BI (York) - Borthwick Institute, University of York, UK

BL - British Library, London

Bodleian - Bodleian Library, Oxford

CKS - Centre for Kentish Studies, Maidstone, UK

ECRO - Essex County Record Office, Chelmsford, UK

LAO - Lincolnshire Archives, Lincoln, UK

LDRO - Diocesan Record Office, Lichfield, UK LPL Lambeth Palace Library, London

LRCRO - Leicestershire and Rutland County Record Office, Leicester

NAK - National Archives, Kew, UK

NAN - Nottinghamshire Archives, Nottingham, UK

NDRO - North Devon Record Office, Barnstaple, UK

Norfolk RO - Norfolk Record Office, Norwich, UK

Northants RO     Northamptonshire Record Office, Northampton, UK

PRONI - Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast

SROB - Suffolk Record Office, Bury St. Edmunds, UK

U Nott - University of Nottingham, Manuscripts and Special Collections


Archives Départementales de la Charente-Maritime, La Rochelle, France

Armagh County Museum, Armagh, Northern Ireland

Armagh Robinson Public Library, Armagh, Northern Ireland

Cambridge University Archives, University Library, Cambridge, UK

Christ’s College, College Archives, Cambridge, UK

Corpus Christi College, Muniment Room, Cambridge, UK

Doncaster Archives, Doncaster, Yorkshire, UK

Guildhall Library, Manuscript Collections, London

Lancashire Record Office, Preston, UK

London Metropolitan Archives

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston

Massachusetts State Archives, Boston

St. John’s College, College Archives, Cambridge, UK

Sheffield Archives, Sheffield, Yorkshire, UK

York Minster Archives, York, UK


HMC - Historical Manuscripts Commission

NEHGR - New England Historical and Genealogical Register

ODNB - Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

PCC - Prerogative Court of Canterbury

PMHS - Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society


1. Robert Ryece to John Winthrop, Aug. 12, 1629, in Massachusetts Historical Society, Winthrop Papers (Boston, 1931), vol. 2, p. 130.


1. John Winter to Robert Trelawny, Richmond Island, Me., June 18, 1634, in Trelawny Papers, ed. James Phinney Baxter (Portland, ME, 1884), p. 29.

2. Beaver fur prices and ecology: See chapters 12 and 17, below. Land in England: Eric Kerridge, “The Movement of Rent, 1540–1640,” Economic History Review, n.s., 6, no. 1 (1953), pp. 24–31; and Robert C. Allen, “The Price of Freehold Land and the Interest Rate in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 41, no. 1

3. Mark V. Stalmaster, The Bald Eagle (New York, 1987), pp. 23–25, 41–42, 56–64, and 113–15.

4. The name Kennebec: Fannie Hardy Eckstorm, Indian Place Names of the Penobscot Valley and the Maine Coast (1941; repr., Orono, ME, 1977), pp. 142–43; and Gordon M. Day, “A St. Francis Abenaki Vocabulary,” International Journal of American Linguistics 30, no. 4 (Oct. 1964), p. 384. Eastern Abenaki: Dean R. Snow, “Eastern Abenaki,” in Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 15, Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger (Washington, DC, 1978), pp. 137–48.

5. “The Description of the Countrey of Mawooshen, c. 1606–7,” in The English New England Voyages, 1602–1608, ed. David B. Quinn and Alison M. Quinn (London, 1983), pp. 469–76.

6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey of Somerset County, Maine, Southern Part (1972), p. 16. digitized soil maps from USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Web Soil Survey; and Howard S. Russell, A Long, Deep Furrow: Three Centuries of Farming in New England (Hanover, NH, 1976), pp. 42 and 132–33.

7. For the excavation report, see Ellen R. Cowie, “Continuity and Change at Contact-Period Norridgewock” (Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 2002), esp. pp. 15–39 an 336–72. Dr. Cowie led the archaeological investigations carried out in the central Kennebec valley between 1988 and 1995 by the University of Maine at Farmington. Although it has not yet been possible to prove with physical data that maize was cultivated at Naragooc before contact with Europeans, Cowie believes that it probably was, and I have assumed the same. On the important debate about the northern limit of Abenaki maize farming and its earliest date, see Elizabeth S. Chilton, “So Little Maize, So Much Time: Understanding Maize Adoption in New England,” Current Northeast Palaeobotany II, ed. John P. Hart, New York State Museum Bulletin 512 (2008), pp. 53–58.

8. Râle’s lexicon: Sebastian Râle, “A Dictionary of the Abnaki Language of North America,” ed. John Pickering, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, n.s., 1 (1833); and Day, “St. Francis Abenaki Vocabulary.” Taste of beaver: Christopher Levett, A Voyage into New England (London, 1628), reprinted in J. P. Baxter, Christopher Levett of York: The Pioneer Colonist in Casco Bay (Portland, ME, 1893), p. 110.

9. Canoes: David S. Cook, Above the Gravel Bar: the Native Canoe Routes of Maine (Solon, ME, 2007). Birch trees: Charles V. Cogbill et al., “The Forests of Presettlement New England, USA: Spatial and Compositional Patterns,” Journal of Biogeography 29 (2002), pp. 1279–1304.

10. On English archives relating to Barnstaple, the White Angel and the Pleasure, and the beaver fur trade in 1628, see chapter 19 below. The English on the coast of Maine: Henry S. Burrage, The Beginnings of Colonial Maine, 1602–1658 (Portland, ME, 1914), pp. 178–96; and Edwin A. Churchill, “English Beachheads in Seventeenth-Century Maine,” in Maine: The Pine Tree State from Prehistory to the Present, ed. Richard W. Judd et al. (Orono, ME, 1995), pp. 51–57.

11. Cushnoc excavations, 1985–87: Leon E. Cranmer, Cushnoc: The History and Archaeology of Plymouth Colony Traders on the Kennebec (Augusta, ME, 1990), pp. 39–66 and 81–88. Kennebec patent: Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), pp. 201–2.

12. Hakluyt (1584), in The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts, ed. E. G. R. Taylor (London, 1935), vol. 2, p. 274.

13. R. G. Thwaites, ed., Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, vol. 36, Lower Canada, Abenakis, 1650–1651 (Cleveland, 1899), pp. 83–102.

14. Colonial State Papers (American), CO 1/6, fols. 106–10, depositions regarding Edwar Ashley, NAK.

15. Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, A Dedication to Sir Philip Sidney (c. 1610), in The Prose Works of Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, ed. J. Gouws, (Oxford, 1986), pp. 69–70.


1. John Bainbridge, An Astronomicall Description of the Late Comet from the 18 of November 1618 to the 16 of December Following, with Certaine Morall Prognosticks Drawn from the Comets Motion (London, 1619), pp. 9–10, 19, and 33. Cambridge student: Memoirs of Sir Simonds D’Ewes, Harleian MS 646, fol. 42, BL. French journalist: Estienne Richer, Le Mercure françois (Paris, 1620), vol. 5, pp. 290–92.

2. Kepler and the comet: Gary W. Kronk, Cometography: A Catalog of Comets (Cambridge, UK, 1999), vol. 1, pp. 338–41. Grassi and Galileo: Stillman Drake and C. D. O’Malley, eds., The Controversy on the Comets of 1618 (Philadelphia, 1960), pp. 6–7 and 360.

3. A. B. Hinds, ed., Calendar of State Papers (Venetian), vol. 15, 1617–19 (London, 1909), p. 366.

4. Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of the Indians of New England (1643), in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society for the Year 1794 (Boston, 1810), vol. 3, pp. 217–18.

5. Kathleen J. Bragdon, Native People of Southern New England, 1500–1650 (Norman, OK, 1996), pp. 191–93. Ojibwa legends: Thor Conway, “The Conjurer’s Lodge: Celestial Narratives from Algonkian Shamans,” in Earth & Sky: Visions of the Cosmos in Native American Folklore, ed. Ray A. Williamson and Claire R. Farrer (Albuquerque, NM, 1992), pp. 236–37 and 242–44.

6. Edward Johnson, The Wonder-Working Providence of Sions Saviour: Being a Relation of the First Planting in New England in the Yeare 1628 (New York, 1910), chap. 7.

7. Bainbridge entry in ODNB.

8. Bainbridge, Astronomicall Description, pp. 31–32.

9. Thomas Birch, The Court and Times of James I, Illustrated by Authentic and Confidential Letters (London, 1848), p. 109.

10. Anthony Milton, ed., The British Delegation and the Synod of Dort (Woodbridge, UK, 2005), p. 190.

11. Aaron Burckhart, Cometen Predigt als in diesem 1618 Jahre in Novembr (Magdeburg, 1618), title page.

12. Conrad Dieterich, Ulmische Cometen Predigte (Ulm, 1619), p. 32.

13. Milton, British Delegation, p. 191.

14. W. B. Patterson, King James VI and I and the Reunion of Christendom (Cambridge, UK, 2000), pp. 191–93 and 268–69.

15. Will of William Staresmore (1636), Archdeaconry of Leicester wills, LRCRO; and baptism of Sabine Staresmore, Aug. 31, 1582, Frolesworth Parish Register, DE 4087/1, LRCRO. Also, William Burton, The Description of Leicester Shire (London, 1622), pp. 109–12.

16. Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York 1979), pp. 353–59.

17. Will of Sir John Wolstenholme (1639), PROB/11/181, PCC Wills, NAK. Also, S. M. Kingsbury, ed., The Records of the Virginia Company of London (Washington, DC, 1906–35), vol. 1, pp. 310–11, Feb. 16, 1620. Estimate of twenty pounds as the annual income of a skilled craftsman is based on the sixteen pence paid daily to tapestry weavers by the Crown. Wolstenholme’s papers: Notes on the East India trade, CO 77/1(East Indies), fols. 196–99, and CO 77/2, fols. 68–73, NAK.

18. For the diplomatic correspondence, see Nov. 13 and Dec. 21, 1617, State Papers (France), SP 78/67, fols. 206 and 230, NAK; State Papers (Holland), SP 84/81, fols. 40–43, NAK; and W. N. Sainsbury, ed., Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, East Indies, 1617–1621 (London, 1870), pp. 41, 42, and 69.

19. Petition of Jan. or Feb. 1618, in The Works of Samuel de Champlain, ed. H. P. Biggar (Toronto, 1925), vol. 2, pp. 329–45.

20. Pitiscus, Trigonometry; or, the Doctrine of Triangles, trans. Rafe Handson (London, 1614), dedication.

21. On Briggs, see typescript notes on fellows of St. John’s College, Cambridge, St. John’s College Library, and St. John’s College Rentals for 1604–5, College Archives; Briggs’s will, proved Feb. 11, 1631, PROB/11/159, PCC, NAK; D. M. Hallowes, “Henry Briggs, Mathematician,” Transactions of the Halifax Antiquarian Society (1962), pp. 87–89.

22. On James and Buckingham, see Jan. 31, 1618, SP 14/95/28, NAK.

23. On the silent revolution, see N. E. McClure, ed., The Letters of John Chamberlain (Philadelphia, 1939), vol. 2, pp. 124–26, Jan. 3, 1618; HMC, Downshire Manuscripts, vol. 6, Papers of William Trumbull, 1616–1618 (London, 1995), pp. 342–43 and 357; and John Cramsie, Kingship and Crown Finance Under James I, 1603–1625 (London, 2002), pp. 142–63.

24. Pirates: State Papers (Spain), SP 94/22, fol. 178, Aug. 22, 1617, and SP 94/22, fol. 236, Dec. 14, 1617, NAK. Spanish rearmament: SP 14/95/22, Jan. 18, 1618, NAK. Navy: N. A. M. Rodger, The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain, 660–1649 (London, 2004), pp. 368–70.

25. Smith to Francis Bacon, in The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580–1631, ed. Philip E. Barbour (Chapel Hill, NC, 1986), vol. 1, p. 378.

26. Edward Winslow, Hypocrisie Unmasked (1646), in Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, ed. Alexander Young (Boston, 1844; repr. Baltimore, 1974), pp. 382–83.

27. Naunton: Material referred to in note 17, above; and Roy E. Schreiber, The Political Career of Sir Robert Naunton (London, 1981), pp. 45–54 and 132. Greville, Coke, and Naunton: HMC, 12th Report, app. pt. 1, Manuscripts of the Earl Cowper at Melbourne Hall (London, 1888), vol. 1, p. 110.

28. Thomas Locke to William Trumbull, Aug. 28, 1618, in HMC, Downshire Manuscripts, vol. 6, p. 487.

29. Thomas Scott, Vox Populi; or, News from Spayne (1620?), pp. 1–3, 1103.C.12, BL.


1. Quoted in Sir John Rennie, An Historical, Practical, and Theoretical Account of the Breakwater in Plymouth Sound (London, 1848), p. 13. For the very brief description of the Mayflower’s departure given by the Pilgrims, see the opening of their journal, Mourt’s Relation, either in Dwight B. Heath, ed., Mourt’s Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth (Bedford, MA, 1963), p. 15, or in the older, extensively annotated, but sometimes inaccurate edition of Alexander Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers (Boston, 1844; repr., Baltimore, 1974), pp. 117–18.

2. SP 14/109/78 and SP 14/111/75, NAK.

3. Voyages to America in 1619: The Bona Nova, in Exchequer port book (London exports), July 31, 1619, E 190/22/9, NAK; S. M. Kingsbury, ed., Records of the Virginia Company of London (Washington, DC, 1906–35), vol. 1, pp. 351–52; and Faith Harrington, “‘Wee Tooke Greate Store of Cod-fish’: Fishing Ships and First Settlements on the Coast of New England, 1600–1630,” in American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega, ed. Emerson W. Baker et al. (Lincoln, NE, 1994), pp. 203–7. New pattern of trade: Tables in Merchants and Merchandise in Seventeenth-Century Bristol, ed. Patrick McGrath (Bristol, UK, 1955), app. D, pp. 279–80.

4. Alicante cargoes: Plymouth port book (new impositions), 1614 and 1616, E 190/1026/15 and E 190/1027/2, NAK. Archaeology: John Allan and James Barber, “A Seventeenth Century Pottery Group from the Kitto Institute, Plymouth,” in Everyday and Exotic Pottery from Europe, c. 650–1900, ed. David Gaimster and Mark Redknap (Oxford, 1992), pp. 229–35.

5. On Jacobean Plymouth, see Tristram Risdon, The Chorographical Survey of the County of Devon (London, 1811), pp. 201–3; and Elisabeth Stuart, Lost Landscapes of Plymouth: Maps, Charts, and Plans to 1800 (Stroud, UK, 1991).

6. On the ship’s design, see Étienne Trocmé and Marcel Delafosse, Le commerce rochelais de la fin du XVe siècle au debut du XVIIe (Paris, 1952), pp. 15–21; William A. Baker, The Mayflower and Other Colonial Vessels (London, 1983), pp. 27–44; and J. R. Hutchinson, “The ‘Mayflower,’ Her Identity and Tonnage,” NEHGR, Oct. 1916, pp. 337–42.

