Notes

CHAPTER ONE: PICKING THE ROUTE

1 J. R. Perkins, Trails, Rails and War: The Life of General G. M. Dodge (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929), pp. 51-52. Wallace D. Farnham, “Grenville Dodge and the Union Pacific: A Study of Historical Legends,” Journal of American History, vol. 51 (June 1964-March 1965), pp. 632-50, calls this story “false,” as he does nearly everything else in Dodge’s autobiography and in Perkins’s biography. It strikes me as true, even down to the details.

2 Jeanne Minn Bracken, ed., Iron Horses Across America (Carlisle, Mass: Discovery Enterprises, 1995), p. 5.

3 Thomas Curtis Clarke et al., The American Railway: Its Construction, Development, Management and Appliances (New York: Scribner, 1889), p. 1.

4 Sarah Gordon, Passage to Union: How the Railroads Transformed American Life, 1829-1929 (Chicago: Ivan Dee, 1996), p. 136.

5 Quoted in Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., “Henry Varnum Poor,” in The Golden Spike: A Centennial Remembrance (New York: American Geographical Society, 1969), p. 4.

6 Roy B. Basler, ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 9 vols. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1953-55), vol. 1, pp. 5-6.

7 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 62.

8 The census shows that Illinois grew from 157,000 in 1830 to 1.7 million in 1860; Iowa from 43,000 in 1840 to 675,000 in 1860.

9 John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road: The Epic Story of the Transcontinental Railroad (New York: Times Books, 1988), p. 14.

10 William Beard, “I Have Labored Hard to Find the Law,” Illinois Historical Journal, Winter 1992, pp. 209-20; Charles Leroy Brown, “Abraham Lincoln and the Illinois Central Railroad,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 36 (1943), p. 128.

11 David Herbert Donald, Lincoln (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995), p. 155.

12 Ibid., pp. 155-56.

13 Beard, “I Have Labored,” p. 210.

14 Brown, “Lincoln and the IC,” pp. 122-25, 133.

15 Donald, Lincoln, p. 157.

16 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway (Council Bluffs, Iowa: Monarch Printing Co., 1997 reprint), p. 5.

17 William Goetzmann, Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1959), p. 295.

18 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 7.

19 Ibid., pp. 16-67.

20 Ibid., p. 19.

21 Dodge, How We Built, p. 6.

22 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 23.

23 Dodge, How We Built, p. 7.

24 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 31.

25 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 13.

26 Chicago Tribune, Jan. 14, 1864.

27 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, pp. 54-55.

28 Dodge, Hon; We Built, p. 9.

29 Donald, Lincoln, p. 206.

30 Dodge, How We Built, p. 5; Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 33.

31 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 34.

32 Ibid., p. 35.

33 Council Bluffs Bugle, July 1859.

34 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 37.

35 Council Bluffs Nonpareil, Aug. 12, 1859.

36 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 53.

37 Quoted in George Kraus, High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific Across the High Sierra (Palo Alto, Calif.: American West Publishing, 1969), p. 21.

38 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 55.

39 Ibid., p. 62.

40 Ibid., p. 63

41 Ibid.

42 Ibid., p. 66.

CHAPTER TWO: GETTING TO CALIFORNIA

1 Oscar Lewis, The Big Four: The Story of Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins, and Crocker (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1938), p. 49.

2 Charles Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

3 C.B.V. DeLamater Memoir, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

4 Lewis, Big Four, p. 55.

5 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

6 Robert Louis Stevenson, Travels and Essays of Robert Louis Stevenson, vol. 15 (New York: Scribner, 1895), pp. 124-25.

7 DeLamater Memoir, Bancroft Library.

8 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

9 DeLamater Memoir, Bancroft Library.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Collis Huntington Memoir, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

13 David Lavender, The Great Persuader (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970), pp. 1-7.

14 Lewis, Big Four, p. 222.

15 Ibid., pp. 223-24.

16 Lavender, Great Persuader, pp. 12-16.

17 Huntington Memoir, Bancroft Library.

18 William T. Sherman, Memoirs, 2 vols. printed in 1 (New York: Library of America, 1990 edition, first published 1875), vol. 1, pp. 35-43.

19 Ibid., p. 58.

20 John Debo Galloway, The First Transcontinental Railroad: Central Pacific, Union Pacific (New York: Simmon-Boardman, 1950), p. 80.

21 Lavender, Great Persuader, pp. 48-50.

22 Sherman, Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 87.

23 Ibid., p. 95.

24 Ibid., p. 101.

25 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter [to Bancroft], 12/14/89,” as it is usually cited, is in Anna Judah Papers, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

26 Ibid.

27 Carl Wheat, “A Sketch of the Life of Theodore D. Judah,” California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 4 (Sept. 1925), pp. 219-22; Lewis, Big Four, pp. 3-5.

28 American Railroad Journal, April 5, 1851.

29 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 222.

30 Sacramento Union, June 20, 1854.

31 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 223.

32 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

33 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 229.

34 Lewis, Big Four, p. 11.

35 Ibid., pp. 229-33.

36 Sacramento Union, Jan. 29, 1859.

37 Lewis, Big Four, pp. 236-37.

38 San Francisco Daily Alta California, Oct. 20, 1859.

1 Quoted in Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962), p. 15.

CHAPTER THREE: THE BIRTH OF THE CENTRAL PACIFIC

2 Oliver Jensen, The American Heritage History of Railroads in America (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1975), p. 84.

3 Oscar Lewis, The Big Four, p. 17; see also Robert West Howard, The Great Iron Trail: The Story of the First Transcontinental Railroad (New York: Bonanza Books, 1962), p. 107.

4 Carl Wheat, “A Sketch of the Life of Theodore D. Judah,” p. 238.

5 Lewis, Big Four, p. 17.

6 Howard, Great Iron Trail, p. 107.

7 Theodore Judah, Report to the Pacific Railroad Convention, published by Sacramento Daily Union, July 25, 1860, in Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley, p. 62.

