Notes

common1

Abbreviations

AC

Atlanta Constitution

AJTP

Arthur J. Tuttle Papers

AJVP

Andrew J. Volstead Papers

ANB*

American National Biography

BATF

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

CGG

California Grape Grower

COHP

Columbia Oral History Project

CR

Congressional Record

CT

Chicago Tribune

CWH

California Wine History

DAB*

Dictionary of American Biography

DFP

De Latour Family Papers

DN

Detroit News

JJRP

John J. Raskob Papers

JPKP

Joseph P. Kennedy Papers

JWWP

James W. Wadsworth Jr. Papers

LAT

Los Angeles Times

LD

Literary Digest

LFA

Leo Franklin Archive

MWWP

Mabel Walker Willebrandt Papers

NYT

New York Times

OrH

Oral history

PSDP

Pauline Sabin Davis Papers

PSdPP

Pierre S. du Pont Papers

RAC

Rockefeller Archive Center

RCCE

Royal Commission on Customs and Excise

RPHP

Richmond P. Hobson Papers

SEAP*

Standard Encyclopedia of the Alcohol Problem

SFC

San Francisco Chronicle

SLP-D

St. Louis Post-Dispatch

SMC

Seagram’s Museum Collection

TPP

Temperance and Prohibition Papers (subsections of these papers are denoted with the name of the subsection following TPP.

 

For example, TPP/Cherrington, R4, refers to the Ernest H. Cherrington papers within the TPP, Reel 4)

WGHP

Warren G. Harding Papers

WJBP

William Jennings Bryan Papers

WP

Washington Post

WSJ

Wall Street Journal

Prologue: January 16, 1920

page

1 San Francisco: SFC, 1/17/20; Asbury, 145.

1 Deemed the impossible: St. Helena Star, 1/16/20. Lilly: Daily Palo Alto, 1/16/20; SFC, 1/17/20, 5; Migdol, 55.

2 Every bottle: Golden, 125. Masterson: Stanley Walker, 5–12. Chiclet: unidentified clipping, eBay.

2 Detroit stills: CT, 1/18/20, 5. New Brunswick: Fredericton Daily Mail, 1/14/20, 1, cited in Grant, 17. Roosevelt: Ward, 476n.

2 Sunday: Asbury, 144.

3 A new nation: ASL press release, 1/15/20, cited in Nelli, 148. Cease to exist: New York World, 1/16/20. Lane: “The Letters of Franklin Lane,” at http://www.gutenberg.org.

Chapter One: Thunderous Drums and Protestant Nuns

7 Marryat: Marryat, 124.

7 Winthrop ship: Lender and Martin, 2–3. Franklin: Mencken, American, 266. Distilleries: William Grimes, 21–22. Tea: Rorabaugh, 99.

8 Americans drank: Rorabaugh, 20–21. Johnny Appleseed: Pollan, 9, 21–22. Washington: Mark A. Vargas, “The Progressive Agent of Mischief: The Whiskey Ration and Temperance in the United States Army,” The Historian, Summer 2005, 204.

8 Clinton: Rorabaugh, 48. Washington: Carr, 11–13. Adams: William Grimes, 20. Jefferson: Bear and Stanton, 519. Madison: Clark, Deliver, 21.

8 Fourteen thousand: Fuller, 75. Seven gallons: Rose, American, 12.

9 Devastator: Lincoln speech at Springfield, Illinois, 2/22/1842.

9 Rush: Asbury, 27; Furnas, 189.

9 Ticknor: Rorabaugh, 6. Garrison: ANB; Lender, Dictionary, 186–87. Foul water: Rorabaugh, 97.

9 Lincoln on Washingtonians: Donald, 82.

10 Gough: ANB; Journal of Commerce, 9/22/1845.

10 Barnum: Barnum, 225, 362; ANB.

11 Manilow (fn): The show ran for forty-eight performances at the 13th Street Theater in New York in 1970.

11 Neal Dow opened our eyes: Barnum, 362. Burlesque occasions: Dow, 102.

11 Hate-Evil: Dow, 16.

12 Maine Law: Furnas, 175. Horace Mann: Kobler, 87.

13 Dio Lewis: ANB; Asbury, 69; Kobler, 115–16; Seldes, 261–62.

13 Our Girls: Eastman, 160.

13 Thompson: Eastman, 154–65; http://www.wctu.org/crusades.html; Bordin, “Baptism,” 402.

14 Spread of Crusade:http://www.wctu.org/crusades.html. Tax collections: Asbury, 85. Closed establishments: Blocker, “Separate,” 462.