7. 1620 port book for Plymouth, Christmas 1619–Christmas 1620, E 190/1029/19, NAK.

8. For Weddell, see W. N. Sainsbury, ed., Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, East Indies, 1617–1621 (London, 1870), pp. 63, 258, 310, and 332–33; and ODNB.

9. Brian Dietz, “The Royal Bounty and English Shipping in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Mariner’s Mirror 77 (1991), pp. 14–20.

10. Lieutenant-Commander D.W. Waters, The Art of Navigation in Elizabethan and Stuart England (Greenwich, UK, 1978), esp. pp. 297–300, 342–44, 425–34, and 478–88.

11. Thomas Dale, The History and Antiquities of Harwich and Dovercourt in the County of Essex (London, 1732), p. 250. On Tudor and Stuart Harwich, see H. Hitchman and P. Driver, Harwich: A Nautical History (Harwich, UK, 1984), pp. 56–62. Jones’s background: Winifred Cooper, Harwich, the Mayflower, and Christopher Jones (London, 1970), esp. pp.

12. Harwich approaches: Cornelis Antoniszoon, The Safegard of Saylers; or, Great Rutter, trans. Robert Norman (London, 1612); and Waters, Art of Navigation, p. 331. Government of Harwich: Harwich church book, fol. 232, T/P 162/9, ECRO; and Leonard T. Weaver, The Harwich Story (Dovercourt, UK, 1975), pp. 18–38. Move to London: B. Carlyon Hughes, The History of Harwich Harbour (Harwich, UK, 1939), pp. 152–53. Norway voyage: Hutchinson, “‘Mayflower,’ Her Identity and Tonnage,” pp. 337–39.

13. Douglas Killock and Frank Meddens et al., “Pottery as Plunder: A 17th-Century Maritime Site in Limehouse, London,” Post-medieval Archaeology 39, no. 1 (2005), pp. 16–18 and 24–27.

14. On Jones and Wood, see subsidy roll of Brixton Hundred, March 8, 1622, E 179/186/406, NAK; and will of Anthony Wood (1625), PROB/11/148, PCC Wills, NAK.

15. Wine profits: Estimated from details in Garway et al. v. Rothwell (1624), E 134/21JasI/HIL25, NAK; and Trocmé and Delafosse, Le commerce rochelais, pp. 104–13 and 178–80. Wine trade and Jacobean prosperity: A. M. Millard, “The Import Trade of London, 1600–1640” (Ph.D. diss., London University, 1956), pp. 46–47, and the tables in the app. to vol. 2. Prices: For a mass of useful data regarding Jacobean prices, including those of wine, see John Harland, ed., The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall, 1582–1621 (Manchester, UK, 1858), esp. pp. 790–92 and 1103–12.

16. For Speight and the Mayflower, see London port book (exports), 1617, entries for May 19, 26, and 30, Sackville Papers, U 269/1, OEc 1, CKS; London port book (wine imports), 1620, May 15, E 190/24/3, NAK; Speight’s will of 1621, PROB/11/139, NAK; Company of Merchant Taylors, Memorials of the Guild of Merchant Taylors (London, 1875), p. 719. The notarial registers at the Archives Départementales de la Charente-Maritime at La Rochelle show that at least ten English merchants were resident there during the reign of James I.

17. On Jennings, see Plymouth port books in note 4 above, and also for 1626 (new impositions), E 190/1031/6, NAK; M. Brayshay, “Royal Post-Horse Routes in South West England in the Reigns of Elizabeth I and James I,” Report of the Transactions of the Devonshire Association 123 (Dec. 1991), pp. 96–97 and 103; Henry S. Burrage, The Beginnings of Colonial Maine, 1602–1658 (Portland, ME, 1914), pp. 164–66 and 181–82.

18. David B. Quinn and Alison M. Quinn, eds., The English New England Voyages, 1602–1608 (London, 1983), pp. 340–41.

19. James Phinney Baxter, ed., Sir Ferdinando Gorges and His Province of Maine (Boston, 1890), vol. 1, pp. 222–37.

20. Miller Christy, “Attempts Towards Colonization: The Council for New England and the Merchant Venturers of Bristol, 1621–1623,” American Historical Review 4, no. 4 (July 1899), p. 687.

21. John Pym’s notes of speech by Sir Edwin Sandys, Feb. 26, 1621, in Commons Debates, 1621, ed. W. Notestein, F. H. Relf, and H. Simpson (New Haven, CT, 1935), vol. 4, pp. 104–6.

22. Barry Supple, Commercial Crisis and Change in England, 1600–1642 (Cambridge, UK, 1964), pp. 52–64; R. W. K. Hinton, The Eastland Trade and the Common Weal in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, UK, 1959), pp. 14–32; and Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 478–82.

23. Edward Misselden, Free Trade; or, The Means to Make Trade Flourish (London, 1622), p. 29. Silver shortage: C. E. Challis, ed., A New History of the Royal Mint (Cambridge, UK, 1992), pp. 307–17.


1. John Barlow, The True Guide to Glory, funeral sermon for Lady Strode (1618), p. 9, in An Exposition of the First and Second Chapters (London, 1632).

2. Details of the night sky over New England on the early morning of November 9, 1620, can be determined using astronomical computer software such as the Alcyone program ( The principal source for the landfall itself is (again) the opening of Dwight B. Heath, ed., Mourt’s Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth(Bedford, MA, 1963), and Bradford’s later account in Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), pp. 59–61. November 19 was the date of the landfall using the modern Gregorian calendar. The principal modern American treatment of the voyage and arrival is contained in W. Sears Nickerson, Land Ho! 1620: A Seaman’s Story of the Mayflower (Boston, 1931).

3. Edward Hayes, A Treatise Conteining Important Inducements for the Planting in These Parts, and Finding a Passage and Way to the South Sea and China (London, 1602), p. 16.

4. For conditions on the Mayflower, see William A. Baker, The Mayflower and Other Colonial Vessels (London, 1983), pp. 37–44.

5. M. Oppenheim, ed., The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson in Six Books (London, 1913), vol. 3, p. 434.

6. Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, p. 76; and see chapter 14, note 14, below.

7. “Furthing”: K. R. Andrews, “The Elizabethan Seaman,” Mariner’s Mirror 68 (1982), pp. 254–55. Disputes between masters and crew: George F. Steckley, “Litigious Mariners: Wage Cases in the Seventeenth-Century Admiralty Court,” Historical Journal 42, no. (June 1999), pp. 315–45.

8. Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, p. 78; and G. V. Scammell, “Manning the English Merchant Service in the Sixteenth Century,” Mariner’s Mirror 56 (1970), pp. 149–50.

9. Heath, Mourt’s Relation, p. 16.

10. Ibid., p. 15.

11. Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 58–63.

12. New England Society in the City of New York, Plymouth Church Records, 1620–1859 (New York, 1920–23), vol. 1, pp. 136–37. Ainsworth: ODNB; and Michael E. Moody, “‘A Man of a Thousand’: The Reputation and Character of Henry Ainsworth,” Huntington Library Quarterly 45, no. 3 (Summer 1982), pp. 200–214.

13. Hebrew: G. Lloyd-Jones, The Discovery of Hebrew in Tudor England: A Third Language (Manchester, UK, 1983), esp. pp. 3–6, 239, and 261. Broughton: ODNB.

14. Henry Ainsworth, “Preface Concerning Moses,” in Annotations upon the Five Bookes of Moses, the Booke of the Psalmes, and the Song of Songs or Canticles (London, 1627). The 1627 edition reprinted the first editions of each work, published in parts in Amsterdam between 1612 and 1619. References to Ainsworth’s Annotations: The term “exquisite scanning” occurs in the preface, but for other examples see Ainsworth’s annotations to Genesis 21:14; Exodus 3:1, 3:18, and 16:1–3; Deuteronomy 8:15; and Numbers 14:29. Midrash: Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, eds., Encyclopedia of Midrash (Leiden, 2005), pp. 400–411 and 520–26.

15. On the prestige of Maimonides, see Jason Rosenblatt, Renaissance England’s Chief Rabbi: John Selden (Oxford, 2006), p. 79.

16. Ainsworth, “Preface Concerning Moses.”

17. Isidore S. Meyer, “The Hebrew Preface to Bradford’s History of the Plymouth Plantation,” Journal of the American Jewish Historical Society (1948–49), pp. 289–301.

18. Barlow, True Guide, pp. 16–17.

19. For examples, see John Wood, The True Honor of Navigation and Navigators; or, Holy Meditations for Sea-Men (London, 1618), pp. 86–94; Edmund Spenser’s account of the voyage to the Bower of Bliss, in bk. 2, canto 12 of the Faerie Queene of 1590; and the shipwreck in Sir Philip Sidney’s New Arcadia, bk. 2, chap. 7. Also see Alain Cabantous, Le ciel dans la mer: Christianisme et civilisation maritime, XV-XIX siècle (Paris, 1990), pp. 19–28 and 34–38.

20. W. K. Clay, ed., Liturgies and Occasional Forms of Prayers Set Forth in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (Cambridge, UK, 1847).

21. Ainsworth, Annotations, notes on Psalm 107:32. Birkat ha-gomel: Ronald L. Eisenberg, The JPS Guide to Jewish Traditions (Philadelphia, 2004), pp. 480–81.


1. Philip E. Barbour, ed., The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580–1631 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1986), vol. 3, p. 221.

2. Thomas Twyne, Discourse on the Earthquake of 1580, ed. R. E. Ockenden (Oxford, 1936); Edmund Spenser and Gabriel Harvey, Three Proper and Wittie, Familiar Letters Lately Passed Between Two Universitie Men (London, 1580), pp. 5–6 and 9–11; R. M. W. Musson, G. Neilson, and P. W. Burton, “The London Earthquake of 1580, April 6,” Engineering Geology 20 (1984), pp. 113–42.

3. Christopher Haigh, English Reformations (Oxford, 1993), pp. 276–77.

4. Edward Arber, Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554–1640 (London, 1873), vol. 2, pp. 367–73.

5. Robert Lemon, ed., Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series (London, 1856), June 1, 1580, p. 658.

6. Abraham Fleming, A Bright Burning Beacon, Forewarning All Wise Virgins to Trim Their Lampes Against the Comming of the Bridegroome (London, 1580), pp. 39–40.

7. Freke to Burghley, April 19, 1581, Lansdowne MS, vol. 33, no. 26, fols. 13–14, BL.

8. Thomas Fuller, Church History of Britain (Oxford, 1845), vol. 5, pp. 62–70. Fuller’s source for the wife-beating allegation was Robert Baillie, a Scottish Presbyterian of the 1640s hostile to Brownism.

9. Stephen Bredwell, The Rasing of the Foundations of Brownisme (London, 1588), “Epistle Dedicatorie” and pp. 134, 138, and 140. Bredwell coined the epithet Troublechurch Browne (p. 112).

10. Property of the Brownes: Postmortem inquisition of Sir Anthony Browne (1591), C 142/229/126, NAK, and his will, PROB/11/76, NAK. Browne and the Pickerings: Pickering v. Andrewes, E 133/7/1036 and E 134/35Eliz/East5, NAK. Wealth of the Barrows: Postmortem inquisition of Thomas Barrow (1591), C 142/230/12, NAK. Barrow’s income: Gillingham estate accounts, GIL 2/55/1–12, Norfolk RO. Barrow’s father, Thomas, as a JP: A. Hassell Smith, County and Court: Government and Politics in Norfolk, 1558–1603 (Oxford, 1974), pp. 104–5, 203, and 207.

11. Champlin Burrage, The Early English Dissenters in the Light of Recent Research, 1550–1641 (Cambridge, UK, 1912), vol. 1, pp. 94–117. Also, F. Ives Cater, “Robert Browne’s Ancestors and Descendants,” Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society 2 (1905–6), pp. 151–59; Alan Rogers, ed., William Browne’s Town: The Stamford Hall Book, vol 1, 1465–1492 (Stamford, UK, 2005), pp. i–x; and S. T. Bindoff, ed., History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1509–1558 (London, 1982), vol. 1, pp. 131–32 and 521–22.

12. Beacon: J. Goring and J. Wake, Northamptonshire Lieutenancy Papers and Other Documents, 1580–1614 (Gateshead, UK, 1975), p. 20. Pickerings: James A. Winn, John Dryden and His World (New Haven, CT, 1987), pp. 2–12 and 516–18.

13. H. C. Porter, Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (Cambridge, UK, 1958), pp. 107–9. Corpus fellows: Lists in Robert Masters and John Lamb, History of the College of Corpus Christi (Cambridge, UK, 1831), collated with biographies in J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses.

14. Porter, Reformation and Reaction, chap. 6.

15. John Field and Thomas Wilcox, The First Admonition: A View of Popish Abuses (1572), in Puritan Manifestoes, ed. W. H. Frere and C. E. Douglas (London, 1907), p. 21.

16. Robert Browne, A True and Short Declaration (1583), in The Writings of Robert Harrison and Robert Browne, ed. Albert Peel and Leland H. Carlson (London, 1953), p. 397.

17. R. A. Houlbrooke, The Letter Book of John Parkhurst, Bishop of Norwich (Norwich, UK, 1975), letter of July 1573, pp. 196–97.

18. Covenant of Asa: George Garnett, ed., Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos (Cambridge, UK, 2003), pp. 21–37; Lloyd E. Berry, ed., John Stubbs’s Gaping Gulf (Charlottesville, VA, 1968), pp. 16–20; Peel and Carlson, Writings of Harrison and Browne, pp. 161–62 and 405. Mornay and the Vindiciae: Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought (Cambridge, UK, 1978), vol. 2, pp. 304–6. Bradford on Mornay: William Bradford, A Dialogue or Third Conference, ed. Charles Deane (Boston, MA, 1870), pp. 5–6. Brewster’s bookshelves. H. M. Dexter, “Elder William Brewster’s Library,” PMHS, 2nd ser., 5 (1889–90), pp. 37–85.

19. Mornay, Sidney, and Walsingham: Mémoires de Madame Mornay (Paris, 1868), pp. 118–19. Mornay and the idea of Protestant colonies: Hugues Daussy, Les Huguenots et le roi: Le combat politique de Philippe Duplessis-Mornay, 1572–1600 (Geneva, 2002), pp. 87–91 and 282–84.

20. Philippe Duplessis-Mornay, A Notable Treatise of the Church, trans. John Field (London, 1579), chap. 10.

21. Jean Morély, Traicté de la discipline et police chrestienne (1562; fac. ed., Geneva, 1968), p. 65. Morély as a refugee: Philippe Denis and Jean Rott, Jean Morély et l’utopie d’une democratie dans l’église (Geneva, 1993), esp. pp. 73–91.