8 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway and Other Railway Papers and Addresses. (Council Bluffs, Iowa: Monarch Printing Co., n.d.), p. 10.

9 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 238.

10 Lewis, Big Four, p. 18.

11 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter [to Bancroft], 12/14/89,” Bancroft Library.

12 Judah, Report to the Convention.

13 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

14 Ibid.

15 David Lavender, The Great Persuader, p. 87.

16 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

17 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 242.

18 Ibid., pp. 243-44.

19 Ibid., p. 245.

20 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

21 Charles Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

22 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

23 Lewis, Big Four, p. 25.

24 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

25 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” pp. 245-46.

26 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

27 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 247.

28 Quoted in George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 33.

29 Quoted in ibid., p. 33.

30 Sacramento Union, Aug. 7, 1861.

31 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 38.

32 Report of the Chief Engineer of Central Pacific Railroad Company, Oct. 1, 1861, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

33 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 251.

34 Ibid.; John Debo Galloway, The First Transcontinental Railroad, p. 61.

35 Robert Russell, Improvement of Communication with the Pacific Coast as an Issue in American Politics (Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1948), p. 294.

36 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 251.

37 Ibid., p. 252.

38 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 14.

39 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 38.

40 Lavender, Great Persuader, p. 105.

41 Ibid.

42 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 254.

43 Quoted in Russell, Improvement of Communication, p. 296.

44 Dodge, How We Built, p. 10.

45 Lavender, Great Persuader, p. 108.

46 Russell, Improvement of Communication, p. 296.

47 Sacramento Union, June 18, 1862.

48 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 47-48.

49 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 256.

50 Henry V. Poor, “The Pacific Railroad,” North American Review, vol. 128 (June 1879), p. 665.

CHAPTER FOUR: THE BIRTH OF THE UNION PACIFIC

1 John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, p. 50.

2 J. R. Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 86.

3 Ibid., p. 123.

4 Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs, 2 vols. (New York: Charles L. Webster, 1885-86), vol. 2, chap. 2, p. 31.

5 Quoted in ibid., p. 89.

6 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 92.

7 Ibid., p. 91.

8 Ibid., pp. 95-96.

9 Ibid.

10 Ibid., pp. 100, 104.

11 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, pp. 10-12; John W. Starr, Lincoln and the Railroads (New York: Arno Press, 1981, reprint of 1927 ed.), pp. 201-5. Wallace Farnham, “Grenville Dodge and the Union Pacific: A Study of Historical Legends,” Journal of American History, vol. 51 (June 1964), p. 636, calls this story “absurd.” It doesn’t seem so to me, or to Alan Nevins, or to other historians.

12 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 133.

13 Maury Klein, Union Pacific, vol. 1, Birth of a Railroad, 1862-1893 (Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1987), p. 24.

14 Ibid., p. 23.

15 Ibid., p. 24.

16 Ibid., p. 25.

17 Williams, Great and Shining Road, pp. 72-73.

18 Ibid., p. 74.

19 Ibid., p. 70.

20 Starr, Lincoln and the Railroads, p. 204.

21 Ibid., pp. 26-27.

22 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 76.

23 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 29.

24 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 80.

25 Ibid., p. 84.

26 Thomas C. Cochran, Railroad Leaders 1845-1890: The Business Mind in Action, (New York: Russell and Russell, 1965), p. 99.

27 Quoted in Robert G. Athearn, Union Pacific Country (Lincoln, Neb: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), p. 345.

28 Starr, Lincoln and the Railroads, p. 208.

29 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 132.

30 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 29.

31 Ibid., p. 30.

32 Ibid., p. 31.

33 Ibid., p. 32.

34 Ibid., p. 33.

35 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, pp. 91-92.

36 Ibid., p. 151.

37 Ibid., p. 152.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid., pp. 153-54.

40 Ibid., p. 142.

41 Starr, Lincoln and the Railroads, p. 214.

42 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 39.

43 Alfred D. Chandler, Strategy and Structure: Chapters in History of the Industrial Enterprise. (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1962), pp. 21-22.

44 Ibid., p. 23.

CHAPTER FIVE: JUDAH AND THE ELEPHANT

1 George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 52.

2 Sacramento Union, July 12, 1862.

3 John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, p. 56. Judah’s report, dated Sept. 1, 1862, is in Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

4 David Lavender, The Great Persuader, p. 129.

5 Ibid., pp. 130-31; Williams, Great and Shining Road, pp. 58-59.

6 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 60.

7 Sacramento Union, Aug. 22, 1864.

8 Judah’s report of Oct. 22, 1862, is in the Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

9 Charles Crocker interview, Bancroft Library, Berkeley.

10 Robert Utley and Francis Ketterson, Jr., Golden Spike (Washington, D.C: National Park Service, 1969), p. 15. Southern Pacific historian Lynn Farrar in an Aug. 22, 1999, letter to S. E. Ambrose, comments, “Riegel is dreaming. No books of Crocker & Co. were ever produced for anyone to disentangle. Mark Hopkins saw to that. They disappeared.”

11 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 61.

12 Crocker interview, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

13 Sacramento Union, Jan. 9, 1863, in Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

14 Crocker interview, Bancroft Library.

15 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, pp. 22-23.

16 John W. Starr, Lincoln and the Railroads, pp. 214-15. Starr is the only one who points out that Sargent was no longer in Congress; all the other authorities on the CP list him as either a representative or a senator at this time.

17 Carl Wheat, “A Sketch of the Life of Theodore D. Judah,” p. 262.

18 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter [to Bancroft], 12/14/89,” Bancroft Library.

19 Sacramento Union, April 29, 1863.

20 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 65; Bruce Clement Cooper, Lewis Metzler Clement: A Pioneer of the Central Pacific Railroad (privately printed, 1991), p. 5.

21 Quoted in Lavender, Great Persuader, p. 137.

22 Judah’s 1862 report is in the Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley; see also Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 259.

23 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p.35.

