s Policy,” p. 118.

10. FRUS, vol. 12, p. 370; Cienciala and Komarnicki, pp. 91–92.

11. Lundgreen-Nielsen, Polish Problem, p. 121, n. 163; Latawski, pp. 4–7; Headlam-Morley, p. xxviii.

12. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 131; Duroselle, p. 814.

13. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, p. 109; Gerson, pp. 62–63; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 108.

14. Komarnicki, pp. 253–59; Gerson, p. 102–3; E. Howard, p. 339.

15. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 332.

16. Komarnicki, p. 145; Lundgreen-Nielsen, Polish Problem, pp. 80–81.

17. Gerson, pp. 105–6.

18. Lundgreen-Nielsen, Polish Problem, pp. 131–34, 231–33; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 670–75.

19. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 772–82; Churchill College, Hankey Papers, 3/24, Hankey to Adeline Hankey, 29.1.19; Lundgreen-Nielsen, “Aspects of American Policy,” p. 100, n. 21; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Tardieu Papers, 356, “Conférence de la Paix 1919: Pologne: Problèmes politiques et économiques (notes, correspondances), Décembre 1918–Octobre 1919.”

20. Library of Congress, Bliss Papers, box 244, diary, 1.1.19; House and Seymour, p. 70; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 118–20; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 150; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 672–74.

21. House and Seymour, p. 72.

22. Temperley, vol. 6, p. 220.

23. Nelson, pp. 147–51, 152–54; Wandycz, France and Her Eastern Allies, pp. 34–37; House and Seymour, p. 71.

24. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 414–19.

25. Komarnicki, Rebirth of the Polish Republic, pp. 319–49; Davies, “Lloyd George and Poland, 1919–20,” pp. 132–33; Wandycz, “Dmowski’s Policy,” pp. 123–24.

26. F. Stevenson, p. 38; F. Lloyd George, p. 153; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 911/2, Kerr to Horace Rumbold, 15.12.19.

27. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 33–34.

28. PWW, vol. 56, p. 313; Tillman, pp. 207–9; Headlam-Morley, pp. 169–71; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 105–9, 118, 201, 233; Nelson, pp. 187–91.

29. Cienciala and Komarnicki, pp. 106–10; Weinberg, Foreign Policy, pp. 13–14.

30. House and Seymour, p. 80; FRUS, vol. 6, pp. 833–35; St Antony’s College, Malcolm Papers, 1/12, diary, 8.5.19.

31. Riddell, Intimate Diary, pp. 83–84.

32. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 33 (1.6.19, A.M.); PWW, vol. 60, p. 20.

33. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 278–86, 312, 389–92; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 304–5.

34. F. G. Campbell, pp. 361–85.

35. E. Howard, p. 333.

36. Temperley, vol. 6, p. 297; Bennett, pp. 70–71, 77, 83.

37. FRUS, vol. 4, p. 592; Waite, pp. 97–98.

38. Waite, pp. 101–2, 111–15, 120; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 258.

39. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 550; Waite, pp. 123–30.

40. Cienciala and Komarnicki, pp. 114–16; Lieven, pp. 52–53.

41. Cienciala and Komarnicki, pp. 122, 126; Lieven, p. 60.

42. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 309; Lundgreen-Nielsen, Polish Problem, pp. 206, 291–98.

43. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 782; vol. 6, pp. 199–200; Wandycz, United States and Poland, pp. 138–39.

44. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 143–47.

45. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 44; Lundgreen-Nielsen, Polish Problem, pp. 222–23, 279–88.

46. FRUS, vol. 4, p. 410; vol. 6, p. 198–99; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 911/2, Kerr to Rumbold, 15.12.19.

47. Cienciala and Komarnicki, pp. 165–73; Gilbert, Rumbold, pp. 186; Carton de Wiart, pp. 112–14.

48. Dziewanowski, p. 202.

49. Ibid., pp. 190–91, 305; Carton de Wiart, p. 96; Davies, God’s Playground, vol. 2, p. 396; Gilbert, Rumbold, p. 206; Wandycz, France and Her Eastern Allies, pp. 154–56; Scott, p. 386.

50. Davies, God’s Playground, vol. 2, p. 397; Carton de Wiart, pp. 106–7; Gilbert, Rumbold, pp. 209–10, 216.

51. Zamoyski, pp. 204–10.

CHAPTER 18: CZECHS AND SLOVAKS

1. FRUS, vol. 12, p. 236.

2. House and Seymour, p. 94.

3. F. Lloyd George, p. 152; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 941–42.

4. Hovi, pp. 109–11; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix 344 (Tchécoslovaquie), Les Frontières de la Tchécoslovaquie, 22.2.19.

5. Zinner, vol. 1, pp. 100–4; Laroche, pp. 39–40; Zeman, pp. 84–85, 156–58; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 151–52.

6. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix 299, Beneš to Pichon, 7.11.18; British Museum, Balfour Papers, 184–190, Derby to Balfour, 14.12.18; Perman, pp. 35–40; Zinner, pp. 102–3.

7. Zeman, pp. 21–2, 43–44, 50–59.

8. Steed, vol. 2, p. 100.

9. Zeman, p. 117.

10. Mamatey, pp. 316–17, 342–43.

11. Ibid., pp. 282–84; Masaryk, p. 208.

12. Zeman, pp. 110–12; Mamatey, pp. 285–86.

13. Mamatey, p. 317.

14. Perman, p. 70; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix 299, “Travaux préparatoires de la conférence, politiques des petites nations alliées,” note from Edward Beneš, received 3.11.18; Perman, pp. 73–75.

15. Perman, pp. 126–30.

16. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 877–87.

17. Ibid., 886–87; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 940; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix 299, “Travaux préparatoires de la conférence, politiques des petites nations alliées,” Beneš to Pichon, 7.11.18.

18. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 931; Seymour, pp. 155–56.

19. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 877–87; vol. 12, p. 273.

20. House and Seymour, p. 97; Seymour, p. 176; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 272–73; Laroche, pp. 81–82.

21. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 280.

22. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 543–46; Mamatey, pp. 306–7; Perman, pp. 132, 162–63; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 937–38, 941; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 402; Headlam-Morley, p. xxvi; Seton-Watson and Seton-Watson, pp. 367–68.

23. Perman, pp. 178–79; Rothschild, pp. 76–84.

24. Sayer, pp. 150–51, 169–79.

25. Perman, pp. 220–23; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 351, 378–80.

26. Komarnicki, p. 356; Temperley, vol. 4, pp. 350–51; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 777, 881–83; vol. 4, p. 608; vol. 8, pp. 118–24.

27. Temperley, vol. 4, p. 355; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 318–22, 327.

28. Temperley, vol. 4, p. 357; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 25; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 782–84; E. Howard, p. 305.

29. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 234; Wandycz, France and Her Eastern Allies, pp. 93–94; FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 327–30.

30. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 608–12; House and Seymour, pp. 82–83.

31. Davies, White Eagle, Red Star, p. 182.

32. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 945; W. V. Wallace, pp. 55–57; Sayer, pp. 172–75.

33. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 238, 345–46, 349; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 68/1–23, memorandum on the position in Hungary by E. Ashmead-Bartlett, 7.6.19.

34. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 156–64.

35. W. V. Wallace, pp. 58–59.

CHAPTER 19: AUSTRIA

1. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 300.

2. A.J.P. Taylor, Habsburg Monarchy, p. 250; Stone, pp. 124–47.

3. Bridge, p. 24.

4. Cornwall, pp. 120–23.

5. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 231.

6. Almond and Lutz, eds., pp. 62–63; Headlam-Morley, pp. 126–30; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 228–31; FRUS, vol. 6, pp. 26–30.