14 Sherwood Anderson: Sinclair, 15.

14 Bloomer and Stone: ANB.

15 All-debasing wine: DAB.

15 Listen and learn: Catt and Shuler, 22. Unclean Thing: Furnas, 219.

15 Intellectual cranks: Seldes, 279–80.

15 Sexual abstinence: Tyrrell, “Women,” 141.

16 Syphilis of the innocent: Burnham, “Progressive,” 885.

16 Universal ear: Willard speech in Chicago, 1893, quoted at http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/progress/prohib/

policy.html
.

16 250,000:http://www.wctu.org/frances_willard.html, quoting Susan B. Anthony. Frank: Willard, Wheel, 65; Furnas, 277. Beveridge: Our Day, 9/1898, 442.

16 Willard, generally: ANB, DAB. A pledge: Cherrington, Standard, 2849. Methodist heaven: Kobler, 134. Sanctified learning:http://www.northwestern.edu/about/history/vision.

17 Unwashed: Willard, Glimpses, 341.

17 In 1876: Rose, American, 21. Unseat: Mezvinsky, 213. Lucy: in TPP/WCTU, R4, 103.

17 I have cared, stenographer: Our Day, 3/1898, 107–16. Travel: Cherrington, Standard, 2849. Tolstoy: Tatiana Tolstoy to Willard, 2/28/90, in TPP/WCTU, R17. As nearly: Willard, Wheel, 74. Hibbie: Furnas, 287.

18 Protestant nuns: Union Signal, 6/6/95, 2–3. Christian socialist: John A. Mayer, “Social Reform After the Civil War to the Great Depression,” in Lippy and Williams, 1441; Our Day, 3/1898, 107–16. Clothing: Gusfield, 90. White Life: Murdock, 21.

19 Douglass: Williamson, 80–81. Phillips: Lender, Dictionary, 393–94.

19 Washington’s Farewell: Lebeau, 22; Freeman, 467.

20 Great hunger: Cherrington, Standard, 1268. Did more: Bryan, In His, 171.

20 State of siege: ANB. Our duty: Zimmerman, 1.

21 Aiming higher, state campaigns: Ibid.

21 Dropsy, down the throat: David F. Musto, “Alcohol in History” SA, 4/96, 81. Stimulant: Silver, Burdett to Hunt, 3/8/1892, in TPP/STF, R4. 50 percent: Lamme, 107.

22 Hunt’s home: Zimmerman, ANB. Stowell negotiations: Hunt to Stowell, 8/24/1889, in TPP/STF, R4. Unscientific: Zimmerman, 29. Narcotic poison: Stowell, Essentials, 43. Drew the line: Silver, Burdett to Hunt, 3/8/92, in TPP/STF, R4.

22 I have studied: Billings, 34. Utter impossibility: Hunt to Silver, Burdett, 8/22/1891, in TPP/STF, R4.

22 Hunt’s final conflict with Silver, Burdett: O. S. Cook to Hunt, 1/25/1892, and Silver, Burdett to Hunt, 1/26/1892, in TPP/STF, R4.

23 Unjust charges, rumor: Minutes, advisory board of WCTU Dept. of Scientific Instruction, 1/21/1897, in TPP/STF, R4.

23 Clearinghouse: Lamme, 107. In whole or in part: Memorandum enclosed in Marie C. Brehm to Cora F. Stoddard, 6/28/06, in TPP/STF, R4.

23 The day: Cherrington, Standard, 1269.

Chapter Two: The Rising of Liquid Bread

24 My constant: Nation, 63. Bulldog, whey-faced: Kobler, 146–47; 153. The public: Nation, 90.

24 I ran behind, Mr. Cook: Grace, 89–90.

25 They need: Nation, 179. Yale: photograph, collection of Bobbie Bristol. Harvard: Nation, 139.

25 Not radically: Rorabaugh, 8.

25 In 1850: Clark, Deliver, 55.

26 Domestic misery, liquid bread: Burnham, Bad, 56.

26 Beecher (fn): Cherrington, Standard, 296.

26 Competing for Europeans: Higham, 17–18. Busch: ANB.

26 Infidel population: Rose, American, 26. Minnesota: Rumbarger, 138. New colony: McClure’s, 7/07, 576–79. Census: McClure’s, 9/09, 532.