22. Morély and Ramus: Robert M. Kingdon, Geneva and the Consolidation of the French Protestant Movement, 1564–1572 (Geneva, 1967), pp. 101–10. Ramus and Sidney: Walter J. Ong, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason (Cambridge, MA, 1958), p. 302. Browne and Morély: For the closest similarities, see Morély, Traicté, pp. 23–27, and compare Peel and Carlson, Writings of Harrison and Browne, pp. 161–66.

23. Walsham: K. M. Dodd, ed., The Field Book of Walsham-le-Willows, 1577 (Ipswich, UK, 1974); D. P. Dymond, “The Parish of Walsham-le-Willows: Two Elizabethan Surveys and Their Medieval Background,” Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 33 (1976); Bacon MSS, 4109 and 4121, summaries at SROB; Martineau Papers, D/190 and FL 646/3/18, SROB.

24. John Phillips, The Wonderfull Worke of God Shewed upon a Chylde, Whose Name Is William Withers (London, 1581).

25. Robert Harrison, A Treatise of the Church, in Writings of Harrison and Browne, ed. Peel and Carlson, p. 47.

26. S. H. A. Hervey, Rushbrooke Parish Registers, 1567–1850 (Woodbridge, UK, 1903), pp. 143–46 and 207–24.

27. C2/1, fol. 6, SROB, Book of Remembrances and Orders for ye Government of Bury.

28. Margaret Statham, ed., Accounts of the Feoffees of the Town Lands of Bury St. Edmunds, 1569–1622 (Woodbridge, UK, 2003), p. 22.

29. Lansdowne MS 27, no. 70, BL.

30. John Craig, Reformation Politics and Polemics: The Growth of Protestantism in East Anglian Market Towns, 1500–1610 (Aldershot, UK, 2001), pp. 78–108.

31. Fuller, Church History of Britain, vol. 5, p. 64; and Lansdowne MS 33, nos. 67 and 20, BL.

32. Peel and Carlson, Writings of Harrison and Browne, p. 424.

33. St. Mary’s: Samuel Tymms, A Historie of the Church of St. Marie, Bury St. Edmunds (Bury, UK, 1845). Royal arms: H. M. Cautley, Royal Arms and Commandments in Our Churches (Ipswich, UK, 1934), pp. 36–39; and Stanley J. Wearing, Post-Reformation Royal Arms in Norfolk Churches (Norfolk, UK, 1944), pp. 8–16.

34. Revelation 2:19–20.

35. John Strype, Annals of the Reformation (Oxford, 1824), vol. 3, pt. 1, pp. 176–77; Lansdowne MS 36, no. 65, BL; and Albert Peel, ed., Tracts Ascribed to Richard Bancroft (Cambridge, UK, 1953), p. xviii.

36. Peel and Carlson, Writings of Harrison and Browne, especially pp. 69–74.

37. J. S. Cockburn, A History of English Assizes, 1558–1714 (Cambridge, UK, 1972), pp. 202–6.

38. On Coppin, see Lansdowne MS 27, no. 28, and MS 38, no. 64, BL.

39. William Bradford, A Dialogue; or, The Sum of a Conference Between Some Young Men Born in New England and Sundry Ancient Men That Came out of Holland and Old England, 1648, in Alexander Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers (Boston, 1844; repr., Baltimore, 1974), pp. 427–28.

40. Rougham parish register: Microfilm, SROB. Will of Sir Robert Jermyn: Hervey, Rushbrooke Parish Registers, pp. 143–52; and PROB/11/123, NAK.

41. The Barrows were very close to the events at Walsham le Willows and Bury. Their estates included not only the manor of Westhorpe, a few miles from Walsham, but also a group of manors clustered around the town of Sudbury, within the same archdeaconry.

42. Browne, Barrow, and Separatists in Norfolk and Suffolk: Matthew Reynolds, Godly Reformers and Their Opponents in Early Modern England: Religion in Norwich, c. 1560–1643 (Woodbridge, UK, 2005), pp. 91–97. For the chain of influence between Browne and Barrow, see Patrick Collinson, “Separation in and out of the Church: The Consistency of Barrow and Greenwood,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 5, no. 5 (Nov. 1994), pp. 243–46.


1. Dwight B. Heath, ed., Mourt’s Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth (Bedford, MA, 1963), p. 30. On the authorship of Mourt’s Relation, see Heath’s introduction, pp. x–xiv.

2. Joseph Hunter, Collections Concerning the Church or Congregation of Protestant Separatists Formed at Scrooby (London, 1854), pp. ix–x.

3. Ronald A. Marchant, The Puritans and the Church Courts in the Diocese of York, 1500–1642 (London, 1960).

4. The population estimate is based on the number of people taking Holy Communion at Easter 1603, from Archdeaconry Records, Presentment Bills, Easter 1603, AN/PB 294/1 224–273, U Nott.

5. Steve Hindle, The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, 1550–1640 (Basingstoke, UK, 2002), pp. 38–54; Peter Bowden, “Agricultural Prices, Farm Profits, and Rents,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, ed. Joan Thirsk (Cambridge, UK, 1967), vol. 4, pp. 595–99; and Keith Wrightson, Earthly Necessities: Economic Lives in Early Modern England (New Haven, CT, 2000), pp. 182–94.

6. E. G. Smith et al., Geology of the Country Around East Retford, Worksop, and Gainsborough (London, 1973), esp. pp. 1–4 and 215–32; and Robert Van de Noort and Stephen Ellis, eds., Wetland Heritage of the Humberhead Levels: An Archaeological Survey (Kingston upon Hull, UK, 1997), pp. 7–12 and 81–88. Also, D. V. Fowkes, “The Progress of Agrarian Change in Nottinghamshire, c. 1720–1830” (Ph.D. diss., Liverpool University, 1971), pp. 25 and 192–211.

7. David Marcombe, English Small Town Life: Retford, 1520–1642 (Nottingham, UK, 1993), p. 102.

8. Extract of a subsidy roll for Bassetlaw (1593), Newcastle Papers, Ne S 32, U Nott; and Bassetlaw lay subsidy roll (1600), E 179/160/252, NAK.

9. Meadows: John Norden, The Surveyor’s Dialogue (London, 1607), bk. 4, pp. 192–95. The Ings: Drainage map of 1769, LA 2 S M.P. 1058, NAN. Rents: Holles estate accounts in miscellany books of Sir John Holles, second Earl of Clare, Portland Papers, PWv4 and PWv5, U Nott.

10. On Gainsborough, see Richard Bernard, Plaine Evidences (London, 1610), p. 20; C. W. Foster, ed., The Parish Registers of Gainsborough (Horncastle, UK, 1920); Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage in England, 1500–1800 (London, 1979), pp. 388–90; and national statistics in E. A. Wrigley and R. S. Schofield, The Population History of England, 1541—1871: A Reconstruction (Cambridge, MA, 1981).

11. Proceedings: Lincoln Episcopal visitation journals, Aug. 6, 1607, Vj 19, fol. 52–53, LAO. On illegitimacy: Hindle, The State and Social Change, pp. 185–88; and Michael J. Braddick, State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550–1700 (Cambridge, UK, 2000), pp. 143–45.

12. Family trees of the Robinsons and Whites: M. L. Holman, “The Robinson Family,” American Genealogist 17, no. 4 (April 1941), pp. 207–15; Walter H. Burgess, John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers (London, 1920), pp. 10–26; and Robert S. Wakefield, “The Family of Alexander White of Sturton Le Steeple,” Mayflower Descendant 43, no. 2 (July 1993), pp. 183–86. Sturton generally: Robert Thoroton, The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire (1790–96; fac. ed., Wakefield, UK, 1972), vol. 3, pp. 298–99, and 399–400.

13. J. E. B. Gover, Allen Mawer, and F. W. Stenton, The Place-Names of Nottinghamshire (Cambridge, UK, 1940), p. 24.

14. Property of the Whites: Postmortem inquisitions on Alexander White, July 10, 1596, C 142/245/18, NAK; and Charles White, Sept. 3, 1634, C 142/503/25, NAK. Coal mines: Will of Charles White, March 1, 1634, Archdeaconry Wills, East Retford, NAN; and Fillingham of Syerston Papers, DDFM 80/1–13, NAN.

15. Parliamentary survey of Scrooby Manor in 1648: “Assessment of the Manor of Scrooby,” Feb. 11, 1648, Ga 11,850, Galway of Serlby Papers, U Nott (quotation from fol. 3). Layout of Scrooby: “A Map of the Parish of Scrooby in the County of Nottingham, 1776,” DDRC 14/22, NAN. Will of Richard Torre: Proved May 25, 1602, Archdeaconry Wills, East Retford, NAN.

16. Minutes of the Nottinghamshire Quarter Sessions, East Retford, July 19, 1605, and Jan. 16, 1607, C/QSM/1/66/1–3, NAN.

17. On the Idle valley before the railways, see C. W. Hatfield, Historical Notices of Doncaster (Doncaster, UK, 1866), from articles in the Doncaster Gazette (1862–65), esp. pp. 18–25 and 92–94. Also, John Raine, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Blyth (Westminster, UK, 1860), pp. 1–2; and John Holland, The History, Antiquities, and Description of the Town and Parish of Worksop (Sheffield, UK, 1826), pp. 5–10.

18. T. W. Beastall, Tickhill: Portrait of an English Country Town (Doncaster, UK, 1995), pp. 38–39; and Diana Newton, The Making of the Jacobean Regime (Woodbridge, UK, 2005).

19. William Bradford’s family: W. B. Browne, “Ancestry of the Bradfords of Austerfield,” NEHGR 83 (1929), pp. 439–64, and 84 (1930), pp. 5–16. Austerfield taxpayers: Subsidy roll, Stratforth and Tickhill Wapentakes (1599), DZ/MZ/85/HP/32/1, Doncaster Archives. Layout of Austerfield: Depositions regarding common lands of Austerfield in 1658, including testimony by William Bradford’s stepbrother Robert Briggs, E 134/1658/East34, NAK.

20. Austerfield survey of 1608, LR 2/229, fols. 172–85, NAK.

21. Business relationships: Noble v. Downes et al. (1596–98), REQ 2/245/46, NAK. Accounts, with details of crops and cattle: Rent book of Robert Eyre of Blyth and Austerfield, 1593–1602, Clifton Papers, CL A 37, U Nott.

22. Remarkably, the last remaining open-field-farming village in England can still be found about twenty miles from Scrooby, at Laxton in Nottinghamshire. Thanks to this, and the excellent state of the archives relating to the village, we have a very clear picture of open field farming as the Pilgrims would have known it, in two fine books about Laxton: C. S. Orwin and C. S. L. Orwin, The Open Fields (Oxford, 1954); and J. V. Beckett, A History of Laxton (Oxford, 1989).

23. For the property of the Frobishers, see postmortem inquisition on Francis Frobisher, Sept. 8, 1604, C 142/283/95, NAK. Also, Merchant Taylors’ Company, “Register of Apprentice Bindings, 1606–1609,” MS 34038/5, p. 112, Guildhall Library.

24. On estate plans, see “G. Stow’s Estate at Sturton High Steeple in Nottinghamshire” (1762), Fairbanks Collection, F/STU 1L, 2L, 3L, Sheffield Archives.

25. Sturton fracas of 1594: Lassells v. Quippe (1594), STAC 5/L36/16 and 7/25/4, NAK. Lassells family: Surtees Society, Visitations of Yorkshire and Northumberland in A.D. 1575 (Durham, UK, 1932), pp. 22–24.

26. The manuscript records relating to Sturton are very extensive, with the sad exception of the loss of the parish register. Besides wills, the archives fall into four main categories: Star Chamber litigation, lawsuits in the Courts of Chancery and Exchequer, rolls of taxpayers, and papers from the ecclesiastical courts at York and Retford. The British Library also has a seventeenth-century manuscript history of the Thornhagh family, Add. MS 30997. Containing an especially rich mass of detail, the principal Star Chamber cases at NAK, besides those cited above, are Lassells v. Lassells (1594), STAC 5/L33/32; Thornhagh v. Lassells (1601?), STAC 5/T36/30; Thornhagh v. Lassells et al. (1580), STAC 5/T35/19; Williamson v. Lassells (1608), STAC 8/296/17; and Reyner v. Lassells (1604), STAC 8/251/30. The principal Exchequer case is Cherbery et al. v Thornhagh (1603), E134/1Jas1/Mich14. The Chancery cases are Lassells v. Thornhagh (c. 1575?), C3/112/15; and Thornhagh v. Lassells (1570s?), C3/181/33. The taxpayer rolls can be found within the E190 series at NAK. Sturton also possesses an excellent village history: John Ford, ed., The Town on the Street: The Story of the Nottinghamshire Village of Sturton-le-Steeple (Retford, UK, 1975), based on the work of Samuel Ingham, the village schoolmaster between 1875 and 1920.

27. On Lassells and Biggs, see libel actions (1605) between Biggs, Lassells, and Ostler, Bigges v. Lascelles and Lascelles v. Ostler, AN/LB 220/6/1, AN/LB 220/6/4 (quotation on fol. 6), and AN/LB 220/6/5, Cause Papers (defamation), Archdeaconry Records, U Nott.

28. Dickens v. Sturton (1597–98), HC CP. 1597/II, BI (York).

29. J. Gairdner and R. H. Brodie, Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII (London, 1895), vol. 14, pt. 2, p. 359 and vol. 15, pp. 341, 520, and 590–91. Also Holland, History, Antiquities, p. 170.

30. Thornhagh v. Lassells (1601), CP. H.42 and CP. H.48, BI (York).

31. On Nottinghamshire, see J. E. Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (Harmondsworth, UK, 1963), pp. 57–63; Alison Wall, “Patterns in English Politics, 1558–1625,” Historical Journal 38, no. 4 (Dec. 1988), p. 954; and a splendid book about the Talbot/Stanhope feud by two local historians, Beryl Cobbing and Pamela Priestland, Sir Thomas Stanhope of Shelford: Local Life in Elizabethan Times (Nottingham, UK, 2003).


1. Henry David Thoreau, Cape Cod (1855; Princeton, NJ, 2004), p. 22.

2. Brewster v. Ward (defamation) (1587?), AN/LB 217/2/9/1–2, quotation from fol. 1, Cause Papers, Archdeaconry Records, U Nott.

3. New England Society in the City of New York, Plymouth Church Records, 1620–1859 (New York, 1920–23), vol. 1, pp. 78–81.

4. Hodgkinson Transcripts, vol. 1, fols.79 and 84, entries for April 29 and May 8, 1592, M461, NAN.

5. C/QSM 1/66/1–5, with the Revell case dated July 17, 1607, NAN.

6. John Smyth, Paralleles, Censures, Observations (1609), in The Works of John Smyth, ed. W. T. Whitley (Cambridge, UK, 1915), vol. 2, p. 371.

