Modern history

Notes

Introduction: The Napoleonic Wars in Historical Perspective

1 J. H. Rose, The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 1789-1815 (Cambridge,1907), p.148.

2 Cited in E. Las Cases, Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, ed. G. Walter (Paris,1956 ), vol. II, p.232.

3 Cited in ibid., p.303.

4 As a term ‘Continental Blockade’ is preferable to ‘Continental System’, and in consequence it is this form that will be used for the rest of this book.

1 The Origins of the Napoleonic Wars

1 Cited in P. Fleuriot de Langle (ed.), Napoleon at St Helena: Memoirs of General Bertrand, Grand-Master of the Palace (London,1953), pp.69-70 .

2 Louis F. de Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte, ed. E. Sanderson (London,1903 ), p.3.

3 J. A. Chaptal, Mes Souvenirs sur Napoléon, ed. A. Chaptal (Paris,1893), p.174.

4 E. Las Cases, Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, ed. G. Walter (Paris,1956), vol. I, p.83.

5 Cited in Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.5.

6 Cited in A. Wilson (ed.), A Diary of St Helena (1816-1817): the Journal of Lady Malcolm containing the Conversations of Sir Pulteney Malcolm with Napoleon (London,1899), p.87.

7 Cited in V. Cronin, Napoleon (London,1971), p.31.

8 P. Jones (ed.), Napoleon: How He Did It - the Memoirs of Baron Fain, First Secretary of the Emperor’s Cabinet (San Francisco,1998), p.181.

9 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.5.

10 Ibid.

11 S. de Morsier-Kotthaus, Memoirs of the Comtesse de Boigne (London,1956), pp.41-2 .

12 Cited in F. Masson, Napoléon dans sa Jeunesse, 1769-1793 (Paris,1907), p.293.

13 Cited in ibid., p.297.

14 Cited in Wilson, Diary of St Helena, p.88.

15 G. Duruy (ed.), Memoirs of Barras, Member of the Directorate (London,1895), vol. I, p.143.

16 Cited in S. de Chair, Napoleon on Napoleon: an Autobiography of the Emperor (London,1992), p.83.

17 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.16.

18 A. F. L. de Viesse de Marmont, Mémoires du Maréchal Marmont, Duc de Raguse, de 1792 à 1841 (Paris,1857), vol. I, p.60.

19 Duruy (ed.), Memoirs of Barras, vol. I, p.161.

20 Ibid., p.312.

21 L. Junot, Mémoires de la Duchesse d’Abrantes, ed. G. Girard (Paris,1928-30), vol. I, pp.198-9.

22 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.18.

23 L. Aldersey White (ed.), The Adventurous Life of Count Lavallette, Bonaparte’s Aide-de-Camp and Postmaster-General, by Himself (London,1936 ), vol. I, p.101.

24 Cited in F. McLynn, Napoleon: a Biography (London,1997), p.87.

25 A. Butler (ed.), The Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, late Lieutenant-General in the French Army (London,1896), vol. I, p.260.

26 Ibid., p.267.

27 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.22.

28 Cited in J. Howard, Letters and Documents of Napoleon: the Ride to Power (London, 1961), vol. I, p.33.

29 Marmont, Mémoires, vol. I, p.94.

30 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Mémoires de la Reine Hortense (Paris,1927), vol. I, pp.41-2 .

31 Duruy, Memoirs of Barras, vol. II, p.78.

32 Cited in Las Cases, Mémorial, vol. I, p.344.

33 Cited in ibid., vol. I, pp.749-50.

34 Duruy, Memoirs of Barras, vol. II, p.89.

35 Aldersey White, Life of Count Lavallette, vol. I, pp.115-16.

36 Duruy, Memoirs of Barras, vol. II, p.181.

37 Marmont, Mémoires, vol. I, p.86.

38 Duruy, Memoirs of Barras, vol. II, pp.85-6.

39 Marmont, Mémoires, vol. I, p.145.

40 Cited in Las Cases, Mémorial, vol. I, p.98.

41 Cited in McLynn, Napoleon, p.153.

42 Aldersey White, Life of Count Lavallette, p.120.

43 A. L. G. de Staël, Considérations sur les Principaux Evénements de la Révolution Française (London,1819), vol. II, p.175.

44 Cited in Hanoteau, Mémoires de la Reine Hortense, vol. I, pp.45-6.

45 Duruy, Memoirs of Barras, vol. II, p.128.

46 Butler, Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, vol. I, p.298.

47 Cited in Howard (ed.), Letters and Documents of Napoleon, p.196.

48 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.55.

49 Cited in A. Schom, Napoleon Bonaparte (New York,1998), p.63.

50 Cited in H. Parker, ‘The formation of Napoleon’s personality: an exploratory essay’, French Historical Studies, VII, No. (Spring 1971), p.22.

51 Cited in A. Castelot, Napoleon (New York,1971), pp.90-91 .

52 Cited in Parker, ‘The formation of Napoleon’s personality’, p.22; J. Tulard, Napoleon: the Myth of the Saviour (London,1984), p.64.

53 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.57.

54 Junot, Mémoires, vol. II, pp.95-6.

55 Staël, Considérations, vol. II, pp.202-3.

56 L. J. Gohier, Mémoires de Louis-Jérome Gohier, Président du Directoire au 18 Brumaire (Paris,1824), p.26.

57 Cited in F. Markham, Napoleon (London,1963), p.58.

58 Cited in P. Jupp, Lord Grenville, 1759-1834 (Oxford,1985), p.208.

59 Cited in Howard, Letters and Documents of Napoleon, vol. I, p.226.

60 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.68.

61 Cited in C. de Rémusat, Mémoires de Madame de Rémusat, 1802-1808, ed. P. de Rémusat (Paris,1884), vol. I, p.274.

62 Staël, Considérations, vol. I, pp.207-8.

63 Cited in Junot, Mémoires, vol. II, p.138.

64 Cited in Rémusat, Mémoires, vol. I, p.273 .

65 Marmont, Mémoires, vol. I, p.335.

66 Aldersey White, Life of Count Lavallette, vol. I, p.223.

67 A. du Casse (ed.), Mémoires et Correspondance Politique et Militaire du Prince Eugène (Paris1858 ), vol. I, p.75.

68 P. L. Roederer, Mémoires sur la Révolution, le Consulat et l’Empire, ed. O. Aubry (Paris,1942), p.103.

69 Chaptal, Souvenirs, pp.209-10.

70 Staël, Considérations, vol. II, p.234.

71 Cited in Roederer, Mémoires, p.131.

72 Gohier, Mémoires, vol. I, pp.353-4.

2 From Brumaire to Amiens

1 Cited in E. Las Cases, Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, ed. G. Walter (Paris,1956), vol. I, p.168.

2 J. A. Chaptal, Mes Souvenirs sur Napoléon, ed. A. Chaptal (Paris,1893), p.224.

3 Louis F. de Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte, ed. E. Sanderson (London,1903 ), pp.132-3.

4 A. Thibaudeau, Bonaparte and the Consulate, ed. G. Fortescue (London,1908), pp.5-6.

5 A. L. G de Staël, Considérations sur les Principaux Evénements de la Révolution Française (London,1819), vol. II, p.267.

6 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Mémoires de la Reine Hortense (Paris, 1927, vol. I, p.90.

7 Cited in V. Cronin, Napoleon (London,1971), p.278.

8 Cited in J. F. Bernard, Talleyrand: a Biography (London,1973), p.229.

9 Cited in Earl of Rosebery (ed.), The Wellesley Papers: the Life and Correspondence of Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, 1760 - 1842 (London1914 ), vol. I, p.123.

10 Cited in S. de Chair, Napoleon on Napoleon: an Autobiography of the Emperor (London,1992), pp.173-4.

11 Cited in ibid. p.148.

12 Cited in K. Roider, Baron Thugut and Austria’s Response to the French Revolution (Princeton, New Jersey,1987), p.129.

13 Cited in ibid., p.86.

14 Cited in W. Simon, The Failure of the Prussian Reform Movement, 1807-1819 (New York,1971), p.10.

15 Cited in P. Dwyer (ed.), The Rise of Prussia, 1700 - 1830 (London, 2000), p.247.

16 Cited in Las Cases, Mémorial, vol. I, p.415.

17 Cited in K. Waliszewski, Paul I of Russia, the Son of Catherine the Great (London, 1913), p.81.

18 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.176.

19 Cited in ibid.

20 H. Carnot (ed.), Memoirs of Bertrand Barère, Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety during the Revolution (London,1896), vol. III, p.93.

21 Cited in J. Howard, Letters and Documents of Napoleon: the Ride to Power (London, 1961), p.437.

22 Cited in Las Cases, Mémorial, vol. I, p.839.

23 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London, 1880), pp.31,38.