27 Erickson’s: Third Age News, 10/93. Metal trough (and fn): Powers, 30–31. Also e-mail from Madelon Powers, 5/28/2008. Lucy Adams: Ransom, 130–32. Brings his growler: Riis, How, 213–14.

27 Number of saloons: Rose, American, 17. Leadville: West, 121–22. San Francisco: Rose, American, 17. I would have dropped: Cincinnati Post, 12/9/98.

28 Colossal shadow, congregations larger: Riis, How, 210.

28 Poor creatures: Bourgeois, 111. Rudkus: Sinclair, Jungle, chapter 14. Life was different: London, 24.

29 Free lunch: Kingsdale, 477. Silent partners: Ade, 46.

29 All Nations: author’s collection.

29 Brewer subsidies: Duis, 25–26.

29 License fee: Timberlake, 150.

29 No man: McClure’s, 7/07, 576. Half the population: Powers, 18. By 1909: Timberlake, 104; Kingsdale, 474.

30 Convention in German: Furnas, 210. Tax reduced: Asbury, 64. Fully one-third: Hu, v. Bribe: Purley A. Baker, in Anti-Saloon League, Proceedings, 11/10/13, 63–64.

30 Fanatical, whatever party: Baron, 220.

31 Paying editors: Asbury, 108. Pabst and DuBois: Cochran, 312.

31 Busch, generally: ANB, DAB, Plavchan.

31 Large city: Union Signal, 12/4/19. $30,000: Time, “Benton v. Adams,” 3/4/46.

32 Fired a cannon: Hernon and Ganey, 45. Promoting: Odegard, 249. It may cost: quoted in House Ways and Means 1932, 629. Poll taxes: Clark, Deliver, 116–17. We have sent: Senate Judiciary 1919, 1088. Best not written: Odegard, 255.

32 Besides losing: House Ways and Means 1932, 629. Cirrhosis: DAB.

33 Selling in prohibited: Senate Judiciary 1919, 1065.

33 Decidedly inimical: Baron, 223. Eighty-one companies: Arthur Capper in Walnut, 157. Worst and cheapest: Charles Nagel Papers, Busch to Charles Nagel, 12/8/09.

34 Westheimer speech: 12/19/14, quoted in Senate Judiciary 1919, 1058.

34 Almighty God: Odegard, 6.

Chapter Three: The Most Remarkable Movement

35 Plant a colony: John J. Shipherd, quoted in Fletcher, 180. Dietary restrictions: Rorabaugh, 120.

35 Prayerful influence: SEAP; Front row: Chalfant, 296.

36 Not in politics: Purley A. Baker in Cincinnati Enquirer, 2/23/08, quoted in Westheimer, 131–39.

36 Political retribution: Lamme, 63. Gould’s credo: Timberlake, 140. Is he right: Henry M. Chalfant, in Walnut, 282.

37 Minimum of 75 percent: Senate Judiciary 1930, 4281. Real secret: Baltimore Sun, ca. 1922, in TPP/ASL Legal, R12. I can dictate: S. E. Nicholson, quoted in Odegard, 21.

37 Pilgrimage:http://www.franceswillardhouse.org/franceslife/.

37 Lamented leader: RPHP, Margaret Dye Ellis to Hobson, 9/28/14.

38 In no instance: Cincinnati Enquirer, 2/23/08, quoted in Westheimer, 131–39.

38 Generalship: New York Herald Tribune, 10/23/27. Conquest: Reprinted in Columbus Dispatch, 9/11/27. Dispassionate men: Baltimore Evening Sun, 9/6/27, editorial page.

38 A good boy: Cincinnati Enquirer, reprinted in American Issue, 9/17/27. Wheeler, generally: ANB; SEAP; NYT, 6/26/27, XX, 6; Kobler, 181–82; Steuart. Great men his puppets: Reprinted in Columbus Dispatch, 9/11/27.

38 Loving, spirited; praying: “A Hasty Sketch Appreciative of Wayne B. Wheeler,” in TPP/Russell, R4. Altruism: Steuart, 38–39. Locomotive: Steuart, 24.

39 Bicycle: Furnas, 307. Petitions: Odegard, 115. Not enough Wheeler: Hamm, 145.

39 Rockefeller match: RAC, B44, F475. High crimes: Russell speech in 1897, quoted in Lamme, 63. Targeted, defeated: Odegard, 97.