7. Church court cases: Journal of the Archdeaconry of Nottingham, Sept. 1607–Jan. 1608, AN/A 24/11 and AN/A 24/12/2, Archdeaconry Records, U Nott. Retford magistrates, Oct. 9, 1607, and Jan. 15, 1608, C/QSM 1/66/5 and 67/1, NAN. Wise women and mad dogs: Whitley, Works of Smyth, vol. 1, pp. 93–96.

8. J. A. Sharpe, Defamation and Sexual Slander in Early Modern England: The Church Courts at York (York, UK, 1980), pp. 7–9.

9. James Kelly, That Damn’d Thing Called Honour: Duelling in Ireland, 1570–1860 (Cork, 1995), pp. 19–24.

10. Charles White in 1614: HMC, Report on Manuscripts of Lord Middleton (London, 1911), pp. 178–79. Gentry status: J. P. Cooper, “Ideas of Gentility in Early Modern England,” in Land, Men, and Beliefs: Studies in Early Modern History (London, 1983); and Felicity Heal and Clive Holmes, The Gentry in England and Wales, 1500–1700 (Basingstoke, UK, 1994), pp. 7–29.

11. Sir John Ferne, The Blazon of Gentrie… for the Instruction of All Gentlemen Bearers of Armes, Whome and None Other This Work Concerneth (London, 1586). My quotations are from the dedicatory epistle and from the first part (“The Glory of Generositie”), pp. 3, 7, 13–14, and 89–96.

12. Contested real estate at Doncaster: Brewster’s Chancery lawsuit, c. 1580, C2/Eliz/B31/1, NAK. Dispute with the archbishop’s widow: Brewster v. Sandys (1588/9?), C2/Eliz/B14/11, NAK. Brewster’s ancestry: John G. Hunt, “The Mother of Elder William Brewster of the Mayflower,” NEHGR, Oct. 1970, pp. 250–54. John Smythe of Hull: A 1581 lawsuit regarding unpaid customs duties, E134/23Eliz/East4, NAK; and Exchequer port books for Hull, E 190/308/1 (for 1581–82) and E 190/308/4 (for 1583–84), NAK.

13. T. A. Walker, ed., A Biographical Register of Peterhouse Men, Part II, 1574–1616 (Cambridge, UK, 1930), pp. 71–73.

14. Stefano Guazzo, The Civile Conversation, trans. George Pettie and Bartholomew Young (London, 1586), pp. 82, 84, and 91. Bradford on Brewster: See note 3, above.

15. Sturton tax records: “Extract of a Subsidy Roll of Bassetlaw” (1593), NE S 32, Newcastle Papers, U Nott. Quotations: Sir Thomas Smith, De Republica Anglorum, ed. Mary Dewar (Cambridge, UK, 1982), p. 72. For an excellent concise account of Elizabethan civic republicanism, including a list of recent scholarly literature, see Michael P. Winship, “Godly Republicanism and the Origins of the Massachusetts Polity,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 63, no. 3 (July 2006), pp. 427–30.

16. William Nicholson, ed., The Remains of Edmund Grindal, D.D. (Cambridge, UK, 1843), pp. 325–26.

17. “Visitation Book of Archdeacon Lowth,” 1587, AN/PB 292/1, Archdeaconry Records, U Nott.

18. Plymouth Church Records, vol. 1, p. 139.

19. Questionnaires of 1596–98: Steve Hindle, “Dearth, Fasting, and Alms: The Campaign for General Hospitality in Late Elizabethan England,” Past and Present, no. 172 (Aug. 2001), pp. 44–46, 51–54, and 61–73. Responses by Nottinghamshire churchwardens: Presentment bills (Easter 1598), AN/PB/292/7, fols. 3–72 (Scrooby is fol. 46), Archdeaconry Records, U Nott. Brewster’s treatment: Hodgkinson Transcripts, vol. 2, fol. 205, M461, NAN.

20. Lansdowne MS, vol. 27, no. 26, fols. 48–49, BL.

21. Hull: Port books, in note 11, above; E. Gillett and K. A. MacMahon, A History of Hull (Oxford, 1980), pp. 116–28, 143–44, and 148–50; and Claire Cross, Urban Magistrates and Ministers: Religion in Hull and Leeds from the Reformation to the Civil War (York, UK, 1985), pp. 14–16 and 17–18. Godly republics at Hull and elsewhere: Paul Slack, From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1999), pp. 30–36.

22. Simon Adams, “A Puritan Crusade? The Composition of the Earl of Leicester’s Expedition to the Netherlands, 1585–86,” in Leicester and the Court: Essays on Elizabethan Politics (Manchester, UK, 2002), pp. 176–95. Adams’s 1973 Oxford Ph.D. thesis, “The Protestant Cause” (BLL D0419/74, Bodleian Library), remains an essential source. Except where stated, the following account of events at Flushing is based on the volumes of Sophie Crawford Lomas, ed., Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, vols. 19 and 20 (London, 1916 and 1921), covering the period 1584–86; Jan Den Tex, Oldenbarnevelt, trans. R. B. Powell (London, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 37–73; and Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 220–30.

23. Thomas Digges, A Briefe Report of the Militarie Services Done in the Low Countries by the Erle of Leicester (London, 1587), p. 6.

24. Harleian MS 285, nos. 99, 102, and 126, BL.

25. Jermyn to Davison, Aug. 25, 1585, Tanner MSS, vol. 78, fol. 73, Bodleian.

26. Briefing paper possibly by Davison: “Reasons to Move Her Majestie to Aid the Lowe Countries” (1585?), Harleian MS 285, no. 48, BL. Sidney’s church: HMC, De L’Isle and Dudley Papers (London, 1936), vol. 3, pp. 372–74.

27. J. D. Bangs, “The Pilgrims and Other English in Leiden Records: Some New Pilgrim Documents,” NEHGR, pp. 200–201.

28. Jan van Dorsten et al., Sir Philip Sidney: 1586 and the Creation of a Legend (Leiden, 1986), p. 29.

29. Digges, Briefe Report, p. 23.

30. Original documents transcribed in Edward Arber, ed., The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers (London, 1897), pp. 79–86.


1. James VI of Scotland and I of England, Basilikon Doron (1603 ed.), in The Basilicon Doron of King James VI, ed. James Craigie (Edinburgh, 1944), p. 21.

2. James I’s autopsy: Two accounts, in the manuscript memoirs of Sir Simonds D’Ewes (Harleian MS 646, fol. 77, BL) and in John Nichols, The Progresses of King James I (London, 1828), vol. 4, p. 1037. James’s health and final illness: Frederick Holmes, The Sickly Stuarts: The Medical Downfall of a Dynasty (London, 2005), pp. 49–82. Case notes: Latin text of Mayerne’s manuscript notes of 1623, in Norman Moore, The History of the Study of Medicine in the British Isles (Oxford, 1908), pp. 162–76.

3. Speech of March 21, 1610, in King James VI and I: Selected Writings, ed. Neil Rhodes et al. (Aldershot, UK, 2003), p. 330.

4. James I, A Meditation Upon the Lord’s Prayer (London, 1619), pp. 14–15; and Craigie, Basilicon Doron, pp. 15–17 and 77–82.

5. Speech of May 1607, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), pp. 366–68. Jacobean kingship and the language of health and disease: Linda Levy Peck, Court Patronage and Corruption in Early Stuart England (London, 1993), pp. 208–15.

6. Richard Bancroft, Daungerous Positions and Proceedings (London, 1593), pp. 120–38.

7. Christopher Haigh, “The Taming of Reformation: Preachers, Pastors, and Parishioners in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England,” History 85, no. 820 (Oct. 2000).

8. Ann Uhry Abrams, The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1999), pp. 276–79.

9. William Barlow, The Summe and Substance of the Conference (London, 1604), p. 83.

10. Canons of 1604: Archbishop’s Commission on Canon Law, The Canon Law of the Church of England (London, 1947), pp. 71–78. Text and commentary: Gerald Bray, The Anglican Canons, 1529–1947 (Woodbridge, UK, 1998), esp. pp. liv–lxi, 276–81, and 408–16 (duties of churchwardens).

11. M. S. Guiseppi, ed., HMC Salisbury (Cecil) Manuscripts (London, 1938), vol. 17, pp. 5–6, 39, 46, 66, 73, 83, 92, 104–6.

12. G. W. Marshall, ed., The Registers of Worksop, Co. Nottingham, 1558–1771 (Guildford, UK, 1894), pp. 109–22.

13. G. P. V. Akrigg, ed., Letters of King James VI and I (Berkeley, CA, 1984), p. 3.

14. London College of Physicians, Pharmacopoia Londinensis (London, 1618).

15. Joseph Quercetanus (alias Du Chesne), The Practise of Chymicall, and Hermeticall Physicke, for the Preservation of Health, trans. Thomas Timme (London, 1605), chiefly pt. 1, chap. 15, from which my quotations come. Chemical medicine: Allen G. Debus, The English Paracelsians (London, 1965), pp. 21–39 and 57–89; and Hugh Trevor-Roper, Europe’s Physician: The Various Life of Sir Theodore de Mayerne (New Haven, CT, 2006).

16. Jacob Soll, “Healing the Body Politic: French Royal Doctors, History, and the Birth of a Nation, 1560–1634,” Renaissance Quarterly 55, no. 4 (Winter 2000), pp. 1267–81.

17. Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1624), p. 525.

18. Quoted in Marie Axton, The Queen’s Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London, 1977), p. 144, and chap. 9. Jacobean government: Diana Newton, The Making of the Jacobean Regime (Woodbridge, UK, 2005), pp. 98–118.

19. Gypsies: David Masson, ed., The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1877–98), vol. 7, p. 713, and vol. 8, p. 305. The Graemes: C. W. Russell and J. P. Prendergast, Calendar of State Papers Relating to Ireland, 1608–1610 (London, 1874), pp. xcv–ciii. Exiled ministers: Bannatyne Club, Original Letters Relating to the Ecclesiastical Affairs of Scotland, vol. 1, 1603–1614 (Edinburgh, 1851), pp. xxii–xxvi and 28–31; and David Calderwood, History of the Kirk of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1842–49), vol. 6, pp. 590–91.

20. Trevor-Roper, Europe’s Physician, pp. 171–73; and Thomas Russel, Diacatholicon Aureum (London, 1602).


1. The chapel and the mansion at Haughton belonged to the Holles family, whose most famous Jacobean member was Sir John Holles, first Earl of Clare (ODNB). His family and the Helwyses: A. C. Wood, ed. Memorials of the Holles Family (London, 1937), p. 45; and Elwes of Roxby, in Burke’s Landed Gentry, 18th ed. Wills: William Elwes (1557) and Edmund Hellwis (1590), York Wills, BI (York); and will of Jeffrey Ellwes (1616), PROB 11/127, NAK. In 1568, Edmund Helwys became the Crown’s escheator (or collector of feudal dues owed to the queen) for the counties of Northamptonshire and Rutland: E 112/32/50, NAK. Anti-Catholic tract: Edward Hellwis, A Marvell Deciphered (London, 1589). The names Edward and Edmund were sometimes used interchangeably.

2. Quoted in Walter H. Burgess, John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers (London, 1920), p. 82.

3. Brewster at Scrooby: Ronald A. Marchant, The Puritans and the Church Courts in the Diocese of York, 1500–1642 (London, 1960), pp. 142–46. Thomas Helwys: Beresford et al. v. Helwys (1594), C2/Eliz/B16/48, NAK; Green v. Elwayes (defamation), n.d, but c. 1590, AN/LB 245/2/23, and presentment bill, Bilborough (1598), AN/PB 292/6/12, Archdeaconry Records, U Nott. Assault: Sessions at Nottingham, Jan. 9 and April 16, 1604, C/QSM 1/66 1–2, NAN.

4. Sir Gervase Helwys: MON 1/15/13, July 13, 1609, LAO; ODNB; Lists of Sheriffs for England and Wales from the Earliest Times to A.D. 1831 (London, 1898), p. 80, NAK; and the family monument in Saundby Church, Nottinghamshire. Sir Richard Williamson and Nick Fuller: Will of John Williamson (1575), PROB/11/58, NAK; personal communications from Theresa Tom, archivist of Gray’s Inn, London, Aug. 2006; and Wilfrid R. Prest, The Rise of the Barristers: A Social History of the English Bar, 1590–1640 (Oxford, 1986), p. 404. In 1609, Williamson’s daughter married one of the Culverwells, the Puritan family in question: Canon A. R. Maddison, ed., Lincolnshire Pedigrees (London, 1902), vol. 1, p. 285, and vol. 3, pp. 1085–87.

5. Mark Girouard, Robert Smythson and the Elizabethan Country House (London, 1983), pp. 110–15.

6. Wood, Memorials, pp. 90–92.

7. Property inventory: Postmortem inquisition of Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, Dec. 1609, C 142/312, NAK. Talbot at Bawtry: LR 2/229, fols. 172–85, NAK.

8. For the Talbot/Bowes correspondence of Dec. 1603–Jan. 1604, see Talbot Papers, vol. K, fols. 89 and 173, and vol. M, fol. 166, LPL.

9. Normanby: Girouard, Robert Smythson, pp. 141–42. Lord Sheffield: Sheffield Papers, esp. B/1, June 16, 1591, LAO; and ODNB.

10. M. S. Guiseppi, ed., HMC Salisbury (Cecil) Manuscripts (London, 1938), vol. 17, pp. 35, 65, 78–79, and 108–9.

11. J. Raine, ed., The Correspondence of Dr. Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of York (London, 1843), pp. 171–75 and 247–48; and Diana Newton, The Making of the Jacobean Regime (Woodbridge, UK, 2005), pp. 84–95.

12. Chancery act book, AB 14/1599–1605, fols. 371–78, BI (York); and Marchant, Puritans and Church Courts, pp. 296–312.

13. Stephen Wright, The Early English Baptists, 1603–1649 (Woodbridge, UK, 2006), pp. 13–44.

14. Account books, 1580–1609 and 1585–1604, archives of Christ’s College; college register, 1590–1698, and college order book, 1569–1626, Muniment Room of Corpus Christi College.

15. Dynnys and Gosse v. Hollingworth et al. (1604), STAC 8/121/12, NAK; City of Lincoln Common Council book, 1599–1638, entries for 1600–1603 and then (Beck’s drunkenness) fols. 61–62, Li/1/1/4, LAO; List and Index Society, Heard Before the King: Registers of Petitions to James I, 1603–1616 (Kew, UK, 2006), p. 19, July 18, 1603.

16. Norwich: Sir John Harington, A Supplie or Addicion to the Catalogue of Bishops to the Yeare 1608, ed. R. H. Miller (Potomac, MD, 1979), pp. 127–28. St. Andrew’s, Norwich: Thomas Newhouse, Certaine Sermons (London, 1614), “Epistle Dedicatory.” Newhouse was the parish minister at St. Andrew’s from 1602 to 1611, and previously a fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, next above John Smyth.