7. Coolidge and Lord, p. 200; House and Seymour, p. 109; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 229; Almond and Lutz, p. 226.

8. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 4, chapter LXI; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 291; Duroselle, pp. 809–12; Schüller, pp. 234–35.

9. FRUS, vol. 12, p. 309.

10. Almond and Lutz, p. 88; FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 775–77; vol. 2, pp. 254–56.

11. Ashmead-Bartlett, pp. 20–26, 30–31; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 228–32, 285–89; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 293–94; E. Taylor, pp. 366–67.

12. Almond and Lutz, pp. 92, 109; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 286, 290, 305–7.

13. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, 428–9; FRUS, vol. 5, pp. 368–69; Hankey, p. 137.

14. Allizé, pp. 48, 135; Schüller, p. 228; Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, pp. 41–42.

15. Allizé, pp. 138, 142–43; Schüller, pp. 232–33; PWW, vol. 60, p. 19; Beadon, p. 200.

16. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 230, 236, 239; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 943.

17. Schüller, pp. 234–35.

18. Suval, pp. 3–8; Barker, pp. 8–9; Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, pp. 62–64.

19. Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, pp. 62–69; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 231, 240–44, 263.

20. Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, pp. 70–71; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 278–79; Bauer, pp. 110–11.

21. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, 335; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix 60, Conditions de la Paix, memorandum of 25.10.18; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, pp. 87, 95; Bauer, p. 116; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 34, 459–60; Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, p. 73; Nelson, pp. 309–11; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 278–79.

22. Temperley, vol. 4, p. 393; Headlam-Morley, p. 147.

23. Hankey, p. 160; Marston, pp. 208–9; Beadon, p. 201; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 356.

24. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 6, 470–71; FRUS, vol. 7, pp. 173–74; Dockrill and Goold, p. 113.

25. Almond and Lutz, p. 64; Schüller, p. 236; Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, p. 48; Howard, p. 382.

26. Schüller, pp. 237–42.

27. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 501–10.

28. Steed, vol. 2, p. 333.

29. Lederer, p. 223; Seymour, p. 250; Laroche, p. 77.

30. Wolff, pp. 155–56.

31. Lederer, p. 297.

32. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 600–601; Temperley, vol. 4, pp. 382–85; Stadler, Birth of the Austrian Republic, pp. 136–41.

CHAPTER 20: HUNGARY

1. Shotwell, p. 225.

2. May, vol. 2, chapter 15; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 49.

3. Károlyi, pp. 24–25; Paloczi-Horvath, chapters 1–3; Jaszi, pp. 220–39.

4. Károlyi, pp. 20–25; Mitchell, p. 59; Windischgrätz, p. 48.

5. Károlyi, pp. 31–32; Windischgrätz, p. 102.

6. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 380–82.

7. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 97; Ashmead-Bartlett, p. 201; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Jules Cambon Papers, folder 88; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 3–18, Stephen Barczy to Lloyd George, 21.12.18; Barcsay, pp. 293–94.

8. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 234, 372–77, 380–83, 387–88.

9. Pastor, pp. 50–51; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 127.

10. Azan, pp. 231–32; Károlyi, pp. 146–47.

11. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 248–51, 845; Macartney, Hungary and Her Successors, pp. 276–77; Barcsay, p. 298.

12. Deák, pp. 46–48; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 920; Pastor, pp. 131–32; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 395, 405, 408–10; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Jules Cambon Papers, folder 88, “Documents relatifs à l’Autriche allemande et à la Hongrie.”

13. Barcsay, p. 304, n. 1; Károlyi, pp. 146–47; FRUS, vol. 4, p. 158.

14. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 414–16.

15. Tokes, pp. 170–76; Borsanyi, chapter 2; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 124.

16. Vermes, pp. 53–54.

17. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 416–17; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 11–15.

18. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 406; Mantoux, 1, 11–15, 75–76.

19. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 293; Churchill College, Cambridge. Leeper Papers, 3/88, Allen Leeper to Rex Leeper, 10.4.19; F. Stevenson, p. 179; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 75.

20. Károlyi, p. 160; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 298.

21. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 304.

22. Bonsal, Unfinished Business, pp. 78, 141; FRUS, vol. 5, pp. 41–43; Hancock, pp. 518–9.

23. Ashmead-Bartlett, pp. 101, 123, 134; Károlyi, pp. 159, 163; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 440–41.

24. Deutscher, p. 434; Ormos, pp. 132–35; Ashmead-Bartlett, pp. 125–27, 162–71; Sakmyster, Hungary’s Admiral, pp. 18–19.

25. Eckelt, passim.

26. Deák, p. 78; Armstrong, pp. 73, 79, n. 115; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 349–50, 352, 375–82; Ormos, pp. 142–43; Mayer, p. 781.

27. Deák, p. 78; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 68/1–23 memorandum on the position in Hungary by E. Ashmead-Bartlett, 7.6.19; Churchill College, Leeper Papers 3/8, Allen Leeper to Rex Leeper, 10.4.19.

28. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 386.

29. Ashmead-Bartlett, pp. 200–202.

30. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 362, n. 1, 376; Spector, pp. 136–37.

31. FRUS, vol. 6, pp. 133, 411–16; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 338–39, 354; F. Palmer, Bliss, p. 399.

32. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 420; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/89/3/2, memorandum from Balfour, 2.7.19; Tokes, pp. 202–3.

33. Deák, pp. 112–28; Bandholtz, pp. 303–4.

34. Bandholtz, pp. 26–28, 42–43, 70–71, 76, 90, 107.

35. Spector, pp. 197–219; Apponyi, p. 256.

36. Apponyi, passim and p. 253; Károlyi, pp. 44–45.

37. Laroche, p. 99.

38. Deák, pp. 539–49; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 962–70.

39. Apponyi, p. 270; Deák, pp. 210, 214–15, 238–42, 251–52, 253–77; Adam, pp. 148–55; Temperley, vol. 4, p. 421; Sakmyster, “Great Britain,” p. 125.

40. Hoensch, pp. 103–4; Sakmyster, Hungary’s Admiral, pp. 74–76.

CHAPTER 21: THE COUNCIL OF FOUR

1. PWW, vol. 58, p. 275.

2. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 179; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 407.

3. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 131; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 178–79; Tardieu, p. 100; Steed, vol. 2, p. 298.

4. Marston, p. 166; E. Howard, p. 279; Tardieu, p. 102.

5. National Archives of Canada, Borden Papers, 428/9; Dillon, p. 123; Cambon, p. 318.

6. Marston, pp. 168–69; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. xiii–xvii.

7. PWW, vol. 59, pp. 419–20; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 55; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 358; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 53; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 228.

8. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 80–99; vol. 2, pp. 193–203; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 31.3.19; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 31.3.19; PWW, vol. 56, p. 436; National Archives of Canada, Borden Papers, C1864, diary 31.3.19; F. Stevenson, p. 267; Poincaré, p. 292; Riddell, Intimate Diary, pp. 40–41; Noble, pp. 316–22.

9. F. Lloyd George, p. 165; Riddell, Intimate Diary, pp. 168–69.

10. PWW, vol. 58, p. 276; vol. 60, p. 197; vol. 61, p. 112, n. 1; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 17.5.19; Hecksher, pp. 555–56.

11. Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 390; Marston, pp. 182–83, 185–86; Hankey, pp. 134–38, 143–44.

12. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 17.5.19; Marks, Innocent Abroad, pp. 197–99.

13. Marks, Innocent Abroad, pp. 170–77.

14. PWW, vol. 59, p. 247; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 43; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 3/4/21, Hardinge to Balfour, 4.4.19.