24 J. Rambaud, Memoirs of the Comte Roger de Damas, 1787-1806 (London,1913), p.295.

25 Ibid., p.298.

26 Cited in H. Acton, The Bourbons of Naples, 1734 - 1825 (London, 1956), p.296.

27 Cited in ibid., pp.437-8.

28 Cited in ibid., pp.438-9.

29 Cited in ibid., pp.441-2.

30 Cited in Third Earl of Malmesbury (ed.), Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury (London,1844), vol. IV, pp.52-3.

31 Cited in Rosebery, The Wellesley Papers, vol. I, p.143.

32 Cited in P. Mackesy, War without Victory: the Downfall of Pitt, 1799-1802 (Oxford, 1994), p.209.

33 Cited in P. Jupp, Lord Grenville, 1759 - 1834 (Oxford,1985), p.313; see also J. Ehrman, The Younger Pitt, II: the Consuming Struggle (Stanford, California,1997), p.558.

34 Cited in P. Ziegler, Addington: a Life of Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth (London,1965), p.125.

35 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, p.61.

3 The Peace of Amiens

1 Cited in E. Las Cases, Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène, ed. G. Walter (Paris,1956), vol. II, p.302.

2 J. A. Chaptal, Mes Souvenirs sur Napoléon, ed. A. Chaptal (Paris, 1893), pp.225-6 .

3 A. Thibaudeau, Bonaparte and the Consulate, ed. G. Fortescue (London,1908), p.168.

4 Cited in ibid., p.84.

5 Louis F. de Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte, ed. E. Sanderson (London, 1903), p.219.

6 Marquis de Noailles (ed.), The Life and Memoirs of Count Molé, 1781-1855 (London, 1923), vol. I, pp.148-9.

7 L. J. Gohier, Mémoires de Louis-Jérome Gohier, Président du Directoire au 18 Brumaire (Paris,1824), vol. II, pp.256-7. The English artist Joseph Farington, who met the First Consul in the course of a visit to Paris in the autumn of 1802, makes a similar point in respect of his costume: ‘He was dressed in blue, much more plain than his officers, which gave him additional consequence, for the power and splendour of his situation was marked by the contrast, as commanding all that brilliant display.’ J. Greig (ed.), The Farington Diary (London,1923), vol. II, p.7.

8 Cited in J. Tulard, Napoleon: the Myth of the Saviour (London,1984), p.134.

9 Cited in Thibaudeau, Bonaparte and the Consulate, p.120.

10 Cited in ibid., p.119.

11 Duc d’Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie: Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris,1895-1914), vol. I, p.151.

12 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London,1892), pp.155-9.

13 Cited in D. M. Stuart, Dearest Bess: the Life and Times of Lady Elizabeth Foster, afterwards Duchess of Devonshire, from her Unpublished Journals and Correspondence (London,1955), p.107.

14 Chaptal, Souvenirs, pp.226-7.

15 Gohier, Mémoires, vol. II, p.106.

16 Noailles, Life and Memoirs, vol. I, pp.79-80.

17 Ibid., pp.84-5.

18 Fouché, Memoirs, pp. 190-91.

19 Cited in Thibaudeau, Bonaparte and the Consulate, p.130.

20 Cited in ibid., pp. 266-7.

21 Cited in ibid., p.249.

22 C. de Rémusat, Mémoires de Madame de Rémusat, 1802 - 1808, ed. P. de Rémusat (Paris,1884), vol. I, pp.103-4, 181-2.

23 Chaptal, Souvenirs, vol. I, pp.333-4.

24 Rémusat, Mémoires, vol. I, pp.105-6.

25 Chaptal, Souvenirs, pp.341-3.

26 Greig, Farington Diary, vol. II, pp.54,87. In the same extract Farington observes, ‘His habitual irritation is also expressed by his cutting the arms of the chair in which he sits while doing business, scratching on the margin of the book that lies before him, etc., etc.’

27 Cited in Stuart, Dearest Bess, p.105 .

28 Cited in Chaptal, Souvenirs, p.299.

29 Thibaudeau, Bonaparte and the Consulate, p.125.

30 Cited in ibid., p.121.

31 Cited in ibid., pp.120-21 .

32 Cited in H. Deutsch, The Genesis of Napoleonic Imperialism (Philadelphia,1975), p.77.

33 Cited in J. F. Bernard, Talleyrand: a Biography (London,1973), p.246.

34 Cited in A. Lobanov-Rostovsky, Russia and Europe, 1789-1825 (Chapel Hill, North Carolina,1947), pp70-71.

35 Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Historical Memoirs of the Emperor Alexander I and the Court of Russia, ed. M. Patterson (London,1904), p.51.

36 Cited in Deutsch, Genesis of Napoleonic Imperialism, p.58 .

37 Cited in Countess of Minto (ed.), Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert Elliot, First Earl of Minto, from 1751 to 1806 (London,1874), vol. III, pp.259-60.

38 Cited in Earl of Rosebery (ed.), The Wellesley Papers: the Life and Correspondence of Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, 1760 - 1842 (London1914 ), vol. I, pp.160-61.

39 H. Carnot (ed.), Memoirs of Bertrand Barère, Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety during the Revolution (London,1896), p.117.

40 Cited in A. Alison, History of Europe from the Commencement of the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons in MDCCCXV (Edinburgh, 1860, vol. VI, pp.190-92.

41 Cited in Third Earl of Malmesbury (ed.), Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury (London,1844), vol. IV, p.219.

42 Cited in Lobanov-Rostovsky, Russia and Europe, p.71.

43 Rémusat, Mémoires, vol. I, pp.118-20 .

44 Cited in Alison, History of Europe, vol. VI, pp.193-4 .

45 Cited in Minto, Life and Letters, vol. III, p.279.

46 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, p.61.

47 Cited in ibid., pp.63, 85.

48 Cited in ibid., p.65.

49 Cited in ibid.

50 Cited in ibid., p.230.

51 Cited in ibid., p.233.

52 Cited in ibid., pp. 207-9.

53 Cited in ibid., pp.189-90.

54 Cited in ibid., p.202.

55 Cited in Rosebery, Wellesley Papers, vol. I, p.164.

56 Greig, Farington Diary, vol. II, p.99 .

57 L. Junot, Mémoires de la Duchesse d’Abrantes, ed. G. Girard (Paris,1928-30), vol. IV, pp.285-6.

58 M. Barrière (ed.), Mémoires de M. le Comte de Vaublanc (Paris, 1883), p.401.

59 Junot, Mémoires, vol. IV, pp.286-7 .

4 Towards the Third Coalition

1 Cited in J. D. Markham (ed.), Imperial Glory: the Bulletins of Napoleon’s Grande Armée, 1805 - 1814 (London,2003), pp.10, 23.

2 A. L. G. de Staël, Considérations sur les Principaux Evénements de la Révolution Française (London,1819), vol. II, pp.351-2.

3 M. de Godoy, Cuenta dada de su Vida Política por Don Manuel de Godoy, Príncipe de la Paz, o sea Memorias Críticas y Apologéticas para la Historia del Reinado del Señor Carlos IV de Borbón, ed. C. Seco Serrano (Madrid,1956), vol. I, p.124.

4 H. Baring (ed.), The Diary of the Right Hon. William Windham, 1784 to 1810 (London, 1866), p.417.

5 Cited in J. Sherwig, Guineas and Gunpowder: British Foreign Aid in the Wars with France, 1793 - 1815 (Cambridge, Massachusetts,1969), p.130.

6 Cited in A. D. Harvey, ‘European attitudes to Britain during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era’, History, LXIII, No. (October 1978), p.360.

7 J. M. Sherer, Recollections of the Peninsula (London,1825), pp.66-7.

8 Anon., Leaves from the Diary of an Officer of the Guards (London, 1854), p. 279

9 S. Monick (ed.), Douglas’ Tale of the Peninsula and Waterloo (London,1997), p.99.

10 Cited in Countess of Minto (ed.), Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert Elliot, First Earl of Minto, from 1751 to 1806 (London,1874), vol. III, pp.106-8.

11 Baring (ed.), Diary of the Right Hon. William Windham, p.433.

12 Henry Richard, Lord Holland, Memoirs of the Whig Party during my Time, ed. by Henry Edward, Lord Holland (London,1852), vol. I, p.57.

13 Cited in Earl of Rosebery (ed.), The Windham Papers: the Life and Correspondence of the Rt. Hon. William Windham, 1750 - 1810 (London,1913), vol. II, p.246.

14 For these remarks, cf. N. Bentley (ed.), Selections from the Reminiscences of Captain Gronow (London, 1977, p.61.

15 J. Rambaud, Memoirs of the Comte Roger de Damas, 1787-1806 (London,1913), pp.304-5.

16 Holland, Memoirs of the Whig Party, vol. I, pp.154-5.

17 Cited in Marquess of Londonderry (ed.), Correspondence, Dispatches and other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry (London,1848-53), vol. V, p.77.

