TIME LINE

1990

 

FEBRUARY 8

Mikhail Gorbachev and US Secretary of State James Baker agree that if Germany reunites, NATO will not be expanded.

   

1991

 

JUNE 12

Boris Yeltsin is elected as first president of Russian Federation.

JULY 7

$1.5 billion food credit for Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) approved by the United States.

AUGUST 19–21

Hard-line Soviet leaders launch a coup to save USSR. Mass demonstrations face down the coup.

AUGUST 24

Gorbachev resigns as general secretary of Communist Party of Soviet Union (CPSU).

AUGUST 29

Russian parliament dissolves the CPSU.

NOVEMBER 6

Yeltsin bans the CPSU on territory of Russian Federation.

DECEMBER 21              

USSR dissolved. Russian Federation and former republics become sovereign states.

   

1992

 

JANUARY 29

Yegor Gaidar’s “shock therapy” economic reforms launched; most prices liberalized and spiral up.

JANUARY

Throughout the year the conflict between Yeltsin and parliament (Congress of People’s Deputies) intensifies.

MARCH 21

Tatarstan declares independence from Russia. Fragmentation threatens Russia.

OCTOBER 1

Chubais launches massive privatization program, giving every citizen a 10,000-ruble privatization voucher.

NOVEMBER

Constitutional Court partially lifts ban on the Communist Party.

DECEMBER 9

Congress forces resignation of Prime Minister Gaidar.

   

1993

 

JANUARY 3

Yeltsin and Bush sign START 2, envisaging reduction of nuclear weapons.

MARCH 28

Yeltsin declares state of emergency. Congress threatens to impeach him.

APRIL 25

Yeltsin narrowly wins national referendum on his reforms.

JULY 9

G7 countries announce $28.4 billion aid for former USSR.

SEPTEMBER 21

Yeltsin disbands parliament, introduces presidential rule, brings Gaidar back to run economy.

SEPTEMBER 26

Ten thousand demonstrate on behalf of legislators.

OCTOBER 3–4

Political impasse turns to armed conflict. Nationalist and communist deputies barricade themselves in parliament, with their militias. Yeltsin sends tanks to shell parliament; 187 killed. Opposition leaders jailed.

DECEMBER 25

Elections to new parliament (State Duma). Referendum on new constitution with strong presidential role narrowly approved.

   

1994

 

JANUARY 16

Gaidar quits government over end to reform program.

SPRING

In Kremlin, Yeltsin’s bodyguard Alexander Korzhakov comes to dominance.

DECEMBER 1

First Chechen war begins. Russian troops enter Chechnya.

   

1995

 

FEBRUARY 8

Strike of five hundred thousand miners. Yeltsin starts to lose grip.

JUNE 2

Paris Club reschedules Russia’s $9.5 billion debt.

JUNE 14–23

Basayev’s Chechen terrorists kill hundreds of civilians. Peace negotiations agree to withdrawal of Russia’s army from Chechnya.

AUGUST

NATO launches air strikes in Yugoslavia.

   

1996

 

SPRING

Anatoly Chubais offers oligarchs control of key state assets in return for media support and financing of Yeltsin’s reelection.

JUNE–JULY

Terrorist acts in Moscow subway and in North Caucasus.

 

Yeltsin steals election from Communist Party.

AUGUST 30–31

General Lebed, Yeltsin’s national security chief, signs peace treaty with Chechen leader. His popularity threatens Yeltsin.

OCTOBER 15

Lebed fired.

DECEMBER 1

Russian troops withdraw from Chechnya.

   

1997

 

MAY 27

NATO–Russia Founding Act binds NATO not to deploy nuclear weapons or substantial numbers of foreign troops on territory of its new members.

SUMMER-AUTUMN

War breaks out between Chubais and the oligarchs, and between the oligarchs themselves, when Chubais tries to curtail their “sweetheart deals.”

AUTUMN

Search for Yeltsin’s successor.

   

1998

 

MAY 16

Russia becomes member of G8.

JULY 17

Remains of Tsar Nicholas II and family buried in St. Petersburg on eightieth anniversary of their murder.

SUMMER

Financial crisis in Russia: government devalues ruble, defaults on its domestic debts, and declares moratorium on payment to foreign creditors following collapse of Asian market and commodity prices. International Monetary Fund and World Bank give Russia credits.

DECEMBER 16

Bombing of Iraq starts. Kremlin disapproves.

   

1999

 

SPRING

Climax of struggle for succession to Yeltsin.

MARCH 17

Vladimir Putin appointed secretary of Security Council.

MARCH 18

Russia condemns NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia, in response to repression of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo.

MARCH 19

First enlargement of NATO since Cold War, with Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary acceding.

AUGUST 7

Chechen terrorists invade neighboring Dagestan.