15. Marks, Innocent Abroad, pp. 93–95; PWW, vol. 61, p. 375.

16. Marks, Innocent Abroad, pp. 9–11, 149–51.

17. Ibid., pp. 144–46; Temperley, vol. 2, pp. 190–91; Nelson, pp. 312–18.

18. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 135–38; Marks, Innocent Abroad, pp. 183–205.

CHAPTER 22: ITALY LEAVES

1. F. Stevenson, pp. 181–82; Roskill, vol. 2, p. 8; Churchill College, Hankey Papers, 3/25, letter to wife, 23.4.19; Scott, p. 386.

2. Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 13.5.19; H. Nicolson, Curzon, p. 106, n. 1.

3. Albrecht-Carrié, p. 82; Vivarelli, vol. 1, pp. 382–83.

4. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 253; vol. 2, p. 819; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 15.4.19; 003–0031, House to Wilson, 27.2.19.

5. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 253; Sforza, ‘Sonnino’, p. 724; Saladino, p. 623; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 369.

6. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 277, n. 1; Vivarelli, vol. 1, pp. 84–85.

7. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 422–23.

8. British Library, Balfour Papers, 49734/186–192; 49744/123–128, Derby to Balfour, 15.11.18; Duroselle, pp. 782–84; Repington, p. 13.

9. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 768–69; British Library, Balfour Papers, 49744/161–3, Derby to Balfour, 21.11.18.

10. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 794; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 117.

11. Vivarelli, vol. 1, p. 386; Lederer, pp. 71–75.

12. See Zivojinovic, chapters 8–10; FRUS, vols. 1, pp. 475–87.

13. Baerlein, vol. 1, p. 87; vol. 2, pp. 49, 75, 80, 141; Zivojinovic, pp. 230–31.

14. FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 472–73; Mamatey, p. 315; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 250.

15. Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N72, minutes of a meeting of the allies, 2.12.18; Zivojinovic, p. 275, n. 26.

16. Library of Congress, Beer diary 30.3.19; Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 80, 90–94; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 293; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 102.

17. Mamatey, pp. 199, 361–62; Yale University Library, House diary, 15.11.18; Vivarelli, vol. 1, pp. 398–99; Orlando, p. 388.

18. Baker, Life and Letters, vol. 7, p. 513; British Library, Balfour Papers, 49744/217–219, Derby to Balfour, 22.12.18.

19. PWW, vol. 53, p. 621; vol. 54, p. 50; Vivarelli, vol. 1, p. 386, n. 107; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 19.5.19.

20. Lovin, p. 27.

21. Hunter Miller, My Diary, vol. 1, p. 55; Lovin, pp. 33–34; Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 532, n. 1; Orlando, p. 387.

22. Headlam-Morley, p. 16; Rodd, vol. 3, p. 377; Mamatey, p. 118; Steed, vol. 2, p. 273.

23. Orlando, p. 356; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 806.

24. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 30, 277, n. 1; Clemenceau, p. 140; Orlando, p. 360.

25. Duroselle, pp. 787–88; Orlando, p. 370.

26. Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 370–87.

27. Hess, pp. 105–26.

28. Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 534; Bodleian Library, Milner Papers, 389, meeting of Colonial Committee, 15.5.19, 19.5.19; Milner to Lloyd George, 16 May 1919.

29. Temperley, vol. 4, pp. 281, 283; Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 81, 85, 375; Yale University Library, House diary, 10.3.19; Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 2, p. 146; Library of Congress, Baker Papers, notebook, 28.5.19; Alcock, pp. 71–73, 79–81.

30. Albrecht-Carrié, p. 379; FRUS, vol. 1, p. 478.

31. Zivojinovic, p. 231, n. 49; chapter 9; Hoover, p. 106.

32. Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 107–8; Steed, vol. 2, pp. 280–81, Yale University Library, House Papers, series III, box 201, 2/566.

33. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 172; Orlando, pp. 482–83.

34. Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N75, copy of a treaty, 13.6.19; Orlando, pp. 386–87; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/23/4/22, Hankey to Lloyd George, 23 February 1919.

35. British Library, Balfour Papers, 49752 (vol. 2), “The Problem of Italy and Turkey in Anatolia,” 16 May 1919; Yale University Library, House Papers, series III, box 201, 2/567; Mayer, pp. 219–20.

36. Baerlein, vol. 1, p. 62.

37. Ledeen, p. 28; FRUS, vol. 1, pp. 449, 462.

38. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 2, p. 135; Yale University Library, House diary, 3.4.19; House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 441.

39. Woodhouse, p. 321; Mayer, p. 222.

40. Albrecht-Carrié, p. 116; Vivarelli, vol. 1, p. 391, n. 120.

41. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 214; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 243–44; Yale University Library, House diary, 15.4.19.

42. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 101, 117.

43. Albrecht-Carrié, p. 129; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 7.4.19.

44. Yale University Library, House diary, 15.4.19; Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 126–28, 445–47; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 215.

45. Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 532, n. 3; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 288; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, pp. 247–48.

46. Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 464–65; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 295.

47. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 301; Albrecht-Carrié, p. 479; Mayer, pp. 687–88.

48. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 290–312; Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 160–62; Hankey, pp. 125–26.

49. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 306.

50. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, pp. 239, 250, 255, 257, 262.

51. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 25.4.19; Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 2, p. 129.

52. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 308, 315–7; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 56.

53. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, pp. 257–65; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 231; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 56.

54. Steed, vol. 2, p. 329; Mayer, pp. 701–2; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Série à Paix, vol. 317, report from the French consul in Turin, 28.4.19; Baerlein, vol. 1, p. 138.

55. Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 66, 6–15; Mayer, pp. 707–8, 710–11; Woodhouse, p. 319.

56. C. T. Thompson, pp. 335, 342; Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 532, n. 2.

57. University Microfilms International, Sonnino Papers, reel 40, 479, 486, 488; Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 153–55.

58. Seymour, p. 266.

59. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 30.5.19; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 357; Albrecht-Carrié, p. 168.

60. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 19.5.19; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, pp. 100, 106; Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 539; Orlando, p. 484; Baerlein, vol. 1, p. 139; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 56/2/27, Rodd to Lloyd George, 6.5.19.

61. Albrecht-Carrié, pp. 167–73; Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 533; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 33.

62. Orlando, pp. 482–83; See Bodleian Library, Milner Papers, 46/2, Rodd to Milner, 30.6.19; Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 535.

63. Ledeen, pp. 102–3, 148–49; Woodhouse, p. 341.

64. Ledeen, pp. 145–46.

65. Ibid., pp. 88, 95–97; Seton-Watson, Italy, pp. 546–47.

66. Ledeen, p. 108.

67. Tillman, pp. 382–83; F. Stevenson, p. 192.

68. Temperley, vol. 4, pp. 329–30.

69. Seton-Watson, Italy, p. 582.

70. Woodhouse, pp. 371, 379.

71. Rodd, p. 384.

CHAPTER 23: JAPAN AND RACIAL EQUALITY

1. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 239.

2. Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, pp. 4–5.

3. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 337.

4. Temperley, vol. 1, p. 259; Seymour, pp. 177–78; Baker, What Wilson Did, p. 73.

5. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 304; Curry, p. 251; Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, p. 117; Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 267.

6. Connors, pp. 60–61.

7. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 231–32.

8. Ibid., p. 233.

9. Kumao pp. 24–25; Connors, p. 3.

10. Kumao, pp. 24–25; Connors, p. 3.

11. Clemenceau, p. 140; Kumao, pp. 26, 40.

12. Kumao, pp. 23–4, 26, 38, 63.

13. Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 6, pp. 386, 433; Connors, pp. 14–16.