24 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 55.

25 Huntington to E. B. Crocker, May 13, 1868, Huntington Papers, Library of Congress.

26 Ibid.

27 Lavender, Great Persuader, p. 139.

28 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 67.

29 Lavender, Great Persuader, p. 140; Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 67.

30 Lavender, Great Persuader, p. 141.

31 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

32 Wheat, “Life of Judah,” p. 262.

33 Ibid.; Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 68.

34 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 39.

35 Sacramento Union, Oct. 27, 1863.

36 This was the eleventh locomotive to arrive in California. It had been shipped on the Herald of the Morning in May 1863 and arrived on Sept. 20. (Wendell Huffman, “Railroads Shipped by Sea,” Railroad History, Spring 1999, p. 27.)

37 Sacramento Union, Nov. 11, 1863.

38 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 41.

39 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 90.

40 Lynn Farrar to Stephen Ambrose, Aug. 22, 1999.

41 Sacramento Union, Feb. 18, 1864.

42 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 91.

43 Crocker interview, Bancroft Library.

44 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 92.

45 Crocker interview, Bancroft Library.

46 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 88.

47 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 83.

48 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 82.

49 Ibid., p. 87.

50 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 87.

51 Ibid., p. 92.

52 Crocker interview, Bancroft Library.

53 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 93.

54 “Mrs. Judah’s Letter,” Bancroft Library.

CHAPTER SIX: LAYING OUT THE UNION PACIFIC LINE

1 Young to Durant, Oct. 23, 1863, and Jan. 26, 1864, Brigham Young Papers, Archives, Church of Latter-Day Saints Library, Salt Lake City.

2 Dey to Reed, April 25, 1864, Samuel Reed Papers, UP Archives, Omaha.

3 Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 52-53.

4 Ibid., p. 54.

5 Ibid., p. 55.

6 John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, p. 103.

7 Quoted in ibid., p. 104.

8 Henry Morton Stanley, Autobiography (Boston, 1909), p. 226.

9 J. R. Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, pp. 172-72.

10 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 106.

11 Ibid., p. 174.

12 William T. Sherman, Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 411-12; see also Robert Athearn, “General Sherman and the Western Railroads,” Pacific Historical Review, vol. 5, page 39.

13 Perkins, Trails, Rails and War, p. 176.

14 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 130.

15 Robert G. Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 36.

16 Chicago Tribune, Aug. 14, 1865.

17 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 63.

18 Harper’s Weekly, July 22, 1865, p. 450.

19 The original of the Arthur Ferguson Journal is in the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City; I worked from a typewritten copy.

20 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, pp. 20-21. Professor Wallace Farnham, in his article “Grenville Dodge” in the Journal of American History, pp. 638-40, calls this story “fanciful” and implies that Dodge not only saw no Indians but was never at the pass. For my part, the story rings true; besides, there were plenty of other eyewitnesses.

21 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 67.

22 Omaha Weekly Herald, Oct. 27, 1865.

23 Oscar O. Winther, The Transportation Frontier: Trans-Mississippi West 1865-1890 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964), p. 8.

24 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 66.

25 Ibid, p. 67.

26 Ibid., pp. 69-70.

27 Ibid., p. 71.

28 James Maxwell Memoir, University of Delaware Library, Newark, Del.; H. K. Nichols Diary, March 11, 1867.

29 Arthur Ferguson Journal, Utah State Historical Society.

30 Reed to Durant, Nov. 1, 1865, Samuel Reed Papers, with thanks to Don Snoddy.

31 Denver Rocky Mountain News, May 25, 1866.

32 Quoted in Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 110.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE CENTRAL PACIFIC ATTACKS THE SIERRA NEVADA

1 John Logan Allen, North American Exploration: A Continent Comprehended, 3 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997), vol. 3, pp. 488-92. King began his survey in 1867, just as the Central Pacific was making its way through the mountains.

2 Clarence King, Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970 reprint), pp. 6-8. King went on to describe the desert that lay east of the mountains, a passage that will be excerpted when I describe how the Central Pacific graders and track layers came to it.

3 Charles Crocker interview, Bancroft Library.

4 Sacramento Union, Jan. 7, 1865.

5 John R. Signor, Donner Pass: Southern Pacific’s Sierra Crossing (San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Books, 1985), p. 19.

6 Quoted in John J. Stewart, The Iron Trail to the Golden Spike (New York: Meadow Lark Press, 1994), p. 121.

7 Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

8 Hopkins to Huntington, Collis Huntington Papers, ser. 1, Incoming Correspondence, reel 1.

9 Thomas W. Chinn, ed., A History of the Chinese in California: A Syllabus (San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1969), intro.

10 Quoted in John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, p. 96.

11 Elliott West, “Unheard Voices: Digging Deeper into Western History,” paper read before the Western History Conference, Denver, Colo., 1997.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

14 Judge Samuel Yee oral history, April 19, 1975, by Antoria Chu and Heng Kok Lee; Rudy Kim interview by Jeffery Paul Chan, both in Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

15 “The Chinese in California,” Lippincott’s Magazine, March 1868, pp. 36-40.

16 Quoted in Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 97.

17 Ibid., pp. 97-98.

18 Lee Chew, “A Chinese Immigrant Makes His Home in America,” Independent magazine, reprinted on www.historymatters.gmu.edu/text/1650a-chew.html.

19 George Kraus, “Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific,” Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 1 (Winter 1969), p. 51.

20 Hopkins to Huntington, May 31, 1865, Huntington Papers, ser. 1, reel 1.

21 Quoted in George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 110.

22 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 117.

23 Quoted in Sacramento Union, June 16, 1865.

24 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 100.

25 Quoted in Bruce Clement Cooper, Lewis Metzler Clement, p. 7.

26 Robert West Howard, The Great Iron Trail, pp. 229-30; Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 123; Stewart, Iron Trail, p. 129.

27 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 113.

28 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 211.

29 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 115.

30 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 145.