AUGUST 26

Russian troops march into Chechnya. Second Chechen war begins.

SEPTEMBER 9–16

Apartment blocks in four Russian cities bombed. Death toll approximately three hundred.

DECEMBER 14–31

Yeltsin appoints Putin as his successor and resigns.

   

2000

 

JANUARY–FEBRUARY

Putin revives relations with West, hints at interest in joining NATO.

MARCH 26

Putin is elected president.

MAY

Putin curtails powers of regional governors and brings Chechnya under direct presidential rule.

AUGUST 12

Nuclear submarine Kursk sinks, losing all hands.

JUNE 13

Oligarch Vladimir Gusinsky’s arrest signals drive to break oligarch power.

NOVEMBER

Independent media curbed.

   

2001

 

SPRING

End of independent TV channel NTV and Gusinsky’s media empire.

APRIL 12

Putin endorses new “party of power,” United Russia.

JUNE 28

Duma passes law banning use of mind-control weapons on Russian territory.

SEPTEMBER 24

Following terrorist attacks on New York, Putin supports Bush’s war on terror.

DECEMBER 13

United States withdraws from Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and fails to back Russia’s bid to join World Trade Organization.

   

2002

 

JANUARY

Last independent television channel closed.

MAY 28

Formation of NATO–Russia Council. Putin meets with all NATO leaders.

OCTOBER 23

Chechen terrorists seize Moscow theater, 129 hostages die in battle to free them.

   

2003

 

MARCH 19

Start of Second Iraq War.

MARCH 31

EU–Russia summit agrees on areas of cooperation: economy; freedom, security, and human rights; external security; science, education, research, and culture.

OCTOBER 5

Akhmad Kadyrov elected as Chechnya’s leader. Putin starts policy of “Chechenization.”

NOVEMBER 22–23

Georgia’s Rose Revolution sees President Shevardnadze resign in favor of Mikhail Saakashvili.

   

2004

 

MARCH 13

Kyrgyzstan’s Tulip Revolution.

MARCH 14

Putin reelected with huge majority for second term.

MARCH 29

NATO admits Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

MAY 9

President Akhmad Kadyrov assassinated. His son Ramzan succeeds him.

SUMMER

US–Russian relations deteriorate. Georgian–Russian relations deteriorate.

SEPTEMBER 1

Chechen terrorists occupy Beslan school. More than 340 die in attempt to free them.

SEPTEMBER 26

Election of regional governors scrapped.

   

2005

 

JANUARY

Demonstrations throughout Russia over proposal to monetize social benefits.

SPRING

Kremlin builds Nashi and other loyalist youth movements.

MAY 31

Oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, owner of Russia’s largest oil company, Yukos, sentenced to nine years for fraud and tax evasion. Assets of Yukos redistributed among Putin’s cadres.

NOVEMBER–

 

DECEMBER

Ukraine’s Orange Revolution.

DECEMBER 29

Gazprom raises gas price to Ukraine.

   

2006

 

JANUARY 1

Brief interruption of Russia’s gas supply to Ukraine and Europe, due to Ukraine’s nonpayment, sends shock waves through Europe.

JANUARY 12

Duma limits activities of NGOs.

FEBRUARY 22

Vladislav Surkov coins term “sovereign democracy” to describe what distinguishes Putin’s regime from liberal democracy.

JULY 15–17

Putin hosts G8 summit in St. Petersburg.

SEPTEMBER 13

Arrest of Russian intelligence officers in Tbilisi triggers blockade of Georgia and deportation of its citizens from Russia.

OCTOBER 7

Anna Politkovskaya, fearless critic of Putin, murdered.

NOVEMBER 23

Ex–FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko granted asylum in Britain and dies of polonium poisoning.

   

2007

 

APRIL 30

Russia–Estonia crisis after Estonia seeks to move Soviet war memorial.

JUNE 4

Putin warns Washington that it might retaliate if NATO proceeds with missile defense system in Europe.

JUNE 8

G8 summit in Germany.

JULY 20–24

Moscow–London tit-for-tat expulsions of diplomats following Litvinenko poisoning.

AUGUST 8

Russian strategic bombers resume long-haul missions to areas patrolled by NATO and United States.

DECEMBER

Putin ends uncertainty by indicating that he will respect constitution and step down at end of his second presidential term.

   

2008

 

MAY 7

Dmitry Medvedev becomes president of Russian Federation.

MAY 8

Putin becomes prime minister.

AUGUST 7

Georgia’s President Saakashvili tries to regain control of South Ossetia. After six days of fighting, Russian troops invade Georgia and destroy all military installations.

SEPTEMBER

Global financial markets crash, ending Russia’s eight-year economic boom.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
Previous
Page
Next
Page