14. Hunter, p. 119.

15. Duus, p. 134.

16. Connors, pp. 15, 18–19, 22, 109–10.

17. Yamagata Aritomo, quoted in Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 255; Nish, Alliance in Decline, pp. 127–31; Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 6, p. 279.

18. Curry, p. 197; Nish, Alliance in Decline, pp. 258–59.

19. Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, p. 282; Chi, China Diplomacy, p. 86; Dingman, p. 57; Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 217.

20. La Fargue, p. 46.

21. Dingman, p. 76.

22. Ibid., p. 43.

23. Neu, pp. 127–29, 131–32; Chi, “Ts’ao Ju-lin,” p. 103; M. D. Kennedy, pp. 41, 44; Dingman, p. 58.

24. Nish, Alliance in Decline, pp. 196, 227, n. 48, 232; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 111; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 506.

25. Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 267.

26. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 141, 191; Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 267; Curry, pp. 131–32, 137–38; Beers, p. 70; Hunter Miller, My Diary, vol. 1, p. 100.

27. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 739–40; Geddes, pp. 32–37; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 312.

28. Fifield, “Disposal of the Carolines,” pp. 472–79.

29. Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 172; Lauren, pp. 260–61.

30. FRUS, vol. 1, p. 494; Kawamura, pp. 51–52.

31. Yale University Library, House diary, 4.2.19; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 37–40, notes dictated on Monday 10 February, 1919; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 183–84; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 33.

32. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 2, pp. 323–25; Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 33; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 224–25.

33. Lauren, p. 268; PWW, vol. 55, p. 489; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 37–40, notes dictated on Monday 10 February, 1919; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 636.

34. Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, p. 336; Hunter Miller, My Diary, vol. 1, p. 100; Link, Wilson: The New Freedom, pp. 243–54.

35. Snelling, p. 23; W. J. Hudson, pp. 55–57; National Library of Australia, Hughes Papers, series 24/2, folder 11: 1538/24/902; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 6/6/29, Cecil to Lloyd George, 15.4.19.

36. Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N74, Société des Nations, letter of 18.4.19; Nish, Alliance in Decline, p. 271; W. J. Hudson, p. 57; Garran, p. 265; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 6/6/29, Cecil to Lloyd George, 15.4.19; National Archives of Canada, Christie Papers, vol. 5, file 16; Borden diary, 31.3.19; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 29 (28.4.19); Bonsal, Unfinished Business, p. 154; Yale University Library, House diary, 13.2.19.

37. House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 313; Yale University Library, Auchincloss diary, 10.4.19; Hunter Miller, Drafting of the Covenant, vol. 1, pp. 461–66; vol. 2, pp. 387–93.

38. Lauren, pp. 274–75; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 291.

39. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 314.

CHAPTER 24: A DAGGER POINTED AT THE HEART OF CHINA

1. Keegan, p. 173.

2. Schrecker, pp. 215–17, 231.

3. Ibid., pp. 168–203, 247.

4. Chi, China Diplomacy, p. 26; Schrecker, p. 248.

5. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 25.

6. Connors, p. 110.

7. Nish, Alliance in Decline, pp. 158–59.

8. Curry, pp. 127–28.

9. Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, p. 116.

10. Ibid., p. 286.

11. Chow, p. 87; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 187.

12. Chi, China Diplomacy, p. 25; Nish, Alliance in Decline, pp. 156, 193; Quoted in Louis, British Strategy, p. 19.

13. Curry, pp. 127, 182, 253–54; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 141.

14. Curry, p. 155; Beers, pp. 109, 121, 149, 154.

15. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 134; Curry, pp. 15, 30; Pugach, pp. 241, 261.

16. Curry, p. 194.

17. Clemenceau, p. 140; Shotwell, pp. 136–37, 161; W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 3.

18. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 230–31, 191–94; Beers, p. 153; Shotwell, pp. 136–37.

19. Chu, p. 15; La Fargue, p. 178; W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 2.

20. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 140, 144; Chow, p. 86; Curry, p. 251; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 237; Chu, p. 30, n. 66.

21. W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 26; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 126, n. 55.

22. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 124–25.

23. W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 5.

24. Ibid., pp. 9–11; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 130–31.

25. W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 7.

26. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 197–98; Shotwell, p. 151; Kawamura, p. 50.

27. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 143–55.

28. Keegan, p. 178; W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 12; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 141–42.

29. Curry, pp. 265–67; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 243; PWW, vol. 57, pp. 582–83; Hankey, p. 131.

30. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 247–49; Curry, p. 268; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 319–28.

31. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 330; La Fargue, p. 217.

32. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 253; W. King, China at the Peace Conference, p. 21; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 329–36.

33. Hankey, p. 132; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 334–36; La Fargue, p. 218.

34. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 25.4.19; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 260, 268; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 235.

35. Curry, p. 274; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 267–71.

36. PWW, vol. 57, p. 583; Shotwell, p. 196, n. 1; Kawamura, pp. 523–24.

37. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 269–70; Curry, pp. 275–76; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, 399–401.

38. Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 25.4.19; Beers, p. 160; La Fargue, p. 231.

39. Curry, pp. 272, 277, 279; Keegan, p. 178; La Fargue, p. 222; Floto, p. 233; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 298–301; Beers, p. 158.

40. PWW, vol. 58, p. 244; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 30.4.19; Heckscher, p. 567; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 277–80; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 425–27.

41. Chow, p. 90; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, pp. 242–43.

42. Curry, p. 280; Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 287; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 244.

43. Chow, p. 90.

44. Ibid., p. 101.

45. Ibid., p. 93.

46. Schwarcz, pp. 14, 18, 22.

47. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 303.

48. Schwarcz, p. 12.

49. Ibid., pp. 15–22; Chow, p. 189.

50. Spence, p. 294.

51. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, p. 243; Chi, “Ts’ao Ju-lin,” p. 181, n. 138.

52. Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, pp. 123, 287–88; Curry, p. 282.

53. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 346–47.

54. Griswold, p. 327; Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, p. 138.

55. Chu, p. 80.

56. Fifield, Woodrow Wilson and the Far East, pp. 298–300; Beers, p. 26; Curry, p. 309.

CHAPTER 25: THE GREATEST GREEK STATESMAN SINCE PERICLES

1. Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 109 and Appendix B.

2. F. Lloyd George, p. 167; Petsalis-Diomidis, pp. 123, 135; Churchill College, Hankey diary, 17.10.18; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 176.

3. Alastos, pp. 11–12.

4. Ibid., pp. 14–18.

5. Ibid., p. 13.

6. Clogg, p. 33.

7. Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 17.

8. Ibid., p. 187; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 55/1/10.

9. Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 177; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 55/1/32, Venizelos to Lloyd George, 23.7.20; 92/12/1, interview between Lloyd George and Venizelos; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 863–73.

10. Magosci, p. 97.

11. Smith, pp. 25–27.

12. Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 679.

13. Clogg, p. 89.

14. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 1203–4; Dillon, p. 75.

15. PWW, vol. 55, p. 266; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 251.

16. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 859–66, 868–75; Churchill College, Leeper Papers, 3/8, Allen Leeper to Rex Leeper, 3.2.19.

17. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 874.

18. Stickney, p. 79.

19. Duroselle, p. 777; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 56.

20. Smith, pp. 63–64; Goldstein, “Great Britain and Greater Greece,” p. 344.

21. Goldstein, “Great Britain and Greater Greece,” p. 343; Churchill College, Hankey diary, 27.12.18.

22. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 204; Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 129; Smith, p. 253; Goldstein, “Great Britain and Greater Greece,” pp. 346–47.

23. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 1216; Smith, p. 18.

24. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 27; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 55/1/10; Petsalis-Diomidis, pp. 72–73, 132–34.

25. Alastos, pp. 188, nn. 1 and 2; Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 135.

26. Petsalis-Diomidis, pp. 49–52, 76–78.

27. Ibid., pp. 62–63, 116–18; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F3/4/6, Hardinge to Balfour, 21.1.19.

28. Yale University Library, House diary, 8.1.19; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 177; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 24; Seymour, p. 56.

29. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 268; Stickney, pp. 88, 95; Petsalis-Diomidis, pp. 162–63, 164, n. 41.

30. National Archives of Canada, Borden diary, 8.2.19; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 262, 266.

31. Durham, pp. 246, 260–61; Shanafelt, pp. 283–300.

32. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 74; Durham, p. 181.

33. Fitzherbert, pp. 125–26; Laffan, pp. 223–28.

34. Dontas, p. 105; Stickney, p. 68.

35. Stickney, pp. 91–92.

36. Roosevelt, p. 95; Cannadine, p. 383; Fitzherbert, passim.

37. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 268.

38. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 111–16.

39. Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 185.

40. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 260; Goldstein, “Great Britain and Greater Greece,” p. 348; Petsalis-Diomidis, pp. 150–51.

41. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 495.

42. Stickney, p. 125.

43. Temperley, vol. 6, pp. 39–40; Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 88; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 180; FRUS, vol. 7, p. 397.

44. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 866.

45. Ibid., vol. 7, pp. 246, 379–80; Genov, p. 62.

46. Helmreich, pp. 153–55; Goldstein, “Great Britain and Greater Greece,” p. 349; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 92/12/1, interview between Lloyd George and Venizelos, 5 September 1919.

47. Genov, p. 56.

CHAPTER 26: THE END OF THE OTTOMANS

1. FRUS, vol. 2, p. 282; Ahmad, p. 18.

2. Dyer, “The Turkish Armistice of 1918: 2,” pp. 316, 323–24.

3. Ibid., pp. 327, 335–36.

4. Ibid., p. 334.

5. Ibid., pp. 319, 335, 345, n. 45.

6. Kinross, p. 153.

7. Ibid., p. 134.

8. FRUS, vol. 2, p. 281; Orga, p. 194; Kinross, p. 159.

9. Kinross, pp. 481, 531, 542.

10. Mazower, “Minorities,” p. 47.

11. Kinross, pp. 16, 437, 468.

12. Suny, p. 107; Pope and Pope, p. 116; Mansel, pp. 286–88.

13. Kinross, p. 21.

14. Ibid., chapters 2 and 3.

15. Ibid., pp. 72, 111; Pope, p. 163.

16. Orga, pp. 164, 209; Kinross, p. 158; A. W. Palmer, pp. 244–45.

17. Mansel, pp. 384–85; Ryan, p. 139.

18. Mansel, pp. 398–400; Busch, Mudros to Lausanne, pp. 64–67.

19. Walker, p. 294.

20. British Library, Curzon Papers, F112/274, War Cabinet, Eastern Committee minutes, 46 (23.12.18).

21. British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee minutes, 40 (2.12.18).

22. Anderson, p. 268 n. 1; Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 75; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 56.

23. Watson, pp. 367–68; D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 6, p. 3314; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 164.

24. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 806.

25. Helmreich, p. 13; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1173, “Notes of an interview between M. Clemenceau, Colonel House and myself,” 7.3.19; Walker, pp. 125–26; H. N. Howard, The Partition, pp. 135, 424.

26. FRUS, vol. 1, p. 52; H. N. Howard, Turkey, the Straits and U.S. Policy, p. 47; Hunter Miller, My Diary, vol. 1, pp. 27–28, 74; C. T. Thompson, p. 76; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 226; Macfie, “The British Decision,” p. 391; British Library, Curzon Papers, F112/274, Eastern Committee minutes, 46 (23.12.18); House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F40/2, Montagu to Lloyd George, 28.2.19.

27. Helmreich, pp. 29–30; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 956–69.

28. FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 147–57; Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 2, p. 24.

29. Suny, p. 114 and chapter 6, passim.

30. FRUS, vol. 1, p. 42; Duroselle, p. 822 [my translation]; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 1257–58; Walker, pp. 263–64; House, Intimate Papers vol. 4, p. 199; Hoover, p. 141.

31. British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee minutes, 42 (9.12.18); Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, pp. 170–71, 194.

32. Helmreich, p. 50; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 1173, “Notes of an interview between M. Clemenceau, Colonel House and myself, 10.30 A.M., 7.3.19”; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 1262; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 807; vol. 5, p. 614; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 194.

33. Ryan, p. 130; Kinross, p. 241; Helmreich, p. 335, n. 38.

CHAPTER 27: ARAB INDEPENDENCE

1. Toynbee, pp. 211–12.

2. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 25, 28–29; Churchill College, Hankey diary, 4.12.18, note added 11.12.20.

3. Temperley, vol. 6, p. 182; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, pp. 174–75; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 1038.

4. Churchill College, Hankey diary, 6.10.18; Nevakivi, p. 118; British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee minutes, 39 (27.11.18).

5. Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace, p. 190; Storrs, pp. 316, 324.

6. Sanders, p. 268; Adelson, p. 135; Nevakivi, p. 32.

7. D. Stevenson, First World War and International Politics, pp. 129–30.

8. Amery, vol. 1, p. 237.

9. Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, pp. 46, 69; Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N72, memoranda of 18.12.18, annex III; “Plan de règlement des questions d’Orient 12.12.18”; 6N76, note 1.2.19.

10. British Library, Curzon Papers, F112/274, Eastern Committee minutes, 41 (5.12.18); Eastern Committee minutes, 42 (9.12.18).

11. Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, pp. 152, 158–59; Nevakivi, pp. 65, 78–79.

12. Temperley, vol. 1, p. 439; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 149.

13. Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 147; British Library, Curzon Papers, F112/274, Eastern Committee minutes, 39 (27.11.18), minutes 40 (2.12.18).

14. Zeine, p. 46; Nevakivi, pp. 59, 83; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 90.

15. Lansing, The Big Four, pp. 164–65, 169; James, Imperial Warrior, p. 173.

16. Lacey, p. 83; Yapp, Making of the Modern Near East, pp. 281–86.

17. Fromkin, Peace to End All Peace, pp. 174, 176–87.

18. D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 1028; Antonius, p. 321; Garnett, p. 20; James, Golden Warrior, p. 311.

19. Garnett, p. 89.

20. Fromkin, Peace to End All Peace, pp. 339–41; Garnett, pp. 117–18; Library of Congress, Beer Collection, diary, 8.1.19; British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee minutes, 41 (5.12.18); Nevakivi, p. 85.

21. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 102; Zeine, pp. 51, 62; Bell, p. 128.

22. Zeine, pp. 50–52.

23. Ibid., p. 59; Antonius, pp. 280–86.

24. James, Golden Warrior, pp. 304, 599; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 131.

25. Hughes, Policies and Potentates, pp. 221–23; FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 889–94; Library of Congress, Bliss Papers, box 244, diary, 25.1.19; Beer Collection, diary, 7.1.19; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 40; Zeine, p. 144.

26. Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 186; Shotwell, p. 178; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 113, 118–9.

27. FRUS, vol. 4, p. 3; Zamir, pp. 408–9.

28. Watson, p. 371.

29. Zeine, p. 59; Nevakivi, p. 98; Public Record Office, London, CAB 29/28; British empire delegation minutes, 7 (7.2.19); British Library, Balfour Papers, 49734/164–67, Balfour to Curzon, 8.9.19.

