Notes

Preface

1

This has been known for some time thanks to the work of Alfred L. Chan, Mao’s Crusade: Politics and Policy Implementation in China’s Great Leap Forward, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001; see also Frederick C. Teiwes and Warren Sun, China’s Road to Disaster: Mao, Central Politicians, and Provincial Leaders in the Unfolding of the Great Leap Forward, 1955–1959, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

2

The most recent village study is Ralph A. Thaxton, Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China: Mao’s Great Leap Forward Famine and the Origins of Righteous Resistance in Da Fo Village, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008; a classic study is Edward Friedman, Paul G. Pickowicz and Mark Selden with Kay Ann Johnson, Chinese Village, Socialist State, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

3

Robert Service, Comrades: A History of World Communism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 6.

Chapter 1: Two Rivals

1

William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and his Era, London: The Free Press, 2003, p. 230.

2

Pang Xianzhi and Jin Chongji (eds), Mao Zedong zhuan, 1949–1976 (A bio-graphy of Mao Zedong, 1949–1976), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 2003, p. 534.

3

Li Zhisui, The Private Life of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao’s Personal Physician, New York: Random House, 1994, pp. 182–4.

4

A helpful overview of the Socialist High Tide appears in Chan, Mao’s Crusade, pp. 17–24.

5

Wu Lengxi, Yi Mao zhuxi: Wo qinshen jingli de ruogan zhongda lishi shijian pianduan (Remembering Chairman Mao: Fragments of my personal experience of certain important historical events), Beijing: Xinhua chubanshe, 1995, p. 57.

6

Lorenz M. Lüthi, The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 71–2.

7

Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, vol. 1: Contradictions among the People, 1956–1957, London: Oxford University Press, 1974, pp. 313–15.

Chapter 2: The Bidding Starts

1

Wu Lengxi, Shinian lunzhan: 1956–1966 Zhong Su guanxi huiyilu (Ten years of theoretical disputes: My recollection of Sino-Soviet relationships), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1999, pp. 205–6; see also Lüthi, Sino-Soviet Split, p. 74.

2

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 220–1.

3

Ibid., p. 221.

4

Mao Zedong, Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao (Mao Zedong’s manuscripts since the founding of the People’s Republic), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1987–96, vol. 6, pp. 625–6.

5

See the reminiscences of one of Mao’s translators, Li Yueran, Waijiao wutai-shang de xin Zhongguo lingxiu (The leaders of new China on the diplomatic scene), Beijing: Waiyu jiaoxue yu yanjiu chubanshe, 1994, p. 137; see also Yan Mingfu, ‘Huiyi liangci Mosike huiyi he Hu Qiaomu’ (Recollecting Hu Qiaomu attending two Moscow conferences), Dangdai Zhongguo shi yanjiu, no. 19 (May 1997), pp. 6–21.

6

Nikita Khrushchev, Vremia, liudi, vlast’, Moscow: Moskovskiye Novosti, 1999, vol. 3, p. 55.

7

Veljko Mićunović, Moscow Diary, New York: Doubleday, 1980, p. 322.

8

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 6, pp. 640–3.

9

Mikhael Kapitsa, Na raznykh parallelakh: Zapiski diplomata, Moscow: Kniga i biznes, 1996, p. 60.

10

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 6, p. 635.

11

‘1957: Nikita Khrushchev’, Time, 6 Jan. 1958.

12

‘Bark on the wind’, Time, 3 June 1957.

13

Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 305 and 374–5.

14

‘N. S. Khrushchov’s report to anniversary session of USSR Supreme Soviet’, Moscow: Soviet News, 7 Nov. 1957, p. 90.

15

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 6, p. 635.

Chapter 3: Purging the Ranks

1

MacFarquhar, Origins, vol. 1, p. 312.

2

Huang Zheng, Liu Shaoqi yisheng (Liu Shaoqi: A life), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 2003, p. 322.

3

Renmin ribao, 1 Jan. 1958, p. 1; Wu, Yi Mao zhuxi, p. 47.

4

Renmin ribao, 8 Dec. 1957, p. 1.

5

Renmin ribao, 25 Jan. 1958, p. 2.

6

Jin Chongji (ed.), Zhou Enlai zhuan, 1898–1949 (A biography of Zhou Enlai, 1898–1949), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1989, p. 1234.

7

Minutes of Nanning meeting, Gansu, 28 Jan. 1958, 91-4-107, p. 1.

8

Li Rui, Dayuejin qin liji (A witness account of the Great Leap Forward), Haikou: Nanfang chubanshe, 1999, vol. 2, pp. 68–9.

9

At the time the editorial was published in June 1956, Deng Tuo was the editor of the People’s Daily; he was replaced by Wu Lengxi in July 1957 and dismissed in November 1958, although he continued to write in support of the Great Leap Forward for several years; Wu, Yi Mao zhuxi, pp. 47–9; on Deng Tuo see Timothy Cheek, Propaganda and Culture in Mao’s China: Deng Tuo and the Intelligentsia, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

10

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 230.

11

Bo Yibo, Ruogan zhongda shijian yu juece de huigu (Recollections of several important decisions and events), Beijing: Zhonggong zhongyang dangxiao chubanshe, 1991–3, p. 639.

12

Xiong Huayuan and Liao Xinwen, Zhou Enlai zongli shengya (The life of Zhou Enlai), Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1997, p. 241.

13

Minutes of Nanning meeting, Gansu, 28 Jan. 1958, 91-4-107, pp. 9–10; also in Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 7, p. 59.

14

‘Rubber communist’, Time, 18 June 1951.

15

Gao Wenqian, Zhou Enlai: The Last Perfect Revolutionary, New York: PublicAffairs, 2007, p. 88.

16

Mao’s speech on 15 Nov. 1956, Gansu, 91-18-480, p. 74.

17

Mao’s speech on 10 March 1958 at Chengdu, Gansu, 91-18-495, p. 211.

18

Li, Dayuejin, vol. 2, p. 288.

19

See also Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, vol. 2: The Great Leap Forward, 1958–1960, New York: Columbia University Press, 1983, p. 57.

20

Teiwes, China’s Road to Disaster, p. 246, quoting from a record of Liu’s statement; see also Jin Chongji and Huang Zheng (eds), Liu Shaoqi zhuan (A biography of Liu Shaoqi), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1998, pp. 828–9.

21

Memoirs of the secretary Fan Ruoyu as quoted in Jin, Zhou Enlai zhuan, pp. 1259–60.

22

Nathan, ‘Introduction’, Gao, Zhou Enlai, p. xiii.

23

Teiwes, China’s Road to Disaster, p. 85.

24

Tao Lujia, Mao zhuxi jiao women dang shengwei shuji (Chairman Mao taught us how to be a provincial party secretary), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1996, pp. 77–8.

25

Mao’s speech on 28 Jan. 1958, Gansu, 91-18-495, p. 200.

26

Deng’s speech on 15 Jan. 1958, Gansu, 91-4-107, pp. 73 and 94.

27

Gansu, 9 Feb. 1958, 91-4-104, pp. 1–10.

28

Gansu, 12 Jan. 1961, 91-4-735, pp. 75–6.

29

Gansu, 12 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 35.

30

Gansu, 3 Dec. 1962, 91-4-1028, p. 8.

31

Yunnan, 20 April 1958, 2-1-3059, pp. 57–62; see also Renmin ribao, 26 May 1958, p. 4.

32

Yunnan, 25 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3059, pp. 2–3.

33

Mao’s speech on 10 March 1958 at Chengdu, Gansu, 91-18-495, p. 211.

34

On these purges see Frederick C. Teiwes, Politics and Purges in China: Rectification and the Decline of Party Norms, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993.

35

Ibid., p. 276; see also Zhang Linnan, ‘Guanyu fan Pan, Yang, Wang shijian’ (The anti-Pan, Yang and Wang incident), in Zhonggong Henan shengwei dangshi gongzuo weiyuanhui (eds), Fengyu chunqiu: Pan Fusheng shiwen jihianji, Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe, 1993.

36

Thaxton, Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China, p. 116.

37

Jiang Weiqing, Qishi nian zhengcheng: Weiqing huiyilu (A seventy-year journey: The memoirs of Jiang Weiqing), Nanjing: Jiangsu renmin chubanshe, 1996, pp. 415–16.

38

Yunnan, 22 May 1959, 2-1-3700, pp. 93–8.

39

Chen’s speech on 19 Dec. 1957 in Beijing, Gansu, 91-8-79, p. 179.

Chapter 4: Bugle Call

1

Judith Shapiro, Mao’s War against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 49.

2

The story is told by Shang Wei, ‘A Lamentation for the Yellow River: The Three Gate Gorge Dam (Sanmenxia)’, in Dai Qing (ed.), The River Dragon has Come! The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and its People, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1998, pp. 143–59.

3

Shapiro, Mao’s War against Nature, pp. 53–4.

4

Zhou’s speech on 19 Sept. 1961, Gansu, 91-18-561, p. 31.

5

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 23 July 1964, 117-1170-5, pp. 45–7.

6

Renmin ribao, 1 Feb. 1958, p. 11; Shui Fu, ‘A Profile of Dams in China’, in Dai, The River Dragon has come!, p. 22.

7

Yi Si, ‘The World’s Most Catastrophic Dam Failures: The August 1975 Collapse of the Banqiao and Shimantan Dams’, in Dai, The River Dragon has Come!, p. 30.

8

Gansu, 29 Jan. 1958, 91-4-138, pp. 135–7.

9

Gansu, 20 Oct. 1958, 91-4-263, pp. 29–30.

10

Gansu, 9 Sept. 1958, 229-1-118.

11

Gansu, 26 April 1959, 91-4-348, pp. 30–5.

12

‘ “Yin Tao shangshan” de huiyi’ (Recollections of the ‘Raising the Tao River up the Mountains’ campaign), in Qiu Shi (ed.), Gongheguo zhongda juece chutai qianhou (How important decisions of the People’s Republic were made), Beijing: Jingji ribao chubanshe, 1997–8, vol. 3, p. 226.

13

Gansu, 18 April 1962, 91-4-1091, pp. 1–8.

14

Shui, ‘A Profile of Dams in China’, p. 22.

15

Beijing, 1959, 96-1-14, pp. 38–44.

16

Jan Rowinski, ‘China and the Crisis of Marxism-Leninism’, in Marie-Luise Näth (ed.), Communist China in Retrospect: East European Sinologists Remember the First Fifteen Years of the PRC, Frankfurt: P. Lang, 1995, pp. 85–7.

17

M. A. Klochko, Soviet Scientist in China, London: Hollis & Carter, 1964, pp. 51–2.

18

Rowinski, ‘China and the Crisis of Marxism-Leninism’, pp. 85–7; Klochko, Soviet Scientist, pp. 51–2.

19

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 247–8.

20

Ibid., pp. 249–51.

21

Yunnan, 9 Jan. 1958, 2-1-3227, p. 5.

22

Renmin ribao, 15 Jan. 1958, p. 1.

23

Yunnan, 5 Oct. 1958, 2-1-3227, pp. 109–23.

24

Renmin ribao, 19 Jan. 1958, p. 1.

25

Renmin ribao, 18 Feb. 1958, p. 2.

26

Yunnan, 21 April 1958, 2-1-3260, p. 117.

27

Li, Dayuejin, vol. 2, p. 363.

28

Yunnan, 23 June 1958, 2-1-3274, pp. 37–9.

29

Yunnan, 20 Nov. 1958, 2-1-3078, pp. 116–23; 22 Aug. 1958, 2-1-3078, pp. 1–16.

30

Jiang, Qishi nian zhengcheng, p. 421.

31

Gansu, 14 Feb. 1961, 91-18-205, p. 58.

Chapter 5: Launching Sputniks

1

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 226–7.

2

Hunan, July 1958, 186-1-190, pp. 1–2; also July 1958, 141-2-62, pp. 1–2.

3

William W. Whitson, The Chinese High Command: A History of Communist Military Politics, 1927–71, New York: Praeger, 1973, p. 204, quoted in MacFarquhar, Origins, vol. 2, p. 83.

4

Hunan, 11 May 1959, 141-1-1066, pp. 80–3.

5

Hunan, Sept. 1959, 141-1-1117, pp. 1–4; 18 Sept. 1959, 141-1-1066, pp. 5–13.

6

As he later admitted; see minutes of the Lushan meeting, Gansu, Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 570.

7

Yunnan, 29 July 1958, 2-1-3102, p. 20.

8

Yunnan, 4 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3101, pp. 1–35.

9

Yunnan, Sept. 1958, 2-1-3101, pp. 36–9, 48–65, 66–84, 94–104, 105–23.

10

Guangdong, 20 Jan. 1961, 217-1-645, pp. 15–19.

11

Teiwes, China’s Road to Disaster, p. 85.

12

Bo, Ruogan zhongda shijian, p. 682; the system is described by MacFarquhar, Origins, vol. 2, p. 31.

13

Record of the Nanning meeting, Gansu, 28 Jan. 1958, 91-4-107, p. 2.

14

Interview in Lu Xiaobo, Cadres and Corruption: The Organizational Involution of the Chinese Communist Party, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 84.

15

Suiping, 13 Feb. 1958, 1-201-7, pp. 8 and 32; 29 Oct. 1958, 1-221-8.

16

For an example from Chuxiong county, Yunnan, see Erik Mueggler, The Age of Wild Ghosts: Memory, Violence, and Place in Southwest China, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001, p. 176.

17

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-618, p. 36.

18

Renmin ribao, 26 Nov. 1957, p. 2; 29 Dec. 1957, p. 2; 21 Jan. 1958, p. 4; 16 Aug. 1958, p. 8.

19

Macheng, 15 July 1958, 1-1-331; 13 April 1959, 1-1-370, p. 37.

20

Guangdong, 31 Dec. 1960, 217-1-576, pp. 54–68.

21

Jiang, Qishi nian zhengcheng, p. 431.

22

Bo, Ruogan zhongda shijian, p. 683; the practice came from a collective farm in Shandong.

23

Report from the Centre, Yunnan, 3 Sept. 1958, 120-1-84, pp. 52–67.

24

Guangdong, 31 Dec. 1961, 217-1-642, pp. 11–12.

25

Guangdong, 7 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 120–2.

26

Roderick MacFarquhar, Timothy Cheek and Eugene Wu (eds), The Secret Speeches of Chairman Mao: From the Hundred Flowers to the Great Leap Forward, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989, p. 450.

27

Macheng, 15 Jan. 1959, 1-1-443, p. 10.

28

Interview with Liu Shu, born 1946, Renshou county, Sichuan, April 2006.

29

Interview with Luo Bai, born 1930s, Hongya county, Sichuan, April 2006.

30

Zhejiang, 4 May 1961, J007-13-48, pp. 1–8.

31

Macheng, 20 Jan. 1959, 1-1-378, p. 22.

32

Hebei, 16 April 1961, 884-1-202, pp. 35–47.

33

Guangdong, 5 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 50–60.

34

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 278.

35

Minutes of conversation, Hebei, 4–5 Aug. 1958, 855-4-1271, pp. 6–7 and 13–14; see also Renmin ribao, 4 Aug. 1958, p. 1, 11 Aug. 1958, pp. 1 and 4.

36

Hunan, 19 Oct. 1958, 141-2-64, pp. 78–82; Hunan, 18 Sept. 1958, 141-1-1066, pp. 7–8.

37

Hunan, 19 Oct. 1958, 141-2-64, pp. 78–82.

38

Hunan, 5 Nov. 1958, 141-1-1051, p. 124.

39

Directive from the State Council, Gansu, 7 Jan. 1959, 91-8-360, pp. 5–6.

Chapter 6: Let the Shelling Begin

1

Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi (eds), Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan (Selection of writings on foreign affairs by Mao Zedong), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1994, pp. 323–4.

2

Lüthi, Sino-Soviet Split, pp. 92–3.

3

Li, Waijiao wutaishang, p. 149.

4

Harrison E. Salisbury, The New Emperors: China in the Era of Mao and Deng, Boston: Little, Brown, 1992, pp. 155–6.

5

Li, Waijiao wutaishang, p. 151.

6

Russian minutes in ‘Peregovory S. Khrushcheva s Mao Tszedunom 31 iiulia–3 avgusta 1958 g. i 2 oktiabria 1959 g.’, Novaia i Noveishaia Istoria, no. 1 (2001), pp. 100–8; reference on page 117.