31 Sacramento Union, Aug. 3, 1865; Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 121; Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 102.

32 Quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 123.

33 Ibid., p. 124.

34 Williams, Great and Shining Road, pp. 116-17.

35 Stewart, Iron Trail, p. 130.

36 Railroad Record, Nov. 23, 1865.

37 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 98.

38 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 120.

39 A. W. Loomis, “How Our Chinamen Are Employed,” Overland Monthly, March 1869, quoted in Griswold, p. 121.

40 Quoted in Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 98.

41 Quoted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 116, 120.

42 Lewis Clement, “Statement Concerning Charles Crocker,” Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

43 J. O. Wilder, “The Way Pioneer Builders Met Difficulties,” Southern Pacific Bulletin, vol. 9, no. 11 (Nov. 1920), p. 23.

44 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 144.

45 Southern Pacific Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 21 (Nov. 1917).

46 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 151.

47 Ibid., p. 125.

CHAPTER EIGHT: THE UNION PACIFIC ACROSS NEBRASKA

1 Robert Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 39.

2 Samuel Bowles, Across the Continent: A Summer’s Journey to the Rocky Mountains (Springfield, Mass: S. Bowles, 1866), p. 19.

3 Quoted in Athearn, Union Pacific Country, pp. 42-43.

4 Quoted in Union Pacific Railroad, The Union Pacific Railroad Across the Continent West from Omaha, Nebraska (pamphlet published by the company, 1868), p. 15.

5 Omaha Weekly Herald, Jan. 12 and 19, 1865.

6 Ibid., March 23, 1865.

7 Magee Diary, quoted in the study done for C. B. DeMille for his movie Union Pacific and given to me by Don Snoddy.

8 Quoted in Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 72.

9 Ibid.; Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 13.

10 Quoted in Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 73.

11 Grenville Dodge, A Paper on the Trans-Continental Railways (Omaha, Neb: Union Pacific Railroad, 1891), p. 21.

12 Quoted in John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, p. 105.

13 Ibid., pp. 73-74.

14 Quoted in Robert Athearn, “General Sherman and the Western Railroads,” p. 41.

15 Quoted in UP, Union Pacific Railroad, pp. 15-17.

16 All these and many other Reed-to-Durant telegrams are in the UP Archives; I used typed copies prepared by Don Snoddy.

17 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 74.

18 New York Times, Aug. 22, 1866.

19 DeMille collection, p. 16.

20 Quoted in Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 125.

21 Ibid.

22 Quotations on the workers’ daily routine in Williams, p. 125.

23 UP, Union Pacific Railroad; Cincinnati Gazette, June 1867, various articles; DeMille collection, passim.

24 John J. Stewart, The Iron Trail to the Golden Spike, pp. 152-53.

25 Henry M. Stanley, My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia (New York: Scribner, 1895), vol. 1, pp. 195-96.

26 Cincinnati Gazette, June 14, 1887.

27 Quoted in Oscar O. Winther, The Transportation Frontier, p. 111.

28 Omaha Weekly Herald, May 11, 1866.

29 Ibid., Aug. 2, 1866.

30 Reed telegrams in UP Archives, Omaha, courtesy of Don Snoddy.

31 Omaha Weekly Herald, Sept. 7, 1866.

32 Ibid., Sept. 21, 1866.

33 Denver Rocky Mountain News, June 18, 1866.

34 Athearn, “Sherman and the Western Railroads,” p. 43.

35 Omaha Weekly Herald, Feb. 22, 1866.

36 The material in the preceding paragraphs is taken from Union Pacific Railroad, Excursion to the Hundredth Meridian: From New York to Platte City (1867 pamphlet). There is a copy in the UP Archives, Omaha.

37 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 76.

38 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 51.

39 Ibid., p. 62.

40 Ibid., pp. 78-79; Grenville Dodge, Report of the Chief Engineer for 1866 (Washington, D.C: Philip & Solomons, 1868), p. 11.

41 Dodge, Report of 1866, pp. 27-30.

42 Ibid., pp. 13-16.

43 Ibid., pp. 70-72.

44 The Reed telegrams to Durant are in the UP Archives.

45 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 82-83.

46 Ibid., pp. 18-20.

CHAPTER NINE: THE CENTRAL PACIFIC ASSAULTS THE SIERRA

1 Thomas C. Cochran, Railroad Leaders 1845-1890, p. 1.

2 Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. 7, pp. 551-52.

3 George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 125.

4 Sacramento Union, Jan. 13, 1866.

5 Omaha Weekly Herald, Nov. 2, 1866.

6 The Hopkins-Huntington letters are in Collis Huntington Papers, Library of Congress. The Cohen quote is from Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 88.

7 Sacramento Union, Nov. 25, 1865.

8 Quoted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 123.

9 John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, p. 130.

10 Charles Crocker interview, Bancroft Library.

11 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 130.

12 Charles Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

13 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 131.

14 Quoted in Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 156.

15 Dutch Flat Enquirer, April 27 and June 2, 1866.

16 Quoted in Southern Pacific Bulletin, June 1927; Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 133.

17 Quoted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 136.

18 Clement to Stanford, July 21, 1887, U.S. Pacific Railway Commission, exhibit no. 8, p. 2576.

19 Quoted in Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 134.

20 Quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 149.

21 Ibid.

22 Quoted in Sacramento Union, Oct. 23, 1866.

23 Dutch Flat Enquirer, Oct. 30, 1866.

24 Sacramento Union, Nov. 27, 1866.

25 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 142.

26 Alexander Saxton, “The Army of Canton in the High Sierra,” Pacific Historical Review, vol. 35 (June 1966), p. 147.

27 Ibid., p. 143; Thomas W. Chinn, ed., A History of the Chinese in California, p. 45.

28 John J. Stewart, The Iron Trail to the Golden Spike, p. 133; Chinn, ed., Chinese in California, p. 45.

29 Dutch Flat Enquirer, Dec. 25, 1866.

30 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 136; Southern Pacific Bulletin, July 1924.