30. Yale University Library, House diary, 7.3.19, 12.3.19; Nevakivi, pp. 119, 128–29; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, pp. 189, 194–98, 205.

31. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 1, p. 74; James, Imperial Warrior, p. 185; FRUS, vol. 5, p. 12; Poincaré, pp. 286–87.

32. Antonius, p. 288; Nevakivi, pp. 138, 143; Fitzherbert, p. 219; James, Golden Warrior, p. 311; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 233.

33. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 133.

34. Yergin, pp. 183, 189; Nevakivi, p. 91; Amery, vol. 1, p. 232.

35. Sluglett, p. 32; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 194; M. Kent, Oil and Empire, p. 148.

36. Marlowe, p. 92.

37. Ibid., p. 13.

38. Ibid., p. 113.

39. Ibid., p. 132.

40. Sluglett, appendix 1.

41. Marlowe, pp. 136–38; British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee minutes, 43 (16.12.18); Sluglett, p. 37.

42. Wallach, pp. 213–14.

43. Ibid., p. 108.

44. Ibid., p. 290–91.

45. Ibid., p. 207; Marlowe, p. 112; Sluglett, p. 22; Winstone, pp. 195, 198, 202; Zamir, pp. 408–9.

46. Winstone, pp. 209–10.

47. Sluglett, p. 34; Fitzherbert, p. 219.

48. Darwin, chapter 3, passim; Kedourie, Chatham House Version, p. 90.

49. Storrs, p. 54; Kedourie, Chatham House Version, pp. 84–88.

50. Zeine, p. 189.

51. Shaarawi, p. 114.

52. Darwin, pp. 83–84; Temperley, vol. 6, p. 198.

53. Public Record Office, CAB 29/2, Indian desiderata for the peace settlement.

54. J. M. Brown, Prisoner of Hope, pp. 140–41; J. M. Brown, Gandhi’s Rise to Power, p. 192; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F/23/4 “The Future of Constantinople,” 5.2.19; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 16 (3.4.19); Busch, Britain, India and the Arabs, p. 390.

55. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 95–100.

56. The Englishman (Calcutta), 8.4.19; Pandey, p. 107; Darwin, p. 247.

57. Callwell, vol. 2, p. 182; Darwin, pp. 30–32; James, Imperial Warrior, pp. 184, 194.

58. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 638; British Library, Balfour Papers, 49734/154–60, Curzon to Balfour, 20.8.19; Nevakivi, pp. 178, 181; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 74/19–21, 12.8.19; James, Imperial Warrior, pp. 194–95; Temperley, vol. 6, pp. 155–56; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 200.

59. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 4, pp. 97–98.

60. FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 751–863.

61. Nevakivi, p. 199; Wilson, p. 621.

62. Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 4, pp. 134, 141, 203; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 213; Keiger, p. 268; Nevakivi, p. 208.

63. Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, pp. 201–2, 215; Zeine, pp. 120, n. 6, 146–47; Marlowe, pp. 212–3.

64. Zeine, pp. 136–37.

65. Marlowe, pp. 162, 204, 215.

66. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 495; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 273; British Library, Curzon Papers, F111/274, Eastern Committee minutes, 39 (27.11.18); Wallach, pp. 311, 321.

67. Wallach, p. 364.

68. Brecher, p. 656.

CHAPTER 28: PALESTINE

1. Reinharz, p. 298; FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 164–65; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 187.

2. Shotwell, p. 170.

3. Elon, pp. 62–63, 67; Sanders, p. 81.

4. Sanders, pp. 120–21, 418.

5. Eban, p. 12; Stein, pp. 121–22; Reinharz, p. 36.

6. Sanders, p. 318.

7. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, 60/2/26; Mansergh, vol. 2, p. 27; Churchill, Great Contemporaries, p. 250; Gilmour, pp. 503–4; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 325; Jones, vol. 1, p. 201.

8. Malcolm, p. 110.

9. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 1014, 1017; Mosley, p. 207.

10. Vansittart, p. 232; Mackay, p. 317; Yale University Library, House diary, 31.12.18; Sanders, p. 119; Dugdale, vol. 2, p. 171.

11. Stein, p. 152; Dugdale, vol. 2, p. 163; Sanders, pp. 119–21.

12. Sanders, p. 73; Rowland, p. 424.

13. D. Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 586; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Europe 1918–1929, EU18–40, Grande Bretagne, vol. 7, 4.4.19.

14. Sanders, p. 518; Stein, p. 127.

15. Gilmour, p. 481; Adelson, p. 243; Friedman, Question of Palestine, pp. 311–24.

16. Reinharz, pp. 223, 242; Sykes, p. 23.

17. Reinharz, pp. 291–95, 303–4.

18. Ibid., p. 296; Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 639; FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 161–70.

19. Reinharz, p. 298; FRUS, vol. 4, pp. 161–70.

20. Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 187; Storrs, pp. 326, 349, n. 1.

21. Reinharz, pp. 194, 199, 301; FRUS, vol. 4, p. 168.

22. Reinharz, p. 220; Yapp, The Near East Since the First World War, p. 116; Adelson, p. 243; Elon, p. 195.

23. Elon, pp. 209, 225–26; chapter 5, passim; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 64–78, Weizmann to Balfour, 30.5.18.

24. Reinharz, p. 278.

25. Dugdale, p. 161.

26. Sanders, p. 652; Storrs, p. 414; British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee minutes, 41 (5.12.18).

27. Wilson, p. 512; Storrs, p. 400; Reinharz, pp. 255–56.

28. Wilson, p. 593; Antonius, pp. 285–86, appendix F.

29. Lebow, pp. 501–23; PWW, vol. 54, pp. 432–33; Tillman, p. 226; Dockrill and Goold, p. 163; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 793–95.

30. Klieman, p. 70; Nevakivi, pp. 119–23.

31. Nevakivi, p. 274; Reinharz, pp. 318, 387.

32. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 541.

33. British Library, Balfour Papers, 49734/154–60, Curzon to Balfour, 20.8.19; Sykes, pp. 49–50; Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, pp. 484–85.

34. Ibid., p. 625–27; Reinharz, pp. 357–58.

35. Sanders, p. 657; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 1194; Reinharz, p. 392; Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 621; Sykes, pp. 58–61.

36. Reinharz, pp. 394–95.

37. Sykes, pp. 72–73.

CHAPTER 29: ATATÜRK AND THE BREAKING OF SÈVRES

1. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 454; vol. 2, pp. 37–38.

2. Temperley, vol. 6, p. 21; Petsalis-Diomidis, p. 47; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 774–83.

3. Bosworth, pp. 52–55, 67–69; Smith, pp. 69–79; Lowe and Marzari, p. 172.

4. Bosworth, p. 53; University Microfilm International, Sonnino Papers, reel 40/47, telegram of 26.1.19; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 365.

5. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 305; vol. 2, p. 40; FRUS, vol. 5, p. 582; British Library, Balfour Papers, 49752, vol. 2, “The Problem of Italy and Turkey in Anatolia,” 16.5.19.

6. P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 448–55.

7. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 868–75, 872; Bonsal, Suitors and Suppliants, p. 183; Llewellyn Smith, p. 70.

8. Llewellyn Smith, p. 51.

9. House and Seymour, pp. 192–93; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F23/4/22, Hankey to Lloyd George, 23.2.19.

10. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 31; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 321–22; F. Stevenson, p. 183; Smith, p. 80.

11. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 47–48; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 278.

12. Smith, p. 79; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, pp. 495–96; vol. 2, pp. 29–31, 36; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 192.

13. Smith, pp. 86–91.

14. Kinross, pp. 181–82; Ryan, p. 128.

15. Kinross, p. 177; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, p. 1285.

16. Kinross, pp. 199, 671–72.

17. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 333–35.

18. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 55, 70; N. Nicolson, p. 84; British Library, Balfour Papers, Add. MS 49752, vol. 2, “The Problem of Italy and Turkey in Anatolia,” 16.5.19.

19. Callwell, vol. 2, p. 193; N. Nicolson, p. 84.

20. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 72, 100, 106, 109–13.

21. Ibid., pp. 133–34; Roskill, vol. 2, p. 91; Churchill College, Hankey diary, 21.5.19; Andrew and Kanya-Forstner, p. 197; Steed, vol. 2, p. 330.

22. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 137; Helmreich, pp. 75–79; Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, vol. 2, p. 203.

23. H. N. Howard, Partition of Turkey, p. 237.

24. Helmreich, p. 110; FRUS, vol. 6, p. 711; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 552–56.

25. F. Stevenson, p. 76; Gilmour, pp. 491, 534–35.

26. H. Nicolson, Curzon, p. 47, n. 1.

27. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 184; Gilmour, pp. 7–8.

28. H. Nicolson, Curzon, p. 20; British Library, Montagu Papers, 15.6.18/31; Vansittart, p. 273.

29. Gregory, p. 254.

30. H. Nicolson, Curzon, p. 193; Gilmour, p. 510.

31. H. Nicolson, Curzon, p. 80; Gidney, p. 113.

32. Gilmour, p. 502; H. Nicolson, Curzon, pp. 74, 214.

33. Gidney, pp. 196–99; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 1264–67.

34. Lowe and Marzari, pp. 172–73; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, notes of an interview between Lloyd George and Tittoni, 31.8.19, F200/1/12; Helmreich, p. 197, n. 6.

35. Duroselle, pp. 778–79; Montgomery, p. 776.

36. A. L. Macfie, “The British Decision,” p. 393; Rawlinson, pp. 190, 250–52; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 1–9, memorandum, “America and the League of Nations,” 14.11.19.

37. Gilmour, p. 521.

38. Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 305; British Library, Curzon Papers, Eastern Committee meeting, 42 (9.12.18).

39. Gilmour, p. 516; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F47/8/13, Wilson to Lloyd George, 12.5.19 and 14.5.19; F/24/1/10 Hankey to Lloyd George, 4.9.19; Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, pp. 265, 305.

40. Nassibian, pp. 152–54, 229; Walker, p. 290, n.

41. Walker, pp. 275, 279; Gokay, pp. 59–66.

42. Walker, p. 281; Suny, p. 129.

43. FRUS, vol. 3, p. 806.

44. Adelson, p. 65; Gelfand, p. 243.

45. McDowall, pp. 108–9.

46. Ibid., pp. 3–5; Dominian, p. 296; Nassibian, pp. 19–20, 25.

47. McDowall, p. 3; Sonyel, pp. 6–8.

48. McDowall, p. 130; Busch, Mudros to Lausanne, p. 178.

49. McDowall, pp. 120–21; Helmreich, p. 204.

50. McDowall, pp. 121–29.

51. Ibid., pp. 120–21, 134–37, 143; Fromkin, Peace to End All Peace, p. 404.

52. McDowall, pp. 125–28, 132.

53. Helmreich, pp. 301–2; Temperley, vol. 6, pp. 90–91; McDowall, pp. 450–51.

54. Rawlinson, pp. 295–96; Busch, Mudros to Lausanne, p. 207; Smith, p. 122; M. Kent, Moguls and Mandarins, p. 100.

55. Dockrill and Goold, p. 210.

56. Smith, p. 127; Callwell, vol. 2, pp. 213, 248–49.

57. Dockrill and Goold, p. 210; Sonyel, p. 82.

58. Walker, pp. 315–6.

59. Ibid., p. 315.

60. Temperley, vol. 6, p. 91.

61. Sonyel, pp. 83–84; Adamthwaite, p. 94; Dockrill and Goold, p. 222.

62. Smith, pp. 191–97, 266.

63. Kinross, p. 354.

64. Smith, p. 309; Kinross, p. 372.

65. H. Nicolson, Curzon, pp. 273–74; Gilmour, p. 544.

66. W. White, Dateline, p. 245.

67. N. Nicolson, p. 121; W. White, Dateline, pp. 244–45, 254; Grew, vol. 1, p. 525, n. 45.

68. Dockrill and Goold, pp. 241, 246; W. White, Dateline, p. 254; Grew, vol. 1, pp. 525, 542–43; Gilbert, Rumbold, p. 290.

69. Grew, vol. 1, p. 584; Gilmour, p. 556.

70. Dockrill and Goold, p. 239; C. A. Macartney, National States, p. 444; Pope and Pope, pp. 116–18.

71. Kinross, p. 407.

72. McDowall, pp. 171–78; Mansel, p. 421.

73. McDowall, p. 158.

74. Sonyel, p. 225; Pope and Pope, pp. 22–23; Gilmour, p. 567.

CHAPTER 30: THE HALL OF MIRRORS

1. Hankey, pp. 143–44, 146; Marston, pp. 185–86; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 189; FRUS, vol. 3, p. 386; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 327; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 473, n. 2.

2. F. Stevenson, p. 183; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, pp. 299, 318; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 264.

3. FRUS, vol. 12, p. 85; Schiff, pp. 51–52; Lovin, p. 58; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers, 70/5, notes by M. Massigli, 8.5.19.

4. Schiff, pp. 34–39; Nowak, pp. 184–86; Wheeler-Bennett, Nemesis of Power, p. 49, n. 2; St. Antony’s College, Malcolm Papers, 1/2, diary, 25.4.19.

5. FRUS, vol. 12, p. 119; Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, pp. 185–88.

6. Klein, p. 206; Bessel, Germany After the First World War, chapter 8; FRUS, vol. 12, pp. 86, 92, 99; Schwabe, “Germany’s Peace Aims,” p. 42.

7. See Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, pp. 157–59, 310–17, 319, n. 51; Epstein, pp. 305–6, 319; Soutu, pp. 179–80; Nowak, pp. 240–44; Walworth, Woodrow Wilson and His Peacemakers, p. 385; Klein, pp. 211–12.

8. Schiff, pp. 32–33; Nowak, pp. 178–82; Lovin, 57–60.

9. Luckau, p. 116.

10. Luckau, pp. 62–65.

11. Schiff, p. 67; Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 71; Hankey, pp. 151–53.

12. Hankey, p. 153; Luckau, p. 119.

13. F. Stevenson, p. 183; Hankey, pp. 154–55; Riddell, Intimate Diary, pp. 73–74; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Guerra diplomatica, p. 306; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 329–30; Nowak, p. 225.

14. Sharp, Versailles Settlement, p. 127; Schiff, pp. 75–77; Luckau, p. 124; Steed, vol. 2, p. 336; Nowak, p. 228.

15. Mommsen, p. 535; Eyck, vol. 1, p. 98; Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, p. 336; Krüger, pp. 323–35.

16. Luckau, pp. 182–88; FRUS, vol. 12, p. 96.

17. FRUS, vol. 6, pp. 795–901; Holborn, pp. 140–44; Marks, “Smoke and Mirrors,” pp. 356–59; Luckau, pp. 81–84; Mommsen, pp. 537–39.

18. Luckau, p. 47, 81.

19. Luckau, pp. 130–31, 242, 254, 268–72; 287–99; 306–14; Nowak, p. 244; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, p. 684; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 403.

20. Hoover, p. 234.

21. Lansing, p. 272; Fromkin, In the Time of the Americans, pp. 260–63; Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers, pp. 394–95.

22. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 187; Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, p. 92.