7

Khrushchev, Vremia, liudi, vlast’, vol. 3, pp. 76–7.

8

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 261.

9

Li, Waijiao wutaishang, pp. 149–50.

10

As he recollected while addressing a plenum a few years later; see RGANI, Moscow, 18 Jan. 1961, 2-1-535, pp. 143–6; see also RGANI, Moscow, 14 Feb. 1964, 2-1-720, p. 137.

11

Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996, pp. 225–6.

12

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 270.

13

Mao, Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan, pp. 344 and 347.

14

Roland Felber, ‘China and the Claim for Democracy’, in Näth, Communist China in Retrospect, p. 117; more recently Lorenz Lüthi, an expert on Sino-Soviet relations, has also underlined how domestic developments alone determined the timing of the shelling of Quemoy; Lüthi, Sino-Soviet Split, p. 99.

Chapter 7: The People’s Communes

1

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 263.

2

Hebei, Sept. 1957, 855-4-1271, pp. 1–5.

3

Hebei, 13 Feb. and 30 April 1958, 855-18-541, pp. 13–20 and 67–81.

4

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 7, p. 143.

5

Renmin ribao, 17 April 1958, p. 2.

6

Chen Boda, ‘Zai Mao Zedong tongzhi de qizhi xia’, Hongqi, 16 July 1958, no. 4, pp. 1–12.

7

Speech on 19 and 21 Aug. 1958, Gansu, 91-18-495, pp. 316 and 321.

8

Li, Dayuejin, vol. 2, p. 31.

9

Renmin ribao, 1 Sept. 1958, p. 3.

10

Jin and Huang, Liu Shaoqi zhuan, pp. 832–3.

11

Renmin ribao, 18 Sept. 1958, p. 2; 24 Sept. 1958, p. 1.

12

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 7, p. 494.

13

Ji Fengyuan, Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in Mao’s China, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2004, p. 88.

14

Speech on 21 and 24 Aug. 1958; Hunan, 141-1-1036, pp. 24–5 and 31.

15

Renmin ribao, 3 Oct. 1958, p. 2.

16

Renmin ribao, 6 Oct. 1958, p. 6; 13 Oct. 1958, p. 1.

17

Hunan, 18 Sept. 1958, 141-1-1066, p. 5.

18

John Gittings, ‘China’s Militia’, China Quarterly, no. 18 (June 1964), p. 111.

19

Macheng, 15 Jan. 1959, 1-1-443, pp. 9 and 24.

20

Nanjing, 10 April 1961, 4003-2-481, pp. 75–83.

21

Hunan, 4 Feb. 1961, 151-1-20, pp. 8–9.

22

Guangdong, 10 Dec. 1960, 217-1-643, p. 44.

23

Interview with Li Yeye, born 1935, Langzhong county, Sichuan, April 2007.

24

Interview with Feng Dabai, born 1930s, Langzhong county, Sichuan, Sept. 2006.

25

Sichuan, 26 Feb. 1960, JC1-1846, p. 22.

26

Guangdong, 10 Dec. 1960, 217-1-643, p. 45.

27

Guangdong, 12 Feb. 1959, 217-1-69, pp. 25–33.

28

Guangdong, 7 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, p. 111.

29

Guangzhou, 27 Oct. 1958, 16-1-1, p. 76.

30

Wuhan, 3 Nov. 1958, 83-1-523, p. 126.

31

Wuhan, 19 Sept. and 3 Nov. 1958, 83-1-523, pp. 21–5 and 126–32.

32

Guangzhou, 27 Oct. 1958, 16-1-1, p. 76.

33

Wuhan, 1958, 83-1-523, p. 87.

34

Macheng, 20 Jan. 1959, 1-1-378, p. 24; 11 Dec. 1960, 1-1-502, pp. 207 and 213; 16 April 1959, 1-1-383, p. 1.

35

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2606, pp. 18–19.

36

Gansu, 16 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 94.

37

Hunan, 2–4 Sept. 1959, 141-1-1116, p. 11.

38

Macheng, 13 May 1961, 1-1-556, pp. 2–3; also 20 Jan. 1959, 1-1-378, p. 23.

39

Macheng, 18 April 1959, 1-1-406, p. 1.

40

Macheng, 29 Jan. and 2 Feb. 1959, 1-1-416, pp. 36 and 49; 26 April 1958, 1-1-431, p. 37.

41

Nanjing, 4003-1-150, 30 Dec. 1958, p. 89.

Chapter 8: Steel Fever

1

Yunnan, 8 Nov. 1958, 105-9-1, pp. 11–14; 11 March 1958, 105-9-6, pp. 71–4.

2

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 7, p. 236.

3

Informal talks after main speeches by Mao Zedong as reported by Xie Fuzhi to the top leadership in Yunnan and Guizhou, Guiyang, 61-8-84, 28 May 1958, p. 2.

4

Lin Keng, ‘Home-Grown Technical Revolution’, China Reconstructs, Sept. 1958, p. 12.

5

Lin Yunhui, Wutuobang yundong: Cong dayuejin dao dajihuang, 1958–1961 (Utopian movement: From the Great Leap Forward to the Great Famine, 1958–1961), Hong Kong: Xianggang zhongwen daxue dangdai Zhongguo wenhua yanjiu zhongxin, 2008, p. 132.

6

Guangdong, 31 Dec. 1960, 217-1-642, pp. 10–16.

7

These different figures are all discussed in MacFarquhar, Origins, vol. 2, pp. 88–90.

8

Gu Shiming, Li Qiangui and Sun Jianping, Li Fuchun jingji sixiang yanjiu (Research on Li Fuchun’s economic thought), Xining: Qinghai renmin chubanshe, 1992, p. 115.

9

The conversation was witnessed by Chen Yun; see Pang and Jin, Mao Zedong zhuan, pp. 824–5; see also Yunnan, 23 June 1958, 2-1-3276, pp. 1–9; Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 7, pp. 281–2.

10

Report from the Ministry of Metallurgy, Yunnan, 23 June 1958, 2-1-3276, pp. 1–9; see also Bo, Ruogan zhongda shijian, pp. 700–1.

11

Jin Chongji and Chen Qun (eds), Chen Yun, Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 2005, p. 1143; see also Chan, Mao’s Crusade, pp. 73–4.

12

Yunnan, 10 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3276, pp. 99–100.

13

Yunnan, 16 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3101, pp. 105–23.

14

Yunnan, 17 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3102, pp. 58–78.

15

Yunnan, 20 Sept. 1958 and 5 Jan. 1959, 2-1-3318, pp. 1–5 and 10–19.

16

Yunnan, 23 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3102, pp. 147–9.

17

Yunnan, 25 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3101, p. 185.

18

Yunnan, 18 Oct. 1958, 2-1-3102, pp. 160 and 230; Oct. 1958, 2-1-3102, pp. 235–73.

19

Yunnan, 14 Dec. 1958, 2-1-3259, pp. 165–72.

20

Yunnan, 5 Jan. 1959, 2-1-3318, p. 18.

21

Macheng, 20 Jan. 1959, 1-1-378, p. 23.

22

Macheng, 15 Jan. 1959, 1-1-443, p. 10.

23

Interview with Zhang Aihua, born 1941, Dingyuan county, Anhui, Sept. 2006.

24

Nanjing, 1958, 4003-4-292, pp. 16 and 48–52.

25

Gansu, 20 May 1959, 91-18-114, p. 209.

26

Guojia tongjiju guomin jingji zonghe tongjisi (eds), Xin Zhongguo wushi nian tongji ziliao huibian (Compendium of statistical material on the new China’s first fifty years), Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe, 1999, p. 3, quoted in Lin, Wutuobang yundong, p. 205.

27

Klochko, Soviet Scientist, p. 82.

28

Shanghai, 12 March 1959, B98-1-439, pp. 9–13.

29

Yunnan, 16 May 1959, 81-4-25, p. 2.

30

Yunnan, 8 Nov. 1958, 105-9-1, p. 15; also 105-9-3, pp. 9–16.

31

Yunnan, 29 July 1958, 2-1-3102, p. 19.

32

Yunnan, 21 April 1958, 2-1-3260, p. 116.

33

These can only be very rough approximations, and they varied from place to place: in Hunan the number of people who did not engage in agricultural tasks increased by 40 per cent after 1958; Hunan, 4 June 1959, 146-1-483, p. 116; in Shandong only 50 per cent of the workforce worked in the fields: talk by Tan Zhenlin, Gansu, 26 June 1959, 91-18-513, p. 16.

34

Yunnan, 29 July 1958, 2-1-3102, p. 21.

35

Guangdong, 5 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 50–60.

36

Speech by Tan Zhenlin, Oct. 1958, Hunan, 141-2-62, p. 148.

Chapter 9: Warning Signs

1

Yunnan, 12 April 1958, zhongfa (58) 295, 120-1-75, pp. 2–4.

2

Hunan, 25 April 1958, 141-1-1055, pp. 66–7.

3

Yunnan, 20 Nov. 1958, 2-1-3078, pp. 116–23; 22 Aug. 1958, 2-1-3078, pp. 1–16.

4

Yunnan, 20 Nov. 1958, 2-1-3078, pp. 116–23.

5

Yunnan, 12 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3077, pp. 55–77; 12 Sept. 1958, 2-1-3076, pp. 97–105; Sept. 1958, 2-1-3075, pp. 104–22.

6

Yunnan, 28 Feb. 1959, 2-1-3700, pp. 93–8.

7

Yunnan, 16 May 1959, 81-4-25, p. 17; for the average death rate in 1957 see Zhongguo tongji nianjian, 1984, Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe, 1984, p. 83.

8

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 7, pp. 584–5; the original is in Yunnan, 25 Nov. 1958, 120-1-84, p. 68; see also documents from the Zhengzhou conference, 25 Nov. 1958, Hunan, 141-2-76, pp. 99–103.

9

Hebei, 16 April 1961, 884-1-202, pp. 35–47.

10

Hebei, 19 Feb. 1961, 856-1-227, p. 3.

11

Hebei, 25 Dec. 1958, 855-4-1271, pp. 58–65.

12

Hebei, 18 Oct. 1958, 855-4-1270, pp. 1–7.

13

Hebei, 23 Oct. 1958, 855-4-1271, pp. 25–6.

14

Hebei, 24 Oct. 1958, 855-4-1271, pp. 42–3.

15

Hunan, 5 Nov. 1958, 141-1-1051, p. 123.

16

Li Jingquan at provincial party committee, Sichuan, 17 March 1959, JC1-1533, pp. 154–5.

17

Gansu, 25 Jan. 1959, 91-18-114, p. 113.

18

For instance an extra 600,000 tonnes was shipped to Beijing and 800,000 to Shanghai; see Shanghai, 12 March 1959, B98-1-439, pp. 9–13.

19

Yunnan, 18 Dec. 1958, 2-1-3101, pp. 301, 305–12.

Chapter 10: Shopping Spree

1

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 6 Sept. 1963, 109-3321-2, pp. 82–5.

2

K. A. Krutikov, Na Kitaiskom napravlenii: Iz vospominanii diplomata, Moscow: Institut Dal’nego Vostoka, 2003, p. 253; see also T. G. Zazerskaya, Sovetskie spetsialisty i formirovanie voenno-promyshlennogo kompleksa Kitaya (1949–1960 gg.), St Petersburg: Sankt Peterburg Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, 2000.

3

AVPRF, Moscow, 9 March 1958, 0100-51-6, papka 432, p. 102.

4

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 10 June 1958, 109-828-30, pp. 176–7.

5

George Ginsburgs, ‘Trade with the Soviet Union’, in Victor H. Li, Law and Politics in China’s Foreign Trade, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977, p. 100.

6

BArch, Berlin, 2 Dec. 1958, DL2-4037, pp. 31–9.

7

Jahrbuch 1962, Berlin, 1962, p. 548, and MfAA, Berlin, 25 Nov. 1963, C572-77-2, p. 191.

8

BArch, Berlin, 7 Jan. 1961, DL2-4039, p. 7; 1959, DL2-VAN-172.

9

See Zhou Enlai nianpu, vol. 2, pp. 149, 165, 231, 256, quoted in Zhang Shu Guang, Economic Cold War: America’s Embargo against China and the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1949–1963, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001, pp. 212–13.

10

See p. 105.

11

A. Boone, ‘The Foreign Trade of China’, China Quarterly, no. 11 (Sept. 1962), p. 176.

12

BArch, Berlin, 6 Oct. 1957, DL2-1932, pp. 331–2.

13

Lawrence C. Reardon, The Reluctant Dragon: Crisis Cycles in Chinese Foreign Economic Policy, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2002, pp. 91–2.

14

Martin Kitchen, A History of Modern Germany, 1800–2000, New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006, p. 336.

15

MfAA, Berlin, 27 Sept. 1958, A6861, p. 145.

16

Ibid., pp. 151–2.

17

BArch, Berlin, 24 June 1959, DL2-1937, p. 231.

18

‘Russia’s trade war’, Time, 5 May 1958; see also see Boone, ‘Foreign Trade of China’.

19

‘Squeeze from Peking’, Time, 21 July 1958.

20

‘Made well in Japan’, Time, 1 Sept. 1958.

21

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 8 Nov. 1958, 109-1907-4, p. 49.

22

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, Jan. 1959, 109-1907-3, pp. 24–5.

23

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 8 Nov. 1958, 109-1907-4, pp. 46–50.

24

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 23 Dec. 1958, 109-1907-2, pp. 12–13; for Germany see MfAA, Berlin, 21 Sept. 1959, A9960-2, pp. 183–4.

25

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 8 Nov. 1958, 109-1907-4, pp. 44–5.

26

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 23 Nov. 1958, 109-1907-5, p. 56.

27

Hunan, 22 Jan. 1959, 163-1-1052, p. 237.

28

Hunan, Jan. 1959, 141-2-104, pp. 10–12.

29

Gansu, 25 Jan. 1959, 91-18-114, p. 119; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 23 Dec. 1958, 109-1907-2, pp. 12–13.

30

Ministry of Foreign Trade, Shanghai, 31 Oct. 1958, B29-2-97, p. 23.

31

Guangdong, 10 Aug. 1961, 219-2-318, p. 14.

32

Hunan, 7 Feb. 1959, 163-1-1052, p. 11.

33

Ibid., p. 12.

34

Ibid., p. 11.

35

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 10 April 1959, 109-1907-8, p. 100; also speech on 25 March 1959, Gansu, 19-18-494, p. 46.

36

For statements of Peng and Zhou, see minutes in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 10 April 1959, 109-1907-8, p. 101.

37

The order came by telephone; Hunan, 26 May 1959, 141-1-1252, pp. 39–40.

38

Hunan, 20 Nov. 1959, 163-1-1052, pp. 25–9.

39

Hunan, 6 June 1959, 163-1-1052, pp. 119–24.

40

Gansu, zhongfa (60) 98, 6 Jan. 1960, 91-18-160, pp. 187–90.

41

Hunan, 6 Jan. 1960, 141-2-126, pp. 14–15.

42

Gansu, zhongfa (60) 98, 6 Jan. 1960, 91-18-160, pp. 187–90.

43

Hunan, 24 Nov. 1959, 163-1-1052, pp. 21–4.

44

Shanghai, 20 Feb. 1960, B29-2-112, pp. 2–5.

45

Shanghai, 1 Dec. 1959, B29-2-112, pp. 2–5.

Chapter 11: Dizzy with Success

1

Lin, Wutuobang yundong, pp. 371–2; Wu, Yi Mao zhuxi, pp. 105–6.

2

Zhao Ziyang’s report on Leinan county, Kaiping, 27 Jan. 1959, 3-A9-78, pp. 17–20.

3

Neibu cankao, 5 Feb. 1959, pp. 3–14.

4

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 8, pp. 52–4.

5

Ibid., pp. 80–1.

6

Ibid., pp. 52–4.

7

Mao’s speech at Zhengzhou on 18 March 1959, Gansu, 91-18-494, pp. 19–20 and 22.

8

Mao’s speech on 5 March 1959, quoted in Pang and Jin, Mao Zedong zhuan, p. 922.

9

Mao’s speech on 2 Feb. 1959, Gansu, 91-18-494, pp. 10–11.

10

Mao’s instructions to Wang Renzhong, Hunan, 13 April 1959, 141-1-1310, p. 75.