31 Sacramento Union, Dec. 27, 1866.

32 Ibid.

33 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Dec. 22, 1866, Huntington Papers.

34 George Kraus, “Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific,” Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 1 (Winter 1969), p. 49.

35 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 142-43.

CHAPTER TEN: THE UNION PACIFIC TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS

1 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 210.

2 The Reed telegrams are in Samuel Reed Papers, transcribed by Don Snoddy.

3 John Hoyt Williams, A Great and Shining Road, pp. 146-47.

4 The Reed diaries and letters are in Reed Papers; thanks to Don Snoddy for transcribing them for me.

5 E. C. Lockwood, “With the Casement Brothers While Building the Union Pacific,” Union Pacific Magazine, Feb. 1931, p. 3.

6 Omaha Weekly Herald, April 12, 1867.

7 Robert G. Athearn, “General Sherman and the Western Railroads,” p. 422.

8 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 208.

9 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 14.

10 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 147.

11 Reed to Mrs. Reed, April 27, 1867, Reed Papers.

12 Grenville Dodge, Romantic Realities: The Story of the Building of the Pacific Roads. (Omaha, Neb: Union Pacific Railroad, 1891), p. 17.

13 Reed to Mrs. Reed, May 6, 1867, Reed Papers.

14 Chicago Tribune, Aug. 20, 1867.

15 Ibid., June 18, 1867.

16 Ferguson diary, UP Archives, Omaha.

17 Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 136.

18 Ferguson Journal, Utah State Historical Society.

19 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 150.

20 Dodge, How We Built, pp. 15-16.

21 Ferguson Journal, Utah State Historical Society.

22 Dodge, How We Built, p. 20; Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 103.

23 Dodge, How We Built, p. 117.

24 Ibid., p. 105; Andrew Rosewater, “Finding a Path Across the Rocky Mountain Range,” Union Pacific Magazine, Jan. 1923, pp. 6-7.

25 Robert Miller Galbraith, “Life on the Railroad,” interview, in Carbon County Museum, Rawlins, Wyo.

26 My thanks to Richard Snow, editor of American Heritage, fox sending me a copy of Benét’s story.

27 Henry Morton Stanley, My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia, vol. 1, pp. 154-57.

28 Reed to Mrs. Reed, Aug. 15, 1867, Reed Papers.

29 Stanley, My Early Travels, vol. 1, pp. 163-67.

30 Samuel Bowles, Our New West: Records of Travel: A Full Description of the Pacific Railroad (Hartford, Conn.: Hartford Publishing, 1869), pp. 56-57.

31 Chicago Tribune, June 18, 1867.

32 Dodge, How We Built, pp. 118-19.

33 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 104.

34 Ibid., pp. 106-7.

35 New York Tribune, Jan. 18, 1867.

36 Harpers Weekly, Nov. 16, 1867.

37 Ibid., Aug. 24, 1867.

38 Ferguson diary, UP Archives.

39 New York Tribune, Aug. 8, 1867.

40 Chicago Tribune, Aug. 20, 1867.

41 Quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 216.

42 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 116. After serving as the chief assistant to President Ulysses S. Grant, beginning in 1869, Rawlins died in 1870.

43 Thomas Hubbard Diary, UP Archives, Omaha.

44 Ibid.

45 Dodge, How We Built, p. 22.

46 Athearn, “General Sherman and the Western Railroads,” p. 43.

47 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 229.

48 Charles Edgar Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific: A Reappraisal of the Builders of the Railroad (New York: Apple ton-Century-Crofts, 1969), pp. 173-77.

49 Williams, Great and Shining Road, p. 159.

50 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, pp. 196-202.

51 New York Times, Dec. 4, 1867.

52 Chicago Tribune, Nov. 16, 1867.

53 Dodge, How We Built, p. 116.

54 Quoted in John Debo Galloway, The First Transcontinental Railroad, p. 285.

55 G. M. Dodge, Report of the Chief Engineer for the Year 1867 (Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 1868), pp. 26-27.

56 Chicago Tribune, Nov. 16, 1867.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE CENTRAL PACIFIC PENETRATES THE SUMMIT

1 Henry Poor, “Railroad to the Pacific,” in The Golden Spike: A Centennial Remembrance (New York: American Geographical Society, 1969), p. 19.

2 Quoted in Bruce Clement Cooper, Lewis Metzler Clement, p. 7.

3 The details are taken from John R. Gilliss’s speech before the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1870, reprinted in George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 144-152.

4 Ibid., p. 146.

5 Ibid.

6 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, pp. 190-91.

7 Sacramento Union, March 9, 1867.

8 Clement to Stanford, July 21, 1887, in U.S. Pacific Railway Commission Report No. 2576, pamphlet provided by Cooper-Clement Associates, Ardmore, Pa. 19003.

9 Gilliss’s speech, in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 145.

10 Ibid., pp. 147-48.

11 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 193.

12 Ibid.

13 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 159.

14 J.D. Brennan, “The Romance of the Sacramento Division,” Southern Pacific Bulletin, Aug. 1920, p. 4.

15 Charles Crocker to Huntington, Jan. 7, 1867, Collis Huntington Papers. Unless otherwise noted, all correspondence between Huntington and the other members of the board of directors comes out of the Huntington Papers.

16 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 194.

17 Hopkins to Huntington, May 2, 1867.

18 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, May 8, 1867.

19 Charles Crocker to Huntington, Jan. 14, 1867.

20 E. B. Crocker to Hopkins, April 15, 1867; Stanford to Hopkins, April 16, 1867.

21 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 182.

22 Ibid., p. 183.

23 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Jan. 14, 1867.

24 Same to same, April 23, 1867.

25 Stanford to Huntington, Jan. 7, 1867.

26 On March 8, 1867, and March 9, 1867, in letters to Huntington, E. B. Crocker discusses this matter.

27 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, April 16, 1867.

28 Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 148.

29 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, April 23, 1867.