18 Cited in Third Earl of Malmesbury (ed.), Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury (London,1844), vol. IV, p.66.

19 Cited in ibid., p.174.

20 J. F. de Bourgoing, A Modern State of Spain (London,1808), vol. II, pp.71, 75.

21 Rambaud, Memoirs of the Comte Roger de Damas, p.304.

22 Cited in Earl of Rosebery (ed.), The Wellesley Papers: the Life and Correspondence of Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, 1760 - 1842 (London,1914), vol. I, p.170.

23 M. K. Oginski, Mémoires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et les Polonais depuis 1788 jusqu’à la fin de 1815 (Paris,1827), vol. II, pp.141-2.

24 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, p.211.

25 C. de Mazade (ed.), Mémoires du Prince Adam Czartoryski et Correspondance avec l’Empereur Alexandre Ier (Paris,1887), vol. I, p.335.

26 Cited in Londonderry (ed.), Correspondence, Dispatches and other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, vol. V, p.81.

27 Cited in C. Fedorak, ‘In search of a necessary ally: Addington, Hawkesbury and Russia, 1801- ’,1804 International History Review, XIII, No.2 (May 1991), p.242.

28 Cited in R. Garner, The Campaign of Trafalgar (London,1997), p.11.

29 Cited in Rosebery, Wellesley Papers, vol. I, p.170.

30 Cited in ibid., p.171.

31 Cited in Rosebery (ed.), The Windham Papers, vol. II, p.235.

32 Cited in P. Ziegler, Addington: a Life of Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth (London,1965), p.197.

33 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, p.313.

34 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London, 1880), vol. I, p.49.

35 Cited in A. Paget (ed.), The Paget Papers: Diplomatic and other Correspondence of the Right Hon. Sir Arthur Paget, G. C. B., 1794 - 1807 (London,1896), vol. II, p.108.

36 Cited in Minto, Life and Letters, vol. III, p.355.

37 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, p.271.

38 Cited in P. Dwyer, ‘Two definitions of neutrality: Prussia, the European states-system and the French invasion of Hanover in ’, International History Review, XIX, No.3 (August 1997), p.536.

39 C. von Muffling, Passages from my Life, together with Memoirs of the Campaign of 1813 and 1814 (London, 1853), pp.6-7.

40 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, pp. 246-7.

41 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London,1892), p. 178.

42 Mazade (ed.), Mémoires du Prince Adam Czartoryski, vol. I, p. 38.

43 Ibid., pp.385-8.

44 For Napoleon’s treatment of Morkov, cf. Earl of Ilchester (ed.), The Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland, 1791 - 1811 (London,1909), vol. II, p.159.

45 Mazade (ed.), Mémoires du Prince Adam Czartoryski, vol. I, p. 359 .

46 G. S. Hellman (ed.), Memoirs of the Cmte de Mercy Argenteau, Napoleon’s Chamberlain and his Minister Plenipotentiary to the King of Bavaria (New York,1917), p.94.

47 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Mémoires de la Reine Hortense (Paris,1927), vol. I, p.161.

48 Ibid. General Monk had sealed the fate of the Commonwealth in 1660 by taking his troops over to the cause of Charles II.

49 Duc d’Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie; Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris,1895-1914), vol. I, p.179.

50 Cited in R. Johnston (ed.), In the Words of Napoleon: the Emperor Day-by-Day (London,2002), p.136.

51 Bourrienne, Memoirs, p.247; for Staël’s views, cf. Considérations, vol. II, pp.327-8.

52 C. de Rémusat, Mémoires de Madame de Rémusat, 1802 - 1808, ed. P. de Rémusat (Paris,1884), vol. I, p.387.

53 So at least goes the traditional version. In Fouché’s memoirs, we rather see, ‘It is more than a crime; it is a political fault.’ See Fouché, Memoirs, p.182.

54 A. du Casse (ed.), Mémoires et Correspondance Politique et Militaire du Prince Eugène (Paris,1858), vol. I, p.91.

55 Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Historical Memoirs of the Emperor Alexander I and the Court of Russia, ed. M. Patterson (London,1904), p.53.

56 Mazade (ed.), Mémoires du Prince Adam Czartoryski, vol. I, p.378.

57 A. Thibaudeau, Bonaparte and the Consulate, ed. G. Fortescue (London,1908), p.310.

58 Cited in Rémusat, Mémoires, vol. I, p.393.

59 Cited in Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, pp.331-2.

60 Fouché, Memoirs, p.192.

61 Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, p.48.

62 Rambaud, Memoirs of Comte Roger de Damas, pp.321-2.

63 Ibid., p.332.

64 H. Bunbury, Narratives of some Passages in the Great War with France (London, 1854), pp.212, 215.

65 Fouché, Memoirs, p.195.

66 Ibid., pp.195-6.

67 Cited in Rémusat, Memoires, vol. I, p.384.

68 L. Aldersey White (ed.), The Adventurous Life of Count Lavallette, Bonaparte’s Aide-de-Camp and Postmaster-General, by Himself (London,1936), vol. I, pp.256-7.

5 Austerlitz

1 J. L. Hulot, Souvenirs Militaires du Baron Hulot, Général d’Artillerie, 1773 - 1843 (Paris, 1886), p.92.

2 Cited in P. de Ségur, Memoirs of an Aide-de-Camp of Napoleon, 1800-1812 (Stroud, 2005), p. 140.

3 R. de Montesquieu-Fézensac, Souvenirs Militaires de 1808 à 1814 (Paris, 1863), p. 33.

4 Ségur, Memoirs, p.146.

5 Cited in ibid., p.148.

6 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London,1892), p.201.

7 Duc d’Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie: Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris,1895-1914), vol. I, pp. 219-20.

8 E. de Saint-Hilaire, Souvenirs intimes du Temps de l’Empire (Paris,1860), vol. I, p. 263.

9 Hulot, Souvenirs Militaires, pp. 89-90.

10 Montesquieu-Fézensac, Souvenirs Militaires, p.32.

11 Ibid., pp.64-5.

12 Hulot, Souvenirs Militaires, p. ; Montesquieu-Fézensac, Souvenirs Militaires, p. 46; M. Barrès (ed.), Memoirs of a French Napoleonic Officer: Jean-Baptiste Barrès, Chasseur of the Imperial Guard (London,1955), p. 55.

13 P. Haythornthwaite (ed.), Life in Napoleon’s Army: the Memoirs of Captain Elzéar Blaze (London,1995), pp.2-3.

14 Cited in J. D. Markham, Imperial Glory: the Bulletins of Napoleon’s Grande Armée, 1805 - 1814 (London,2003), pp. 9-10.

15 B. T. Jones (ed.), Napoleon’s Army: the Military Memoirs of Charles Parquin (London, 1987), p. 185.

16 Cited in A. Forrest, Napoleon’s Men: the Soldiers of the Revolution and Empire (London, 202), p. 93.

17 A. J. M. de Rocca, Memoirs of the War of the French in Spain, ed. P. Haythornthwaite (London,1990), p. 21.

18 A. Bell (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, Aide-de-Camp to Marshals Berthier, Davout and Oudinot (London,1897), vol. I, p.28.

19 J. Fortescue (ed.), The Note-books of Captain Coignet, Soldier of the Empire (London, 1928), p.122.

20 Cited in Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, pp.100-101.

21 Cited in ibid., p.103.

22 Cited in ibid., p.26.

23 Haythornthwaite, Life in Napoleon’s Army, p.177

24 Cited in Earl of Stanhope, Notes of Conversations with the Duke of Wellington, 1831 - 1851 (London,1888), p.9.

25 H. d’Ideville (ed.), Memoirs of Colonel Bugeaud from his Private Correspondence and Original Documents, 1784 - 1814 (Worley Publications facsimile edition,1998), p.54.

26 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London, 1880), vol. I, p.56.

27 Cited in Third Earl of Malmesbury (ed.), Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury (London,1844), vol. IV, p.340.

28 Cited in L. Strakhovsky, Alexander I of Russia: the Man who Defeated Napoleon (London,1949), p.68.

29 C. de Mazade (ed.), Mémoires du Prince Adam Czartoryski et Correspondance avec l’Empereur Alexandre Ier (Paris,1887), vol. I, p.410.

30 Whether he actually said this is a moot point - Ehrman, who is Pitt’s leading modern biographer, admits that no definite reference can be found for anything of the sort. Cf. J. Ehrman, The Younger Pitt, II: the Consuming Struggle (Stanford, California,1997), p.822.

31 Cited in R. Eden (ed.), The Journal and Correspondence of William, Lord Auckland (London,1860-62), vol. IV, p.260.

32 Cited in A. Palmer, Metternich, Councillor of Europe (London, 1972), p.48.

33 C. M. de Talleyrand-Périgord, Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, ed. by Duc de Broglie (London, 1891), vol. I, p.225

34 Ibid., p.228.

35 Cited in J. M. Thompson, Napoleon Bonaparte (Oxford,1988), p.286.

36 Cited in Correspondance de Napoléon I publiée par ordre de l’Empereur Napoléon III (Paris,1858; hereafter CN), vol. XI, p.509.