11

Bo, Ruogan zhongda shijian, p. 830.

12

Mao’s speech in sixteen points on the morning of 5 April 1959, Hunan, 141-2-98, pp. 1–12; see also Lin, Wutuobang yundong, pp. 413–17.

13

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 8, p. 33.

14

Minutes of Mao’s talk, Gansu, 18 March 1959, 91-18-494, p. 19.

15

As quoted by Wu Jinnan, regional party secretary in Guangxi on 14 Feb. 1959; see minutes, Guangxi, X1-25-316, pp. 8–9.

16

Minutes of Mao’s talk, Gansu, 25 March 1959, 19-18-494, pp. 44–8.

17

Telephone conference, Gansu, 20 June 1959, 91-18-539, p. 41.

18

Li, Dayuejin, vol. 2, p. 393.

19

Telephone conference on 20 Jan. 1959, Gansu, 91-18-513, p. 59.

20

Telegram from Mao, Gansu, 26 April 1959, 91-8-276, pp. 90–2.

Chapter 12: The End of Truth

1

Speech by Mao on 11 Aug. 1959, Gansu, 91-18-494, p. 81.

2

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 310–11.

3

Wang Yan et al. (eds), Peng Dehuai nianpu (A chronicle of Peng Dehuai’s life), Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1998, p. 738.

4

Jin, Zhou Enlai zhuan, p. 1326.

5

Hunan, 31 Aug. 1959, 141-1-1115, pp. 107–9 and 111–13.

6

Peng Dehuai, Peng Dehuai zishu (The autobiography of Peng Dehuai), Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1981, p. 275.

7

See Peng Dehuai’s conversation with Zhou Xiaozhou, Gansu, 13 Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 518.

8

The description comes from Kung Chu, an early comrade in arms, in The Case of Peng Teh-huai, 1959–1968, Hong Kong: Union Research Institute, 1968, p. i.

9

Gansu, 14 July 1959, 91-18-96, pp. 579–84.

10

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 314.

11

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 8, p. 356.

12

Li Rui, Lushan huiyi shilu (A true record of the Lushan plenum), Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe, 1999, pp. 111–15.

13

Huang Kecheng’s confession, Gansu, Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 491.

14

Huang Kecheng, Huang Kecheng zishu (The autobiography of Huang Kecheng), Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1994, p. 250.

15

Mao’s speech on 11 Aug. 1959, Gansu, 91-18-494, p. 78.

16

Gansu, 21 July 1959, 91-18-96, pp. 532–47.

17

Peng Dehuai’s confession about his links with Zhang Wentian, Gansu, Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 568.

18

Gansu, 91-18-488, 15 July 1959, pp. 106–8.

19

Letter by Zhou Xiaozhou to Mao Zedong, Gansu, 13 Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 518.

20

Neibu cankao, 26 July 1959, pp. 19–20.

21

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 8, p. 367; the report is in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 2 July 1959, 109-870-8, pp. 81–3.

22

Wu Lengxi’s unpublished memoirs as quoted in Pang and Jin, Mao Zedong zhuan, p. 983.

23

Gansu, 11 Aug. 1959, 91-18-494, p. 84.

24

Gansu, 23 July 1959, 91-18-494, pp. 50–66.

25

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 317.

26

Gansu, 2 Aug. 1959, 91-18-494, pp. 67–70.

27

Li, Lushan huiyi, pp. 206–7.

28

Huang Zheng, Wang Guangmei fangtan lu (A record of conversations with Wang Guangmei), Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 2006, p. 199.

29

Li, Lushan huiyi, pp. 359–60.

30

Huang Kecheng’s self-criticism, Gansu, Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 495.

31

Gansu, Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 559.

32

Gansu, 11 Aug. 1959, 91-18-494, pp. 82–3.

33

Gansu, 16 Aug. 1959, 91-18-96, p. 485.

Chapter 13: Repression

1

Gao, Zhou Enlai, pp. 187–8.

2

Gansu, 19 Sept. 1959, 91-18-561, p. 28.

3

Gansu, zhongfa (60) 28, 8 Jan. 1960, 91-18-164, pp. 109–14.

4

Gansu, 3 Dec. 1962, 91-4-1028, pp. 8–9.

5

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 8, p. 529.

6

Gansu, 1 July 1960, 91-4-705, pp. 1–5.

7

Yunnan, 28 Oct. 1959, 2-1-3639, pp. 23–31.

8

Hebei, 1960, 879-1-116, p. 43.

9

Hebei, 9 Nov. 1959, 855-5-1788, pp. 3–6.

10

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 8, p. 431.

11

Hunan, 2–4 Sept. 1959, 141–1–1116, pp. 40–3, 49–50 and 121.

12

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 299–300; an almost identical conversation took place earlier over the phone, as Zhou ridiculed Wang’s sputnik fields and challenged him to come to Changsha to find out about the local supplies of grain; see Hunan, 1 Sept. 1959, 141-1-1115, pp. 235–7.

13

Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, vol. 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm, 1961–1966, New York: Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 61, 179 and 206–7; Lu, Cadres and Corruption, p. 86, quoting from figures provided at the time in the People’s Daily; speaking in September 1959, Peng Zhen put the party membership at 13,900,000 and the number of cadres purged over the two preceeding years at 700,000; see Gansu, 19 Sept. 1959, 91-18-561, p. 28.

Chapter 14: The Sino-Soviet Rift

1

Instructions from State Council, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 1 Aug. 1960, 109-927-1, pp. 1–5.

2

Klochko, Soviet Scientist, p. 171.

3

Several diplomats see this as the main reason for the rift; see Kapitsa, Na raznykh parallelakh, pp. 61–3; Arkady N. Shevchenko, Breaking with Moscow, New York: Alfred Knopf, 1985, p. 122.

4

Zubok and Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War, p. 232.

5

The original letter of recall, in Russian and Chinese, can be found in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 16 July 1960, 109-924-1, pp. 4–8.

6

Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story, London: Jonathan Cape, 2005, p. 465.

7

Wu, Shinian lunzhan, p. 337.

8

Gansu, 5 Aug. 1960, 91-9-91, pp. 7–11.

9

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 1960–1, 109-2248-1, p. 38.

10

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 20 Aug. 1963, 109-2541-1, pp. 12–13.

11

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 28 March 1960, 109-2061-1, p. 3; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 1962, 109-3191-6, p. 5.

12

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 109-2541-1, pp. 12–13.

13

Report from the Bank for Foreign Trade, RGANI, Moscow, 2 June 1961, 5-20-210, p. 34; for the deal see Sbornik osnovnykh deistvuiushchikh dogo-vorokh i sogloshenii mezhdu SSSR i KNR, 1949–1961, Moscow: Ministerstvo Inostrannykh Del, no date, p. 198.

14

Ginsburgs, ‘Trade with the Soviet Union’, pp. 100 and 106.

15

BArch, Berlin, 12 Nov. 1960, DL2-1870, p. 34.

16

RGANI, Moscow, 14 Feb. 1964, 2-1-720, p. 75.

17

Interview with Mr Chan, born 1946, Hong Kong, July 2006.

18

Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 471.

19

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 339.

Chapter 15: Capitalist Grain

1

Jin, Zhou Enlai zhuan, p. 1398.

2

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 20 Aug. 1960, 118-1378-13, pp. 32–3.

3

Oleg Hoeffding, ‘Sino-Soviet Economic Relations, 1959–1962’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 349 (Sept. 1963), p. 95.

4

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 31 Dec. 1960, 110-1316-11, pp. 1–5.

5

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 18 Jan. 1961, 109-3004-2, p. 8.

6

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 31 Dec. 1960, 110-1316-11, pp. 1–5.

7

BArch, Berlin, 12 Nov. 1960, DL2-1870, p. 34.

8

‘Famine and bankruptcy’, Time, 2 June 1961.

9

Jin, Zhou Enlai zhuan, pp. 1414–15.

10

Colin Garratt, ‘How to Pay for the Grain’, Far Eastern Economic Review, vol. 33, no. 13 (28 Sept. 1961), p. 644.

11

Jin, Zhou Enlai zhuan, p. 1413.

12

Report by Zhou Enlai, Hunan, 4 Dec. 1961, 141-1-1931, p. 54.

13

MfAA, Berlin, 1962, A6792, p. 137.

14

Report by Zhou Enlai, Hunan, 4 Dec. 1961, 141-1-1931, p. 54.

15

Boone, ‘Foreign Trade of China’.

16

Report by Zhou Enlai, Hunan, 4 Dec. 1961, 141-1-1931, pp. 52–3.

17

‘Famine and bankruptcy’, Time, 2 June 1961.

18

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 8 March 1961, 109-3746-1, pp. 17–18.

19

RGANI, Moscow, 14 Feb. 1964, 2-1-720, pp. 81–2; the contract for the delivery of sugar is in Sbornik osnovnykh deistvuiushchikh dogovorokh i sogloshenii mezhdu SSSR i KNR, 1949–1961, Moscow: Ministerstvo Inostrannykh Del, no date, pp. 196–7.

20

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 4 April 1961, 109-2264-1, pp. 1–8.

21

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 22 Aug. 1961, 109-2264-2, p. 38.

22

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 6 April 1962, 109-2410-3, p. 53.

23

Ibid.

24

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 15 Aug. 1962, 109-2410-1, pp. 62–3.

25

BArch, Berlin, 1962, DL2-VAN-175, p. 15.

26

Chang and Halliday, Mao, p. 462.

27

MfAA, Berlin, 11 July 1962, A17334, p. 92.

28

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 1 July 1960, 102-15-1, pp. 26–39; see also MfAA, Berlin, 11 July 1962, A17334, pp. 89–94.

29

Shanghai, 1 Dec. 1959, B29-2-112, p. 3.

30

Report from the Ministry of Finance, Gansu, 1 July 1961, 91-18-211, p. 25.

31

MfAA, Berlin, 4 Jan. 1962, A6836, p. 33; see also the analysis of the East Germans of the policy of foreign aid, which they identified as one of the main reasons for the famine; MfAA, Berlin, 4 Jan. 1962, A6836, p. 16.

32

Report from the Ministry of Finance, Gansu, 1 July 1961, 91-18-211, pp. 22–5.

33

Hunan, 29 March 1960, 163-1-1083, pp. 119–22; by the end of the year, following a resolution at Beidaihe in September 1960, this was lowered to 310 million, with rice halved to some 144,000 tonnes; see Hunan, 22 Oct. 1960, 163-1-1083, pp. 130–4.

34

Guangdong, 29 Sept. 1960, 300-1-195, p. 158.

35

Guangzhou, 5 April 1961, 92-1-275, p. 105.

36

Gansu, 16 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 72.

37

Shanghai, 21 Oct. 1960, B29-2-112, pp. 2–5.

38

‘Back to the farm’, Time, 3 Feb. 1961.

39

ICRC, Geneva, telegrams of 18, 28 and 30 Jan. and 6 Feb. 1961, BAG 209-048-2.

40

ICRC, Geneva, discussions on 1 and 14 March 1961, BAG 209-048-2.

41

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 27 Jan. 1959, 109-1952-3, p. 13.

Chapter 16: Finding a Way Out

1

Bo, Ruogan zhongda shijian, p. 892.

2

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 9, p. 326; Lin, Wutuobang yundong, p. 607.

3

Zhang Zhong, ‘Xinyang shijian jiemi’ (Revealing the Xinyang incident), Dangshi tiandi, 2004, no. 4, pp. 40–1.

4

Yang Zhengang, Zhang Jiansheng and Liu Shikai, ‘Guanyu huaifenzi Ma Longshan da gao fanmanchan jiqi houguo deng youguan cailiao de diaocha baogao’, 9 Nov. 1960, p. 7.

5

Li Zhenhai, Liu Zhengrong and Zhang Chunyuan, ‘Guanyu Xinyang diqu Xincai qu dong jin chun fasheng zhongbing siren he ganbu yanzhong weifa luanji wenti de diaocha baogao’, 30 Nov. 1960, p. 1.

6

Xinyang diwei zuzhi chuli bangongshi, ‘Guanyu diwei changwu shuji Wang Dafu tongzhifan suo fan cuowu ji shishi cailiao’, 5 Jan. 1962, pp. 1–2.

7

Zhang, ‘Xinyang shijian jiemi’, p. 42; see also Qiao Peihua, Xinyang shijian (The Xinyang incident), Hong Kong: Kaifang chubanshe, 2009.

8

Mao, Jianguo yilai, vol. 9, p. 349.

9

Nongye jitihua zhongyao wenjian huibian (1958–1981) (A compendium of important documents on agricultural collectivisation [1958–1981]), Beijing: Zhongyang dangxiao chubanshe, 1981, vol. 2, pp. 419–30.

10

Chester J. Cheng (ed.), The Politics of the Chinese Red Army, Stanford: Hoover Institution Publications, 1966, pp. 117–23.

11

Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi (eds), Jianguo yilai zhongyao wen-xian xuanbian, Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1992, vol. 13, pp. 660–76.

12

Bo, Ruogan zhongda shijian, pp. 893–6.

13

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 339.

14

Speech by Liu Shaoqi, Gansu, 20 Jan. 1961, 91-6-79, pp. 46–51 and 103–7.

15

Speech by Mao Zedong, Gansu, 18 Jan. 1961, 91-6-79, p. 4.

16

Huang, Liu Shaoqi yisheng, pp. 346–8; Huang, Wang Guangmei fangtan lu, pp. 225–6 and 240.

17

Liu Shaoqi conversations on 25, 28 and 30 April 1961, Hunan, 141-1-1873, pp. 106–50; see also Huang, Wang Guangmei fangtan lu, pp. 238–40; Jin and Huang, Liu Shaoqi zhuan, pp. 865–6.

18

Jin and Huang, Liu Shaoqi zhuan, p. 874.

19

Letter by Liu Shaoqi, Gansu, April–May 1961, 91-4-889, pp. 2–4.

20

Liu Shaoqi, 31 May 1961, Gansu, 91-6-81, pp. 69–73.

21

Jin, Zhou Enlai zhuan, pp. 1441–2.

22

Speech by Li Fuchun at the Ninth Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee, Hunan, 14 Jan. 1961, zhongfa (61) 52, 186-1-505, pp. 1–28.

23

Speech by Li Fuchun, Hunan, 17 July 1961, 186-1-584, pp. 7 and 13.

24

Documents from Beidaihe conference, Hunan, 11 Aug. 1961, 186-1-584, pp. 38–48, 125, 134 and 152.

25

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 380.

Chapter 17: Agriculture

1

Jean C. Oi, State and Peasant in Contemporary China: The Political Economy of Village Government, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989, pp. 48–9.

2

Hebei, 11 April 1961, 878-1-14, pp. 56–8.

3

Yunnan, 29 July 1958, 2-1-3102, pp. 16–22.

4

Kenneth R. Walker, Food Grain Procurement and Consumption in China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

5

The plan for 1959–60 with the procurement figures broken down by province are in Gansu, 31 July 1959, zhongfa (59) 645, 91-18-117, p. 105.

6

Zhejiang, 16 July 1961, J132-13-7, pp. 22–8, quoted in Yang Jisheng, Mubei: Zhongguo liushi niandai dajihuang jishi (Gravestone: A true history of the great famine in China in the 1960s), Hong Kong: Tiandi tushu youxian gongsi, 2008, p. 418; compare this with Yang’s statistics on p. 417.

7

Guizhou, 1962, 90-1-2706, printed page 3; rough equivalents of these percentages are also found in more detailed estimates at the county level, for instance in the case of Zunyi county (26.5 per cent in 1957, 46.3 per cent in 1958, 47 per cent in 1959 and 54.7 per cent in 1960), Guizhou, 1962, 90-1-2708, printed page 7; the same file contains many other similar examples, some with procurement rates up to 80 per cent; for the Bureau of Grain, see Yang, Mubei, p. 540.

8

Speech on 25 March 1959, Gansu, 19-18-494, pp. 44–6.

9

Zhejiang, 16 July 1961, J132-13-7, pp. 22–8; compare with Yang, Mubei, p. 540.

10

Report from the State Council, Gansu, 15 June 1960, zhongfa (60) 547, 91-18-160, pp. 208–12.

11

Guangdong, 10 Aug. 1961, 219-2-318, pp. 9–16.