30 Charles Crocker comments on the Bancroft biography, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

31 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 195.

32 Ibid., p. 196.

33 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, May 22 and 27, 1867.

34 Same to same, May 27, 1867.

35 Sacramento Union, July 12, 1867.

36 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 197.

37 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, June 26, 1867.

38 Same to same, June 28, 1867.

39 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 197.

40 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, July 2 and 6, 1867.

41 Huntington to E. B. Crocker, Dec. 28, 1867.

42 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Sept. 12, 1867.

43 Same to same, July 10, 1867.

44 Same to same, Dec. 20, 1867.

45 Same to same, July 10 and Sept. 12, 1867.

46 Huntington to Charles Crocker, quoted in William Deverell, Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad, 1850-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), p. 14.

47 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Aug. 28, 1867.

48 Sacramento Union, Aug. 30, 1867.

49 Huntington to E. B. Crocker, Oct. 3, 1867.

50 Sacramento Union, Dec. 9, 1867; Crocker to Huntington, Oct. 30, 1867.

51 Huntington to Stanford, Oct. 26, 1867.

52 Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. 7, pp. 572-73.

53 Charles Crocker comments on his Bancroft biography, Bancroft Library.

54 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Nov. 7, 1867.

55 Huntington’s comments on the Bancroft history, Bancroft Library.

56 See Kraus, High Road to Promontory, chap. 11.

57 Ibid., p. 163.

58 See Harry Carman and Charles Mueller, “The Contract and Finance Company and the Central Pacific Railroad,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, vol. 14, no. 3 (Dec. 1927).

59 See Hopkins to Huntington, March 16, 1868.

60 Hopkins to Huntington, Dec. 1, 1867.

61 Samuel Bowles, Our New West, p. 67.

62 Bancroft, History of California, vol. 7, p. 570.

CHAPTER TWELVE: THE UNION PACIFIC ACROSS WYOMING

1 E. B. Crocker to Huntington, April 23, 1868, Collis Huntington Papers, Bancroft Library.

2 From the Virginia City [Nevada] Territorial Enterprise, quoted in the Salt Lake Daily Reporter, July 30, 1868.

3 Chicago Leader, July 20, 1868.

4 New York Tribune, Aug. 4, 1867.

5 Ibid., June 30, 1868.

6 Quoted in Robert G. Athearn, Union Pacific Country, pp. 114-15.

7 Salt Lake Daily Reporter, June 20, 1868.

8 New York Tribune, Sept. 18, 1868.

9 Grenville Dodge, Romantic Realities, p. 21.

10 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 23.

11 Ibid., p. 22.

12 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 262.

13 Huntington to Stanford, May 22, 1868; E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Oct. 14, 1867; see also Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 150.

14 All these telegrams and hundreds of others are in the UP Archives, Omaha; heartfelt thanks to UP Historian Don Snoddy for typing them all up.

15 Ibid.

16 John Debo Galloway, The First Transcontinental Railroad, p. 159.

17 Ibid.

18 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 150.

19 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 263.

20 David Dary, Seeking Pleasure in the Old West (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1995), p. 118.

21 Reed to Crane, Feb. 28, 1868, Reed Papers.

22 Frontier Index, Dec. 24, 1867.

23 Cheyenne Daily Leader, April 6, 1868.

24 Charles Edgar Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 272. When Edward Harriman redid the entire line at the end of the nineteenth century, he went south of the Dale Creek crossing, and the bridge is no longer there. It is possible to walk through the cuts.

25 Reed’s various telegrams are in Reed Papers.

26 Quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 263.

27 Dodge’s April 16, 1868, telegram to Browning is in UP Archives, Omaha.

28 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 151.

29 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 264.

30 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 272.

31 James Ehernberger and Francis Gschwind, Sherman Hill (Callaway, Neb: E.G. Publications, 1978), pp. 14-17.

32 Ferguson Journal, Utah State Historical Society.

33 Ibid.

34 Ibid.

35 David Lemon, “An Experience on the Road,” Union Pacific Magazine, May 1924, pp. 5-6.

36 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 151.

37 Henry Morton Stanley, My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia, vol. 1, p. 211.

38 Ferguson Journal, Aug. 17, 1868, Utah State Historical Society.

39 Ibid., July 21, 1868.

40 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 291.

41 Morris Mills, “With the Union Pacific Railroad in the Early Days,” Annals of Wyoming, vol. 3, no. 4 (April 1926), p. 200.

42 Chicago Tribune, July 16 and Aug. 18, 1868.

43 Mills, “With the Union Pacific,” p. 201.

44 Maury Klein, “The Coming of the Railroad and the End of the Great West,” Invention and Technology, vol. 10, no. 3 (Winter 1995), p. 14.

45 Ferguson Journal, June 23, 1868, Utah State Historical Society.

46 Quoted in Klein, “Coming of the Railroad,” pp. 14-15.

47 Charles Edgar Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 247; Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 156.

48 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 275.

49 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 270-71.

50 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 283.

51 Quoted in ibid., pp. 283-84.

52 Quoted in ibid., p. 287.

53 Quoted in Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 165.

54 Salt Lake Daily Reporter, Aug. 21, 1868.

55 Quoted in Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 114.

56 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 168-69.

57 Ibid., p. 175.

58 Western Railroad Gazette, Sept. 5, 1868.

59 Salt Lake Daily Reporter, Dec. 15, 1868.

60 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 176.

61 Western Railroad Gazette, Nov. 30, 1868.

62 Huntington to Mark Hopkins, May 30, 1868.

63 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 178-79.

64 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 287.

65 Salt Lake Daily Reporter, Sept. 30, 1868.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: BRIGHAM YOUNG AND THE MORMONS MAKE THE GRADE

1 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 274.

2 John Debo Galloway, The First Transcontinental Railroad, pp. 241, 244.

3 Robert G. Athearn, Union Pacific Country, pp. 69-71.

4 Young to Reed, Aug. 10, 1866, and to Dodge, Nov. 5, 1866, Brigham Young Papers.

5 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, pp. 69-71.