37 Cited in ibid., vol. IX, p.345.

38 A. F. L. de Viesse de Marmont, Mémoires du Maréchal Marmont, Duc de Raguse, de 1792 à 1841 (Paris,1857), vol. II, p.228.

39 Cited in CN, vol. XII, p.509.

40 Cited in ibid., p.291.

41 Cited in ibid., vol. XVI, p.161.

42 Cited in ibid., p.474.

43 Sir John Moore to J. W. Gordon, October , British Library, Additional Manuscript 49487, ff.39-43 .

44 Cited in P. K. Grimsted, The Foreign Ministers of Alexander I: Political Attitudes and the Conduct of Russian Diplomacy, 1801-1825 (Berkeley, California,1969), p.143.

45 Cited in A. Bryant, Years of Victory, 1802 - 1812 (London,1944), p.177.

46 Cited in CN, vol. XII, p.571.

47 Talleyrand-Périgord, Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, vol. I, p. ; Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence, vol. IV, p.353.

48 H. Bunbury, Narratives of some Passages in the Great War with France (London,1854), pp.223,225.

49 Cited in J. Russel, The Life and Times of Charles James Fox (London,1866), vol. III, p.377.

50 Cited in E. Las Cases, Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, ed. G. Walter (Paris,1956), vol. II, p.282.

51 Cited in ibid., p.494.

52 Cited in CN, vol. XII, p.450.

53 L. de Rochechouart, Souvenirs sur la Révolution, l’Empire et la Restauration (Paris, 1933), pp.114-15.

54 Cited in A. Gerolymatos, The Balkan Wars: Conquest, Revolution and Retribution from the Ottoman Era to the Twentieth Century and Beyond (New York,2002), p.156.

55 L. Edwards (ed.), The Memoirs of Prota Matija Nenadovic (Oxford,1969), p.136.

56 Rochechouart, Souvenirs, p.213.

57 Audiffret-Pasquier, Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier, vol. I, p.290.

6 Zenith of Empire

1 Cited in J. D. Markham (ed.), Imperial Glory: the Bulletins of Napoleon’s Grande Armée, 1805 - 1814 (London, 2003, p.173.

2 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London,1892), pp.208-9.

3 Cited in H. Fisher, Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany (Oxford,1903), p.128.

4 O. Williams (ed.), In the Wake of Napoleon: being the Memoirs of Ferdinand von Funck, Lieutenant-General in the Saxon Army and Adjutant General to the King of Saxony (London,1931), p.73.

5 C. von Muffling, Passages from my Life, together with Memoirs of the Campaign of 1813 and 1814 (London,1853), pp.13-14.

6 C. M. de Talleyrand-Périgord, Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, ed. by Duc de Broglie (London,1891), vol. I, p.231.

7 Cited in J. M. Thompson, Napoleon Bonaparte (Oxford,1988), p.290.

8 Cited in E. Henderson, Blücher and the Uprising of Prussia against Napoleon, 1806 - 1815 (London,1911), p.24.

9 Cited in ibid., pp.10-11

10 Cited in R. Aron, Clausewitz, Philosopher of War (London,1983), p.19.

11 Cited in ibid., p.15.

12 Cited in Henderson, Blücher, p. 12

13 M. de Marbot, The Memoirs of Baron de Marbot (London,1892), vol. I, pp.215-16.

14 For Lady Holland’s views, cf. Earl of Ilchester (ed.), The Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland, 1791-1811 (London,1909), vol. II, p.183.

15 Cited in Third Earl of Malmesbury (ed.), Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury (London,1844), vol. IV, pp.355-6.

16 J. Greig (ed.), The Farington Diary (London,1923), vol. IV, p.25.

17 Henry Richard, Lord Holland, Memoirs of the Whig Party during my Time, edited by Henry Edward, Lord Holland (London,1852), vol. II, pp.112-15.

18 Cited in C. Abbot (ed.), The Diary and Correspondence of Charles Abbot, Lord Colchester, Speaker of the House of Commons, 1802 - 1817 (London,1861), vol. II, pp.131-2.

19 Ilchester, Spanish Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland, vol. II, p.147.

20 M. Barrès (ed.), Memoirs of a French Napoleonic Officer: Jean-Baptiste Barrès, Chasseur of the Imperial Guard (London,1955), p.88.

21 J. Fortescue (ed.), The Note-books of Captain Coignet, Soldier of the Empire (London, 1928), pp.132-3.

22 Muffling, Memoirs, p.18.

23 Williams, In the Wake of Napoleon, p.129.

24 Cited in Henderson, Blücher and the Uprising of Prussia, p.25.

25 Cited in ibid., p.16.

26 Duc d’Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie; Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris, 1895-1914), vol. I, pp.292-3.

27 Williams, In the Wake of Napoleon, p.108.

28 Ibid., p.293.

29 Fortescue (ed.), Note-books of Captain Coignet, pp.137-9.

30 Ibid., p.136.

31 Williams, In the Wake of Napoleon, p.142.

32 Ilchester, Diary of Elizabeth, Lady Holland, pp.188-9.

33 R. Wilson, Brief Remarks on the Character and Composition of the Russian Army and a Sketch of the Campaigns in Poland in the years 1806 and 1807 (London,1810), pp.2-3.

34 Greig, Farington Diary, vol. IV, p.26.

35 Cited in B. Francis and E. Keary (eds), The Francis Letters (London, n.d.), vol. II, p.668.

36 J. North, In the Legions of Napoleon: the Memoirs of a Polish Officer in Spain and Russia, 1808 - 1813 (London,1999), p.39.

37 Cited in H. Butterfield, The Peace Tactics of Napoleon, 1806 - 1808 (Cambridge,1959), p.59.

38 A. Bell (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, Aide-de-Camp to Marshals Berthier, Davout and Oudinot (London,1897), vol. I, p.38.

39 Ibid., vol. I, p.38.

40 M. K. Oginski, Mémoires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et les Polonais depuis 1788 jusqu’à la fin de 1815 (Paris,1827), vol. II, p.337.

41 Ibid., p.340.

42 Marbot, Memoirs, vol. I, p.38.

43 Bell, Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, vol. I, p.47.

44 Barrès, Memoirs of a French Napoleonic Officer, p.102.

45 P. Haythornthwaite (ed.), Life in Napoleon’s Army: the Memoirs of Captain Elzéar Blaze (London,1995), pp.175-6 .

46 Cited in A. du Casse (ed.), Mémoires et Correspondance Politique et Militaire du Roi Joseph (Paris, 1854), vol. III, p309..

47 Cited in Markham, Imperial Glory, pp.163-4.

48 Cited in Fouché, Memoirs, p.209.

49 Holland, Memoirs of the Whig Party, vol. II, p.95.

50 Rambaud, Memoirs of the Comte Roger de Damas, pp.410-14passim.

51 Holland, Memoirs of the Whig Party, vol. II, pp.95-6.

52 J. Maurice (ed.), The Diary of Sir John Moore (London,1904), vol. II, pp.141-6, 188-92 - passim.

53 Cited in Butterfield, Peace Tactics of Napoleon, p.177.

54 Bell, Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, vol. I, p.66 ; Fortescue, Notebooks of Captain Coignet, vol. I, p.151; Wilson, Campaigns in Poland, p.157.

55 Cited in Bell, Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, vol. I, pp.66-7.

56 Cited in Butterfield, Peace Tactics of Napoleon, p.198.

57 B. T. Jones (ed.), Napoleon’s Army: the Military Memoirs of Charles Parquin (London, 1987), p.71.

58 Cited in Butterfield, Peace Tactics of Napoleon, p.36.

59 G. Troubetzkoy (ed.), In the Service of the Tsar against Napoleon: the Memoirs of Denis Davidov, 1806 - 1814 (London,1999), pp.58-60.

60 Cited in A. Paget (ed.), The Paget Papers: Diplomatic and other Correspondence of the Right Hon. Sir Arthur Paget, G. C. B., 1794 - 1807 (London,1896), vol. II, pp.323-4.

61 Cited in R. Parkinson, The Hussar General: the Life of Blücher, Man of Waterloo (London,1975), p.79.

62 Cited in Butterfield, Peace Tactics of Napoleon, p.234.

63 Cited in ibid., p.203.

7 Across the Pyrenees

1 C. M. de Talleyrand-Périgord, Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, ed. by Duc de Broglie (London,1891), vol. I, p.244.

2 Cited in M. de Baudus, Etudes sur Napoléon (Paris,1841), vol. I, p.105.

3 Conde de Toreno, Historia del Levantamiento, Guerra y Revolución de España, ed. L. Augusto de Cueto (Madrid,1953), p.1.