40 Herrick and Wheeler:http://www.ohiohistory.org; Kerr, 109–10; Odegard, 89–90, 114–15; Randall and Ryan, 452.

40 Murder mills: Columbus Dispatch, 10/16/05.

40 Rockefeller reduces: Frederick T. Gates to Rockefeller, 2/11/05; Rockefeller to Gates, 2/17/05, both in RAC, B44, F475. Never again: Kobler, 196. Controlled six Congresses: Steuart, 11.

41 Reckon with: Fox to USBA members, 1/6/09, from Senate Judiciary 1919, 806.

41 Remarkable, autocratic: Gilmore speech, 1908, quoted in Odegard, 22–23. Salvation: Feigenspan speech, 12/29/14, from Senate Judiciary 1919, 1058. Reducing licenses: Sunstein speech, 12/29/14, from Senate Judiciary 1919, 1058. Suppression: Carlson, 225–26.

42 South slow to enlist: Coker, 83 et seq. Negro problem, terrible condition: Corrigan, 9/07, 328–34. Dark faced mobs: Ida B. Wells-Barnett, A Red Record (Salem, NH: 1895), 83, quoted in Morone, 299.

42 Under slavery: Pickett et al., 291–93. Moral responsibility: Collier’s, 5/31/13,32. Tillman: CR, 12/17/17, 449–51.

43 Eyes bloodshot: Dixon, Leopard, 125. Half child: Dixon, Clansman, 292–93. Off the sidewalks: Cronon, 485.

43 Third wave: Woodward, 389. Hoke Smith: Walton and Taylor.

44 Stronghold: Sellers, 101.

44 Busch agents in Texas: O. Paget to G. H. Luedde, 12/7/10, in Anti-Saloon League, Brewers, vol. 2, 1481.

44 Foreign enterprise: CR, 12/17/17, 449. Jewish type: McClure’s, 9/09, 528–43.

44 Gentleman of St. Louis: Collier’s, 5/16/08, 10.

45 Coleman: Pfeifer, 142–43. If I should: Collier’s, 5/16/08, 10. Wholly unfit, Black Cock: U.S. v. Lee Levy and Adolph S. Asher, Eastern District of Missouri, 1908, Grand Jury indictment and sentence rendered. Mostly nude: Isaac, 148.

45 Nameless crime: Collier’s, 8/15/08. Nigger gin: Collier’s, 5/16/08. Wholesale price: U.S. v. Levy and Asher. Brief wave (fn): Collier’s, 5/2/25. Fairly docile: Tennessean, 6/17/08, quoted in Isaac, 148. This gin: Tennessean, 6/14/08, quoted in Isaac, 148. Insult: Memphis Commercial Appeal, 6/20/08.

46 Atlanta to Los Angeles: AC, 1/5/09; LAT, 10/22/08. Improper: SLP-D, 10/21/08. Expelled: Collier’s, 8/15/08. Opening a place: U.S. v. Levy and Asher.

46 Stupid, sodden: Edmund Morris, 162. Low, venal: Morison and Blum, vol. 1, 1470. String three, unutterably: Edmund Morris, 162–63.

47 Kick you: Edmund Morris, 166. Twelve of twenty-four: Odegard, 248. Saloon Slate: Kingsdale, 484. Affiliation: Albert Kennedy, quoted in Duis, 114.

47 144 gallons: Rorabaugh, 213.

48 Patrick and Sambo: Stanton speech from 1868, “Manhood Suffrage,” reprinted in Ann D. Gordon, 196.

48 Most of them: Jordan to Prescott F. Hall, 2/28/10, Immigration Restriction League Papers, B2, F560, Folder 1. Lifted up: Rumbarger, 114. Killing off (fn): Timberlake, 62.