12

Deng Xiaoping speech on 11 Dec. 1961, Hunan, 141-2-138, p. 43.

13

Speech on 25 March 1959, Gansu, 19-18-494, p. 48.

14

Shanghai, 4 April 1961, B6-2-392, pp. 20 ff.

15

Shanghai, 8 July 1958, B29-2-97, p. 17.

16

Oi, State and Peasant in Contemporary China, pp. 53–5.

17

For the policy document and for an example from Hunan, see Hunan, 3 Nov. and 1 Dec. 1959, 146-1-483, pp. 9, 18–20 and 86.

18

Zhejiang, Jan. 1961, J116-15-10, pp. 1–14.

19

Guangdong, 7 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 120–2.

20

Guangdong, 2 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 61–6.

21

Speech on 30 Aug. 1958, Hunan, 141-1-1036, p. 38. A mu is equivalent to 0.0667 of a hectare.

22

Hunan, 1964, 187-1-1355, p. 64.

23

Zhejiang, 1961, J116-15-139, p. 1; 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, p. 29.

24

Hubei, 13 Jan. 1961, SZ18-2-200, p. 27.

25

Gansu, 20 June 1959, 91-18-539, p. 35.

26

Gansu, 12 Feb. 1961, 91-18-209, p. 246; Walker estimated the sown area for 1958 at 130 million hectares, Walker, Food Grain Procurement, p. 147.

27

Walker, Food Grain Procurement, pp. 21–2.

28

Guangdong, 1 March 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 23–5.

29

Yunnan, 20 Sept. 1961, 120-1-193, pp. 85–92.

30

Gansu, 20 Feb. 1961, zhongfa (61) 145, 91-18-211, p. 91.

31

Guangdong, 1 March 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 23–5.

32

Hunan, 15 Nov. 1960, 163-1-1082, p. 106.

33

Yunnan, 6 Feb. 1961, 120-1-193, pp. 108–9.

34

Beijing, 29 Nov. and 10 Dec. 1960, 2-12-262, pp. 21–3.

35

Yunnan, 14 Dec. 1960 and 20 Sept. 1961, 120-1-193, pp. 85–92 and 112–15.

36

Gansu, 20 Feb. 1961, zhongfa (61) 145, 91-18-211, p. 92.

37

Yunnan, 14 Dec. 1960, 120-1-193, pp. 112–15.

38

Hunan, 20 Aug. 1959, 141-1-1259, pp. 51–2.

39

MfAA, Berlin, 1962, A6860, p. 100.

40

Zhejiang, 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, p. 12.

41

Guangdong, 15 March 1961, 217-1-119, p. 78.

42

MfAA, Berlin, 1962, A6792, p. 136.

43

Hunan, 6 Nov. 1961, 141-1-1914, pp. 48–52.

44

Yunnan, 1962, 81-7-86, p. 13.

45

Hunan, 19 Feb. 1959, 163-1-1052, pp. 82–7.

46

Report by Qian Zhiguang, minister for the textile industry, Hunan, 11 Aug. 1961, 186-1-584, p. 107.

47

Guangzhou, 28 Feb. 1961, 6-1-103, pp. 3–4.

48

Beijing, 8 Jan. 1962, 2-13-138, pp. 1–3.

49

Report by Hu Yaobang on 1 Oct. 1961, Hunan, 141-2-138, p. 197.

50

Hebei, 1962, 979-3-870, pp. 1–30.

51

Hunan, 15 March 1959, 141-1-1158, p. 140.

52

Guangdong, 3 July 1959, 217-1-69, pp. 74–5.

53

Guangdong, 12 Oct. 1961, 235-1-259, p. 13.

54

Zhejiang, 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, pp. 16–21.

55

Hunan, 15 Jan. 1961, 146-1-580, p. 13.

56

Guangdong, 20 May 1961, 217-1-210, pp. 82–7.

57

Zhejiang, 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, pp. 16–21.

58

Conversation between Li Jingquan and Zhou Enlai in the premier’s office on 1 April 1962, Sichuan, JC1-3198, p. 33.

59

Shanghai, 1961, B181-1-510, pp. 17–20.

60

Beijing, 31 July 1962, 1-9-439, pp. 1–4.

61

Report from Moscow embassy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 18 Sept. 1958, 109-1213-14, p. 142.

62

Zhejiang, 21 March 1960, J002-3-3, p. 34.

63

Shanghai, 1961, B181-1-510, p. 7.

64

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 10 April 1959, 109-1907-8, p. 100; also speech on 25 March 1959, Gansu, 19-18-494, p. 46.

65

Shanghai, 1961, B29-2-980, p. 143.

66

Guangdong, 16 Sept. 1961, 235-1-259, p. 71.

67

Zhejiang, 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, pp. 5 and 16.

68

Xuancheng, 17 May 1961, 3-1-257, pp. 127–31.

69

Shanghai, 1961, B181-1-511, p. 25.

70

Hunan, 11 Aug. 1961, 186-1-584, p. 134.

71

Hunan, 15 March 1959, 141-1-1158, p. 152.

72

Guangdong, 25 Feb. 1961, 217-1-119, p. 57.

73

Hebei, 1962, 979-3-870, pp. 1–30.

74

Zhejiang, 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, pp. 15 and 29.

75

Ibid., p. 52.

76

Guangdong, 25 Feb. 1961, 217-1-119, p. 58.

Chapter 18: Industry

1

Klochko, Soviet Scientist, pp. 85–6.

2

Guangdong, 1961, 218-2-320, pp. 26–31.

3

MfAA, Berlin, 7 June 1961, A6807, pp. 20–4.

4

MfAA, Berlin, 14 Nov. 1962, A6860, pp. 142–5.

5

Beijing, 31 July 1961, 1-5-371, pp. 5–10.

6

Guangdong, 1961, 218-2-320, pp. 26–31.

7

Klochko, Soviet Scientist, p. 91.

8

Neibu cankao, 25 Nov. 1960, p. 7.

9

Hunan, 21 Sept. 1961, 186-1-525, pp. 2–6.

10

Ibid.

11

Shanghai, 28 March 1959, B29-1-34, pp. 16–21.

12

Hunan, 5 May 1961, 141-1-1939, pp. 33–4.

13

Beijing, 26 June 1961, 2-13-89, pp. 14–15.

14

Hunan, 26 Dec. 1959 and 16 Jan. 1960, 163-1-1087, pp. 70–2 and 91–5.

15

Speech on 25 March 1959, Gansu, 19-18-494, p. 46.

16

Reports by He Long and Nie Rongzhen, Gansu, 13 Sept. 1960, 91-6-26, pp. 69–75.

17

Neibu cankao, 25 Nov. 1960, p. 9.

18

Nanjing, 2 Sept. 1960, 6001-1-73, pp. 12–15.

19

Guangzhou, 1960, 19-1-255, pp. 39–41; 11 Sept. 1961, 19-1-525, pp. 94–100.

20

Guangdong, 7 Aug. 1961, 219-2-319, pp. 17–31.

21

Beijing, 17 Jan. and 31 March 1959, 101-1-132, pp. 14–18 and 26–40.

22

Beijing, 29 March 1960, 101-1-138, p. 3.

23

Beijing, 24 March 1961, 1-28-28, p. 6.

24

Beijing, 28 Sept. 1961, 2-13-138, pp. 25–9.

25

Nanjing, 13 July and 22 Nov. 1960, 5065-3-395, pp. 7–19 and 35–52.

26

Nanjing, 13 July 1960, 5065-3-395, pp. 7–19.

27

Nanjing, 1961, 5065-3-443, pp. 51, 60 and 66.

28

Beijing, 31 July 1961, 1-5-371, pp. 5–10.

29

Nanjing, 15 Sept. 1961, 6001-3-328, pp. 25–8.

30

Nanjing, 1960, 4053-2-4, p. 98. These salaries were generally fixed; only in the winter of 1961–2 were fixed salaries replaced for a variety of compensation schemes, including pay by piece or a share of the profits; see Nanjing, 4 Dec. 1961, 4053-2-5, p. 1.

31

Nanjing, 15 Sept. 1961, 6001-2-329, pp. 30–1.

32

Beijing, 29 March 1960, 101-1-138, p. 4.

33

Nanjing, 1960, 4053-2-4, p. 93.

34

Hunan, 3 Sept. 1959, 141-1-1259, pp. 69–70.

35

Beijing, 30 July 1961, 1-5-371, p. 8.

36

Report from Ministry of Coal, Gansu, 91-18-193, 11 Sept. 1961, p. 71.

37

These were Quren, Nanling, Luojiadu and Lianyang; Guangdong, June 1960, 253-1-99, pp. 17–20.

38

Gansu, Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 245.

39

Shanghai, Jan. 1961, A36-1-246, pp. 2–3.

40

Shanghai, Aug. 1961, B29-2-655, p. 92.

41

Guangdong, Aug. 1961, 219-2-319, pp. 31–56.

Chapter 19: Trade

1

Hunan, 13 Sept. and 7 Nov. 1960, 163-1-1083, pp. 83–5 and 95–7.

2

Shanghai, 11 Aug. 1960, B123-4-782, pp. 26–9.

3

Yunnan, 23 Oct. 1958, zhongfa (58) 1060, 2-1-3276, pp. 131–5.

4

Yunnan, 15 Oct. 1960, zhongfa (60) 841, 2-1-4246, pp. 103–8.

5

Shanghai, Aug. 1961, B29-2-655, p. 160; 20 April 1961, B29-2-980, p. 248.

6

Yunnan, 15 Oct. 1960, zhongfa (60) 841, 2-1-4246, pp. 103–8.

7

Yunnan, 3 Dec. 1960, zhongfa (60) 1109, 2-1-4246, pp. 117–19.

8

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 1 Jan. 1960, 118-1378-13, p. 82.

9

Yunnan, 25 Oct. 1961, 2-1-4654, pp. 44–6.

10

Yunnan, 22 Sept. 1960, 2-1-4269, pp. 36–9.

11

Hunan, 3 Aug. 1959, 141-1-1259, p. 148.

12

MfAA, Berlin, 11 Dec. 1961, A6807, pp. 347–51.

13

Guangdong, Aug. 1961, 219-2-319, pp. 31–56.

14

Shanghai, May 1961, B29-2-940, p. 161.

15

On retailing and the material culture of pre-revolutionary China, see Frank Dikötter, Exotic Commodities: Modern Objects and Everyday Life in China, New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

16

Klochko, Soviet Scientist, p. 53.

17

Nanjing, Nov. 1961, 5040-1-18, pp. 14–19 and 20–6.

18

Nanjing, 12 Jan. and 26 April 1959, 4003-1-167, pp. 22–4 and 36–8.

19

J. Dyer Ball, The Chinese at Home, London: Religious Tract Society, 1911, p. 240, quoted in Dikötter, Exotic Commodities, p. 63.

20

Guangzhou, 22 Aug. 1959, 16-1-13, pp. 56–7; Guangzhou, 20 July 1961, 97-8-173, p. 18.

21

Nanjing, 1 July 1959, 4003-1-167, pp. 39–46.

22

Neibu cankao, 2 Dec. 1960, p. 11.

23

Shanghai, 7 May 1961, A20-1-60, pp. 64–6.

24

Nanjing, 4 June 1959, 5003-3-722, pp. 77–81.

25

Neibu cankao, 23 Nov. 1960, pp. 15–16.

26

Neibu cankao, 5 May 1961, pp. 14–16.

27

Guangzhou, 27 March, 1 June and 6 July 1961, 97-8-173, pp. 45–6 and 52–3; 60-1-1, pp. 80 and 105–11.

28

Wuhan, 29 July 1959, 76-1-1210, p. 68.

29

Speech at Beidaihe, Gansu, 11 Aug. 1961, 91-18-561, p. 51.

30

Beijing, 26 June 1961, 2-13-89, pp. 2–3.

31

Beijing, 31 July 1961, 2-13-100, pp. 1–6.

32

Nanjing, Nov. 1961, 5040-1-18, pp. 14–19 and 20–6.

33

Neibu cankao, 10 Aug. 1960, pp. 13–15.

34

Beijing, 28 March 1961, 1-28-28, pp. 9–11.

35

Shanghai, 31 July 1961, A20-1-55, pp. 23–9.

36

Interview with Lao Tian, born 1930s, Xushui, Hebei, Sept. 2006.

Chapter 20: Housing

1

Shen Bo, ‘Huiyi Peng Zhen tongzhi guanyu renmin dahuitang deng “shida jianzhu” de sheji de jiaodao’ (Remembering comrade Peng Zhen’s directions concerning the design of the Great Hall of the People and the ten great edifices), Chengjian dang’an, no. 4 (2005), pp. 10–11.

2

Wu Hung, Remaking Beijing: Tiananmen Square and the Creation of a Political Space, London: Reaktion Books, 2005, p. 24.

3

‘Ten red years’, Time, 5 Oct. 1959.

4

Xie Yinming and Qu Wanlin, ‘Shei baohule gugong’ (Who protected the Imperial Palace), Dang de wenxian, no. 5 (2006), pp. 70–5.

5

PRO, London, 15 Nov. 1959, FO371-133462.

6

PRO, London, 23 July 1959, FO371-141276.

7

Beijing, 27 Dec. 1958 and 2 Feb. 1959, 2-11-128, pp. 1–3 and 8–14.

8

Hunan, 21 Jan. 1959, 141-2-104.

9

Gansu, 9 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, pp. 18–19.

10

Gansu, 22 Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, pp. 256–8.

11

Hunan, 3 and 14 April 1961, 151-1-24, pp. 1–13 and 59–68.

12

Guangdong, 20 Jan. 1961, 217-1-645, pp. 15–19.

13

Report at the Lushan conference, Gansu, Sept. 1961, 91-18-193, p. 82.

14

Gansu, 24 Oct. 1960, zhongfa (60) 865, 91-18-164, pp. 169–72.

15

Speech by Li Fuchun, Hunan, 20 Dec. 1961, 141-1-1931, pp. 154–5.

16

Shanghai, 28 July 1959, B258-1-431, pp. 4–5.

17

Wuhan, 15 May and 23 June 1959, 13-1-765, pp. 44–5 and 56.

18

Hunan, April 1960, 141-2-164, p. 82.

19

Guangdong, 5 July 1961, 307-1-186, pp. 47–52.

20

Sichuan, 22 and 24 March 1960, JC50-315.

21

Sichuan, Dec. 1961, JC50-325.

22

Beijing, 4 March and 7 Aug. 1959, 2-11-146, pp. 1–23.

23

Nanjing, 16 April 1959, 4003-1-279, p. 153.

24

Guangdong, 7 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 110–15.

25

Sichuan, Feb. 1961, JC1-2576, pp. 41–2.

26

Guangdong, 10 Dec. 1960, 217-1-643, pp. 44–9.

27

Guangdong, 12 Dec. 1960, 217-1-643, pp. 33–43.

28

Hunan, 11 May 1961, 141-2-139, p. 61.

29

Hunan, 17 May 1961, 146-1-584, p. 26.

30

Sichuan, Aug. 1961, JC1-2584, p. 14.

31

Sichuan, 1962, JC44-1440, pp. 127–8.

32

Hubei, 18 Nov. 1960, SZ18-2-198, pp. 69–71.

33

Hunan, 4 Aug. 1962, 207-1-744, p. 9.

34

Li Heming, Paul Waley and Phil Rees, ‘Reservoir Resettlement in China: Past Experience and the Three Gorges Dam’, Geographical Journal, vol. 167, no. 3 (Sept. 2001), p. 197.

35

Guangdong, Oct. 1961, 217-1-113, pp. 58–61.

36

Hunan, 15 Dec. 1961 and 21 March 1962, 207-1-753, pp. 103–5 and 106–9.

37

Beijing, 25 April 1961, 2-13-39, pp. 1–14.

38

James L. Watson, ‘The Structure of Chinese Funerary Rites’, in James L. Watson and Evelyn S. Rawski (eds), Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

39

Neibu cankao, 7 Dec. 1960, pp. 12–13.

40

Hunan, 14 Feb. 1958, 141-1-969, p. 19.

41

Interview with Wei Shu, born 1920s, Langzhong county, Sichuan, April 2006.

42

Beijing, 18 April 1959, 2-11-36, pp. 7–8 and 17–18.

43

Beijing, 14 Nov. 1958, 2-11-33, p. 3.