4 Earl of Ilchester (ed.), The Spanish Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland (London, ), vol. II, pp.85-6, 107, 123-4 .

5 M. de Godoy to María Luisa,29 May 1801, Archivo Histórico Nacional (Madrid), Sección de Estado (hereafter AHN. Est.) 2821-1 .

6 Ilchester, Spanish Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland, vol. II, p.167.

7 Ibid., p.134.

8 Cited in J. I. González-Aller, La campaña de Trafalgar, 1804 - 1805: Corpus documental conservado en los archivos españoles (Madrid,2004), vol. I, pp.104-5 .

9 Cited in C. Chastenet, Godoy, Master of Spain, 1792 - 1801 (London,1953), p.107.

10 Cited in C. Oman, A History of the Peninsular War (Oxford, 1902-1930), vol. I, p.603.

11 O. Williams (ed.), In the Wake of Napoleon: being the Memoirs of Ferdinand von Funck, Lieutenant-General in the Saxon Army and Adjutant General to the King of Saxony (London,1931), p.116.

12 Cited in ibid., p.167.

13 Cited in A. Paget (ed.), The Paget Papers: Diplomatic and other Correspondence of the Right Hon. Sir Arthur Paget, G. C. B., 1794 - 1807 (London,1896), vol. II, p.376.

14 Cited in Correspondance de Napoléon I publiée par ordre de l’Empereur Napoléon III (Paris, ; hereafter CN), vol. XVI, p.83.

15 Duc d’Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie: Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris, 1895-1914), vol. I, p.309.

16 M. Barrès (ed.), Memoirs of a French Napoleonic Officer: Jean-Baptiste Barrès, Chasseur of the Imperial Guard (London,1955), pp.119-20.

17 R. Ledos de Beaufort (ed.), Personal Recollections of the late Duc de Broglie, 1785 - 1820 (London,1887), vol. I, pp.52-3.

18 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, p.19.

19 Cited in A. Hayter (ed.), The Backbone: Diaries of a Military Family in the Napoleonic Wars (Bishop Auckland,1993), p.114.

20 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London,1893), p.214.

21 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London, 1880), vol . II, p.158.

22 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, p80 .

23 H. Carnot (ed.), Memoirs of Bertrand Barère, Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety during the Revolution (London,1896), vol. III, pp.131-2.

24 Anon., Inocencia del Rey Nuestro Señor D. Ferdinand VII y tramas del pérfido Godoy (Seville,1814), pp.10-11.

25 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, pp.159-60.

26 A. Butler (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, late Lieutenant-General in the French Army (London,1896), vol. II, p.196 .

27 A. Berazaluce (ed.), Recuerdos de la vida de Don Pedro Agustín Girón (Pamplona, 1978), vol. I, pp.190-91.

28 A. du Casse (ed.), Mémoires et Correspondance Politique et Militaire du Roi Joseph (Paris,1854-6), vol. IV, p.8.

29 Fouché, Memoirs, vol. I, p.315.

30 Henry Edward, Lord Holland, Foreign Reminiscences (London, 1850), pp.130-131.

31 M. Artola (ed.), Memorias de Juan de Escoíquiz (Madrid, 1957), p.57.

32 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, pp.500-501.

33 Cited in A. Alcalá Galiano (ed.), Memorias de Don Antonio Alcalá Galiano (Madrid, 1886), vol. I, p.144.

34 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, pp.418-19.

35 A. Bell (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, Aide-de-Camp to Marshals Berthier, Davout and Oudinot (London,1897), vol. I, p.73.

36 M. Foy, History of the War in the Peninsula under Napoleon (London,1827), vol. II, p.135.

37 Cited in A. Wilson (ed.), A Diary of St Helena (1816 - 1817): the Journal of Lady Malcolm containing the Conversations of Sir Pulteney Malcolm with Napoleon (London, 1899), p.141.

38 Foy, War in the Peninsula, vol. II, p.20.

39 R. Brindle, ‘A Brief Account of Travels, etc., in Spain’ (MS), Real Colegio de San Albano, Valladolid, p.10.

40 Cited in Diario de Valencia, 25 March 1808, p.338.

41 Alcalá Galiano, Memorias, vol. I, p.146.

42 J. Blanco White, Cartas de España, ed. V. Llorens and A. Garnica (Madrid,1972), pp.294-5.

43 J. Marcén (ed.), El manuscrito de Matias Calvo: memorias de un monegrino durante la Guerra de la Independencia (Zaragoza, 2000), p.177.

44 M. de Marbot, The Memoirs of Baron de Marbot (London,1892), vol. I, p.306.

45 Alcalá Galiano, Memorias, vol. I, p.160.

46 Cited in CN, vol. XVII, p.66.

47 Cited in E. Las Cases, Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, ed. G. Walter (Paris, 1956), vol. I, pp.780-81.

48 Cited in P. L. Roederer, Mémoires sur la Révolution, le Consulat et l’Empire, ed. O. Aubry (Paris, 1942), pp.220-21.

49 Anon., El Tirano de la Europa, Napoleón I: Manifiesto que a Todos los Pueblos del Mundo y principalmente a los Españoles presenta el Licenciado D.J.A.C. (Seville, 1808), pp.5-9.

50 Marbot, Memoirs, vol. I, p.320.

51 Cited in Las Cases, Mémorial, vol. I, pp.784-5.

52 Cited in ibid., pp.783-4.

53 Cited in CN, vol. XVII, p.359; with some minor changes, use has been made of the translation given in J. M. Thompson (ed.), Napoleon’s Letters (London, 1934), pp.200-201.

8 From Madrid to Vienna

1 Cited in Correspondence de Napoléon I publiée par ordre de L’Empereur Napoléon III (Paris,1858; hereafter CN), vol. XVII, p.407.

2 Cited in ibid., p.428.

3 J. Sarrazin, History of the War in Spain and Portugal from 1807 to 1814 (London, 1815), pp.64-6.

4 A. Bell (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, Aide-de-Camp to Marshals Berthier, Davout and Oudinot (London,1897), vol. I, pp.105-6.

5 Cited in A. du Casse (ed.), Mémoires et Correspondance Politique et Militaire du Roi Joseph (Paris,1854-6), vol. VII, p.84 .

6 Though occupied by the French during their pursuit of Sir John Moore, Galicia proved difficult to hold and was given up by them a few months later.

7 L. Suchet, Memoirs of the War in Spain from 1808 to 1814 (London, 1829), vol. II, pp.141-2.

8 W. Verner (ed.), A British Rifleman: the Journals and Correspondence of Major George Simmons, Rifle Brigade, during the Peninsular War and the Campaign of Waterloo (London, 1899), pp.137-52 passim.

9 C. de Rémusat, Mémoires de Madame de Rémusat, 1802 - 1808, ed. P. de Rémusat (Paris, 1884), vol. III, p.409.

10 Lord Wellington to Lord Liverpool, 25 July 1813, University of Southampton, Wellington Papers (hereafter US. WP.) 1/373.

11 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza (London, 1935), vol. I, p.236.

12 A. F. L. de Viesse de Marmont, Mémoires du Maréchal Marmont, Duc de Raguse, de 1792 à 1841 (Paris,1857), vol. IV, p.259.

13 J. Maurice (ed.), The Diary of Sir John Moore (London,1904), vol. II, pp.209-11.

14 W. Thompson (ed.), An Ensign in the Peninsular War: the Letters of John Aitchison, (London, 1981), p.32.

15 Cited in R. Weigall (ed.), Correspondence of Lord Burghersh, afterwards Eleventh Earl of Westmoreland, 1808 - 1840 (London, 1912), p.39.

16 Wellington to E. Cooke, 25 November 1812, US. WP.1/351.

17 Canning to Wellington, September , National Archives, Foreign Office Papers (Hereafter NA. FO.) 72/75 , ff.196-208.

18 Cited in M. Martin (ed.), The Dispatches and Correspondence of the Marquess Wellesley, K. G., during His Lordship’s Mission to Spain as Ambassador Extraordinary to the Supreme Junta in 1809 (London, 1838), p.119.

19 Cited in Weigall, Correspondence of Lord Burghersh, p.33.

20 T. Graham to Liverpool, 23 April 1811, National Archives, War Office Papers (hereafter NA. WO.) 1/252, f.291 .

21 H. Douglas to Liverpool, 13 September 1811, NA. WO.1/261, f.446 . H. Wellesley to Wellington, 18 July 1811, US. WP.12/2/2.

22 Wellington to H. Wellesley, 10 August 1810, US. WP.12/1/1.

23 G. Larpent (ed.), The Private Journal of Judge-Advocate F. S. Larpent, attached to Wellington’s Headquarters, 1812 - 1814 (London, 1853), vol. II, pp.127-8 .