17. Registry guard book, UA CUR 4/2, Cambridge University Archives.

18. Ursinus: Zacharias Ursinus, The Summe of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Parry (London, 1595), pp. 265–70 and 765–67. Robinson’s essay on faith: John Robinson, New Essayes or Observations Divine and Morall (Amsterdam, 1628), pp. 73–83. Robinson’s wit: William Hubbard, A General History of New England from the Discovery to 1680 (Boston, 1848), pp. 42–43. Hubbard began writing it in 1682.

19. John Smyth, A Patterne of True Prayer (1605), in The Works of John Smyth, ed. W. T. Whitley (Cambridge, UK, 1915), vol. 1, pp. 80–82.

20. Bishop Chaderton’s correspondence, B/2/19–20, LAO; and Lincoln Episcopal court book (1605–7), Cj 16, fols. 32 and 97, LAO.

21. Talbot Papers, MS 709, LPL; and Walter Burgess, John Smyth the Se-Baptist, Thomas Helwys, and the First Baptist Church in England (London, 1911), pp. 170–71.

22. Incidents in 1607: Retford: Marchant, Puritans and Church Courts, p. 157; Gainsborough: Lincoln Episcopal visitation journals, Vj 19, fols. 52–53, Aug. 6, 1607, LAO; Torksey: C. W. Foster, The State of the Church in the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I (Lincoln, UK, 1926), vol. 1, pp. lxxvii—lxxviii. The clergyman who gave the “Sodomites” sermon was a protégé of Sir Richard Williamson, who appointed him vicar of Scawby in Lincolnshire. Also, concerning Gainsborough: Jenny Vernon’s essay in Gainsborough Old Hall, ed. Phillip Lindley (Lincoln, UK, 1991), pp. 27–30.

23. Worksop priory churchwardens’ accounts, file PR 22765, NAN.

24. The Drews of Everton: Robert Thoroton, The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire (1790–96; fac. ed., Wakefield, UK, 1972), vol. 3, p. 322; presentment bill, Everton (1607), AN/PB/2/227 and AN/PB/294/2/62, archdeaconry records, U Nott; wills of Richard Drew of Harwell Hall (1617) and Robert Drew of Scaftworth (1619), archdeaconry wills, East Retford, NAN; Everton Parish register, microfilm, NAN; and Hodgkinson Transcripts, vol. 2, fol. 306, Oct. 10, 1609, NAN.

25. Many cases relating to Gainsborough survive, but especially relevant are Hickman v. Williamson, Noble, and Aston et al. (1610), STAC 8/167/13, and Williamson v. Hickman (1610), STAC 8/293/20, NAK.

26. Toby Matthew: Harington, Supplie or Addicion to the Catalogue of Bishops, pp. 176–77. Sermons and the archbishop’s itinerary: The Diary and Journal of His Grace Toby Matthew, Lord Archbishop of York, MS Add. 18, York Minster Archives.

27. For example, High Commission act book, HC AB 15, fols. 42–53, June 2, 1607, BI (York).

28. H. M. Dexter and Morton Dexter, The England and Holland of the Pilgrims (Boston, 1906), pp. 53–54 and 85–87.

29. HC AB 15, fols. 116 and 145, BI (York).

30. HC AB 15, fols. 103–4, BI (York).

31. Maddison, Lincolnshire Pedigrees (London, 1903), vol. 2, pp. 711–12; K. D. Train, Lists of the Clergy of North Nottinghamshire (Nottingham, UK, 1960), pp. 82 and 146; and Marchant, Puritans and Church Courts, p. 312.

32. Nicholas Fuller, The Argument of Nicholas Fuller… That the Ecclesiastical Commissioners Have No Power, by Vertue of Their Commission, to Imprison etc. (Amsterdam?, 1607); Philip Tyler, “The Significance of the Ecclesiastical Commission at York,” Northern History 2 (1967), pp. 32–34; and ODNB.

33. HC AB 15, fol. 117, BI (York).

34. For the fines of twenty pounds on Catholics and on Brewster, see HC AB 15, fol. 60 (June 29, 1607) and fol. 116 (Dec. 1), BI (York).

35. An Act to Retain the Queen’s Subjects in Obedience, in Select Statutes and Other Constitutional Documents Illustrative of the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I, ed G. W. Prothero (Oxford, 1913), pp. 89–92.

36. SPS 460/1/15, LAO. The document was presumably a criminal indictment drawn up for the JPs at Boston, or for the assize judges at Lincoln. It survives as a stray paper among items relating to the Spalding Court of Sewers, which supervised drainage in the Lincolnshire Fens. It appears to be dated November 1609 on the reverse, but it may have been reused, or the paper may be a page torn from a book. By November 1608, Helwys was definitely in Amsterdam. Elizabethan statutes: Note 35 above, and Prothero, Select Statutes, pp. 74–76. Will of Leonard Beetson of Boston, signed Dec. 24, 1625, archdeaconry wills, LAO.


1. Humber estuary: University of Hull, Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, Humber Estuary and Coast (Hull, UK, Nov. 1994). History of the river and navigation on it: G. de Boer and R. A. Skelton, “The Earliest English Chart with Soundings,” Imago Mundi 23 (1969), pp. 9–16. and Arthur Storey, Hull Trinity House History of Pilotage and Navigational Aids of the River Humber (1512–1908) (Hull, UK, 1971), pp. 2–3 and 25–28. I am also indebted to a lecture about the dynamics of the river given by Jack Hardisty, professor of environmental physics, the University of Hull, on June 17, 2006, at a seminar at Barton-upon-Humber arranged by the Campaign to Protect Rural England (North Lincolnshire).

2. The Francis: 1607 Exchequer port book for Grimsby (searcher’s book), E 190/312/1, NAK. Coal trade: Simon Pawley, “Lincolnshire Coastal Villages and the Sea, c. 1300–1600: Economy and Society” (Ph.D. diss., thesis, University of Leicester, 1984), pp. 143–44. Cold winter: John Stow and Edmund Howes, Annales, or a General Chronicle of England (London, 1631), pp. 891–92.

3. The depositions are on microfilm at NAK, SP 14/32/46 and 47, dated May 13, 1608.

4. Mary Green entry in ODNB.

5. A. C. Wood, ed., Memorials of the Holles Family (London, 1937), p. 63; and postmortem inquisition of Thomas Hatcliffe, 1610, WARD 7/36/34, NAK.

6. Pawley, “Lincolnshire Coastal Villages,” pp. 51–57. Political affairs in the spring of 1608: M. S. Guiseppi and G. D. Owen, eds., HMC Salisbury (Cecil) Manuscripts (London, 1968), vol. 20, pp. 112–75.

7. Joan and Thomas Helwys: York High Commission act book, HC AB 15, fols. 144, 167, 177, and 183, Borthwick Institute, York. York assizes: Edmund Hopwood to Thomas Southworth, July 29, 1608, Lancs RO, Kenyon of Peel Papers, DDKE HMC 20. Banishment in 1609: Abstract of the Registers of the Privy Council, 1550–1610, Add. MS 11402, fol. 147r., BL.

8. Hodgkinson Transcripts, vol. 3, fols. 380 and 387, NAN.

9. Journal of Sir Julius Caesar, May 4–July 24, 1608, Lansdowne Papers, MS 168, fols. 297–306, BL. For Cecil’s papers, see note 6 above.

10. John McCavitt, The Flight of the Earls (Dublin, 2005), pp. 135–53; and O’Doherty’s entry in ODNB.

11. Add. MS 11402, fols. 140–41, BL.

12. Pauline Croft, “The Religion of Robert Cecil,” Historical Journal 34, no. 4 (1991), esp. pp. 775–80 and 796.


1. Sea approaches to Amsterdam: William Johnson, The Light of Navigation (Amsterdam, 1612), bk. 1, p. 12. Eyewitness account: Tadhg Ó Cianáin, The Flight of the Earls, ed. Paul Walsh (Maynooth, 1916), pp. 169–87. St. Peter’s in 1608: Rudolf Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600–1750 (New Haven, CT, 1982), pp. 28–29, 111–12, and 190–93. Paul V and Santa Francesca Romana: Ludwig von Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (London, 1891—), vol. 1, pp. 235–37, and vol. 25, pp. 43–49 and 255–58. The date of the canonization was May 19 using the Julian calendar, in force in England in 1608, but May 29 according to the modern Gregorian calendar, which was used in Rome.

2. For Smyth in Amsterdam, see W. T. Whitley, ed., The Works of John Smyth (Cambridge, UK, 1915), vol. 1, pp. lxxv–lxxviii.

3. Ó Cianáin, Flight of the Earls, pp. 9–11.

4. Micheline Kerney Walsh, Destruction by Peace: Hugh O’Neill After Kinsale (Monaghan, 1986), p. 191.

5. J. H. Elliott, Imperial Spain, 1469–1716 (Harmondsworth, UK, 1970), pp. 305–8.

6. Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (London, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 334–38 and 415–17.

7. John McCavitt, The Flight of the Earls (Dublin, 2005), pp. 200–221.

8. Bancroft to Sir Robert Winwood, Feb. 9, 1606, in Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James I, ed. Edward Sawyer (London, 1725), vol. 2, p. 195.


1. Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke, Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton… During His Embassy in Holland, from January 1616 to December 1620 (London, 1757), p. 240.

2. For whales and plague, see gazette of 1617, SP 14/95/22, NAK; Yorke, Letters from and to Carleton, pp. 89 and 96; HMC, Downshire Manuscrips, vol. 6, Papers of William Trumbull, 1616–1618 (London, 1995), p. 96.

3. S. Groenveld, ed., De Geschiedenis van een Hollandse Stad (Leiden, 2003), vol. 2, pp. 44–48.

4. Says and Hondschoote: E. Coornaert, Un centre industriel d’autrefois: La draperie-sayetterie d’Hondschoote (Paris, 1930), pp. 418–21. Also, Herman Van Der Wee, “The Western European Textile Industries, 1500–1750,” in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, ed. David Jenkins (Cambridge, UK, 2003), vol. 1, pp. 433–34 and 452–56. Refugees and textiles: Eric Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England (Manchester, UK, 1985), pp. 226–29.

5. N. W. Posthumus, De Geschiedenis van de Leidsche Lakenindustrie (The Hague, 1939), vol. 3, pp. 965 and 1175–80.

6. Estienne Richer, Le Mercure françois (Paris, 1617–18), vol. 4, pp. 415–18; Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 436–38; and Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic and the Hispanic World, 1606–1661 (Oxford, 1982), pp. 57–60.

7. Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, “Pilgrim Homes in Leiden,” NEHGR 154 (Oct. 2000), pp. 412–23.

8. Kees van der Wiel, Leidse Wevershuisjes: Het Wisselende lot van zeventiende-eeuwse Leidse arbeiderswoningen (Leiden, 2001), pp. 35–38, 124–26, and 144–45; and Groenveld, De Geschiedenis, vol. 2, pp. 21–22 and 31–32.

9. Richer, Le Mercure françois, vol. 5, pp. 25–26; Yorke, Letters to and from Carleton, p. 184; P. J. Blok, Geschiedenis eener Hollandsche Stad: Die Republiek (The Hague, 1916), pp. 106–8; an annotated print, d’Arminianze Schans tot Leyden (1618), in the British Museum; and Joke Kardux and Eduard van de Bilt, Newcomers in an Old City: The American Pilgrims in Leiden, 1609–1620, 3rd ed. (Leiden, 2007), pp. 37–40.

10. Yorke, Letters to and from Carleton, p. 163. Oldenbarnevelt, Prince Maurice, and the crisis of 1617–18: Jan Den Tex, Oldenbarnevelt, trans. R. B. Powell (London, 1973), vol. 2, pp. 423–66 and 566–73; and Israel, Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, pp. 433–59 and 461–62.

11. Yorke, Letters to and from Carleton, p. 435.

12. Ibid., p. 307.

13. Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge, UK, 1982), pp. 68–75.

14. HMC, Downshire Manuscripts (1940), vol. 4, p. 454.

15. HMC, Downshire Manuscripts (1988), p. 353; and Isaaci Casauboni Corona Regia (London, 1615), pp. 113–14.

16. ODNB; and Alan R. Macdonald, “James VI and I, the Church of Scotland, and British Ecclesiastical Convergence,” Historical Journal 48 (2005), pp. 893–99.

17. Yorke, Letters to and from Carleton, pp. 345, 346–53, 379–80, 385–99, 405–10, 423, and 437. Also: Anthony Milton, ed., The British Delegation and the Synod of Dort (Woodbridge, UK, 2005), pp. 211–12.

18. Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), pp. 23–27.

19. Entries in London port books for 1617, E 190/21/2, NAK; and U 269/1Dec 1, CKS.

20. Simon Hart, The Prehistory of the New Netherland Company: Amsterdam Notarial Records of the First Dutch Voyages to the Hudson (Amsterdam, 1959), pp. 17–38.

21. J. R. Brodhead and E. B. O’Callaghan, eds., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York (Albany, NY, 1856), vol. 1, pp. 21–24.


1. Pierre de La Primaudaye, The French Academie (London, 1618), p. 836.

2. J. C. Jefferson, ed., Middlesex County Records, 1549–1688 (London, 1886–92), vol. 1, p. 191, and vol. 2, pp. xvii–xxii; and Digby entry in ODNB.

3. Philip Stubbes, The Anatomie of Abuses, 3rd ed. (London, 1585; repr., 1836), pp. 50–51.

4. Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, MA, 1979), pp. 23–26; Bernard Allaire, Pelleteries, manchons et chapeaux de castor: Les fourrures nord-américaines à Paris, 1500–1632 (Paris, 1999), esp. pp. 67–83 and 157–74.

5. Bacon Papers, MS 650, fols. 222 and 286; MS 651, fols. 76, 147, 184, 235, and 281; MS 657, fols. 103 and 188; MS 658, fol. 172; MS 659, fol. 79; MS 661, fol. 236, LPL. Also, regarding beaver hat alterations: May 16, 1622, Lancs RO, Kenyon of Peel Papers, DDKE HMC 51. Anthony Bacon: Daphne du Maurier, Golden Lads: A Study of Anthony Bacon, Francis, and Their Friends (London, 2007), esp. pp. 144–48.

6. Arnolds: Wills of Samuel Arnold, Aug. 20, 1618, PROB 11/132, PCC, NAK, and Richard Arnold, May 24, 1621, PROB 11/138, PCC, NAK; Minutes of the Court of Assistants of the Haberdashers’ Company, MS 15842, vol. 1, fols. 208 and 214, Guildhall Library; and R. G. Lang, ed., Two Tudor Subsidy Assessment Rolls for the City of London: 1541 and 1582 (London, 1993), pp. 114 and 236. Haberdashers and Puritans: Ian Archer, The History of the Haberdashers’ Company (Chichester, UK, 1991), pp. 74–80, with references to Richard Arnold on p. 237.