44

The report was sent to the provincial party committee in Hunan; Hunan, March 1959, 141-1-1322, pp. 108–10.

Chapter 21: Nature

1

Ferdinand P. W. von Richthofen, Baron Richthofen’s Letters, 1870–1872, Shanghai: North-China Herald Office, 1903, p. 55, quoted in Dikötter, Exotic Commodities, p. 177.

2

I. T. Headland, Home Life in China, London: Methuen, 1914, p. 232, quoted in Dikötter, Exotic Commodities, p. 177.

3

Shapiro, Mao’s War against Nature, pp. 3–4.

4

Mao’s speech at Supreme State Conference on 28–30 Jan. 1958, Gansu, 91-18-495, p. 202.

5

Hunan, 13 April 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 1–10.

6

Hunan, 6 Oct. 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 44–9.

7

RGAE, Moscow, 7 Aug. 1959, 9493-1-1098, p. 29.

8

Hunan, 13 April 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 1–10.

9

Gansu, 17 Aug. 1962, zhongfa (62) 430, 91-18-250, p. 66.

10

Beijing, 3 March 1961, 2-13-51, pp. 7–8.

11

Beijing, 26 May 1961, 92-1-143, pp. 11–14.

12

Ibid.

13

Beijing, 3 March 1961, 2-13-51, pp. 7–8.

14

Hubei, SZ113-2-195, 12 Feb. and 1 Nov. 1961, pp. 8–10 and 28–31.

15

Gansu, 23 Oct. 1962, 91-18-250, p. 72.

16

Gansu, 31 Oct. 1962, 91-18-250, p. 83.

17

Guangdong, 10 May 1961, 217-1-210, pp. 88–9.

18

Nanjing, 25 Dec. 1958, 4003-1-150, p. 73.

19

Beijing, 26 May 1961, 92-1-143, pp. 11–14.

20

Gansu, 17 Aug. 1962, zhongfa (62) 430, 91-18-250, p. 69.

21

Hubei, 10 March 1961, SZ113-2-195, pp. 2–3.

22

Hunan, 28 Nov. 1961, 163-1-1109, pp. 138–47.

23

Gansu, 31 Oct. 1962, 91-18-250, p. 83.

24

Hunan, 18 Nov. 1961, 163-1-1109, p. 60.

25

Gansu, 17 Aug. 1962, 91-18-250, p. 65.

26

For estimates based on published sources, see Shapiro, Mao’s War against Nature, p. 82.

27

Gansu, 17 Aug. 1962, 91-18-250, p. 68.

28

Gansu, 31 Oct. 1962, 91-18-250, p. 82.

29

Hunan, 6 Oct. 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 44–9.

30

Guangdong report on forests, 21 Sept. 1962, Hunan, 141-2-163, p. 50.

31

Yu Xiguang, Dayuejin ku rizi: Shangshuji (The Great Leap Forward and the years of bitterness: A collection of memorials), Hong Kong: Shidai chaoliu chubanshe, 2005, p. 8; to give a sense of proportion, by some estimates the forest cover stood at 83 million hectares in 1949; see Vaclav Smil, The Bad Earth: Environmental Degradation in China, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1984, p. 23.

32

Beijing, 15 Sept. 1959, 2-11-63, pp. 31–6 and 48–52.

33

One of the earliest descriptions is by Tan Zhenlin in a telephone conference on the summer crop; see Gansu, 26 June 1959, 92-28-513, pp. 14–15.

34

Y. Y. Kueh, Agricultural Instability in China, 1931–1991, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, examined metereological data and concluded that bad weather did contribute to a reduction in crop production but that similar weather conditions in the past did not have the same effect.

35

Beijing, 7 May 1960, 2-12-25, pp. 3–6.

36

Beijing, 8 Sept. 1962, 96-2-22, pp. 15–18.

37

Hebei, 15 Aug. 1961, 878-1-6, pp. 31–44.

38

Report by Hu Yaobang on 1 Oct. 1961, Hunan, 141-2-138, pp. 186–9.

39

Hunan, 13 April 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 1–10.

40

Hunan, 6 Oct. 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 44–9.

41

Hunan, 4 Aug. 1962, 207-1-744, pp. 1–12.

42

Hunan, 6 Oct. 1962, 207-1-750, pp. 44–9.

43

Hunan, 13 and 15 May 1961, 146-1-584, pp. 13 and 18.

44

Hunan, 24 April 1961, 146-1-583, p. 108; large reservoirs were defined by Beijing as having a capacity of over 100 million cubic metres, medium ones ranging from 10 to 100 million cubic metres and small ones having less than 10 million cubic metres.

45

Hunan, 4 Aug. 1962, 207-1-744, pp. 1–12.

46

Hunan, 7 Jan. 1962, 207-1-743, pp. 85–105.

47

Hunan, 1 Dec. 1961, 163-1-1109, p. 101.

48

Hubei, 12 Sept. 1959, SZ18-2-197, pp. 39–43.

49

Hubei, 1 Aug. 1959, SZ113-1-209, p. 3.

50

Hubei, 27 March 1961, SZ18-2-201.

51

Hubei, 18 March and 9 June 1961, SZ113-1-26, pp. 1–3 and 12–14.

52

Hubei, 14 April 1962, SZ113-2-213, p. 25.

53

Hunan, 1964, 187-1-1355, p. 64.

54

Guangdong, Dec. 1960, 266-1-74, pp. 105–18.

55

Report by Ministry of Water Conservancy and Hydraulic Electricity, 27 July 1960, Hunan, 141-1-1709, p. 277.

56

Guangdong, Dec. 1960, 266-1-74, p. 117.

57

Yi, ‘World’s Most Catastrophic Dam Failures’, pp. 25–38.

58

Shui, ‘Profile of Dams in China’, p. 23.

59

As reported by the secretary of the south-central region Li Yiqing; Hunan, 11 Aug. 1961, 186-1-584, p. 134.

60

Beijing, 17 April 1962, 96-2-22, p. 6.

61

Hebei, 1 July 1961, 979-3-864, pp. 4–5.

62

Hebei, 1962, 979-3-870, p. 7; see also Hebei, 13 July 1962, 979-3-871, pp. 1–22, for a much lower figure for the increase in alkaline land.

63

Report by Liu Jianxun, 24 Dec. 1961, Hunan, 141-2-142, p. 225.

64

Report by Hu Yaobang, 1 Oct. 1961, Hunan, 141-2-138, pp. 186–7.

65

Report by Hua Shan, 9 May 1962, Shandong, A1-2-1125, pp. 5–7.

66

Gansu, 9 March 1960, zhongfa (60) 258, 91-18-154, pp. 254–5.

67

Beijing, 17 Sept. 1959, 2-11-145, pp. 3–6.

68

Gansu, 9 March 1960, zhongfa (60) 258, 91-18-154, pp. 254–5.

69

Gansu, 24 Feb. 1960, 91-18-177, pp. 14–17.

70

Gansu, 9 March 1960, zhongfa (60) 258, 91-18-154, pp. 254–5.

71

Nanjing, 22 Nov. 1960, 5065-3-395, pp. 35–52.

72

Report by Mao Qihua, Gansu, 4 Sept. 1960, zhongfa (60) 825, 91-18-154, p. 104.

73

Shanghai, Oct. 1961, B29-2-954, p. 57.

74

Ibid.

75

Ibid., p. 76.

76

Hubei, 10 Jan. 1961, SZ34-5-45, pp. 22–4; 23 Jan. 1961, SZ1-2-906, p. 17.

77

Klochko, Soviet Scientist, pp. 71–3.

78

Nanjing, 18 March 1959, 5065-3-367, pp. 20–2; 25 March 1959, 5003-3-721, pp. 8–9.

79

Shanghai, 1959, A70-1-82, p. 9.

80

Shapiro, Mao’s War on Nature, p. 88.

81

Hubei, 8 and 25 July 1961, SZ18-2-202, pp. 78 and 101.

82

Nanjing, 24 Oct. 1960, 4003-1-203, pp. 20–1.

83

Zhejiang, 29 Jan. 1961, J116-15-115, p. 11.

Chapter 22: Feasting through Famine

1

James R. Townsend and Brantly Womack, Politics in China, Boston: Little, Brown, 1986, p. 86.

2

Tiejun Cheng and Mark Selden, ‘The Construction of Spatial Hierarchies: China’s hukou and danwei Systems’, in Timothy Cheek and Tony Saich (eds), New Perspectives on State Socialism in China, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997, pp. 23–50.

3

Guangdong, 15 March 1962, 300-1-215, pp. 205–7.

4

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 78–9.

5

Fu Zhengyuan, Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 238.

6

Lu, Cadres and Corruption, p. 86.

7

Shanghai, 1961, B50-2-324, pp. 15–24.

8

Neibu cankao, 25 Nov. 1960, pp. 11–12.

9

Neibu cankao, 6 March 1961, p. 5.

10

Neibu cankao, 22 Feb. 1961, pp. 13–14.

11

Guangdong, 5 Sept. 1960, 231-1-242, pp. 72–7.

12

Guangdong, 18 June 1960, 231-1-242, pp. 63–5.

13

Guangdong, 10 Dec. 1960, 217-1-643, pp. 44–9.

14

Ibid., p. 45.

15

Guangdong, 24 July 1959, 217-1-497, pp. 61–3.

16

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-116, p. 48.

17

Guangdong, 26 June 1959, 217-1-69, pp. 33–8.

18

PRO, London, 15 Nov. 1959, FO371-133462.

19

Shanghai, 8 Oct. 1960, A20-1-10, pp. 19 ff.

20

Hebei, 8 May 1959, 855-5-1758, pp. 97–8.

21

Beijing, 14 Feb. 1959, 1-14-573, p. 65.

22

Shanghai, 27 Jan. 1961, A36-1-246, pp. 9–17.

Chapter 23: Wheeling and Dealing

1

Shanghai, 20 Dec. 1960, A36-2-447, pp. 64–5.

2

Neibu cankao, 2 June 1960, pp. 14–15.

3

Neibu cankao, 16 Nov. 1960, pp. 11–13.

4

Shanghai, Feb. 1961, A36-2-447, p. 22.

5

Guangdong, Nov. 1960, 288-1-115, p. 1.

6

Neibu cankao, 16 Nov. 1960, pp. 11–13.

7

Guangdong, 9 Feb. 1961, 235-1-255, pp. 39–40.

8

Guangdong, 5 Dec. 1961, 235-1-259, p. 75.

9

Nanjing, 27 May 1959, 4003-1-279, p. 242.

10

Neibu cankao, 25 Nov. 1960, pp. 13–15.

11

Gansu, 24 Oct. 1960, zhongfa (60) 865, 91-18-164, pp. 169–72.

12

Report from Ministry of Finance, Gansu, 5 Nov. 1960, zhongfa (60) 993, 91-18-160, pp. 275–80.

13

Neibu cankao, 7 Dec. 1960, pp. 14–15.

14

Speech at Beidaihe, Gansu, 11 Aug. 1961, 91-18-561, pp. 51 and 55.

15

Report from Ministry of Finance, Gansu, 5 Nov. 1960, zhongfa (60) 993, 91-18-160, pp. 275–80.

16

Neibu cankao, 8 Aug. 1960, pp. 5–7.

17

Hebei, 19 April 1959, 855-5-1758, pp. 105–6.

18

Beijing, 23 June 1961, 1-5-376, pp. 4–10.

19

Nanjing, Aug. 1960, 4003-1-199, p. 19.

20

Nanjing, 14 Aug. 1960, 4003-1-199, pp. 1–4.

21

Neibu cankao, 25 Nov. 1960, pp. 12–13; 30 Dec. 1960, pp. 10–11.

22

Beijing, 27 April 1961, 1-28-30, pp. 1–4.

23

Shanghai, 7 Aug. 1961, A20-1-60, pp. 181–5.

24

Beijing, 28 Nov. 1960, 101-1-138, pp. 13–29.

25

Shanghai, 28 March 1959, B29-1-34, pp. 48–9.

26

Neibu cankao, 26 Dec. 1960, pp. 10–11.

27

Neibu cankao, 17 May 1961, p. 22.

28

Guangdong, 23 Jan. 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 10–12.

29

Guangzhou, 24 Feb. 1961, 92-1-275, p. 74.

30

Nanjing, 1 Sept. 1959, 5003-3-722, p. 89.

31

Hunan, 15 Jan. 1961, 146-1-580, p. 15.

32

For a description see Dennis L. Chinn, ‘Basic Commodity Distribution in the People’s Republic of China’, China Quarterly, no. 84 (Dec. 1980), pp. 744–54.

33

Neibu cankao, 18 Aug. 1960, p. 16.

34

Guangdong, 9 Feb. 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 39–40.

35

Neibu cankao, 7 Dec. 1960, p. 24.

36

Guangdong, 9 Feb. 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 39–40.

37

Beijing, 29 Dec. 1960, 2-12-262, pp. 18–20.

38

Hunan, 13 June 1961, 163-1-1109, pp. 21–2.

39

MfAA, Berlin, March–April 1961, A17009, pp. 3–4.

40

Neibu cankao, 23 Jan. 1961, pp. 10–11; 6 Feb. 1962, pp. 5–6.

41

See also Jeremy Brown, ‘Great Leap City: Surviving the Famine in Tianjin’, in Kimberley E. Manning and Felix Wemheuer (eds), New Perspectives on China’s Great Leap Forward and Great Famine, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2010.

42

MfAA, Berlin, 6 Sept. 1962, A6862, p. 8.

43

Hubei, 7 Aug. 1961 and July 1962, SZ29-1-13, pp. 73–4 and 76–7.

44

Sichuan, 16 Aug. and 12 Sept. 1962, JC44-3918, pp. 105–7 and 117–19.

45

Hubei, 18 Sept. 1961, SZ18-2-199, pp. 6–7.

46

Hebei, 6 May 1959, 855-5-1744, pp. 101–3.

47

Sichuan, 1962, JC1-3047, pp. 1–2.

48

Shandong, 10 Aug. 1959, A1-2-776, p. 72.

Chapter 24: On the Sly

1

Hunan, 12 Feb. 1961, 151-1-20, pp. 32–3.

2

Beijing, 24 March 1961, 1-28-28, pp. 2–6.

3

Shanghai, 25 Oct. 1961, B123-5-144, p. 176.

4

Shanghai, Aug. 1961, B29-2-655, p. 82.

5

Sichuan, 1959, JC9-249, p. 160.

6

Sichuan, 1959, JC9-250, pp. 14 and 46.

7

Interview with Ding Qiao’er, born 1951, Huangxian county, Shandong, Dec. 2006.

8

Neibu cankao, 2 June 1960, pp. 14–15.

9

Neibu cankao, 19 Dec. 1960, p. 21.

10

Ibid., pp. 23–4.

11

Neibu cankao, 7 Dec. 1960, pp. 21–4.

12

Nanjing, 26 Feb. 1959, 4003-1-171, p. 62.

13

Shanghai, 31 March 1960, B123-4-588, p. 3; 22 May 1961, B112-4-478, pp. 1–2.

14

Thaxton, Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China, p. 201.

15

Neibu cankao, 2 Sept. 1960, pp. 5–7.

16

Xuancheng, 3 May 1961, 3-1-259, pp. 75–6.

17

Interview with Zeng Mu, born 1931, Pengzhou, Sichuan, May 2006.

18

Guangdong, 1 March 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 23–5.

19

Guangdong, 1 and 27 March 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 23–5 and 32–4.

20

Neibu cankao, 26 April 1961, p. 20.

21

Hebei, 27 Sept. 1960, 855-5-1996, pp. 52–4.

22

Wuxian, 15 May 1961, 300-2-212, p. 243.

23

Guangdong, 21 Jan. 1961, 235-1-259, pp. 16–17.

24

Hubei, 22 Feb. 1959, SZ18-2-197, pp. 19–21.

25

Hebei, 2 June 1959, 855-5-1758, pp. 46–7.

26

Hubei, 22–23 Feb. 1959, SZ18-2-197, pp. 6–8 and 12–14.

27

Hebei, 13 Dec. 1960, 855-18-777, pp. 40–1.

28

Hebei, 1 June 1959, 855-5-1758, pp. 126–7.

29

Hunan, 10 and 18 Dec. 1959, 146-1-507, pp. 81 and 90–3.