24 Wellington to Bathurst, 27 November 1813, US. WP.1/381.

25 Cited in H. Acton, The Bourbons of Naples, 1734 - 1825 (London, 1956), p.606.

26 L. Spring (ed.), An Englishman in the Russian Army, 1807; the Journal of Colonel James Bathurst during the East Prussia Campaign, 1807 (Woking, 2000), p.18.

27 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, p.67.

28 Cited in ibid., p.63.

29 Ibid., p.67.

30 Cited in Talleyrand, Memoirs, pp.300 -301, 84.

31 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, p. .84

32 Cited in G. Stiegler (ed.), Memoirs of Marshal Oudinot, Duc de Reggio compiled from the Hitherto Unpublished Souvenirs of the Duchesse de Reggio (New York, 1897), p.78 .

33 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, p.84.

34 C. M. de Talleyrand-Périgord, Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, ed. by Duc de Broglie (London, ), vol. I, p.71.

35 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, p.71.

36 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London, 1880 ), vol. I, p.82 .

37 Cited in CN, vol. XVII, p.417

38 Cited in Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, p.80

39 Cited in Talleyrand, Memoirs, pp.305,309

40 Cited in Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, pp.73-88 passim.

41 E. Rousset (ed.), Recollections of Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Tarentum (London,1892 ), vol. I, pp.299-301.

42 P. Haythornthwaite (ed.), Life in Napoleon’s Army: the Memoirs of Captain Elzéar Blaze (London,1995), pp.131-2.

43 Cited in Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, p.100.

44 Cited in ibid., vol. II, pp. 364-5.

45 W. Müller, Relation of the Operations and Battles of the Austrian and French Armies in the Year 1809 (London,1810 ), p.13.

46 Cited in J. Gill (ed.) A Soldier for Napoleon: the Campaigns of Lieutenant Franz Joseph Haussmann, Seventh Bavarian Infantry (London,1998), pp.72-3.

47 M. de Marbot, The Memoirs of Baron de Marbot (London,1892), vol. II, pp.22-3.

9 The Alliance that Failed

1 Cited in CN, vol. XVIII, pp. 375-6.

2 Cited in R. Soltyk, Operations of the Polish Army during the 1809 campaign in Poland, ed. by G. Nafziger (Westchester, Ohio, 2002 ), p.153.

3 Cited in ibid. pp. - 159-60.

4 M. K. Oginski, Mémoires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et les Polonais depuis 1788 jusqu’à la fin de 1815 (Paris,1827), vol. II, pp.370-71.

5 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London,1880 ), vol. I, p.120.

6 Cited in Duc d’ Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie: Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris,1895-1914), vol. I, p.377.

7 Ibid.

8 Cited in L. Aldersey White (ed.), The Adventurous Life of Count Lavallette, Bonaparte’s Aide-de-Camp and Postmaster-General, by Himself (London,1936), vol. II, p.5

9 Cited in Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier, vol. I, p.378.

10 Marquise de la Tour du Pin, Recollections of the Revolution and the Empire, ed. W. Geer (London,1921), pp. 358-9.

11 P. Jones (ed.), In Napoleon’s Shadow: being the First English-Language Edition of the Complete Memoirs of Louis-Joseph Marchand, Valet and Friend of the Emperor, 1811 - 1821 (San Francisco, ), p.5.

12 P. Jones (ed.), Napoleon: How He Did It - the Memoirs of Baron Fain, First Secretary of the Emperor’s Cabinet (San Francisco, 1998), p. 183.

13 Cited in D. Seward, Napoleon’s Family (London,1986), pp.124-5.

14 Cited in A. Brett-James (ed.), 1812: Eyewitness Accounts of Napoleon’s Defeat in Russia (London,1966 ), p.48.

15 C. J. Summerville (ed.), Napoleon’s Expedition to Russia: the Memoirs of General de Ségur (London,2003), p.76

16 Marquis de Noailles (ed.), The Life and Memoirs of Count Molé, 1781 - 1855 (London, 1923), vol. I, pp.140-41.

17 Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Historical Memoirs of the Emperor Alexander I and the Court of Russia, edited by M. Patterson (London,1904), p.60

18 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, p.161.

19 Cited in Noailles, Life and Memoirs of Count Molé, pp.140-41.

20 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Mémoires de la Reine Hortense (Paris,1927), vol. I, pp.242-3.

21 Cited in CN, vol. XIV, p.28

22 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, p.161.

23 Cited in J. M. Thompson (ed.), Napoleon’s Letters (London, 1934), pp.230-33.

24 Hanoteau, Mémoires de la Reine Hortense, vol. II, p.58.

25 Cited in N. Gotteri (ed.), La Mission de Lagarde, Policier de l’Empereur, pendant la Guerre d’Espagne, 1809 - 1811 (Paris,1991), pp.141-2.

26 Cited in ibid., pp.148-52.

27 Cited in L. Lecestre (ed.), Lettres Inédites de Napoléon Ier (Paris, 1897), vol. I, pp.266-7.

28 Cited in ibid., p.276.

29 Cited in A. du Casse (ed.), Mémoires et Correspondance Politique et Militaire du Roi Joseph (Paris, 1854-6), vol. VII, p.260.

30 Cited in ibid., p.272.

31 Earl of Ilchester (ed.), Spanish Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland (London, 1910), vol. I, pp. 127-8.

32 O. Williams (ed.), In the Wake of Napoleon: being the Memoirs of Ferdinand von Funck, Lieutenant-General in the Saxon Army and Adjutant General to the King of Saxony (London,1932), p.144.

33 Cited in CN, vol. XVI, p.166.

34 E. Lecky (ed.), Un Général hollandais sous le premier Empire: Mémoires du Général Baron de Dedem de Gelder, 1774 - 1825 (Paris,1900), pp.107-11.

35 Cited in Lecestre (ed.), Lettres inédites, vol. I, pp.217-18.

36 Cited in ibid., p.327.

37 C. Lahovary (ed.), Mémoires de l’Amiral Paul Tchitchagof, Commandant en chef de l’Armée du Danube, Gouverneur des Principautés de Moldavie et de Valachie en 1812 (Paris,1909), pp.370-71,381.

38 Choiseul-Gouffier, Mémoires, pp.64-5.

39 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza (London,1935 ), vol. I, p.96.

40 Ibid., p.101.

41 Ibid.

42 Ibid., p.110

43 Cited in L. Czartoryski (ed.), Alexandre Ier et le Prince Czartoryski: Correspondance particulière et Conversations, 1801 - 1823 (Paris,1865), pp.87-8

44 Oginski, Mémoires, vol. II, pp. 376-7.

45 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. II, pp.492-4.

46 Cited in V. Cronin, Napoleon (London, 1971), p.384.

47 Oginski, Mémoires, vol. II, p.375.

48 Cited in Lecky, Mémoires du Général de Dedem, p. 192

49 Cited in ibid., p.193.

50 A. Branche and A. Dagoury (eds), Recollections of a Parisian (Docteur Poumiès de la Siboutie) under Six Sovereigns, Two Revolutions and a Republic, 1789-1863 (London,1911 ), p. 88.

51 Hanoteau, Mémoires de la Reine Hortense, vol. II, p. 147.

52 Cited in Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, pp. 171-2.

53 Ibid., p.383.

54 A. Beugnot (ed.), Mémoires du Comte Beugnot, Ancien Ministre, 1783-1815 (Paris,1868 ), vol. I, p. 486.

55 Ibid., pp. 309–10.

56 Audiffret-Pasquier, Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier, vol. I, p. 516..

57 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London, 1892), p.318.

58 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, pp.152–3.

59 Cited in Noailles, Life and Memoirs of Count Molé, vol. I, pp.148–9.

60 Cited in C. Stryienski (ed.), Mémoires de la Comtesse Potocka, 1794 - 1820 (Paris, ), p.284

61 Cited in A. Villemain, Souvenirs contemporains d’Histoire et de Littérature (Paris, 1854 ), vol. I, p.175

62 Cited in ibid., p.180

63 Cited in CN, vol. XXIII, p.26.

64 Cited in ibid., p.191

65 D. Dufour de Pradt, Histoire de l’Ambassade dans le Grand Duché de Varsovie en 1812 (Paris,1815 ), pp.44-56 - passim.

66 A. Bell (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, Aide-de-Camp to Marshals Berthier, Davout and Oudinot (London, 1897), vol. II, p.150

67 A. Mikaberidze (ed.), The Czar’s General: the Memoirs of a Russian General in the Napoleonic Wars (London, 2005), p. 131.

68 Choiseul-Gouffier, Memoirs, p.67

69 D. von Uexküll (ed.), Arms and the Woman: the Diaries of Baron Boris Uxkull, 1812 - 1819 (London,1966 ), p.62.

70 Cited in Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, pp.108 -9 .

71 Mikaberidze (ed.), The Czar’s General, pp. 108, 111.

72 R. Wilson, Narrative of Events during the Invasion of Russia by Napoleon Bonaparte and the Retreat of the French Army, 1812 (London, 1860), p.25.