23. Noble, pp. 353–58, 362–63; Miquel, pp. 548–55.

24. Callwell, vol. 2, p. 195; J. C. King, pp. 96–102; McDougall, France’s Rhineland Diplomacy, pp. 70–72; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, pp. 298–99.

25. Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, pp. 89–93; House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 6/6/47, Cecil to Lloyd George, 27.5.19; Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 32 (30.5.19).

26. House of Lords Record Office, Lloyd George Papers, F 45/9/29, Smuts to Lloyd George, 26.3.19; F45/9/33, Smuts to Lloyd George, 5.5.19; F 45/9/34, Smuts to Lloyd George 14.5.19; F 45/9/35, Smuts to Lloyd George, 22.5.19; F45/9/39, Smuts to Lloyd George, 2.6.19; F45/9/4, Lloyd George to Smuts, 3.6.19; F45/9/41, Smuts to Lloyd George, 4.6.19.

27. Public Record Office, Cabinet Papers, CAB 29/28, British empire delegation minutes, 33 (1.6.19, A.M.); 34 (1.6.19, P.M.).

28. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 268–72, 274; Mordacq, Le ministère Clemenceau, vol. 3, p. 303; FRUS, vol. 11, pp. 222; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 9.6.19; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 1, pp. 678–79.

29. Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, p. 100; Yale University Library, House diary, 31.5.19; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 428–37; FRUS, vol. 6, pp. 341–42.

30. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 276; Library of Congress, Baker notebooks, 3.6.19.

31. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 358–61; 363–75.

32. Ministère de la Défense, Clemenceau Papers, 6N73, “Incidents de Versailles”; Schiff, pp. 124–26.

33. British Library, Balfour Papers, Add. MS 49750/231–236, memorandum from Sir Ian Malcolm; Scottish Record Office, Lothian Papers 466/26 3.6.19; St. Antony’s College, Malcolm Papers, 8.5.19; P. Mantoux, vol. 2, pp. 401, 462, 459–75; Schiff, pp. 114–34; Klein, p. 214, n. 35; Holborn, pp. 145–47.

34. Rudin, p. 316; Marder, vol. 5, pp. 270–82; FRUS, vol. 6, pp. 613–14; Yale University Library, House diary. 23.6.19.

35. Epstein, pp. 311–24.

36. Ibid., pp. 314, n. 51, 315–17, chapter 12, passim; Nowak, p. 267; Schiff, p. 143.

37. Epstein, pp. 325–26; Luckau, p. 91; Nowak, p. 266.

38. P. Mantoux, vol. 2, p. 513; Eyck, vol. 1, p. 104; Luckau, pp. 109–12; Wheeler-Bennett, Nemesis of Power, pp. 55–59; Epstein, pp. 320–23.

39. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, pp. 83–84; Hankey, p. 181.

40. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 89; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Jules Cambon Papers, folder 100 (correspondence), Jules Cambon to Paul Cambon, 26.6.19.

41. Garran, p. 271; Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 96; National Archives of Canada, Christie Papers, vol. 7, file 21, “The Dominions and the Peace Conference: A New Page in Constitutional History,” by Clement Jones, p. 184.

42. Riddell, Intimate Diary, p. 99; Shotwell, p. 382; Amery, vol. 1, p. 260; Lovin, p. 70.

43. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 87; Hankey, pp. 182–85; Garran, p. 270.

44. Yale University Library, House diary, 20.3.19; C. T. Thompson, p. 411.

45. Headlam-Morley, p. 178.

46. Marks, “Smoke and Mirrors,” p. 370, n. 138; F. Stevenson, p. 187; Duroselle, p. 886.

47. H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 368; Shotwell, p. 383.

48. FRUS, vol. 11, pp. 597–604; H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, pp. 365–71; Schiff, pp. 167–71; Hankey, pp. 188–89; Callwell, vol. 2, p. 201.

49. Eubank, p. 193; House, Intimate Papers, vol. 4, p. 487; Shotwell, p. 383.

50. Schiff, pp. 170–72.

51. Aldrovandi Marescotti, Nuovi ricordi, p. 110; Rowland, p. 495.

52. C. T. Thompson, p. 421; Headlam-Morley, p. 180; Garran, p. 272; F. Lloyd George, p. 145; FRUS, vol. 11, pp. 603–4; Ashmead-Bartlett, pp. 208–10.

53. Ryder, p. 224; Waite, p. 129; Epstein, pp. 388–89.

54. Skidelsky, vol. 1, pp. 348–53, 374–75, 378–89; Keylor, “Versailles and International Diplomacy,” p. 485, n. 51.

55. Ferguson, “Keynes and German Inflation,” p. 375; Schuker, End of French Predominance, p. 296.

56. Schuker, American “Reparations” to Germany, p. 12; Keiger, p. 271; Kershaw, Hitler, pp. 148–53.

57. See, for example, Cohen.

58. Bessel, “Why Did the Weimar Republic Collapse?”, pp. 126–28.

59. Schuker, American “Reparations” to Germany, pp. 16–17; Marks, “Reparations Reconsidered, ” passim; Marks, “The Myths of Reparations,” pp. 233–34; Eyck, vol. 1, pp. 174–75; P. Mantoux, vol. 1, p. 151.

60. Schuker, American “Reparations” to Germany, pp. 106–8; Marks, “The Myths of Reparations,” p. 233; Marks, “Smoke and Mirrors,” p. 348; Temperley, vol. 2, p. 54.

61. Eyck, vol. 1, p. 318.

62. Waite, chapter 8; Wheeler-Bennett, Nemesis of Power, p. 98.

63. Wheeler-Bennett, Nemesis, pp. 145–46; Eyck, vol. 1, 223–24; Nekrich, chapter 1, passim.

64. See Weinberg, “The Defeat of Germany,” pp. 252–53.

65. Department of State, The Treaty of Versailles and After, p. 27.

CONCLUSION

1. Ministères des Affaires Etrangères, Georges Mandel Papers, 234/2, 22.7.19; Steffens, p. 803.

2. Sharp, “The Genie,” p. 25.

3. Roosevelt, p. 97.

4. FRUS, vol. 3, pp. 394–410.

5. Ibid., pp. 403–5, 408–9; Burns, pp. 47–50.

6. Schachtman, p. 189.

7. Repington, p. 187; Watson, pp. 388–94, 438.

8. Cooper, pp. 26–27, 81–84, 123, 126–30; D. Lloyd George, Truth About the Peace Treaties, vol. 2, pp. 1412–13; Tillman, pp. 394–97.

9. Tumulty, p. 378; PWW, vol. 62, pp. 258–59.

10. Fried, p. 395; Hecksher, pp. 582–83; Cooper, pp. 119–21.

11. Hecksher, p. 586.

12. Cooper, pp. 12–23; Levin, pp. 309–10; Hecksher, pp. 591–93; PWW, vol. 62, Appendix, pp. 628–38.

13. Cooper, pp. 141–53; PWW, vol. 62, p. 507.

14. Tumulty, p. 435.

15. Grayson, p. 95; PWW, vol. 63, passim for speeches; pp. 50, 72, 235, 267–68.

16. PWW, vol. 63, pp. 3, 65, 152, 275, 308, 397, 446 (health); also pp. 63, 337–39, 420, 444–45; Tumulty, p. 447–48; Hecksher, pp. 609–22.

17. PWW, vol. 63, pp. 500–513.

18. Ibid., pp. 518–20, 522.

19. Levin, pp. 342–44, chapter 26, passim; Cooper, pp. 198–205, 258.

20. Cooper, pp. 260–62.

21. Ibid., chapter 8, passim; Grayson, p. 106; Hecksher, p. 631.

22. Economist, 31.12.99.

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