30

Hunan, 31 Dec. 1959, 146-1-507, pp. 120–1.

31

Hebei, 1 June 1959, 855-5-1758, pp. 126–7.

32

Nanjing, 4 June 1959, 5003-3-722, pp. 77–81.

33

Nanjing, 26 Jan. 1960, 5012-3-556, p. 60.

34

Hunan, 13 Feb. 1961, 151-1-18, pp. 24–5.

35

Interview with Li Erjie, born 1922, Chengdu, Sichuan, April 2006.

36

Hubei, 11 May 1961, SZ18-2-202, pp. 25–6.

37

Guangdong, 1961, 235-1-256, p. 73.

38

Hubei, 18 Sept. 1961, SZ18-2-199, p. 7.

39

Yunnan, 30 Dec. 1958, 2-1-3442, pp. 11–16.

Chapter 25: ‘Dear Chairman Mao’

1

Hebei, 4 Jan. 1961, 880-1-11, p. 30.

2

I resist the temptation to provide more than a few examples, although interested readers can turn to a remarkable chapter in Jasper Becker, Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine, New York: Henry Holt, 1996, pp. 287–306.

3

François Mitterrand, La Chine au défi, Paris: Julliard, 1961, pp. 30 and 123.

4

PRO, London, Nov. 1960, PREM11-3055.

5

Nanjing, 17 March 1959, 4003-1-279, pp. 101–2.

6

Neibu cankao, 7 Dec. 1960, pp. 21–4.

7

Shanghai, 7 May 1961, A20-1-60, pp. 60–2.

8

Hubei, 14 Oct. 1961, SZ29-2-89, pp. 1–8.

9

Guangdong, 1962, 217-1-123, pp. 123–7.

10

Guangzhou, 24 Feb. 1961, 92-1-275, p. 75.

11

Guangdong, 1962, 217-1-123, pp. 123–7.

12

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-644, p. 20.

13

Nanjing, 16 July 1959, 5003-3-721, pp. 26–7.

14

Gansu, 5 Sept. 1962, 91-18-279, p. 7.

15

Hebei, June 1959, 884-1-183, p. 39.

16

Gansu, 5 Sept. 1962, 91-18-279, p. 7.

17

Ministry of Public Security report, Gansu, 8 Feb. 1961, 91-4-889, pp. 25–30.

18

Nanjing, 16 July 1959, 5003-3-721, pp. 26–7.

19

Hebei, 27 June 1959, 884-1-183, pp. 136 and 140.

20

Hubei, 5 Sept. 1959, SZ18-2-197, p. 34.

21

Sichuan, 25 May 1959, JC1-1721, p. 3.

22

Cyril Birch, ‘Literature under Communism’, in Roderick MacFarquhar, John King Fairbank and Denis Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China, vol. 15: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966–1982, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 768.

23

Shanghai, 7 May 1961, A20-1-60, p. 62.

24

Guangdong, 3 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, p. 102.

25

Interview with Yang Huafeng, born 1946, Qianjiang county, Hubei, Aug. 2006.

26

Guangdong, 2 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 61–6.

27

Sichuan, 1961, JC9-464, p. 70.

28

Some very inspiring pages on rumours during collectivisation have been written by Lynn Viola, Peasant Rebels under Stalin: Collectivization and the Culture of Peasant Resistance, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 45–7.

29

Wuhan, 3 Nov. 1958, 83-1-523, p. 134.

30

Guangdong, 23 Jan. 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 10–12.

31

Hubei, 4 Jan. 1961, SZ18-2-200, p. 11.

32

Hubei, 5 May 1961, SZ18-2-201, p. 95.

33

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2614, p. 14.

34

Neibu cankao, 9 June 1960, pp. 7–8.

35

Guangdong, 5 Feb. 1961, 217-1-119, p. 45.

36

Guangdong, 23 Jan. 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 10–12 and 20.

37

Hunan, 23 Jan. 1961, 146-1-580, p. 54.

38

Gansu, 5 Sept. 1962, 91-18-279, p. 7.

39

Nanjing, 19 March 1959, 5003-3-722, pp. 68–9.

40

Hebei, June 1959, 884-1-183, pp. 84–92 and 128.

41

On denunciations in the Soviet Union, one reads with pleasure Sheila Fitzpatrick, ‘Signals from Below: Soviet Letters of Denunciation of the 1930s’, Journal of Modern History, vol. 68, no. 4 (Dec. 1996), pp. 831–66.

42

Hunan, 1959–61, 163-2-232, entire file.

43

Nanjing, 7 March and 13 May 1961, 5003-3-843, pp. 1–4 and 101.

44

Shanghai, 30 Nov. 1959, A2-2-16, p. 75.

45

Guangdong, 1961, 235-1-256, p. 90.

46

Neibu cankao, 31 May 1960, pp. 18–19.

47

Neibu cankao, 19 Dec. 1960, pp. 15–17.

48

Hunan, 31 Dec. 1961, 141-1-1941, p. 5.

49

Guangdong, 24 Feb. 1961, 235-1-256, pp. 40–2.

50

Neibu cankao, 12 June 1961, p. 23.

51

Gansu, 14 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 50.

52

Report by provincial party committee work team, Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2616, p. 111.

Chapter 26: Robbers and Rebels

1

Hebei, 15 Aug. 1961, 878-1-6, p. 38.

2

Neibu cankao, 16 Dec. 1960, p. 9.

3

For instance Hebei, 27 June 1959, 884-1-183, p. 135.

4

Hubei, 6 Jan. 1961, SZ18-2-200, p. 22.

5

Hunan, 17 Jan. 1961, 146-1-580, p. 29.

6

Gansu, 24 Jan. 1961, 91-9-215, pp. 117–20.

7

Ibid.

8

Neibu cankao, 20 June 1960, pp. 11–12.

9

Report from the Ministry of Railways, Gansu, 20 Jan. 1961, 91-4-889, pp. 19–21.

10

Hunan, 22 Nov. 1959, 146-1-507, pp. 44–6.

11

Sichuan, 26 May 1959, JC1-1721, p. 37.

12

Sichuan, 8 June 1959, JC1-1721, p. 153.

13

Hunan, 9 March 1959, 163-1-1046, p. 24.

14

Hebei, June 1959, 884-1-183, p. 40; 25 April 1960, 884-1-184, p. 20.

15

Nanjing, 30 Jan. 1959, 4003-1-171, p. 35.

16

Nanjing, 19 March 1959, 5003-3-722, pp. 68–9.

17

Hubei, 4 Jan. 1961, SZ18-2-200, p. 11.

18

Hubei, 22 Feb. 1959, SZ18-2-197, pp. 6–8.

19

Sichuan, 2–4 Nov. 1959, JC1-1808, p. 137.

20

Guangdong, 3 Feb. 1961, 262-1-115, pp. 86–7.

21

Kaiping, 29 Dec. 1960, 3-A10-81, p. 2.

22

Hunan, 17 Jan. 1961, 146-1-580, p. 29.

23

Gansu, 18 June 1958, zhongfa (58) 496, 91-18-88, pp. 29–34.

24

Yunnan, 30 Nov. 1960, 2-1-4108, pp. 72–5; 2 Dec. 1960, 2-1-4108, pp. 1–2; see also 8 Nov. and 9 Dec. 1960, 2-1-4432, pp. 1–10 and 50–7.

25

Ministry of Public Security report, Gansu, 8 Feb. 1961, 91-4-889, pp. 25–30.

26

Hebei, June 1959, 884-1-183, pp. 39–40 and 132.

27

Hebei, 26 April 1960, 884-1-184, p. 36.

28

Guangdong, 1961, 216-1-257, pp. 64–5.

Chapter 27: Exodus

1

Shanghai, 12 March 1959, B98-1-439, pp. 9–13.

2

Zhang Qingwu, ‘Kongzhi chengshi renkou de zengzhang’, Renmin ribao, 21 Aug. 1979, p. 3, quoted in Judith Banister, China’s Changing Population, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987, p. 330.

3

Yunnan, 18 Dec. 1958, 2-1-3101, p. 301.

4

Shanghai, 20 April 1959, A11-1-34, pp. 1–3.

5

Shanghai, 12 and 17 March 1959, B98-1-439, pp. 12 and 25.

6

Shanghai, 20 April 1959, A11-1-34, pp. 4–14.

7

Xinyang, 4 Aug. 1960, 304-37-7, p. 68.

8

Hebei, 28 Feb., 11 March and 15 April 1959, 855-5-1750, pp. 74–5, 91–4 and 132–4.

9

Zhejiang, 3 March 1959, J007-11-112, pp. 1–6.

10

Guangdong, 23 Jan. 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 10–12.

11

Hebei, 15 April 1959, 855-5-1750, pp. 132–4.

12

Wuhan, 14 April 1959, 76-1-1210, pp. 87–8.

13

Neibu cankao, 20 June 1960, pp. 11–12.

14

Hebei, 11 March 1959, 855-5-1750, pp. 91–4.

15

Beijing, 23 Jan. and 31 Aug. 1959, 2-11-58, pp. 3–4 and 8–10.

16

Nanjing, 14 March 1959, 4003-1-168, pp. 39–49; 14 Aug. 1960, 4003-1-199, p. 2.

17

Nanjing, 23 Dec. 1959, 5003-3-721, p. 115; 21 July 1959, 4003-2-315, pp. 11–18.

18

Nanjing, 21 July 1959, 4003-2-315, pp. 11–18.

19

Ibid.

20

Yunnan, 29 Nov. 1958, zhongfa (58) 1035, 2-1-3276, pp. 250–3.

21

Nanjing, 14 Aug. 1960, 4003-1-199, p. 2.

22

Nanjing, 21 Nov. 1959, 4003-2-315, p. 32.

23

Gansu, 14 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, pp. 47–8.

24

Guangdong, 5 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, p. 63.

25

Hebei, 15 Aug. 1961, 878-1-6, pp. 31–44.

26

Yunnan, 29 Nov. 1958, zhongfa (58) 1035, 2-1-3276, pp. 250–3.

27

Hebei, 15 April 1959, 855-5-1750, p. 133.

28

Hubei, 25 Feb. 1958, SZ34-4-295, p. 7.

29

Hubei, Sept. 1958, SZ34-4-295, pp. 38–42.

30

Hebei, 17 Dec. 1960, 878-2-8, pp. 8–10.

31

Reports from the State Council and the Ministry of Public Security, Hubei, 6 Feb., 5 June and 10 Nov. 1961, SZ34-5-15, pp. 7–8 and 58–61.

32

Sichuan, Nov.–Dec. 1961, JC1-2756, pp. 84–5.

33

Neibu cankao, 1 May 1960, p. 30.

34

Gansu, 31 Aug. 1960, 91-9-58, pp. 32–7.

35

Hubei, 18 April 1961, SZ34-5-15, p. 9.

36

Hubei, 1961, SZ34-5-15, pp. 9–10.

37

Gansu, 16 June 1961, zhong (61) 420, 91-18-211, pp. 116–19.

38

Yunnan, Aug. 1960, 2-1-4245, p. 55; Yunnan, 10 July 1961, 2-1-4587, p. 83.

39

Yunnan, 10 and 22 July 1961, 2-1-4587, pp. 82 and 112–14.

40

Guangdong, 20 July, 2 Aug. and 23 Nov. 1961, 253-1-11, pp. 44, 51 and 53.

41

Xuancheng, 25 June 1961, 3-1-257, p. 32.

42

Hunan, 12 Dec. 1961, 186-1-587, p. 5.

43

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 12 June 1958 and 14 Jan. 1959, 105-604-1, pp. 21 and 24–30.

44

PRO, London, 28 Feb. 1959, FO371-143870.

45

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 23 Aug. 1961, 106-999-3, pp. 40–55.

46

RGANI, Moscow, 22 May 1962, 5-30-401, p. 39.

47

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 10 May 1962, 118-1100-9, pp. 71–9.

48

RGANI, Moscow, 28 April 1962, 3-18-53, pp. 2–3 and 8–12.

49

RGANI, Moscow, May 1962, 3-16-89, pp. 63–7.

50

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beijing, 30 June 1962, 118-1758-1, pp. 1–8.

51

RGANI, Moscow, 6 Nov. 1964, 5-49-722, pp. 194–7.

52

Hong Kong Annual Report, Hong Kong: Government Printer, 1959, p. 23.

53

ICRC, Geneva, report from J. Duncan Wood, Sept. 1963, BAG 234 048-008.03.

54

Hong Kong Standard, 11 May 1962.

55

According to a defector interviewed by the CIA; see CIA, Washington, 27 July 1962, OCI 2712-62, p. 4; a similar report was carried by the South China Morning Post, 6 June 1962.

56

ICRC, Geneva, report from Paul Calderara, 5 June 1962, BAG 234 048-008.03.

57

Ibid.; see also PRO, Hong Kong, 1958–60, HKRS 518-1-5.

58

Hansard, ‘Hong Kong (Chinese Refugees)’, HC Deb, 28 May 1962, vol. 660, cols 974–7; ICRC, Geneva, report from J. Duncan Wood, Sept. 1963, BAG 234 048-008.03.

59

Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, p. 160.

60

‘Refugee dilemma’, Time, 27 April 1962.

Chapter 28: Children

1

Wujiang, 13 April 1959, 1001-3-92, pp. 63–9.

2

Beijing, 4 and 18 Aug. 1960, 84-1-167, pp. 1–9 and 43–52.

3

Beijing, 31 March 1959, 101-1-132, pp. 26–40.

4

Guangzhou, 9 Jan., 7 March, 29 April, 18 May and 14 Dec. 1959, 16-1-19, pp. 19–24, 51–5, 57–61, 64–6 and 70; on the use of physical punishment in Shanghai see Shanghai, 24 Aug. 1961, A20-1-54, p. 18.

5

Shanghai, 7 May 1961, A20-1-60, p. 64; 24 Aug. 1961, A20-1-54, pp. 16–24.

6

Beijing, 4 Aug. 1960, 84-1-167, pp. 43–52.

7

Beijing, 18 Aug. 1960, 84-1-167, pp. 1–9.

8

Nanjing, 14 Nov. 1961, 5012-3-584, p. 79.

9

Guangzhou, 18 May 1959, 16-1-19, pp. 51–5.

10

Nanjing, 21 April 1960, 4003-2-347, pp. 22–6.

11

Hubei, 25 Dec. 1960, SZ34-5-16, pp. 2–3.

12

Guangdong, 1961, 314-1-208, p. 16.

13

For the rules and regulations in the secondary school system, see Suzanne Pepper, Radicalism and Education Reform in 20th-Century China: The Search for an Ideal Development Model, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 293 ff.

14

Wuhan, 9 April and 26 Dec. 1958, 70-1-767, pp. 33–45.

15

Wuhan, 6 Jan. 1959, 70-1-68, pp. 19–24.

16

Nanjing, 28 Dec. 1958, 4003-1-150, p. 81.

17

Hunan, 2 June 1960, 163-1-1087, pp. 43–5.

18

Sichuan, May 1961, JC1-2346, p. 15.

19

Guangdong, 25 Jan. 1961, 217-1-645, pp. 11–14.

20

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-646, pp. 10–11.

21

Hunan, 8 April 1961, 146-1-583, p. 96.

22

Ibid.

23

Guangdong, 31 Dec. 1960, 217-1-576, pp. 54–68.

24

Hunan, 13 Feb. 1961, 151-1-18, pp. 24–5.

25

Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 60–4.

26

Neibu cankao, 30 Nov. 1960, p. 16.

27

Yunnan, 22 May 1959, 2-1-3700, pp. 93–8.

28

Interview with Ding Qiao’er, born 1951, Huangxian county, Shandong, Dec. 2006.

29

Interview with Liu Shu, born 1946, Renshou county, Sichuan, April 2006.

30

Interview with Li Erjie, born 1922, Chengdu, Sichuan, April 2006.

31

On this phenomenon one should read Robert Dirks, ‘Social Responses during Severe Food Shortages and Famine’, Current Anthropology, vol. 21, no. 1 (Feb. 1981), p. 31.

32

Nanjing, 10 May 1960, 5003-3-722, pp. 27–31.

33

Hebei, 10 Feb. 1960, 855-18-778, p. 36.

34

Interview with Li Erjie, born 1922, Chengdu, Sichuan, April 2006.