73 Cited in Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, p.155.

74 Cited in ibid., p.171 .

75 J. North, In the Legions of Napoleon: the Memoirs of a Polish Officer in Spain and Russia, 1808-1813 (London, ), pp. 188-9 .

76 E. Labaume, A Circumstantial Narrative of the Campaign in Russia (London, ), pp. 3-4.

10 Downfall

1 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London,1880 ), vol. I, p.153 .

2 Cited in CN, vol. XXIII, p. 480.

3 Cited in Duc d’Audiffret-Pasquier (ed.), Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier - Première Partie: Révolution, Consulat, Empire (Paris, 1895-1914 ), vol. I, p.525.

4 Cited in M. K. Oginski, Mémoires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et les Polonais depuis 1788 jusqu’à la fin de 1815 (Paris, 1827), vol. IV, p. 18.

5 J. Fortescue (ed.), The Notebooks of Captain Coignet, Soldier of the Empire (London, 1989 ), p.207.

6 M. Raeff (ed.), The Diary of a Napoleonic Foot Soldier (Moreton-in-Marsh, 1991), pp.41- 2.

7 J. North (ed.), With Napoleon in Russia: the Illustrated Memoirs of Major Faber du Faur, 1812 (London,2001 ), n.p.

8 Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Historical Memoirs of the Emperor Alexander I and the Court of Russia, ed. by M. Patterson (London, 1904), pp.97- 9.

9 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza (London, 1935 ), vol. I, p. 169.

10 M. de Marbot, The Memoirs of Baron de Marbot (London,1892 ), vol. II, p.221 .

11 C. Stryienski (ed.), Mémoires de la Comtesse Potocka, 1794 - 1820 (Paris,1911 ), p.303.

12 A. Bell (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, Aide-de-Camp to Marshals Berthier, Davout and Oudinot (London,1897 ), vol. II, pp.153 -4 .

13 D. Dufour de Pradt, Histoire de l’Ambassade dans le Grand Duché de Varsovie en 1812 (Paris,1815 ), pp.63-4

14 D. Chlapowski, Mémoires sur les Guerres de Napoléon, 1806 - 1813 (Paris, 1908), p. 251.

15 Dufour de Pradt, Histoire de l’Ambassade dans le Grand Duché de Varsovie, pp. 114-16.

16 R. Brindle (ed.), With Napoleon’s Guns: the Military Memoirs of an Officer of the First Empire (London, 2005), pp. 140-41.

17 C. J. Summerville (ed.), Napoleon’s Expedition to Russia: the Memoirs of General de Ségur (London, 2003), pp. 27-8.

18 Choiseul-Gouffier, Memoirs, p. 100.

19 Raeff, Diary of a Napoleonic Foot Soldier, p. 44.

20 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, pp. 191-2 .

21 Cited in C. de la Roncière (ed.), The Letters of Napoleon to Marie-Louise (London, 1935 ), p. 80.

22 Cited in Summerville (ed.), Napoleon’s Expedition to Russia, p. 36.

23 Ibid., p. 40.

24 R. de Fézensac, A Journal of the Russian Campaign of 1812 (London, 1812), p. 25.

25 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, pp. 197-8 .

26 Summerville (ed.), Napoleon’s Expedition to Russia, p. 41.

27 J. North, In the Legions of Napoleon: the Memoirs of a Polish Officer in Spain and Russia, 1808 - 1813 (London,1999 ), p. 209.

28 J. Clarette (ed.), From Valmy to Waterloo: Extracts from the Diary of Captain Charles François, a Soldier of the Revolution and Empire (London, 1906), p. 234.

29 Cited in Roncière, The Letters of Napoleon to Marie-Louise, p. 87.

30 A. Mikaberidze (ed.), The Czar’s General: the Memoirs of a Russian General in the Napoleonic Wars (London, 2005), p. 127.

31 Fézensac, A Journal of the Russian Campaign of 1812, p. 59.

32 Bell, Memoirs of Baron Lejeune, vol. II, p. 170.

33 W. Wallich (ed.), With Napoleon in Russia, 1812: the Diary of Lieutenant H. A. Vossler, a Soldier of the Grande Armée, 1812 - 1813 (London, 1969), p. 59.

34 Chlapowski, Mémoires, p. 264.

35 G. Troubetzkoy (ed.), In the Service of the Tsar against Napoleon: the Memoirs of Denis Davidov, 1806 - 1814 (London, 1999), p. 85.

36 D. von Uexküll (ed.), Arms and the Woman: the Diaries of Baron Boris Uxkull, 1812 - 1819 (London, 1966), p. 75.

37 R. Wilson, Narrative of Events during the Invasion of Russia by Napoleon Bonaparte and the Retreat of the French Army, 1812 (London, 1860), p. 130.

38 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. I, p. .247

39 Cited in ibid., p. 252.

40 Summerfield, Napoleon’s Expedition to Russia, p. 119.

41 Mikaberidze, The Czar’s General, pp. 210- 11.

42 H. Roeder (ed.), The Ordeal of Captain Roeder: from the Diary of an Officer of the First Battalion of Hessian Lifeguards during the Moscow Campaign of 1812-13 (London, 1960 ), pp. 191, 201- 2.

43 Wallich, With Napoleon in Russia, p. 45.

44 E. Lecky (ed.), Un Général hollandais sous le premier Empire: Mémoires du Général Baron de Dedem de Gelder, 1774 - 1825 (Paris, 1900), p. 212.

45 R. Brindle (ed.), With Napoleon’s Guns: the Military Memoirs of an Officer of the First Empire (London, 2005), pp. 150- 51.

46 Cited in R. Wilson, The French Invasion of Russia (London, 1860), p. 366.

47 L. de Rochechouart, Souvenirs sur la Révolution, l’Empire et la Restauration (Paris, 1933 ), p. 222.

48 Choiseul-Gouffier, Memoirs, p. 150.

49 Cited in Dufour de Pradt, Ambassade en Pologne, p. 119.

50 Cited in in L. Czartoryski (ed.), Alexandre Ier et le Prince Czartoryski: Correspondance particulière et conversations, 1801- 1823 (Paris, 1865), pp. 207-8 .

51 Cited in Dufour de Pradt, Histoire de l’Ambassade dans le Grand Duché de Versovie en 1812, pp. 181- 4.

52 Cited in Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. II, p. 143.

53 Cited in ibid., p. 315.

54 Hanoteau, Mémoires de la Reine Hortense, vol. II, p. 151.

55 Marquis de Noailles (ed.), The Life and Memoirs of Count Molé, 1781 - 1855 (London, 1923 ), vol. I, p. 138.

56 J. Fouché, Memoirs of Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, Minister of the General Police of France (London, 1892), p. 332.

57 Marbot, Memoirs, vol. II, p. 351.

58 Fouché, Memoirs, p. 329.

59 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. II, p. 347.

60 Cited in A. Villemain, Souvenirs contemporains d’Histoire et de Littérature (Paris, 1854 ), vol. I, pp. 290- 92.

61 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. II, p. 352.

62 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, pp. 158- 9.

63 Cited in ibid., p. 166.

64 Fortescue, Notebooks of Captain Coignet, p. 248.

65 E. Macdonald, Recollections of Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Tarentum, ed. E. Rousset (London, 1892), p. 50.

66 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, pp. 167,176 .

67 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. II, p. 353.

68 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, pp. 185-6.

69 Cited in ibid., pp. 185-7.

70 Cited in ibid., pp.187, 192.

71 Brindle, With Napoleon’s Guns, p. 163.

72 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, p. 200.

73 R. Ledos de Beaufort (ed.), Personal Recollections of the late Duc de Broglie, 1785 - 1820 (London, 1887), vol. I, pp. 228-9.

74 Cited in Lady Jackson (ed.), The Bath Archives: a Further Selection from the Diaries and Letters of Sir George Jackson, K. C. H., from 1809 to 1816 (London,1873 ), pp. 204-5.

75 Cited in Rochechouart, Souvenirs, p. 293.

76 Marbot, Memoirs, vol. II, p. 361.

77 Lecky, Mémoires du Général Baron de Dedem, pp. 332, 337.

78 Macdonald, Recollections of Marshal Macdonald, vol. II, p. 66.

79 Brindle, With Napoleon’s Guns, p. 182.

80 A. F. L. de Viesse de Marmont, Mémoires du Maréchal Marmont, Duc de Raguse, de 1792 à 1841 (Paris,1857 ), vol. XVIII, pp. 295-300 .

81 Cited in Jackson (ed.), The Bath Archives, p. 314.

82 Cited in ibid., p. 361.

83 C. von Muffling, Passages from my Life, together with Memoirs of the Campaign of 1813 and 1814 (London, 1853), pp. 92-3.