7. Berthold Laufer, “The Early History of Felt,” American Anthropologist, n.s., 32, no. 1 (1930), pp. 1–18.

8. On the natural history and anatomy of the beaver, see Lewis H. Morgan, The American Beaver and His Works (Philadelphia, 1868), pp. 17–29 and 46–51; and Dietland Müller-Schwarze and Lixing Sun, The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetland Engineer (Ithaca, NY, 2003), esp. pp. 10–21.

9. Ben Jonson, A Celebration of Charis in Ten Lyric Pieces: Her Triumph, in Ben Jonson: The Complete Poems, ed. George Parfitt (Harmondsworth, UK, 1975), p. 129.

10. J. F. Crean, “Hats and the Fur Trade,” Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 28, no. 3 (Aug. 1962), pp. 379–82.

11. “Chapeau,” in Denis Diderot, Encyclopédie; ou, Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Paris, 1751–65); Thierry Lefrançois, “L’art du chapelier,” in La Traite de la fourrure: Les Français et la découverte de l’Amérique du Nord (La Rochelle, France, 1992); Allaire, Pelleteries, pp. 125–31 and 188–92; and Michael Sonenscher, The Hatters of Eighteenth-Century France (Berkeley, CA, 1987), pp. 20–25.

12. Thomas Mun, England’s Treasure by Forraign Trade (first printed in 1664, but probably written in 1626 or 1627), in Early English Tracts on Commerce, ed. J. R. McCulloch (Cambridge, UK, 1954), p. 132. Luxury trades: Chapter 1 of an excellent recent book by Linda Levy Peck, Consuming Splendor: Society and Culture in Seventeenth-Century England (Cambridge, UK, 2005).

13. Wardrobe accounts of Prince Charles: E 101/434/9 (1617–18); E 101/434/14 (1618–19); E 101/436/1 (1622–23); E 101/436/9 (1623–24); and E 101/435/20 (extraordinary expenses for the journey to Spain, 1623), NAK.

14. On fur from Russia, see London Port Book (imports) for 1621, entries for Oct. 20–Nov. 17, esp. the entry for the Encrease on Oct. 31, E 190/24/4, NAK.

15. Will of Ralph Freeman (1634), PROB/11/165, NAK.

16. Paul Bushkovitch, The Merchants of Moscow, 1582–1701 (Cambridge, UK, 1980), pp. 44–45.

17. Tar, ropes, and cordage and their cost and sources of supply (1610–18) in the papers of Sir John Coke, Add. MSS 69895, fols. 109–10, 146–49, 152, and 168–69, BL.

18. Siberian fur: Raymond H. Fisher, The Russian Fur Trade, 1550–1700 (Berkeley, CA, 1943), esp. pp. 4–29, 49–78, 113, and 153–55. Political background: George Vernadsky, The Tsardom of Moscow, 1547–1682 (New Haven, CT, 1969), pt. I, pp. 276–91.

19. London port book (exports) for 1617, Sackville Papers, U 269/1OEC1, CKS. Bullion shipments are listed in a special section at the back of the port book.

20. Collapse of the Muscovy Company: The events are chronicled in the Calendar of Colonial State Papers, East Indies, China, and Japan, 1617–1621, ed. W. N. Sainsbury (London, 1870), esp. pp. 350 and 453–54. Freeman in the 1620s: Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus; or, Purchas His Pilgrimes (Glasgow, 1906), vol. 13, pp. 24–26; and J. Kotilaine and M. Poe, eds., Modernizing Muscovy: Reform and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century Russia (New York, 2004), pp. 191–92.

21. S. M. Kingsbury, ed., Records of the Virginia Company of London (London, 1906–35), vol. 3, p. 308.


1. Philip E. Barbour, ed., The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580–1631 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1986), vol. 1, p. 429.

2. Bill of complaint of Edward Pickering, 1622, E 112/104/1502, NAK.

3. Peter Wilson Coldham, “Thomas Weston: Ironmonger of London and America, 1609–1647” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 62, no. 3 (Sept. 1974), pp. 163–72. Coldham made errors in dating the documents, and he overlooked the Sackville Papers, and hence his account of events is imperfect. Even so, his article shines a brilliant light on the unsentimental realities of Jacobean London.

4. Weston and Welsh cottons: Rowland & Rudge v. Vaughan et al. (1622), E 134/20JasI/Mich30, deposition of Andrew Weston, NAK; and lists of Shrewsbury drapers’ apprentices in Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society 50 (1939–40), p. 26. On the Welsh cotton trade: T. C. Mendenhall, The Shrewsbury Drapers and the Welsh Wool Trade in the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries (Oxford, 1953), esp. pp. 13–17, 34–48, and 56–68.

5. Donald F. Harris, “The More Children of the Mayflower: Their Shropshire Origins and the Reasons Why They Were Sent Away,” Mayflower Descendant 43, no. 2 (July 1993), pp. 123–32, and 44, no. 1(Jan. 1994), pp. 11–19, and no. 2 (July 1994), pp. 109–18.

6. See note 4 to chapter 15, below.

7. L. M. Midgley, ed., A History of the County of Stafford (London, 1959), vol. 5, pp. 155–57 and 160–61.

8. Staffordshire Parish Registers Society, Rugeley Parish Register, Part 1 (Stafford, UK, 1928); 1616 Metropolitical Visitation: Excommunication book B/V/2/8, LDRO; and W. N. Landor, “Staffordshire Incumbents and Parochial Records (1530–1680),” in Collections for a History of Staffordshire, 1915 (London, 1916), pp. 381 and 392.

9. Statistics: Richard Grassby, The Business Community of Seventeenth-Century England (Cambridge, UK, 1995), pp. 76–81. Will of Ralph Weston: Aug. 12, 1605, LDRO.

10. Grassby, Business Community, pp. 82–91.

11. For discussion of credit and bills of exchange, see P. McGrath, ed., The Merchants Avizo (Cambridge, MA, 1957), pp. 48–51; and Robert Ashton, The Crown and the Money Market, 1603–1640 (Oxford, 1960), pp. 1–4.

12. London port book (exports), eleven entries, Sackville Papers, U269/1/Oec1, CKS.

13. Astrid Friis, Alderman Cockayne’s Project and the Cloth Trade (Copenhagen, 1927), esp. pp. 306–26; also, Cokayne entry in ODNB.

14. Interlopers: Friis, Alderman Cockayne’s Project, pp. 108–12. Marshalsea: Chamberlain to Carleton, in The Letters of John Chamberlain, ed. N. E. McClure (Philadelphia, 1939), vol. 2, p. 131. Will of Edward Pickering (1623): PROB 11/142, NAK.

15. In the 1950s, the American scholar Ruth A. McIntyre conducted some excellent research into the business affairs of the Plymouth Colony, examining the background of many of the investors. Her book Debts Hopeful and Desperate: Financing the Plymouth Colony (Plymouth, MA, 1963) remains a fine source, but much more can now be said.

16. Will of Thomas Beacham (1614), PROB/11/123, NAK; will of Christopher Beachom (1623), archdeaconry of Northampton wills, 2nd ser., M247, Northants RO; Northants Record Society, A Copy of Papers Relating to Musters, Beacons, Subsidies, etc., in the County of Northampton, A.D. 1586–1623 (Kettering, UK, 1926), pp. 44, 60, 92, 117, 130, 177, and 178; J. J. Howard, ed., Visitation of London, 1633–4 (London, 1880), vol. 1, p. 59; will of John Beauchamp (the Plymouth Colony investor) (1655), PROB/11/245, NAK.

17. For the business dealings of Beauchamp and Sherley, see London Port Book (exports) for 1617, numerous entries, Sackville Papers, U269/1/Oec 1; London Port Book (imports) for 1621, E 190/24/4, NAK; and London Port Book for 1626, E 190/31/3, NAK.

18. W. F. Craven, The Dissolution of the Virginia Company (Oxford, 1932), pp. 222–30.

19. Artillery company: G. A. Raikes, The Ancient Vellum Book of the Honourable Artillery Company (London, 1890); G. Goold-Walker, The Honourable Artillery Company, 1537–1987 (London, 1986), pp. 25–39; Thomas Adams, The Souldiers Honour (London, 1617), “Epistle Dedicatorie.” Bingham and the Dutch connection: Jean Tsushima, “Members of the Stationers’ Company Who Served in the Artillery Company Before the Civil War: Ralph Mabbe and His Network,” in The Stationers’ Company and the Book Trade, 1550–1990, ed. R. Myers and M. Harris (Winchester, UK, 1997), pp. 69–74.

20. Kenneth Rogers, “Bread Street, Its Ancient Signs and Houses,” London Topographical Record 16 (1932), pp. 52–76.

21. Merchant Taylors’ Company, “Register of Apprentice Bindings, 1606–1609,” MS 34038/5, p. 101, May 18, 1607, Guildhall Library; wills of John Harrison, Ralph Longworth, Nathaniel Wade, and Edward Pocock, PROB 11/133, 11/135, 11/136, and 11/164, NAK; postmortem inquisition of John Pocock Sr., July 24, 1627, C142/436/34, NAK; Longworth v. Pocock (1629–30), DL4/79/57, NAK; and Memorials of the Guild of Merchant Taylors (London, 1875), pp. 714–21.

22. Stock: ODNB; Tom Webster, Godly Clergy in Early Stuart England: The Caroline Puritan Movement, c. 1620–1643 (Cambridge, UK, 1997), pp. 80–83; and Stock’s will (proved 1626), PROB/11/149, NAK.

23. Christopher Hill, “Puritans and ‘the Dark Corners of the Land,’” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 19 (1963), pp. 91–97.

24. James I to Sir Walter Aston, Jan. 5, 1620, SP 94/23, fols. 279–90, NAK.

25. Charles P. Kindleberger, “The Economic Crisis of 1619–1623,” Journal of Economic History 51, no. 1(March 1991), pp. 149–75.

26. Mendenhall, Shrewsbury Drapers, pp. 190–96; and also Barry Supple, Commercial Crisis and Change in England, 1600–1642 (Cambridge, UK, 1964), pp. 54–58; Joan Thirsk and J. P. Cooper, eds. Seventeenth-Century Economic Documents (Oxford, 1972), pp. 1–4; and tables of data on wages, rents, and prices in the appendices to Joan Thirsk, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales (Cambridge, UK, 1967), vol. 4.

27. Archbishop Abbot’s account book: Midsummer 1620, MS 1730, fol. 114, LPL.


1. Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), p. 72. For this chapter, the principal narrative sources are Bradford’s history and Dwight B. Heath, ed., Mourt’s Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth (Bedford, MA, 1963).

2. Benjamin Bangs, diary, Oct. 28, 1747, typewritten transcript, Massachusetts Historical Society; Simeon Deyo, ed., History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts (New York, 1890), p. 791; and Theresa M. Barbo, Cape Cod Bay: A History of Salt and Sea (Charleston, SC, 2008), pp. 90–92.

3. Thomas Prince, A Chronological History of New England (Boston, 1852), p. 165.

4. U.S. Bureau of the Census, A Century of Population Growth: From the First Census of the United States to the Twelfth (Washington, DC, 1909), p. 191.

5. Wendell S. Hadlock, “Three Contact Burials from Eastern Massachusetts,” Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 10, no. 3 (April 1949), pp. 63–66.

6. N. J. G. Pounds, A History of the English Parish (Cambridge, UK, 2000), pp. 417–29; and Nigel Llewellyn, Funeral Monuments in Post-Reformation England (Cambridge, UK, 2000), pp. 6–14 and 146–63.

7. Heath, Mourt’s Relation, p. 17.

8. SP 14/130/106, NAK.

9. Theological Miscellanies of David Pareus, trans. A.R. (London, 1645), p. 735.

10. S. M. Kingsbury, ed., Records of the Virginia Company of London (Washington, DC, 1906–35), vol. 3, pp. 130–35 and 623.

11. Town book of Blyth, 1560–94, Clifton Papers, CL M 62, U Nott.

12. Sir Thomas Smith, De Republica Anglorum, ed. Mary Dewar (Cambridge, UK, 1982), p. 57.

13. William Hubbard, A General History of New England from the Discovery to 1680 (Boston, 1848), p. 67.

14. Levett (1628), in J. Phinney Baxter, Christopher Levett of York (Portland, ME, 1893), pp. 102 and 119.

15. Thomas Hunt: His will of 1619, PROB/11/134, NAK. His voyage to Russia: Sackville Papers, U269/1 Oeci, April 23, 1617, CKS; and Philip E. Barbour, ed., The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580–1631 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1986), vol. 2, p. 401. The Thomas Hunt who left the will and sailed to Archangel must have been the same as the Hunt who kidnapped Tisquantum, because only one ship’s master of that name appears in the port books of the period.


1. N. E. McClure, ed., The Letters of John Chamberlain (Philadelphia, 1939), vol. 2, p. 405.

2. Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), p. 66; and draft warrant for Weston’s arrest, 1622, Sackville Papers, U269/1 OE 1247, CKS.

3. R. B. Turton, The Alum Farm (Whitby, UK, 1938), pp. 88–91.

4. The legal documents relating to Thomas Weston fall into four categories. First, the official records concerning Guest and Weston’s alum smuggling are among Lord Cranfield’s papers at CKS Sackville Papers, files U269/1 OEc180, and OE 682, 779, 1135, and 1247. Second, details of Weston’s business activities can be found in the files relating to the Exchequer lawsuit Rowland and Rudge v. Vaughn et al. (1622), E 112/103/1414 and E 134/20JasI/Mich30, NAK. His legal quarrel with the Separatist haberdasher Edward Pickering gave rise to the third set of documents, in the case of Pickering et al. v. Weston et al. (1622–25). These files can be found at NAK, E 112/104/1502 and 1569; E 124/32/254; E 124/33/74; E 124/34/22–23; E 124/35/268; E 134/22Jas1/Hil8; E 134/22JasI/Mich22 and Mich59; and E178/5451. Finally, Privy Council orders relating to Weston are in Acts of the Privy Council of England, 1621–1623 (London, 1932), pp. 136–37, and Acts of the Privy Council of England Colonial Series, Vol. 1, 1613–1680 (London, 1908), pp. 50–51.

5. Slany and the Merchant Taylors: Court Minutes of the Merchant Taylors’ Company, 1611–20, MS 34010/5, Guildhall Library; and List of Freemen, MS 34037, Guildhall Library. Humphrey Slany and the Mayflower: J. R. Hutchinson, “The ‘Mayflower,’ Her Identity and Tonnage,” NEHGR, Oct. 1916, p. 341.

6. Fynes Moryson, “Of the Turkes, French, English, Scottish, and Irish Apparrell,” in An Itinerary… Containing His Ten Yeeres Travell (London, 1617), pt. 3, bk. 4, chap. 2.

7. Samuel Hartlib, Samuel Hartlib His Legacie (London, 1651), pp. 46, 79, and 88–90.

8. Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Philadelphia, 2006), p. 73.