48 The fact: Link, 847. Laboring man: Engelmann, 30. Decent kennel: W. A. White, 389–90.

49 Gross evils: Addams, The Second, 221–62. Home Salon: Melendy, 459–61.

50 Eliot forswore: Timberlake, 55.

50 Born middle-aged: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 149.

50 Eagle-faced: ms. of James W. Wadsworth memoir in JWWP, B15.

50 More than two thousand: Furnas, 258–59. Raines sandwich: Riis, Battle, 224.

51 Committee of Fourteen: Gilfoyle, 419.

51 The passage: Fox to USBA members, 2/27/15, Senate Judiciary 1919, 259–62.

51 Use of liquor: quoted in report from Fox to Percy Andreae, 1914, Senate Judiciary 1919, 283.

52 This one thing: Current History, 2/24, 848.

Chapter Four: “Open Fire on The Enemy”

53 There appears: “Spirits, Foreign and Domestic,” 3/5/1792, in Hamilton, Works, 316.

53 Congress could: CR, 12/22/14, 602. Indirection: Hamm, 172.

54 Medium of exchange, delivery: Brenda Yelvington, “Excise Taxes in Historical Perspective,” in Shughart, 34. Lender and Martin, 31.

54 We now see: Washington to Hamilton, 9/17/1792, quoted in Chernow, Hamilton, 468–69.

54 Federal revenue: Hamm, 95–96. War’s cost: Baron, 293. Assist: United States Brewers’ Association, 1909, 14.

54 By 1910: Rose, American, 56; Hamm, 95–96.

55 Clad: “Cross of Gold” speech, 1896 Democratic National Convention. Breakfast: Sloane Gordon, cited in CGG, 9/1/25, 3.

55 Fundamentalist Pope, Morondom: Kazin, 261, 284.

55 Rock of Ages: DAB.

56 Gaseous: Weisman, 210.

56 Dred Scott: Buenker, Income, 21. Galahad: Hinton, 137.

57 Equable: Union Signal, 2/15/1883. Pledge on the part: The Voice, 3/7/1895. Alleged loss: Finley E. Hendrickson to A. E. Shoemaker, 4/4/08, in TPP/ASL of DC.

57 Hull: Hinton, 180; Hull, 140–45.

58 Roosevelt and ASL: Friedel, Apprenticeship, 127–28.

58 Chief cry: “The Next and Final Step,” 4/22/13, in TPP/Cherrington, R82.

59 Union shop: Steuart, 34. New cadre: Hogan, 144.

59 Goggle-eyed: Hogan, 173. Bully: Kobler, 274.

59 Wheeler and Steffens: Steffens, 860.

60 Wielded no power: Blocker, Retreat, 215.

60 Rather die: Cochran, 315–17.

61 Irresistible: Time, 9/25/39. Our customers: Odegard, 57. Create the appetite: Ibid., 41.

61 Fair Cohorts: WP, 11/30/13, 1. Description of ASL march and demonstration: WP, 12/11/13, 1; NYT, 12/11/13; Outlook and Independent, “The Dry Decade,” 10/30. Open fire: NYT, 3/29/26, 21.

62 Bryan’s first campaign: Coletta, 82.

62 Lived to twenty-one: ANB. Acquired taste: London, 2. Alcohol made: Mencken to Sinclair, 12/10/24, quoted in Johns, 43.

62 Ombibulous, every known: Johns, 5. Bulk cocktails: William Grimes, 64.

63 London voting: London, 1. The moment women: London, 204.

63 Anthony to Duniway: Murdock, 31.

64 Commander-in-chief: Mezvinsky, 192.

64 Anthony to Erwin: 12/27/99, in TPP/Russell, R1.

64 When woman has: Murdock, 28–29. Gentlemen, we need: Mezvinsky, 220.

64 Oregon’s saloonkeepers: Alan P. Grimes, Puritan, 114; Drescher, 241. Observations made: SLP-D, 5/9/09. Annuity: Couzins to William Howard Taft, 9/25/10, in Herbert S. Hadley Papers. If ever should: Busch to Henry Nicolaus, 12/25/05, quoted in Hernon and Ganey, 72.

65 Brewers in Texas: New Republic, 8/21/15, 62–64.

65 The antidote: Odegard, 85. Faker: Kerr, 109–10.

66 Fanatical: Hernon and Ganey, 69. Macomb: Collier’s, 4/12/13. Exigency: OrH, Montana Women, Montana Historical Society: Belle Winestine, Rankin aide.

66 Illegal: Gould, 245.

Chapter Five: Triumphant Failure

67 Contumely: ms. by Grizelda Hull Hobson, in RPHP, B12, F4.

67 Coventry: Pittman, Navalist, 8. Got along: Nation, 3/11/15, 286.

67 Most terrible: Hobson, Buck, 326.

68 Waltzes: Rosenfeld, 62. Smouldering: DAB. Women lined up, when the kissing: Shaw, 54–60.

68 Time speeches: Pittman, dissertation, 134. Another round: ANB.

69 Japan prediction: Finding Aid to RPHP, Library of Congress Manuscript Division. Sex (fn): Pittman, Navalist, 8–9; 134.