35

Nanjing, 4 Jan. 1960, 4003-1-202, p. 1; 21 July, 30 Sept. and 15 Dec. 1959, 4003-2-315, pp. 17, 20, 27 and 36.

36

Nanjing, 4 Jan. 1960, 4003-1-202, p. 1; 21 July, 30 Sept. and 15 Dec. 1959, 4003-2-315, pp. 17, 27 and 36.

37

Nanjing, 20 May 1959, 4003-2-315, pp. 12–14.

38

Wuhan, 20 July 1959, 13-1-765, pp. 72–3; Hubei, 30 Aug. 1961, SZ34-5-16, pp. 35–6.

39

Hubei, 18 Sept. 1961, SZ34-5-16, pp. 41–2.

40

Hebei, 17 Aug. 1961, 878-2-17, pp. 142–5.

41

Hebei, 24 Jan. 1961, 878-2-17, pp. 1–5.

42

Guangdong, 10 Feb. 1961, 217-1-640, pp. 18–28.

43

Sichuan, 1 Oct. 1961, JC44-1432, pp. 89–90; a September 1962 report mentions 200,000 orphans; see JC44-1442, p. 34.

44

Sichuan, 1962, JC44-1440, pp. 46 and 118–19.

45

Sichuan, 1962, JC44-1441, p. 35.

46

Interview with Zhao Xiaobai, born 1948, Lushan county, Henan, May and Dec. 2006.

47

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2768, pp. 27–9.

48

Hubei, 24 April, 30 Aug. and 18 Sept. 1961, SZ34-5-16, pp. 19, 35–6 and 41–2.

49

Yunnan, 16 May 1959, 81-4-25, p. 17.

50

Hunan, 30 June 1964, 187-1-1332, p. 14.

Chapter 29: Women

1

See Dikötter, Exotic Commodities.

2

On this one should read Gao Xiaoxian, ‘ “The Silver Flower Contest”: Rural Women in 1950s China and the Gendered Division of Labour’, Gender and History, vol. 18, no. 3 (Nov. 2006), pp. 594–612.

3

Hunan, 13 March 1961, 146-1-582, pp. 80–1.

4

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2611, p. 3.

5

Hunan, 13 March 1961, 146-1-582, pp. 80–1.

6

Guangdong, 23 March 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 10–13.

7

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-618, pp. 18–41.

8

Guangdong, 2 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 61–6.

9

Beijing, 15 March 1961, 1-28-29, pp. 1–2.

10

Beijing, 10 Feb. 1961, 84-1-180, pp. 1–9.

11

The figure for Hunan was an estimate of ‘gynaecological problems’, defined as prolapse of the uterus or lack of menstrual periods for a duration of at least half a year in working women, excluding those who were too sick actually to work; Shanghai, 1 Feb. 1961, B242-1-1319-15, p. 1; Hunan, 8 Dec. 1960, 212-1-508, p. 90; see also Hebei, 19 Jan. 1961, 878-1-7, pp. 1–4.

12

Hubei, 23 Feb. 1961, SZ1-2-898, pp. 12–17.

13

Guangdong, 6 April 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 1–9.

14

Hebei, 27 June 1961, 880-1-7, pp. 53 and 59.

15

Hebei, 27 April 1961, 880-1-7, p. 88.

16

Hebei, 2 June 1960, 855-9-4006, p. 150.

17

Hunan, 21 Jan. 1961, 146-1-580, p. 45.

18

Hunan, 24 Feb. 1961, 146-1-588, p. 9.

19

Hunan, 1959, 141-1-1322, pp. 2–5 and 14.

20

Neibu cankao, 30 Nov. 1960, p. 17.

21

Kaiping, 24 Sept. 1960, 3-A10-76, p. 19.

22

Kaiping, 6 June 1959, 3-A9-80, p. 6.

23

Sichuan, 18 Aug. 1962, JC44-3927, pp. 2–6.

24

Nanjing, 20 May 1959, 4003-2-315, p. 12.

25

Neibu cankao, 13 Feb. 1961, pp. 14–15.

26

Neibu cankao, 12 June 1961, pp. 9–10.

27

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-618, pp. 18–41.

28

David Arnold, Famine: Social Crisis and Historical Change, Oxford: Blackwell, 1988, p. 89.

Chapter 30: The Elderly

1

Charlotte Ikels, Aging and Adaptation: Chinese in Hong Kong and the United States, Hamden: Archon Books, 1983, p. 17.

2

Macheng, 15 Jan. 1959, 1-1-443, p. 28.

3

Deborah Davis-Friedmann, Long Lives: Chinese Elderly and the Communist Revolution, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991, p. 87, quoting the People’s Daily dated 15 Jan. 1959.

4

Beijing, May 1961, 1-14-666, p. 25.

5

Guangdong, 10 Feb. 1961, 217-1-640, pp. 18–28.

6

Sichuan, 29 Nov. and 24 Dec. 1958, JC1-1294, pp. 71 and 129.

7

Sichuan, 1959, JC44-2786, p. 55.

8

Hunan, 1961, 167-1-1016, pp. 1 and 144.

9

Hunan, 1960, 146-1-520, p. 102.

10

Interview with Jiang Guihua, born 1940, Zhaojue county, Sichuan, April 2007.

11

Hubei, 3 July 1961, SZ18-2-202, p. 70.

Chapter 31: Accidents

1

Hunan, 5 Nov. 1958, 141-1-1051, p. 123.

2

Hunan, 9 March 1959, 163-1-1046, p. 24.

3

Nanjing, 16 April 1959, 4003-1-279, pp. 151–2.

4

Nanjing, 31 Oct. 1959, 5003-3-711, p. 33.

5

Hubei, 5 Jan. 1960, SZ34-4-477, p. 34.

6

Hunan, 16 Jan. and 12 Feb. 1960, 141-1-1655, pp. 54–5 and 66–7.

7

Report from the State Council, Hubei, 3 March 1960, SZ34-4-477, p. 29.

8

Hunan, July 1959, 141-1-1224, pp. 13–14.

9

Chishui, 27 Feb. 1959, 1-A10-25, p. 2.

10

Li, Dayuejin, vol. 2, p. 233.

11

Report by Mao Qihua to the centre, Gansu, 4 Sept. 1960, zhongfa (60) 825, 91-18-154, pp. 99–106; the report estimated that, out of 13,000 casualties, about 5,000 happened in the mining industry.

12

Sichuan, 15 June to 19 Nov. 1962, JC1-3174, pp. 4–6.

13

Hunan, 4 Oct. 1959, 141-1-1258, pp. 12–13; July 1959, 141-1-1224, pp. 13–14.

14

Nanjing, Sept.–Oct. 1959, 5035-2-5, pp. 15–21; 3 Aug. 1961, 9046-1-4, pp. 47–54.

15

Nanjing, 12 Jan. 1959, 5003-3-721, pp. 1–7.

16

Nanjing, 9 Jan. 1959, 4003-1-171, p. 17.

17

Hunan, May 1959, 141-1-1258, pp. 63–4.

18

Hubei, 12 Sept. 1960, SZ34-4-477, pp. 70–81.

19

Gansu, 1 Nov. 1961, 91-9-215, p. 72.

20

Guangdong, 7 Aug. 1961, 219-2-319, pp. 56–68.

21

Gansu, 12 and 16 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, pp. 32 and 84.

Chapter 32: Disease

1

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, pp. 339–40.

2

Nanjing, 7–10 Oct. 1961, 5065-3-467, pp. 33–7 and 58–61.

3

Wuhan, 11 Sept. 1959, 30-1-124, pp. 40–2; 22 June 1959, 28-1-650, pp. 27–8.

4

Sichuan, 18 Jan. 1961, JC1-2418, p. 2; also JC1-2419, p. 43.

5

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2419, p. 46.

6

Sichuan, 1960, JC133-220, p. 137.

7

Guangdong, 30 Oct. 1961, 235-1-255, pp. 170 and 179; Shanghai, 28 July and 24 Aug. 1961, B242-1-1285, pp. 28–37 and 46–9.

8

Sichuan, 1960, JC1-2007, pp. 38–9.

9

A systematic analysis of all county gazetteers appears in Cao Shuji, Da jihuang: 1959–1961 nian de Zhongguo renkou (The Great Famine: China’s population in 1959–1961), Hong Kong: Shidai guoji chuban youxian gongsi, 2005, and a good example is p. 128.

10

Hunan, 5 Jan. 1959, 141-1-1220, pp. 2–3; 1962, 265-1-309, pp. 4–5.

11

Nanjing, 6 April 1959, 4003-1-171, p. 138.

12

Nanjing, 25 Oct. 1959, 5003-3-727, pp. 19–21.

13

Hubei, 1961, SZ1-2-898, pp. 18–45.

14

Shanghai, 18 Oct. 1959, B242-1-1157, pp. 23–6.

15

Wuxi, 1961, B1-2-164, pp. 58–66.

16

Hubei, 25 Feb. and 7 July 1961, SZ1-2-898, pp. 7–11 and 45–9.

17

Hunan, 25 Nov. 1960, 265-1-260, p. 85; 8 Dec. 1960, 212-1-508, p. 163.

18

Nanjing, 27 Aug. 1959, 5003-3-727, p. 88.

19

Hubei, 6 June 1961, SZ1-2-906, p. 29; 21 July 1961, SZ1-2-898, pp. 49–52.

20

Nanjing, 3 April 1959, 5003-3-727, p. 67.

21

Wuhan, 19 Feb. 1962, 71-1-1400, pp. 18–21.

22

Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 60–4.

23

Guangdong, 1959, 217-1-69, pp. 95–100.

24

Zhejiang, 10 May 1960, J165-10-66, pp. 1–5.

25

Sichuan, 9 July 1960, JC133-219, p. 106.

26

Wuhan, 16 Aug. 1961, 71-1-1400, pp. 9–10.

27

Interview with Li Dajun, born 1947, Xixian county, Henan, Oct. 2006.

28

Nanjing, 1961, 5065-3-381, pp. 53–4.

29

Shanghai, 11 May 1961, B242-1-1285, pp. 1–3.

30

Wuhan, 30 June 1959, 30-1-124, pp. 31–3.

31

Wuhan, 1 July 1960, 28-1-650, p. 31.

32

Wuhan, 30 June 1959, 30-1-124, pp. 31–3.

33

Sichuan, 16 May 1960, JC1-2115, pp. 57–8.

34

Sichuan, 1960, JC1-2114, p. 8.

35

Sichuan, 1959, JC9-448, pp. 46–7.

36

Sichuan, 1959, all of JC44-2786.

37

Report from the Ministry of Health, Hubei, 24 April 1960, SZ115-2-355, pp. 10–13.

38

Hunan, 11 May 1960, 163-1-1082, pp. 26–8.

39

A good description appears in Jung Chang, Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China, Clearwater, FL: Touchstone, 2003, p. 232.

40

Warren Belasco, ‘Algae Burgers for a Hungry World? The Rise and Fall of Chlorella Cuisine’, Technology and Culture, vol. 38, no. 3 (July 1997), pp. 608–34.

41

Jean Pasqualini, Prisoner of Mao, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973, pp. 216–19.

42

Beijing, 1 Feb. 1961, 1-14-790, p. 109.

43

Barna Talás, ‘China in the Early 1950s’, in Näth, Communist China in Retrospect, pp. 58–9.

44

Interview with Yan Shifu, born 1948, Zhiyang, Sichuan, April 2007.

45

Interview with Zhu Erge, born 1950, Jianyang, Sichuan, April 2007.

46

Hebei, 30 April and Aug. 1960, 855-18-777, pp. 167–8; 855-18-778, pp. 124–5.

47

Reports from the Ministry of Health, Hubei, March and Dec. 1960, SZ115-2-355, pp. 12–15.

48

Beijing, 14 April 1961, 2-13-135, pp. 5–6.

49

Interview with Meng Xiaoli, born 1943, Qianjiang county, Hubei, Aug. 2006.

50

Interview with Zhao Xiaobai, born 1948, Lushan county, Henan, May and Dec. 2006.

51

Interview with Zhu Erge, born 1950, Jianyang, Sichuan, April 2007.

52

Beijing, 3 July 1961, 2-1-136, pp. 23–4.

53

Sichuan, 1960, JC133-219, p. 154.

54

Sichuan, Oct. 1961, JC1-2418, p. 168; 1962, JC44-1441, p. 27.

55

Sichuan, 31 Aug. 1961, JC1-2620, pp. 177–8.

56

Interview with He Guanghua, born 1940, Pingdingshan, Henan, Oct. 2006.

57

How hunger works is ably analysed in Sharman Apt Russell, Hunger: An Unnatural History, New York: Basic Books, 2005.

58

Wu Ningkun and Li Yikai, A Single Tear: A Family’s Persecution, Love, and Endurance in Communist China, New York: Back Bay Books, 1994, p. 130.

59

Guangdong, 23 March 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 10–13.

60

Shanghai, Jan.–Feb. 1961, B242-1-1285, pp. 1–3 and 17–27.

61

Hebei, 1961, 878-1-7, pp. 12–14.

62

Hebei, 21 Jan. 1961, 855-19-855, p. 103.

Chapter 33: The Gulag

1

‘Shanghai shi dongjiaoqu renmin fayuan xingshi panjueshu: 983 hao’, private collection, Frank Dikötter.

2

Forty per cent were sentenced to a term of one to five years, 25 per cent were put under supervision; Nanjing, 8 June 1959, 5003-3-722, p. 83.

3

See Frank Dikötter, ‘Crime and Punishment in Post-Liberation China: The Prisoners of a Beijing Gaol in the 1950s’, China Quarterly, no. 149 (March 1997), pp. 147–59.

4

Papers from the tenth national conference on national security, Gansu, 8 April 1960, zhongfa (60) 318, 91-18-179, pp. 11–12.

5

Hebei, 1962, 884-1-223, p. 149.

6

Hebei, 23 Oct. 1960, 884-1-183, p. 4.

7

Guangdong, 1961, 216-1-252, pp. 5–7 and 20.

8

Gansu, 3 Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, pp. 291–2; the novelist Yang Xianhui vividly described the conditions in the camp on the basis of interviews with survivors, and estimated that 1,300 out of 2,400 prisoners perished, which is confirmed by the Gansu archives; Yang Xianhui, Jiabiangou jishi: Yang Xianhui zhong-duan pian xiaoshuo jingxuan (A record of Jiabian Valley: A selection of stories by Yang Xianhui), Tianjin: Tianjin guji chubanshe, 2002, p. 356.

9

Report from the provincial Public Security Bureau, Gansu, 26 June 1960, 91-9-63, pp. 1–4.

10

Gansu, 15 Jan. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 62.

11

Hebei, 1962, 884-1-223, p. 150.

12

Papers from the tenth national conference on national security, Gansu, 8 April 1960, zhongfa (60) 318, 91-18-179, p. 26.

13

Ibid.

14

Ibid., pp. 11–12.

15

Speech on 21 Aug. 1958, Hunan, 141-1-1036, p. 29.

16

Hebei, 27 June 1959, 884-1-183, p. 128.

17

Papers from the tenth national conference on national security, Gansu, 8 April 1960, zhongfa (60) 318, 91-18-179, p. 26.

18

Hebei, 16 April 1961, 884-1-202, pp. 35–47.

19

Yunnan, 22 May 1959, 2-1-3700, pp. 93–8.

20

Guangdong, 2 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 61–6.

21

Kaiping, 22 Sept. 1960, 3-A10-31, p. 10.

22

Neibu cankao, 30 Nov. 1960, p. 16.

23

Guangdong, 15 Aug. 1961, 219-2-318, p. 120.

24

Beijing, 11 Jan. 1961, 1-14-790, p. 17.

25

This is also the estimate of Jean-Luc Domenach, who has written what remains the most detailed and reliable history of the camp system in China; Jean-Luc Domenach, L’Archipel oublié, Paris: Fayard, 1992, p. 242.

Chapter 34: Violence

1

Beijing, 13 May 1959, 1-14-574, pp. 38–40.

2

Interview with Li Popo, born 1938, Langzhong county, Sichuan, April 2007.

3

Neibu cankao, 27 June 1960, pp. 11–12.

4

Guangdong, 25 Jan. 1961, 217-1-645, p. 13.

5

Guangdong, 30 Dec. 1960, 217-1-576, p. 78.