9. Charles Brooks, “Indian Necropolis in West Medford, Mass.,” PMHS, 1st ser., 6 (1862–63), pp. 362–64; and Carl Seaburg and Alan Seaburg, Medford on the Mystic (Medford, MA, 1980), pp. 3–4 and 93–95.

10. Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall, History of Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts (Boston, 1865), pp. 32–42; and Richard S. Dunn, James Savage, and Laetitia Yeandle, eds., The Journal of John Winthrop, 1630–1649 (Cambridge, MA, 1996), pp. 47–49 and 105.

11. Dexter, in the notes to his edition of Mourt’s Relation, published in Boston in 1865.

12. Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, p. 65.

13. W. N. Sainsbury, Calendar of Colonial State Papers, American, 1574–1660 (London, 1860), p. 124; and Alan James, The Navy and Government in Early Modern France, 1572–1661 (Woodbridge, UK, 2004), pp. 25–28.

14. J. Gardner Bartlett, “John Peirce of London and the Merchant Adventurers,” NEHGR 67 (1913), pp. 147–53.

15. “Records of the Council for New England,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (1867), pp. 91–93, entry for March 25, 1623.

16. Beale’s output: Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554–1640 (London, 1875–94), vol. 3, entries under Beale’s name. Background: Carolyn Nelson and Matthew Seccombe, “The Creation of the Periodical Press, 1620–1695,” in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, ed. J. Barnard and D. F. McKenzie (Cambridge, UK, 2002), vol. 4, pp. 533–37.

17. On Butter, Bourne, and Bellamy, see Leona Rostenberg, Literary, Political, Scientific, Religious, and Legal Publishing, Printing, and Bookselling in England, 1551–1700: Twelve Studies (New York, 1965), pp. 75–91 and 97–129; ODNB entries for Butter and Bourne; and Bellamy’s entry in Henry R. Plomer, A Dictionary of the Booksellers… from 1641 to 1667 (London, 1968).


1. Alexander Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers (Boston, 1844; repr., Baltimore, 1974), pp. 272–73.

2. Arrival of Massasoit: Letter of Emmanuel Altham, Sept. 1623, in Three Visitors to Early Plymouth: Letters About the Pilgrim Settlement in New England During the First Seven Years, ed. Sydney V. James Jr. (Plymouth, MA, 1963), pp. 29–32. Map of Plymouth, 1830: The Bourne map, Massachusetts State Archives, vol. 68, no. 2161, p. 7.

3. Sherley and Andrewes v. Weston et al. (1623), E 112/104/1569, NAK.

4. C. M. Andrews, The Colonial Period in American History, vol. 1, The Settlements (New Haven, CT, 1934), pp. 332–34; and the comprehensive account in William Heath, “Thomas Morton: From Merry Old England to New England,” Journal of American Studies 41, no. 1 (2007), esp. pp. 143–47.

5. Personal communication, April 2008, from Francis J. O’Brien Jr. (Moondancer) of the Aquidneck Indian Council.

6. Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of America (1643), in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society for the Year 1794 (Boston, 1810), vol. 3, p. 228.

7. London Port Book (exports) for 1619, entry for July 31, 1619, E 190/22/9, NAK.

8. Kathleen L. Ehrhardt, European Metals in Native Hands: Rethinking the Dynamics of Technological Change, 1640–1683 (Tuscaloosa, AL, 2005), pp. 57–59 and 76–81; Laurier Turgeon, “The Tale of the Kettle: Odyssey of an Intercultural Object,” in Ethnohistory 44, no. 1 (winter 1997), pp. 1–21.

9. The various accounts of Wessagussett are Bradford’s, in Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford, ed. Samuel Eliot Morison (New York, 1979), pp. 113–19; Winslow’s, in Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, pp. 296–311 and 327–41; the narrative of Phineas Pratt, in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th ser., 4 (1858), pp. 476–79; and Thomas Morton’s, in New English Canaan (Amsterdam, 1637). Morton’s text is now easily available as an e-book, via Google Books and other portals, in an edition first published in 2000 by Jack Dempsey.

10. CLIMOD statistics for Plymouth-Kingston (1893–2007) from Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

11. Appraisal of the Little James’s armament, anchors, rigging, and so forth (1624?), HCA 24/81/120, NAK.

12. All quotations from Altham’s letters are from James, Three Visitors to Early Plymouth, pp.

13. Wills of Edward Altham (1605) and Elizabeth Altham (1623), PROB 11/106 and PROB/11/139, NAK. On the Althams: Harleian Society, Visitations of Essex Part II (London, 1879), pp. 538–39; and transcripts of the Altham family papers, T/A 531/1, ECRO. The Altham family had strong kinship ties to the leading Puritan families of eastern England: the most important was the marriage of Emmanuel’s eldest brother, Sir James Altham, to Elizabeth Barrington. The Barringtons were active Puritan politicians in successive Parliaments and closely related by marriage to Oliver Cromwell and John Hampden.

14. Records of the lawsuit Stephens and Fell v. the ship Little James et al. (1624), HCA 24/81/40, 41, and 158, NAK.

15. Letters of John Bridges and Emmanuel Altham, 1623–24, PMHS 44 (1910–11), pp. 178–89.

16. Will of Emmanuel Altham (1638): PROB/11/178, NAK. Altham at Armagon: W. Foster, ed., The English Factories in India, 1630–1633 (Oxford, 1910), pp. 183–84, and The English Factories in India, 1634–1636 (Oxford, 1911), pp. 47–48, 296, and 327; and E. B. Sainsbury, ed., A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1635–1639 (Oxford, 1907), p. 318.

17. Pelts imported into Plymouth, Devon, in 1622: See the Plymouth Port Book (new impositions), Easter 1622–Michaelmas 1622, E 190/1030/10, NAK. For 1624: E 190/1030/19, NAK. The first record of substantial imports of beaver skins into Plymouth comes in July 1626, when Abraham Jennings shipped home more than one thousand pelts on the Consent: E 190/1031/6, NAK.

18. Bradford’s narrative of the Lyford affair, from which all my quotations come unless otherwise indicated, is in Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 146–70.

19. “Malignant” entry in The Oxford English Dictionary.

20. Winthrop: Francis J. Bremer, John Winthrop: America’s Founding Father (New York, 2003), pp. 72–73 and 98–99. Winslow: Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Edward Winslow: New England’s First International Diplomat (Boston, 2004), pp. 1–2. Slany: Court Minutes of the Merchant Taylors’ Company, 1611–20, MS 34010/5, pp. 77, 108, 150–51, and 173–75, Guildhall Library.

21. W. H. Rylands, ed., The Four Visitations of Berkshire (London, 1907), vol. 1, p. 244, and vol. 2, pp. 172–73; William Page and P. H. Ditchfield, eds., The Victoria County History of Berkshire (London, 1924), vol. 4, pp. 81–84 and 110–14; and J. Foster, ed., Alumni Oxonienses, 1500–1714 (Oxford, 1891–92), vol. 3.

22. Puritan clergy in Ireland: Alan Ford, “The Church of Ireland, 1558–1634: A Puritan Church,” in As by Law Established: The Church of Ireland Since the Reformation, ed. Alan Ford, J. I. McGuire, and Kenneth Milne (Dublin, 1995), pp. 56–67. Armagh cathedral prebendaries: J. B. Leslie, Armagh Clergy and Parishes (Dundalk, Ireland, 1911), pp. 59–73. On the Ulster Plantation generally: S. J. Connolly, Contested Island: Ireland, 1460–1630 (Oxford, 2007), pp. 290–302.

23. For Lyford at Loughgall, see Diocese of Armagh, “Visitation Royal 1622,” fols. 54r–55, showing appointment of Lyford as prebendary on Oct. 21, 1613, Armagh Robinson Public Library; List of the Temporalities of 1622, file DIO/4/4/2, fol. 40, entry regarding Levalleglish, PRONI; and Leslie, Armagh Clergy, p. 351.

24. The O’Neills and the confiscation of Loughgall: John McCavitt, “Rebels, Planters, and Conspirators: Armagh, 1594–1640,” in Armagh: History and Society, ed. A. J. Hughes and William Nolan (Dublin, 2001), pp. 253–58; and R. J. Hunter, “County Armagh: A Map of Plantation, c. 1610,” in the same volume, pp. 268–73. Copes at Loughgall: “A Book of the Plantation of Ulster” (1619), in Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, 1603–1624, ed. J. S. Brewer and William Bullen (London, 1873), pp. 415–16. ODNB; and will of Anthony Cope (1633), Cope Papers (28–1975), Armagh County Museum.

25. Lyford and Church land: Entry regarding John Lyford in Robert C. Anderson, The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony, 1620–1633 (Boston, MA, 2004), p. 313; map of Loughgall in 1834, OS/6/2/8/1, PRONI; and James Morrin, ed., Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland in the Reign of Charles I (Dublin, 1863), p. 322. Hampton and long leases: Sir James Stuart, Historical Memoirs of the City of Armagh (Newry, UK, 1819), pp. 308–10; and “Orders Concerning the Church of Ireland 1623,” inside the manuscript “Visitation Royal 1622,” Armagh Robinson Public Library.

26. Pory’s letters: James, Three Visitors to Early Plymouth. Bradford on Pory: Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 112–13.


1. Massachusetts Historical Society, Winthrop Papers, vol. 2, 1623–1630 (Boston, 1931), pp.

2. State Papers (France), SP 78/80, fol. 83 (Oct. 12, 1626); fol. 97 (Oct. 13); fols. 114–16 (Nov. 6); fol. 163 (Nov. 30); and SP 78/81, fol. 187 (1627), NAK. Also, Francisque Michel, Histoire de commerce et de la navigation à Bordeaux (Bordeaux, 1870), vol. 2, pp. 52–54 and 61–62; and Thomas R. Cogswell, “Prelude to Ré: The Anglo-French Struggle over La Rochelle, 1624–1627,” History 71 (1986), pp. 13–14.

3. SP 78/80, fol. 116, NAK; and Charles de la Roncière, Histoire de la marine française (Paris, 1923), vol. 4, pp. 558–628.

4. François de Vaux de Foletier, whose book first appeared in 1931.

5. MP: Sir Benjamin Rudyerd, April 1, 1628, in Commons Debates, 1628, ed. R. C. Johnson and M. J. Cole (New Haven, CT, 1977), vol. 2, p. 228. French commerce in French hulls: See, for example, “Declaration du roy,” in Etienne Cleirac, Les us et coutumes de la mer (Rouen, 1671), pp. 2–3. La Rochelle, its defenses, and the preliminaries of the siege: François de Vaux de Foletier, Le siège de La Rochelle (La Rochelle, France, 1978), pp. 16–18, 81–94; and Cogswell, “Prelude to Ré.”

6. Barnstaple: SP 16/51/25–26, Jan. 26, 1627, NAK. Sailors: J. F. Larkin, Stuart Royal Proclamations, vol. 2, 1625–1646 (Oxford, 1983), pp. 127–128.

7. Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), p. 34; and S. M. Kingsbury, ed., The Records of the Virginia Company of London (Washington, DC, 1906–35), vol. 1, pp. 221 and 228.

8. Clinton’s pamphlet, SP 16/54/82.i, Jan. 24, 1627, NAK; and Richard Cust, The Forced Loan and English Politics, 1626–1628 (Oxford, 1987), esp. pp. 32–39, 102–3, 170–76, and 298–99.

9. Wincob, Coddington, and Lincolnshire loan refusers: SP 16/56/39, March 8, 1627, NAK; and the 1625 certificate of residence of “John Wincope… gent,” E 115/46/56, NAK. Dudley and the loan: SP 16/72/36, July 28, 1627, NAK. Identification of John Wincob: Records relating to taxpayers in Lincolnshire have survived in large numbers and in very good condition. They list only one gentleman with a name like John Wincob or Weyncopp. He was registered as a taxpayer in the parish of Kirkby Underwood. The village is eight miles from Sempringham, where the Clintons owned a manor house, and three miles from Folkingham, where they owned land and which they later chose as their principal residence.

10. Bread Street Ward forced loan refusers: SP 16/71/15, July 16, 1627, NAK. Other City wards: SP 16/72/60, 61, 62, 64, and 65, NAK. Pocock’s arrest warrant, July 19, 1627: Acts of the Privy Council of England (January–August 1627) (London, 1938), p. 424.

11. Deposition against Archbishop Laud, SP 16/500/4, NAK.

12. The Marmaduke: London port book (exports) for 1627, E 190/31/1, fol. 113, NAK. John Gibbs and the Plymouth Colony: Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, p. 197.

13. Lynn Ceci, “Native Wampum as a Peripheral Resource in the Seventeenth-Century World-System,” in The Pequots in Southern New England: The Fall and Rise of an American Indian Nation, ed. Laurence M. Hauptman and James D. Wherry (Norman, OK, 1990), pp. 48–63.

14. For example, see household accounts of Lord Bayning, Jan. 30 and Oct. 17, 1634, SP 46/77, NAK.

15. Robert Le Blant, “Le commerce compliqué des fourrures canadiennes au début du XVII siècle,” Revue Historique de l’Amérique Française 26, no. 1 (June 1972). I have converted the French prices in silver into English shillings of the period, using data from the history of the Royal Mint in London and in Natalis de Wailly, Mémoire sur la variation de la livre tournois (Paris, 1857). The price of twenty shillings in the late 1620s matches details given by Bradford.

16. William Hubbard, A General History of New England from the Discovery to 1680 (Boston, 1848), p. 68.

17. On the restructuring of the Plymouth Colony’s finances, see Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 184–86 and 194–96.

18. “Plymouth Company Accounts,” Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 3rd ser., 1 (1907), pp. 200–201.


1. John Preston, “A Sensible Demonstration of the Deitie,” in Sermons Preached Before His Maiestie (London, 1631), p. 56.

2. E. W. Harcourt, ed., The Life of the Renowned Doctor Preston, Writ by His Pupil, Master Thomas Ball… in the Year 1628 (Oxford, 1885). Also Irvonwy Morgan, Prince Charles’s Puritan Chaplain (Oxford, 1957), esp. pp. 111 and 126.

3. The probate inventory of Miles Standish is available on the Web site of Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth, MA:

4. H. M. Colvin, ed., The History of the King’s Works, Vol. 4, 1485–1660, Part 2 (London, 1982), pp. 304–41; and Peter E. McCullough, Sermons at Court: Politics and Religion in Elizabethan and Jacobean Preaching (Cambridge, UK, 1998), pp. 31–42.

5. Preston, Sermons Preached Before His Maiestie, pp. 47 and 52–61.

6. Harcourt, Renowned Doctor Preston, pp. 158–62.

7. Will of John Preston, signed 1618, proved 1628, PROB/11/154, NAK. When Preston’s sermon appeared in print in 1631, the volume was edited by the Puritan minister John Davenport, a London friend of John Pocock’s brother Edward. Davenport had close ties to the leading investors in the Massachusetts Bay Company.

8. Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), p. 382.

9. N. M. Sutherland, “The Origins of the Thirty Years’ War and the Structure of European Politics,” English Historical Review 107 (July 1992), esp. pp. 590–91 and 618–22; and David Parrott, “The Mantuan Succession, 1627–1631: A Sovereignty Dispute in Early Modern Europe,” English Historical Review 112 (Feb. 1997), pp. 20–25, 48–50, and 64–65.

10. Harcourt, Renowned Doctor Preston, p. 174.


1. Hakewill to Archbishop Ussher of Armagh, in The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, D.D., ed. C. R. Elrington (Dublin, 1847–64), vol. 15, p. 418. Hakewill, a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, preached often at Barnstaple, where he married the daughter of the merchant and mayor, John Delbridge.

2. Regarding the St. Peter and the White Angel: Barnstaple port book (overseas) for 1628, entries for Jan. 7 and Jan. 23, E 190/947/5, NAK; and Patrick McGrath, ed., Records Relating to the Society of Merchant Venturers in the City of Bristol in the Seventeenth Century (Bristol, UK, 1952), p. 203. Drowned fishermen: Todd Gray, ed., Early-Stuart Mariners and Shipping: The Maritime Surveys of Devon and Cornwall, 1619–35 (Exeter, UK, 1990), p. xvi.

3. Will of John Penrose, former mayor of Barnstaple (1624), PROB/11/145, NAK.

4. Letters to Cecil, 1603–4: HMC, Salisbury, vol. 15 (London, 1930), pp. 337–38, and vol. 16 (London, 1933), pp. 6, 116, 127, 136, and 345. Delbridge and Palmer: Will of Anthonie Palmer (1596), PROB/11/87, PCC Wills, NAK. Micmac chieftain at Bayonne: This was a man called Messamouet; see Bruce J. Bourque and Ruth R. Whitehead, “Trade and Alliances in the Contact Period,” in American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega, ed. Emerson W. Baker et al. (Lincoln, NE, 1994), pp. 136–39. Delbridge and religion: Eastman v. Delbridge, STAC 8/134/5 (1616), NAK.

5. For Barnstaple’s activities in New England in 1622–23, see Records of the Council for New England (Cambridge, MA, 1867), pp. 71, 83–84, and 96. Evidence of only very modest imports of beaver fur before 1628 comes from the Barnstaple port books recording payment of the customs duties on cargoes subject to the so-called new impositions, which included beaver skins. These are: Barnstaple Port Book (new impositions), Easter 1624–Michaelmas 1624, E 190/946/3, NAK; Barnstaple Port Book (new impositions), Michaelmas 1625–Easter? 1626, E 190/946/8, NAK; and Barnstaple Port Book (new impositions), Michaelmas 1626–Easter 1627, E 190/946/10, NAK. Three port books recording new impositions collected at Barnstaple survive from the years 1614–16 and show no beaver fur imports. On Barnstaple generally, see J. R. Chanter and Thomas Wainwright, Reprint of the Barnstaple Records (Barnstaple, UK, 1900); Lois Lamplugh, Barnstaple: Town on the Taw (South Molton, UK, 2002); and Todd Gray, ed., The Lost Chronicle of Barnstaple, 1586–1611 (Devonshire Association, 1998).

6. Barnstaple’s trade by sea is clearly displayed in the town’s overseas port book for 1615, E 190/942/13, NAK. Also see contributions by Alison Grant and Todd Gray to The New Maritime History of Devon, ed. Michael Duffy et al. (London, 1992), vol. 1.

7. Barnstaple port book (overseas) for 1620, entry for Aug. 30, E 190/944/8; and entries for Aug. 28 and Sept. 11, 1615, E 190/942/13, NAK. Irish livestock: Donald Woodward, “The Anglo-Irish Livestock Trade of the Seventeenth Century,” Irish Historical Studies 18 (1972–73), pp. 489–91.

8. Richard W. Cotton, Barnstaple and the Northern Part of Devonshire During the Great Civil War, 1642–1646 (London, 1889), pp. 5–6 and 41.

9. SP (France), 78/83, Jan.–Dec. 1628, NAK.

10. E 190/947/5, NAK, shows only 37 outward voyages from Barnstaple to overseas ports in 1628, compared with about 60 in other years for which the port books survive. Of the 37, some 25 went to Ireland. Inward voyages from abroad numbered 67, compared with the usual total of about 160. Taking these figures together, we see the number of voyages falling from about 220 in a normal year to 104 in 1628.

11. R. C. Johnson and M. J. Cole, eds., Commons Debates, 1628 (New Haven, CT, 1977), vol. 2, p. 304.

12. Bristol-Barnstaple connection: Barnstaple Port Book (coastal) for 1615. The White Angel as privateer: John Bruce, ed., Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1628–1629 (London, 1859), pp. 439–42, letters of marque issued Nov. 4, 1628.

13. All of these details come from E 190/947/5, NAK.

14. On Witheridge in Maine, and his contacts with Samoset, see James Phinney Baxter, Christopher Levett of York: The Pioneer Colonist in Casco Bay (Portland, ME, 1893), pp. 101–3.

15. For Sherley’s accounts, see Chapter Seventeen, note 18, above.

16. Elbridge: Henry S. Burrage, The Beginnings of Colonial Maine, 1602–1658 (Portland, ME, 1914), pp. 180–82 and 217–20; and also David Harris Sacks, The Widening Gate: Bristol and the Atlantic Economy, 1450–1700 (Berkeley, CA, 1992), chap. 7. Regarding the trading season of 1628: Sherley to Bradford, Nov. 17, 1628, in Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, by William Bradford (New York, 1979), pp. 197–98. Morton in 1628: Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 204–10; and the sources referred to in Chapter Sixteen above, note 9.

17. Cradock: Collections for a History of Staffordshire (London, 1920 and 1922), vol. 2, pp. 22–23; and Sackville Papers, U 269/1, OEc 1, CKS. Cradock, Russia, and fur: Minutes of the Muscovia Company (1630), State Papers (Russia), SP 91/2, fols. 182–84, NAK, where Cradock’s name appears alongside that of Ralph Freeman among the company’s directors.

18. Frances Rose-Troup, John White: Founder of Massachusetts (London, 1930), pp. 64–99. Rose-Troup made occasional errors, and so caution is required in matters of detail.

19. Baxter, Christopher Levett of York, pp. 68–70.

20. Will of Gervase Kirke (1631), PROB/11/159, NAK; London port book (exports), 1617, as in note 17; and Henry Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada (London, 1908), esp.

21. Massachusetts Historical Society, Winthrop Papers (Boston, 1931), vol. 2, pp. 145–49.

22. Bannatyne Club, Royal Letters, Charters, and Tracts Relating to the Colonization of New Scotland (Edinburgh, 1867), p. 47.

23. In addition to Pocock, the investors were Christopher Coulson, Thomas Goffe, and John Revell.

24. Cradock to Endecott, quoted in Sidney Perley, The History of Salem, Massachusetts (Salem, MA, 1924), pp. 102–4.

25. The Friendship of Bideford: Barnstaple port book (overseas) for 1630–31, Dec. 29, 1630, E 190/947/8, NAK; Barnstaple port book (overseas) for 1633, March? 1633, E 190/948/10, NAK; Richard S. Dunn, James Savage, and Laetitia Yeandle, eds., The Journal of John Winthrop, 1630–1649 (Cambridge, MA, 1996), pp. 53–55. Governors Island: Pre-1945 editions of the United States Coast Pilot; and Nancy S. Seasholes, Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston (Cambridge, MA, 2003), pp. 375–79.

26. St. Kitts and the early English Caribbean colonies: Sir Alan Burns, History of the British West Indies (New York, 1973), pp. 187–202. Slaves at St. Kitts in 1626: V. T. Harlow, ed., Colonising Expeditions to the West Indies and Guiana, 1623–1667 (London, 1925), p. 26.

27. Voyages of the Charles and the Gift: SP 16/203/48, NAK; Dunn, Savage, and Yeandle, Journal, pp. 69–70 and 81; Barnstaple Port Books (overseas) for 1632–33, E 190/948/10 and E 190/948/11, NAK. Pocock, Barnstaple, and Massachusetts: Bill of exchange of 1635, B1/4090, NDRO.


1. Quoted in Alexander Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers (Boston, 1844; repr., Baltimore, 1974), pp. 250–51.

2. The Redenhall archives are held at Norfolk RO. Probate inventory of John Fuller (1608): Microfilm, DN/INV 22/102. Manorial records: Court book of Redenhall Manor, 1615–25, file MC 584/7; and court book of Coldham Hall in Redenhall, 1564–1649, file MC 584/2. Redenhall church records: List of churchwardens, 1573–1852, continued to 1893, file PD 295/158. Also, for Fuller entries in the parish register: Francis H. Fuller, “Fullers of Redenhall, England,” NEHGR, Oct. 1901, pp. 401–6. Genealogy of the Fullers: Robert C. Anderson, The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony, 1620–1633 (Boston, MA, 2004), pp. 212–21.

3. James Deetz and Patricia Scott Deetz, The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in the Plymouth Colony (New York, 2000), pp. 230–35.

4. Virginia DeJohn Anderson, Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America (New York, 2004), esp. chaps. 3 and 5.

5. F. Walker, Historical Geography of Southwest Lancashire Before the Industrial Revolution (Manchester, UK, 1939), pp. 11–12; and Charles Foster, “Farmers and the Economy in Cheshire and Lancashire,” Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 101

6. Keryn D. Bromberg and Mark D. Bertness, “Reconstructing New England Salt Marsh Losses Using Historical Maps,” Estuaries 28, no. 6 (Dec. 2005), pp. 823–32.

7. James Thacher, History of the Town of Plymouth (1835; fac. repr., Yarmouth Port, MA, 1972), pp. 312–14; also, William S. Russell, Pilgrim Memorials and Guide to Plymouth (Boston, 1860), p. 158.

8. Benjamin Shurtleff and David Pulsifer, eds., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England, vol. 11, Laws, 1623–1682 (Boston, 1855–61), pp. 15 and 48.

9. William T. Davis, Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth: Part 1, Historical Sketch (Boston, 1883), pp. 49–54.

10. Cynthia Hagar Krusell, Marshfield: A Town of Villages (Marshfield, MA, 1990), esp. pp. 5–9.

11. Dispersal of the Plymouth Colony: Darrell B. Rutman, Husbandmen of Plymouth: Towns and Villages in the Old Colony, 1620–1692 (Boston, 1967), p. 23. Abandonment of English manorial law: S. C. Powell, Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town (Middletown, CT, 1963), pp. 142–44.

12. For early comments about the Romney Marsh of Massachusetts, see Howard S. Russell, A Long, Deep Furrow: Three Centuries of Farming in New England (Hanover, NH, 1976), p. 41.

13. Puritans in Cranbrook and Rolvenden: Patrick Collinson, “Cranbrook and the Fletchers: Popular and Unpopular Religion in the Kentish Weald,” in Godly People: Essays on English Protestantism and Puritanism (London, 1983), pp. 399–428. Romney Marsh and English wetlands: Stephen Hipkin, “Tenant Farming and Short-Term Leasing on Romney Marsh, 1587–1705,” Economic History Review, n.s., 5, no. 4 (Nov. 2000), pp. 666–72; and Oliver Rackham, The History of the Countryside (London, 1986), pp. 374–94.

14. Sir William Dugdale, The History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fens and Marshes (London, 1662), pp. 374–416; and H. C. Darby, The Draining of the Fens (Cambridge, UK, 1956), pp. 22–32 and 263–69.

15. Will of Robert Ingols (1618), Consistory Court Wills, 1618, vol. 2, 317, LAO; probate inventory of Robert Ingols, INV 121/118, LAO; Dugdale, History of Imbanking, pp. 422–23; and Clive Holmes, Seventeenth-Century Lincolnshire (Lincoln, UK, 1980), pp. 25–27 and 121–30.

16. On Romney Marsh and the Pawtucket: Mellen Chamberlain, A Documentary History of Chelsea, 1624–1824 (Boston, 1908), pp. 60–76, 86–109, and 635; Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall, History of Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts (Boston, 1865), pp. 32–42, 51–58, and 76–78; Benjamin Shurtleff, The History of the Town of Revere (Boston, 1937), pp. 11–13.

17. Jeremy D. Bangs, Indian Deeds: Land Transactions in Plymouth Colony, 1620–1691 (Boston, 2002), introduction.

18. For a similar argument, see Keith Wrightson and David Levine, Poverty and Piety in an English Village: Terling, 1525–1700, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1995), pp. 204–11.

19. New England in the 1640s: Stephen Innes, Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England (New York, 1995), chap. 7. Population: Carla Gardina Pestana, The English Atlantic in the Age of Revolution, 1640–1661 (Cambridge, MA, 2004), pp. 229–34.

20. Carl Bridenbaugh, Fat Mutton and Liberty of Conscience: Society in Rhode Island, 1636–1690 (Providence, 1974), pp. 19–31.


1. Joseph Nicolar, The Life and Traditions of the Red Man (Bangor, ME, 1893; repr., Durham, NC, 2007, ed. by Annette Kolodny), p. 115.

2. Cotton Mather mentioned Dorothy Bradford’s death in his Magnalia Christi Americana of 1702, but even he makes only the briefest reference to it.

3. Shamanism and rock art in North America: James L. Pearson, Shamanism and the Ancient Mind: A Cognitive Approach to Archaeology (Walnut Creek, CA, 2002), pp. 53–64. Petroglyphs at Embden and elsewhere: Dean R. Snow, “The Solon Petroglyphs and Eastern Abenaki Shamanism,” in Papers of the Seventh Algonquian Conference, ed. William Cowan (Ottawa, 1975); Edward Lenik, Picture Rocks: American Indian Rock Art in the Northeast Woodlands (Hanover, NH, 2002), pp. 51–57; and Joan Vastokas and Romas Vastokas, Sacred Art of the Algonkians: A Study of the Peterborough Petroglyphs (Peterborough, ON, 1976), pp. 121–29. Shamanism in New England: Kathleen J. Bragdon, Native People of Southern New England, 1500–1650 (Norman, OK, 1996), pp. 200–216; and Frank Speck, “Penobscot Shamanism,” Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association 6 (1919), pp. 239–88.

4. Eric Lahti et al., “Test Excavations at the Hodgdon Site,” Man in the Northeast 21 (1981), pp. 19–36.

5. F. H. Eckstorm, Old John Neptune and Other Maine Indian Shamans (Portland, ME, 1945), esp. pp. 33–39; and two articles about Eckstorm and Neptune by Jacques Ferland and Pauleena MacDougall in Reconstructing Maine’s Wabanaki History, a special issue of Maine History 43, no. 2 (Aug. 2007).

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