69 Illegal in DC: Shaw, 54–60. Open Annapolis: Sheldon, dissertation, 218–19. Despite warnings: Sheldon in Alabama Review, 259. I saw black: quoted in The Nation, 2/11/15, 286.

70 Cannibals, CR, 12/11/13, 736 et seq. Only Southerner: Sheldon in Alabama Review, 260. Negroes, negritos: Quoted in Sheldon, dissertation, 219.

70 Ten mortal: CR, 12/22/14, 495. Galleries: WP, 12/23/14, 1.

71 Clark drunk: CT, 12/3/14, 1; NYT, 12/3/14, 1. Omit all: Hobson to Eugene Chafin et al., in RPHP, B35, F6.

71 Rucker, Mann: NYT, 12/23/14, 1. Morrison: CR, 12/22/14, 586.

72 Stacks: CT, 12/23/14. Postcards: Pittman, Navalist, 145. Sandwich: ms. by Grizelda Hull Hobson, in RPHP, B12, F4.

72 Hobson speech: CR, 12/22/14, 602 et seq.

73 Knight errant, lunatic: NYT, 12/3/14, 1.

73 Judgment day: CT, 12/22/14. Progressive Party: Timberlake, 172.

74 Not for results: Nation, 2/11/15, 286. Ecstasy: Quoted in Epstein, 24.

74 Last speech: CR, 1/12/15. Hobson in Atlantic City: Odegard, 157–58.

74 1915 convention speakers: NYT, 7/9/15, 20. Fighting Germans: Odegard, 157.

75 Onslaught, le delirium, drinking licenses: Atlantic Monthly, 12/15, 739–50. Trade regulations and sumptuary laws: Spinelli, xiv. German industrial, Norway, Finland: Weir, History, 254. Iceland: Jimerson et al., 214–16. Canada: Marrus, 63–64.

75 Russia: Cherrington, ASL Yearbook 1920, 250–52. Tens of thousands: Atlantic Monthly, 12/15, 739–50. Tacoma: Clark, Dry, 145. Lenin, 1923: Barnes, 227–33.

75 Randolph: Lerner, Dry, 35. IWW enemy: Clark, Dry, 145. Leaflets: Samuel S. White, letter to the editor, New Republic, 7/25/23.

76 I here announce: CR, 12/23/14, 602 et seq.; WP, 12/24/14, 6.

76 Tumulty: NYT, 3/28/26, E1. Mackerel: William Allen White, quoted in Lord, 290–91.

77 Wilson’s Scotch: Tribble, xvii. No open opposition: NYT, 3/28/26, E1.

77 Wine mess, Sir Josephus: Hanson Baldwin, 16005.

77 Futile distraction: Levine, 107–8. Grape juice: Bryan, Memoirs, 187, 351; NYT, 4/25/13, 1.

77 Russian ambassador: Bryan, Memoirs, 351. Grape juice diplomacy: DAB. Shaw: Kazin, 250.

78 Sporty: Volstead to Forrester, 12/23/21, in AJVP, B2. So-called: Murdock, 6. Water flowed: Anthony, First, 229.

78 Ten tons: Kerr, 151. Newspapers: Dotson, 15. Captains: Timberlake, 142. Expenditures: Nation, 7/7/26. Modern equivalents for this and other sums cited throughout were determined with the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Calculator, http://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm. Russell activities: Rumbarger, 179. Water wagon: Jimerson et al., 336.

79 Trained lecturers: Kobler, 201–2, puts the figure at 50,000, but other sources indicate it was quite a bit lower. See Hogan, 152. By policy: Odegard, 191. Landrith, Taber: “Campaign Speakers,” 1918, in TPP/Ohio ASL. Do not beg: “Suggestions to Speakers,” 1914, in TPP/Cherrington, R82.

79 Ten speeches: Levine, 111. Ann Arbor, Philadelphia: Coletta, 66. A little easy: New Republic, 3/20/15, 165.

79 A great deal: Coletta, 70–71. Bryan, Hobson fees: Odegard, 203–4. Two million copies: Rosenfeld, 185–86. His strength: Grizelda Hull Hobson to J. A. White, 10/16/15, in RPHP, B36, F1.