6

Guangdong, 5 Feb. 1961, 217-1-645, pp. 35–49.

7

Hunan, 3 April 1961, 151-1-24, p. 6.

8

Hunan, 1960, 146-1-520, pp. 97–106.

9

Hunan, 8 April 1961, 146-1-583, p. 96.

10

Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 25–8.

11

Hebei, 4 Jan. 1961, 880-1-11, p. 30.

12

Hunan, 1960, 146-1-520, pp. 97–106.

13

Guangdong, 16 April 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 123–31; 25 Jan. 1961, 217-1-646, pp. 15–17.

14

Xinyang diwei zuzhi chuli bangongshi, ‘Guanyu diwei changwu shuji Wang Dafu tongzhifan suo fan cuowu ji shishi cailiao’, 5 Jan. 1962, pp. 1–2.

15

Guangdong, 16 April 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 123–31.

16

This happened in Rongxian; Sichuan, 1962, JC1-3047, pp. 37–8.

17

Guangdong, 16 April 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 123–31; 25 Jan. 1961, 217-1-646, pp. 15–17.

18

Guangdong, 23 March 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 10–13.

19

Hunan, 15 Nov. 1960, 141-1-1672, pp. 32–3.

20

Neibu cankao, 21 Oct. 1960, p. 12; Sichuan, 25 May 1959, JC1-1721, p. 3.

21

Guangdong, 23 March 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 10–13.

22

Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 60–4.

23

Hebei, 27 June 1961, 880-1-7, p. 55.

24

Sichuan, 27 Jan. 1961, JC1-2606, p. 65; 1960, JC1-2116, p. 105.

25

Guangdong, 12 Dec. 1960, 217-1-643, pp. 33–43.

26

Guangdong, 23 March 1961, 217-1-642, p. 33.

27

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 32–8.

28

Guangdong, 29 Jan. 1961, 217-1-618, pp. 42–6; also Hebei, 27 June 1961, 880-1-7, p. 55.

29

Hunan, 3 and 14 April 1961, 151-1-24, pp. 1–13 and 59–68; also 3 Feb. 1961, 146-1-582, p. 22.

30

Neibu cankao, 21 Oct. 1960, p. 12.

31

Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 60–4.

32

Neibu cankao, 30 Nov. 1960, p. 17.

33

Hunan, 3 Feb. 1961, 146-1-582, p. 22.

34

Hunan, 10 Aug. 1961, 146-1-579, pp. 32–3.

35

Sichuan, 1960, JC1-2112, p. 4.

36

Guangdong, 16 April 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 123–31; 25 Jan. 1961, 217-1-646, pp. 15–17.

37

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 32–8; 1961, 217-1-618, pp. 18–41, in particular pp. 21 and 35.

38

Hunan, 1961, 151-1-20, pp. 34–5.

39

Interview with Mr Leung, born 1949, Zhongshan county, Guangdong, 13 July 2006.

40

Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 60–4.

41

Hunan, 8 April 1961, 146-1-583, p. 96; also 12 May 1960, 146-1-520, pp. 69–75.

42

Hunan, Sept. 1959, 141-1-1117, pp. 1–4.

43

Macheng, 20 Jan. 1959, 1-1-378, p. 24; Guangdong, 1960, 217-1-645, pp. 60–4; Neibu cankao, 30 Nov. 1960, p. 17.

44

Beijing, 7 Jan. 1961, 1-14-790, p. 10.

45

Hunan, 1961, 151-1-20, pp. 34–5.

46

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 32–8.

47

Report by Xu Qiwen, Hunan, 12 March 1961, 141-1-1899, pp. 216–22.

48

Yunnan, 9 Dec. 1960, 2-1-4157, p. 171.

49

Report by provincial party committee work team, Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2616, pp. 110–11.

50

Hunan, 15 Nov. 1960, 141-2-125, p. 1.

51

Hunan, 8 April 1961, 146-1-583, p. 95.

52

Report by Xu Qiwen, Hunan, 12 March 1961, 141-1-1899, p. 222.

53

Xinyang diwei zuzhi chuli bangongshi, ‘Guanyu diwei changwu shuji Wang Dafu tongzhifan suo fan cuowu ji shishi cailiao’, 5 Jan. 1962, pp. 1–2.

54

Sichuan, 5 Jan. 1961, JC1-2604, p. 35.

55

Speeches on 21 and 24 Aug. 1958, Hunan, 141-1-1036, pp. 24–5 and 31.

56

Speech by Li Jingquan on 5 April 1962, Sichuan, JC1-2809, p. 11.

57

Hunan, 4 Feb. 1961, 151-1-20, p. 14.

58

Hunan, 1961, 151-1-20, pp. 34–5.

59

Report from central inspection committee, Hunan, 15 Nov. 1960, 141-2-125, p. 3.

60

Sichuan, 29 Nov. 1960, JC1-2109, p. 118.

61

Hunan, 4 Feb. 1961, 151-1-20, p. 14.

62

Ibid., pp. 12–13.

63

Yunnan, 9 Dec. 1960, 2-1-4157, p. 170.

64

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-644, pp. 32–8.

65

Sichuan, 2 May 1960, JC1-2109, pp. 10 and 51.

66

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2610, p. 4.

67

Interview with Wei Shu, born 1920s, Langzhong county, Sichuan, April 2006.

68

Sichuan, 1960, JC133-219, pp. 49 and 131.

69

Adam Tooze, The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy, New York: Allen Lane, 2006, pp. 530–1.

70

Guangdong, 8 May 1960, 217-1-575, pp. 26–8.

71

Sichuan, 3 May 1959, JC1-1686, p. 43.

72

Yunnan, 22 May 1959, 2-1-3700, pp. 93–4.

73

Guangdong, 5 Feb. 1961, 217-1-119, p. 44.

74

Guangdong, 2 Jan. 1961, 217-1-643, pp. 61–6.

75

Kaiping, 6 June 1959, 3-A9-80, p. 6.

76

Nanjing, 15 Sept. 1959, 5003-3-721, p. 70.

77

Nanjing, 8 May 1959, 5003-3-721, p. 12.

Chapter 35: Sites of Horror

1

Hunan, 6 Aug. 1961, 146-1-579, pp. 5–6.

2

Material quoted in Yang, Mubei, pp. 901–3.

3

Gansu, 5 July 1965, 91-5-501, pp. 4–5.

4

Ibid., p. 24.

5

Ibid., pp. 5–7.

6

Ibid., p. 7.

7

Gansu, 12 Jan. 1961, 91-4-735, p. 79.

8

Gansu, 10 Feb. 1960, 91-4-648, entire file; 24 March 1960, 91-4-647, entire file.

9

Gansu, 21 April 1960, 91-18-164, pp. 153–60.

10

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2608, pp. 1–3 and 21–2; 1961, JC1-2605, pp. 147–55.

11

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2605, p. 171.

12

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2606, pp. 2–3.

13

Reports by Yang Wanxuan, Sichuan, 22 and 27 Jan. 1961, JC1-2606, pp. 48–9 and 63–4; also 25 and 27 Jan. 1961, JC1-2608, pp. 83–8 and 89–90.

14

Sichuan, 8 Dec. 1958, JC1-1804, pp. 35–7.

15

Sichuan, 4 April 1961, JC12-1247, pp. 7–14.

16

Report from the supervisory committee, Chishui, 1961, 2-A6-2, pp. 25–6.

17

Chishui, 30 Sept. 1958, 1-A9-4, pp. 30–1; 14 Jan. 1961, 1-A12-1, pp. 83–7; Dec. 1960, 1-A11-30, pp. 67–71; also 25 April 1960, 1-A11-39, pp. 11–15.

18

Chishui, 9 May 1960, 1-A11-9, pp. 5–9.

19

Guizhou, 1960, 90-1-2234, p. 24.

20

Guizhou, 1962, 90-1-2708, printed pages 1–6.

21

Chishui, 9 May 1960, 1-A11-9, pp. 5–9.

22

Letter from Nie Rongzhen to Mao Zedong sent from Chengdu, Gansu, 16 March 1960, 91-9-134, p. 2.

23

Shandong, 1962, A1-2-1130, pp. 39–44.

24

Shandong, 1962, A1-2-1127, pp. 7–11.

25

Report by Tan Qilong to Shu Tong and Mao Zedong, Shandong, 11 April 1959, A1-1-465, p. 25.

26

Confession by Shu Tong, Shandong, 10 Dec. 1960, A1-1-634, p. 23.

27

Ibid., p. 9.

28

Letter by Yang Xuanwu on Shu Tong to the provincial party committee, Shandong, 9 April 1961, A1-2-980, p. 15; see also 1961, A1-2-1025, pp. 9–10.

29

This is the estimate of a group of official party historians from Fuyang: Fuyang shiwei dangshi yanjiushi (eds), Zhengtu: Fuyang shehuizhuyi shiqi dangshi zhuanti huibian (Compendium of special topics on the party history of Fuyang during the socialist era), Fuyang: Anhui jingshi wenhua chuanbo youxian zeren gongsi, 2007, p. 155.

30

Fuyang, 17 Aug. 1961, J3-2-280, p. 114.

31

Fuyang, 12 March 1961, J3-1-228, p. 20; 18 Aug. 1961, J3-2-280, p. 126.

32

Fuyang, 10 Jan. 1961, J3-2-278, p. 85.

33

Ibid., p. 86.

34

Fuyang, 12 Aug. 1961, J3-1-228, p. 96b.

35

Fuyang, 17 Aug. 1961, J3-2-280, p. 115.

36

Fuyang, 10 Jan. 1961, J3-2-278, p. 86.

37

Fuyang, 30 Jan. 1961, J3-2-278, pp. 2–9.

38

Confession by Hao Ruyi, leader of Jieshou, Fuyang, 10 Jan. 1961, J3-2-280, p. 48.

39

Ibid.

40

Confession by Zhao Song, leader of Linquan, 15 Feb. 1961, Fuyang, J3-2-280, p. 91.

41

Fuyang, 6 Jan. 1961, J3-1-227, pp. 54–5.

42

Fuyang, 12 June 1961, J3-2-279, p. 15.

43

Fuyang, 20 March 1961, J3-2-278, pp. 67 and 69.

44

Ibid.

45

Fuyang, 29 Feb. 1961, J3-2-278, p. 64.

46

Report from party secretary Liu Daoqian to the regional party committee, Fuyang, 6 Jan. 1961, J3-1-227, pp. 54–5.

Chapter 36: Cannibalism

1

Yunnan, 28 Feb. 1959, 2-1-3700, p. 103.

2

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-646, pp. 25–30.

3

Xili county was a combination, at the time, of Lixian county and Xihe county; police report to the Ministry of Public Security, Gansu, 13 April 1961, 91-9-215, p. 94.

4

Ibid.

5

Report by work group sent by the provincial party committee, Shandong, 1961, A1-2-1025, p. 7.

6

Confession by Zhang Zhongliang, Gansu, 3 Dec. 1960, 91-18-140, p. 19.

7

Confession by Shu Tong, Shandong, 10 Dec. 1960, A1-1-634, p. 10.

8

Minutes of county party committee meeting, Chishui, 9 Dec. 1960, 1-A11-34, pp. 83 and 96.

9

Neibu cankao, 14 April 1960, pp. 25–6.

10

Gansu, Jan.–Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 271.

11

Gansu, 3 March 1961, 91-4-898, pp. 82–7.

12

Sichuan, 1961, JC1-2608, pp. 93 and 96–7.

13

Very much the same happened in the Soviet Union; see Bertrand M. Patenaude, The Big Show in Bololand: The American Relief Expedition to Soviet Russia in the Famine of 1921, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002, p. 262.

Chapter 37: The Final Tally

1

Basil Ashton, Kenneth Hill, Alan Piazza and Robin Zeitz, ‘Famine in China, 1958–61’, Population and Development Review, vol. 10, no. 4 (Dec. 1984), pp. 613–45.

2

Judith Banister, ‘An Analysis of Recent Data on the Population of China’, Population and Development Review, vol. 10, no. 2 (June 1984), pp. 241–71.

3

Peng Xizhe, ‘Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China’s Provinces’, Population and Development Review, vol. 13, no. 4 (Dec. 1987), pp. 639–70; Chang and Holliday, Mao, p. 438.

4

Yang, Mubei, p. 904.

5

Cao, Da jihuang, p. 281.

6

Becker, Hungry Ghosts, pp. 271–2.

7

Hubei, 1962, SZ34-5-143, entire file.

8

Hubei, March 1962, SZ34-5-16, p. 43.

9

Gansu, 16 March 1962, 91-9-274, p. 1; followed by a reminder sent on 24 May 1962 on p. 5.

10

Fuyang, 1961, J3-1-235, p. 34.

11

Sichuan, Nov.–Dec. 1961, JC1-2756, p. 54.

12

Sichuan, Oct. 1961, JC1-2418, p. 106.

13

Sichuan, 2 Nov. 1959, JC1-1808, p. 166.

14

Hebei, 10 Jan. 1961, 856-1-221, pp. 31–2; 17 Dec. 1960, 858-18-777, pp. 96–7.

15

Hebei, 29 Dec. 1960, 855-18-777, pp. 126–7.

16

Sichuan, May–June 1962, JC67-4; also in JC67-1003, p. 3.

17

Sichuan, 23 Feb. 1963, JC67-112, pp. 9–12.

18

Yunnan, 16 May 1959, 81-4-25, p. 17; for the average death rate in 1957 see Zhongguo tongji nianjian, 1984, Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe, 1984, p. 83; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 191.

19

Speech by Liu Shaoqi, May 1961, Hunan, 141-1-1901, p. 120.

20

Hebei, 21 Jan. 1961, 855-19-855, pp. 100–4; on Hu Kaiming, see Yu, Dayuejin ku rizi, pp. 451–75.

21

Cao, Da jihuang, p. 234.

22

Hebei, 19 Jan. 1961, 878-1-7, pp. 1–4; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 246.

23

Hebei, 19 Jan. 1961, 878-1-7, pp. 1–4; Cao, Da jihuang, pp. 240 and 246.

24

Gansu, Jan.–Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 57; Cao, Da jihuang, pp. 271 and 465.

25

Gansu, Jan.–Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 94; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 273.

26

Gansu, Jan.–Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 107; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 275.

27

Gansu, Jan.–Feb. 1961, 91-18-200, p. 45; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 275.

28

Guizhou, 1962, 90-1-2706, printed page 19.

29

Chishui, 14 Jan. 1961, 1-A12-1, pp. 83–7; Dec. 1960, 1-A11-30, pp. 67–71; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 158.

30

Chishui, 9 May 1960, 1-A11-9, pp. 5–9; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 164.

31

Report on Yanhe county, Guizhou, 1961, 90-1-2270, printed page 1; Cao mentions 24,000 premature deaths for the Tongren region as a whole; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 166.

32

Shandong, 1962, A1-2-1127, p. 46; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 219.

33

Shandong, 1962, A1-2-1130, p. 42.

34

Shandong, 7 June 1961, A1-2-1209, p. 110; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 231.

35

Guangdong, 1961, 217-1-644, p. 72; Cao, Da jihuang, p. 129.

36

Guangdong, 20 Jan. 1961, 217-1-644, p. 61; Cao, Da jihuang, pp. 126–8.

37

Hunan, June and 28 Aug. 1964, 141-1-2494, pp. 74 and 81–2.

38

Ministry of Public Security report on population statistics, 16 Nov. 1963, Chishui, 1-A14-15, pp. 2–3.

39

Report by Central Census Office, 26 May 1964, Chishui, 1-A15-15, pp. 6–7.

40

Becker, Hungry Ghosts, p. 272.

41

Yu, Dayuejin ku rizi, p. 8.

Epilogue

1

Liu’s speech on 27 Jan. 1962, Gansu, 91-18-493, pp. 58–60 and 62.

2

Li, Private Life of Chairman Mao, p. 386.

3

Lin Biao speech, Gansu, 29 Jan. 1962, 91-18-493, pp. 163–4.

4

Zhou Enlai speech, Gansu, 7 Feb. 1962, 91-18-493, p. 87.

5

Liu Yuan, ‘Mao Zedong wei shenma yao dadao Liu Shaoqi’, quoted in Gao, Zhou Enlai, pp. 97–8. For a slightly different version from Liu’s wife, see Huang, Wang Guangmei fangtan lu, p. 288.

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