Modern history



Ernest Lavisse, “France, since the Revolution,” in Realms of Memory, ed. Pierre Nora, Lawrence D. Kritzman, and Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), 183.

Chapter 1

Montmorency, quoted in Lynn Hunt, The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History, illus. ed. (Boston: Bedford, 1996), 73.

Tonnere, in Hunt, French Revolution and Human Rights, 86.

Lavisse, “We believed,” quoted in Pierre Nora, Lawrence D. Kritzman, and Arthur Goldhammer, Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), 154.

Lavisse, “You should love France,” quoted in Nora et al., Realms of Memory, 169.

Vidal de la Blache, quoted in Nora et al., 188.

Jules Michelet, quoted in Nora et al., 192.

Charles de Gaulle, “Providence has created,” from The Complete War Memoirs of Charles de Gaulle (New York: Carroll and Graf, 1998), 3.

Nicolas Sarkozy, quoted in Steven Englund, “More like the Anglo-Saxons,” Commonweal, June 15, 2007.

Chapter 2

Malraux, in Herman Lebovics, Mona Lisa’s Escort: André Malraux and the Reinvention of French Culture (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 89.

Malraux on de Gaulle, in Lawrence D. Kritzman, “A Certain Idea of de Gaulle,” Yale French Studies 111, 157–68; see also special issue Myth and Modernity (2007): 166–67.

Jaurès, “Our Colonies,” cited in Dennis Ager, Identity, Insecurity and Image: France and Language (Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, 1999), 238.

Chapter 3

Queen Victoria, “Everything is so truly regal,” in Alistair Horne, La Belle France: A Short History (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 262.

Jacques Chirac, “By choosing the Louvre,” from “Louvre Abu Dhabi to be created “within the Saadiyat Island Cultural District,” Al Bawaba; accessed November 11, 2010.

Stein, “Paris was where . . .” from The Making of Americans (1934), cited in J. Gerald Kennedy, Imagining Paris: Exile, Writing, and American Identity (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993), 43.

Henri Michaux, “Lieux lointains,” Mercure de France, no. 1109 (1 January 1956) as cited in Pascale Casanova, translated by M. B. DeBevoise, The World Republic of Letters (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 2.

Chapter 4

On information about racial laws see “Vichy Discrimination against Jews in North Africa,”, accessed November 11, 2010.

For some of the statistics cited on immigration, see Patrick Weil, “Bringing in the Banlieues,” American Interest 4, no. 4 (Spring 2009),


Jules Simon on the Eiffel Tower, quoted in Charles Braibant, Histoire de la Tour Eiffel (Paris: Plon, 1964).

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