6 Ibid., pp. 75-78.

7 Salt Lake Deseret News, May 9, 1868.

8 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, pp. 89-90.

9 Durant to Young, May 6, 1868, Young Papers.

10 Young to Durant, May 6, 1868, Young Papers.

11 Young to Seymour and Reed, May 19, 1868, Young Papers.

12 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, pp. 90-91.

13 Lewis Barney Papers, Archives, Church of Latter-Day Saints Library, Salt Lake City.

14 Young to Reed, May 29, 1868, Young Papers.

15 Reed to Durant, May 31, 1868, Samuel Reed Papers.

16 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 83.

17 Cheyenne Daily Leader, June 15, 1868, quoted in Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 95.

18 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 90.

19 Ibid., pp. 93-94.

20 Cheyenne Daily Leader, June 16, 1868.

21 Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 34.

22 Salt Lake Deseret News, Sept. 11, 1868.

23 Ibid., June 5, 1868.

24 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 270.

25 Clarence A. Reeder, “A History of Utah’s Railroads,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1959.

26 Samuel Schill Papers, Archives, Church of Latter-Day Saints Library, Salt Lake City.

27 Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Utah (San Francisco: History Company, 1890), p. 754.

28 Galloway, First Transcontinental Railroad, pp. 277-79.

29 Ibid., p. 240.

30 Stanford to Hopkins, June 9, 1868, Huntington-Hopkins correspondence, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

31 Young to Stanford, June 23, 1868, Huntington-Hopkins correspondence.

32 Stanford to Young, July 28, 1868, and Young to Stanford, July 29, 1868, Young Papers.

33 Young to Stanford, Aug. 10, 1868, Young Papers.

34 Young to bishops, Sept. 5, 1868, Young Papers.

35 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 254.

36 Stanford to Hopkins, Nov. 9, 1868, Huntington-Hopkins correspondence.

37 Robert Utley and Francis Ketterson, Jr., Golden Spike, pp. 32-33.

38 Stanford to Hopkins, Dec. 10, 1868, Huntington-Hopkins correspondence.

39 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 343.

40 Milando Pratt Memoir, Utah State Historical Library, Salt Lake City.

41 James Maxwell Memoir, University of Delaware Library, Newark, Delaware.

42 These telegrams and many others are in the Young Papers.

43 Cheyenne Daily Leader, June 15, 1868.

44 Young memo, Oct. 8, 1868, and Young to Durant, Jan. 9, 1869, Young Papers.

45 Young to Durant, Jan. 9, 1869, Young Papers.

46 Athearn, Union Pacific Country, p. 97.

47 W.C.A. Smoot, “Tales from Old-Timers,” Union Pacific Magazine, Dec. 1923, p. 12.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: THE CENTRAL PACIFIC GOES THROUGH NEVADA

1 Huntington to E. B. Crocker, Jan. 1 and 21, 1868, and E. B. Crocker to Huntington, Jan. 22, 1868, Huntington Papers.

2 Above letters and telegrams all in Huntington Papers.

3 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 234.

4 Clement to Stanford, July 21, 1887, U.S. Pacific Railway Commission, exhibit no. 8.

5 Ibid.

6 George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 159; Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 193. Quote from Griswold.

7 Hopkins to Huntington, July 16, 1868, Huntington Papers.

8 Brown’s account is reprinted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 190-91.

9 Southern Pacific Bulletin, Aug. 1920.

10 Ibid., Sept. 1920.

11 Quoted in Bruce Clement Cooper, Lewis Metzler Clement, p. 7.

12 Ibid., p. 194.

13 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 227-29.

14 Huntington to Hopkins, April 14, 1868, Huntington Papers.

15 Huntington to Charles Crocker, April 15, 1868, Huntington Papers.

16 Stanford to Hopkins, June 9, 1868, Huntington Papers.

17 Charles Crocker to Huntington, June 16, 1868, Huntington Papers.

18 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 196-98.

19 Charles Crocker’s remarks on his Bancroft biography, Bancroft Library.

20 Reno Crescent, July 14, 1868, quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 244.

21 Huntington to Charles Crocker, July 1, 1868, Huntington Papers.

22 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 245-46.

23 Clement to Stanford, July 21, 1887, U.S. Pacific Railway Commission, exhibit no. 8.

24 Charles Crocker to Huntington, July 15, 1868, Huntington Papers.

25 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 203.

26 Crocker interview on his biography, Bancroft Library.

27 San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 7, 1868, quoted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 204-11.

28 Quoted in ibid., p. 211.

29 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 247-48.

30 Huntington to Charles Crocker, Oct. 21, 1868, Huntington Papers.

31 Humboldt Register, Aug. 1, Oct. 3, and Dec. 26, 1868.

32 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 212.

33 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 253.

34 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 216-21.

35 Huntington to Stanford, Nov. 13, 1868, Huntington Papers.

36 Stanford to Huntington, Nov. 21, 1868, Huntington Papers.

37 Stanford to E. B. Crocker, Dec. 1, 4, and 8, 1868, Huntington Papers. All these letters are reprinted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory.

38 Huntington to Hopkins, Dec. 15, 1868, in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 227.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: THE RAILROADS RACE INTO UTAH

1 Charles Edgar Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, pp. 558-59.

2 Young to Durant, Jan. 15, 1869, Brigham Young Papers.

3 Young to Dillon, May 19, 1869; to Durant, same date; to Duff, Aug. 12, 1869; to Bushnell, Aug. 12, 1869; to Oliver Ames, Aug. 12, 1869; to Durant, Aug. 14, 1869; to Hammond, Nov. 12, 1869, plus others, all in Young Papers.

4 Charles Francis Adams, Jr., “The Pacific Railroad Ring,” North American Review, Jan. 1869, pp. 116-50 passim.

5 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, pp. 244-45, 300.