84 Audiffret-Pasquier, Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier, vol. II, pp. 100-101

85 L. Aldersey White (ed.), The Adventurous Life of Count Lavallette, Bonaparte’s Aide-de-Camp and Postmaster General, by Himself (London, 1936), vol. II, p. 25.

86 Cited in G. Stiegler (ed.), Memoirs of Marshal Oudinot, Duc de Reggio compiled from the Hitherto Unpublished Souvenirs of the Duchesse de Reggio (New York, 1897), pp. 252- 3.

87 Rochechouart, Souvenirs, p. 328.

88 Marbot, Memoirs, vol. II, pp. 441-2.

89 H. Carnot (ed.), Memoirs of Bertrand Barère, Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety during the Revolution (London, 1896), vol. III, p. 168.

90 R. Ledos de Beaufort (ed.), Personal Recollections of the late Duc de Broglie, vol. I, pp. 241- 2.

91 A. Beugnot (ed.), Mémoires du Comte Beugnot, Ancien Ministre, 1783-1815 (Paris, 1868 ), vol. II, p. 68.

92 Cited in Aldersey White (ed.), Life of Count Lavallette, vol. II, p. 26.

93 Cited in ibid.

94 Cited in Beugnot, Mémoires du Comte Beugnot, vol. II, p. 57.

95 Aldersey White (ed.), Life of Count Lavallette, vol. II, pp. 26-7.

96 Jones, In Napoleon’s Shadow, pp. 34-5.

97 Carnot (ed.), Memoirs of Bertrand Barère, vol. III, p. 171.

98 G. Bell, Rough Notes of an Old Soldier, ed. B. Stuart (London, 1956), p. 123.

99 Ibid., p. 179.

100 Cited in Stiegler, Memoirs of Marshal Oudinot, p. 253.

101 Hanoteau, Memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, vol. III, pp. 7-9 , 16-17.

102 Cited in ibid., pp. 38-9.

103 L. B. de Saint-Léon, Mémoires et Souvenirs de Charles de Pougens (Paris, 1834), pp. 261- 2.

104 A. Branche and A. Dagoury (eds), Recollections of a Parisian (Docteur Poumiès de la Siboutie) under Six Sovereigns, Two Revolutions and a Republic, 1789-1863 (London, 1911 ), pp. 122-3.

105 A. J. F. Fain, Memoirs of the Invasion of France by the Allied Armies and of the last Six Months of the Reign of Napoleon (London, ), pp. 161-2.

106 Cited in Stiegler, Memoirs of Marshal Oudinot, pp. 254-5 .

11 The Congress of Vienna

1 Cited in Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Historical Memoirs of the Emperor Alexander I and the Court of Russia, ed. M. Patterson (London, 1904), p. 148.

2 Cited in ibid., pp. 212- 13.

3 Cited in ibid., p. 212.

4 Cited in Second Duke of Wellington (ed.), Supplementary Despatches, Correspondence and Memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur, Duke of Wellington, K. G. (London, 1858- 62; hereafter WSD), vol. IX, p. 64.

5 Cited in C. M. de Talleyrand-Périgord, Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand, ed. Duc de Broglie (London, 1891), vol. II, p. 177.

6 Cited in WSD, vol. IX, p. 357.

7 Cited in Talleyrand, Memoirs, vol. II, pp. 133- 4.

8 Lady Jackson (ed.), The Bath Archives: a Further Selection from the Diaries and Letters of Sir George Jackson, K. C. H., from 1809 to 1816 (London, 1873), vol. II, p. 240.

9 Cited in C. Webster, The Foreign Policy of Castlereagh, 1812 - 1815 (London, 1931), p. 237.

10 Talleyrand, Memoirs, vol. II, pp. 135, 149.

11 Cited in WSD, vol. IX, p. 326.

12 Cited in ibid., pp. 465-6.

13 Cited in Jackson, Bath Archives, vol. II, p. 464.

14 Cited in WSD, p. 493.

15 Cited in Jackson, Bath Archives, vol. II, pp. 474- 5.

16 Choiseul-Gouffier, Memoirs, pp. 206- 7.

17 Talleyrand, Memoirs, vol. II, p. 179.

18 Cited in M. K. Oginski, Mémoires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et Les Polonais depuis 1788 jusqu’à la fin de 1815 (Paris, 1827), vol. IV, pp. 213- 14.

19 Cited in WSD, vol. IX, pp. 467- 8.

20 Cited in ibid., pp. 268- 73.

21 A. Butler (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, late Lieutenant-General in the French Army (London, ), vol. II, pp. 408- 10.

22 Cited in Webster, Foreign Policy of Castlereagh, p.249 .

23 P. Jones (ed.), In Napoleon’s Shadow: being the First English-Language Edition of the Complete Memoirs of Louis-Joseph Marchand, Valet and Friend of the Emperor, 1811 - 1821 (San Francisco, 1998), pp. 126- 30.

24 Ibid., p. 138.

25 Cited in G. Stiegler (ed.), Memoirs of Marshal Oudinot, Duc de Reggio compiled from the Hitherto Unpublished Souvenirs of the Duchesse de Reggio (New York, 1897), p. 296.

26 E. Macdonald, Recollections of Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Tarentum, ed. E. Rousset (London, 1892), vol . II, p. 248.

27 Butler (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, vol. II, p. 419.

28 A. Branche and A. Dagoury (eds), Recollections of a Parisian (Docteur Poumiès de la Siboutie) under Six Sovereigns, two Revolutions and a Republic, 1789-1863 (London, 1892 ), p. 147.

29 J. Hanoteau (ed.), Mémoires de la Reine Hortense (Paris, 1927), vol. II, p. 355.

30 Ibid., p. 355.

31 Cited in M. de Klinkowstrom (ed.), Memoirs of Prince Metternich, 1733 - 1815 (London, 1880 ), vol. I, pp. 254- 5.

32 Hanoteau (ed.), Mémoires de la Reine Hortense, vol. II, p. 354 .

33 Branche and Dagoury, Recollections of a Parisian, pp.148–9.

34 Butler (ed.), Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, vol. II, p. 421.

35 J. Fortescue (ed.), The Notebooks of Captain Coignet, Soldier of the Empire (London, 1989 ), pp.272-3.

36 Cited in Branche and Dagoury (eds), Recollections of a Parisian, p. . Ostensibly used here to mean cleanliness, ‘white’ is, of course, also a reference to royalism.

37 L. Aldersey White, The Adventurous Life of Count Lavallette, Bonaparte’s Aide-de-Camp and Postmaster-General, by Himself (London, 1936), vol. II, p.97 .

38 Cited in Lady Granville (ed.), Lord Granville Leveson Gower, First Earl Granville: Private Correspondence, 1781 to 1821 (London, ), vol. II, p. 526

39 Cited in Stiegler, Memoirs of Marshal Oudinot, pp. 307- 9.

40 Cited in WSD, vol. IX, p. 625.

41 Aldersey White, Life of Count Lavallette, vol. II, p. 94.

42 Hanoteau, Mémoires de la Reine Hortense, vol. II, p. 355.

43 S. Monick (ed.), The Iberian and Waterloo Campaigns: the Letters of Lieutenant James Hope, 92nd (Highland) Regiment, 1811 - 1815 (Heathfield, ), p. 272.

44 Ibid., p. 214.

45 Cited in J. Kincaid, Adventures in the Rifle Brigade in the Peninsula, France and the Netherlands from 1809 to 1815, ed. I. Fletcher (Staplehurst, 1998), p. .345

46 R. N. Buckley (ed.), The Napoleonic War Journal of Captain Thomas Henry Browne, 1807 - 1816 (London, 1987), p. 281.

47 Cited in R. Weigall (ed.), Correspondence of Lord Burghersh, afterwards Eleventh Earl of Westmoreland, 1808 - 1840 (London, 1912), pp. 94-5.

48 J. Leach, Rough Sketches in the Life of an Old Soldier during a Service in the West Indies, at the Siege of Copenhagen in 1807, in the Peninsula and the South of France in the Campaigns from 1808 to 1814 with the Light Division, [and] in the Netherlands in 1815, including the Battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo (London, 1831), pp. 393- 4.

49 Kincaid, Adventures in the Rifle Brigade, pp. 342, 347

50 Fortescue (ed.), Notebooks of Captain Coignet, p. 280.

51 N. Bentley (ed.), Selections from the Reminiscences of Captain Gronow (London,1977 ), p. 53.

52 C. Mercer, Journal of the Waterloo Campaign kept throughout the Campaign of 1815, ed. J. Fortescue (London,1927), pp. 200-212 passim.

53 B. Liddell Hart (ed.), The Letters of Private Wheeler, 1809 - 1828 (London, 1951), p. 178

54 Cited in Klinkowstrom, Memoirs of Prince Metternich, vol. I, p. 262.

55 Cited in Webster, Foreign Policy of Castlereagh, p. .387

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