6 Adams, “Pacific Railroad Ring,” p. 118.

7 Salt Lake Daily Reporter, Feb. 16, 1869.

8 Crocker to Huntington, and Hopkins to Huntington, Jan. 20, 1869, Huntington Papers; also quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 297.

9 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

10 Ibid.

11 Sacramento Union, April 15, 1869, quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 296.

12 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 298-99.

13 Ibid., pp. 299-300.

14 Ibid, pp. 300-301.

15 Ibid., p. 305.

16 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 329.

17 Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 200-201.

18 Sacramento Union, March 6, 1869.

19 New York Tribune, March 6, 1869.

20 Quoted in Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 292-93.

21 Ibid., p. 298.

22 Omaha Weekly Herald, Dec. 30, 1868.

23 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 191.

24 George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 228-29.

25 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 303.

26 Sacramento Union, Jan. 19, 1869.

27 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 210.

28 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

29 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 328.

30 Ibid., pp. 329-32.

31 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 198-200.

32 Ibid., p. 197.

33 Ibid., pp. 229-31; Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 195.

34 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 196-97.

35 Quoted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 231.

36 Salt Lake Daily Reporter, Feb. 16, 1869.

37 Reno Crescent, March 20, 1869.

38 Robert Utley and Francis Ketterson, Jr., Golden Spike, pp. 34-35.

39 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 118.

40 Collis Huntington Memoir, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley. The affair is discussed in Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 285-87.

41 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 312.

42 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 237.

43 Young to Durant, April 2, 1869, Young Papers.

44 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 333.

45 Ibid., p. 314.

46 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 202-3.

47 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 306.

48 Ibid., p. 305.

49 Salt Lake Deseret News, April 1, 1869. See also Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 237-41.

50 Utley and Ketterson, Jr., Golden Spike, p. 35.

51 Ibid.

52 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 210.

53 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 291-92.

54 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 244.

55 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

56 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 211.

57 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 295.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: TO THE SUMMIT

1 Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 210.

2 Ibid., p. 212.

3 Ibid., p. 213.

4 Ibid., pp. 214-15.

5 Ibid., p. 217.

6 San Francisco Daily Alta California, April 23, 1869.

7 Ibid., April 26, 1869.

8 Robert Utley and Francis Ketterson, Jr., Golden Spike, p. 39.

9 San Francisco Daily Alta California, April 27, 1869.

10 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

11 Ibid.; Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, pp. 309-20.

12 San Francisco Bulletin, April 29, 1869.

13 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 219.

14 San Francisco Bulletin, April 30, 1869.

15 Crocker Memoir, Bancroft Library.

16 Ibid.

17 Griswold, Work of Giants, pp. 311-13.

18 Huntington to Charles Crocker, May 10, 1869, Huntington Papers.

19 San Francisco Daily Alta California, April 30, 1869.

20 Ibid., May 2, 1869.

21 San Francisco Bulletin, May 1, 1869.

22 Grenville M. Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 54.

23 San Francisco Daily Alta California, April 28, 1869.

24 George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 258.

25 Dodge, How We Built, p. 68.

26 San Francisco Daily Alta California, May 5, 1869.

27 Salt Lake Deseret News, May 6, 1869.

28 Quoted in Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 258.

29 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 312.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: DONE

1 Wesley S. Griswold, A Work of Giants, p. 328.

2 Robert Athearn, “General Sherman and the Western Railroads,” p. 48.

3 Maury Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 220.

4 New York Herald, May 10, 1869, quoted in ibid., p. 222.

5 Charles Edgar Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, pp. 321-23; Klein, Birth of a Railroad, pp. 219-20.

6 San Francisco Bulletin, May 11, 1869.

7 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, pp. 322-23.

8 J.N. Bowman, “Driving the Last Spike,” California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 36 (1957), pp. 98-99.

9 George Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 264; Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 317.

10 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, p. 267.

11 See all the various newspapers from Salt Lake, Sacramento, San Francisco, and elsewhere for accounts of the festivities, as well as all the books on the UP and CP.

12 San Francisco Daily Alta Californian, May 10, 1869. It is not often that, when quoting someone else’s writing, I say to myself, “I wish I had written that,” but in this case I do wish that the last eight words were mine.

13 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 220.

14 Hugh O’Neil, “List of Persons Present, Promontory, Utah, May 10, 1869,” Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 24 (1956), pp. 157-63.

15 Griswold, Work of Giants, p. 325.

16 Kraus, High Road to Promontory, pp. 278-81; Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 225.

17 Chicago Tribune, May 11, 1869.

18 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 226.

19 New York Tribune, Chicago Tribune, Salt Lake Deseret News, San Francisco Daily Alta California, San Francisco Bulletin, and other newspapers for May 11 and 12, 1869, carry these and other telegrams.

20 Dodge, How We Built the Union Pacific Railway, p. 66.

21 Anna Judah Papers, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley.

22 Salt Lake Deseret News, May 11, 1869.

EPILOGUE

1 Trans-Continental, May 30, 1870.

2 Sidney Dillon, “Historic Moments: Driving the Last Spike of the Union Pacific,” Scribner’s Magazine, Aug. 1892, p. 254.

3 “Pacific Railroad Grants,” Putnam’s Magazine, Oct. 1868, pp. 488-89.

4 Charles Edgar Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, pp. 371-73.

5 Robert Utley and Francis Ketterson, Jr., Golden Spike, pp. 83-84.

6 Oliver Ames to C. G. Hammond, Sept. 2, 1869, Brigham Young Papers.

7 New York Sun, Sept. 4, 1872.

8 Ames, Pioneering the Union Pacific, p. 492.

9 Both quoted in Lloyd Mercer, Railroads and Land Grant Policy (New York: Academic Press, 1982), p. 13.

10 Ibid., p. 9.

11 Robert Henry, “The RR Land Grant Legend in American History Texts,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, vol. 32 (1945-46), p. 186.

12 Ibid., p. 182.

13 Klein, Birth of a Railroad, p. 238.

14 Ibid., p. 4.

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