80 Lack the funds: Anna Gordon to Hobson, 1/18/15, in RPHP, B35, F7.

80 If both: CR, 12/11/13, 736. ASL officer: Odegard, 205.

81 We must: Hobson to Cherrington, 3/18/15, in RPHP, B35, F7.

81 Great cities: Carter, Decline, 35. Possible to re-district: Cherrington to Cannon, 3/26/15, in TPP/Cherrington, R77.

81 Terrified members: WP, 5/6/14. Make it safe: NYT, 3/28/26, E1.

82 We knew: NYT, 3/30/26, 27. Barrage: Merz, 17. Twenty-three states, would be submitted: NYT, 3/30/26, 27.

Chapter Six: Dry-Drys, Wet-Drys, and Hyphens

83 Candler: NYT, 3/14/29. Shubert: Lerner, Dry, 36.

83 Too busy: Batterberry, 197.

84 Lager’s amber: advertisement reproduced in Philip P. Mason, 26. Anti-Profanity: Dabney, 123. Start with hell: NYT, 5/25/96, obituary of Joseph Mitchell.

84 Blacklist, drunken darkies: Senate Judiciary 1919, 119, 144–50; NYT, 11/12/18.

85 Purchased newspapers: Lardner, 58; Drescher, 181; NYT, 9/20/18, 11/20/18; Senate Judiciary 1919, 70–71. We looked: Steuart, 126.

85 Busch family: Hernon and Ganey, 89–91.

85 Infidel foreign: Rose, American, 26. Staunchest friends: Andreae speech 10/3/13, reprinted in Senate Judiciary 1919, 349–59. Salary: Memorandum, 6/9/13, reprinted in Senate Judiciary 1919, 1127. Spokesman: USBA Minutes, 10/15/15, reprinted in Senate Judiciary 1919, 1073. Editorials: Senate Judiciary 1919, 472, 841. Bankrolled: Andreae to Charles J. Hexamer, 12/31/13, quoted in Senate Judiciary 1919, 900.

86 Oppose enactment: Drescher, 60–61. Arrests for speeding: Slanders Against Prohibition Refuted, 12.

86 99 percent: Woodward, 389. Never been told: Wolfe, 229. Bourbon-swilling: McGill, 131. Wife was daughter: Marni Davis, 189.

87 No quarrel: Wilson message to Congress, Senate document 5, Serial No. 7264, 65th Congress, 1st session. Watson (fn): MacLean, 120. Born under other: Kennedy, Over, 24.

87 Out-of-state shipper: Suitts, 185.

87 Cannon, generally: ANB, DAB. Beard, best brain: Virginius Dabney in NYT Book Review, 10/23/55. Merest wink: Dabney, 306.

88 I do not remember: Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/6/28, quoted in Dabney, 100.

88 No young ladies: Dabney, 16. In 1914: DAB.

88 Interdenominational: ASL of Ohio stationery, in RAC, B44, F476. Democrat with Democrats: H. L. Mencken, “The Bishop Loquitir,” Baltimore Evening Sun, 10/12/31.

89 Back of a gnat: Florence Dickinson Stearns, quoted in Dabney, 333. Humorless: Golden, 124–25. Violent: Asbury, 322. Mother of ignorance: Baltimore and Richmond Christian Advocate, 12/17/06 and other dates, cited by Dabney, 181.

89 Gambling: Kobler, 186. Many were drunk: John Garland Pollard, quoted in Dabney, 183. Dry-drys: Mencken, American, 305. One of only three: NYT, 1/25/27.

89 Fondness for moonshine: Simon, 77; CT, 1/17/30, 1. Rest of his life: American Brewer, 3/18, 93. As they pray: NYT, 6/26/27, XX, 6.

90 Vestal virgins: CR, 12/22/14, 581. Not a square foot: Hamm, 230. Mother’s Day:http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/. Carnality, every county: CR, 12/17/17, 457–458.

91 No hearings: Hamm, 240. Single afternoon: Kyvig, Explicit, 222–23. No sumptuary action: CR, 12/22/14, 602 et seq. Choice of battleground: Hobson, “Brief on the Proposed Changes in the Wording of the National Prohibition Amendment Prepared for the Special Committee of Nineteen,” 8/20/15, in RPHP, B33, F8.

92 Coauthors: Odegard, 152. Telegram: Cherrington to Cannon, 3/27/17, in TPP/Cherrington, R77.

92 Maintain the balance: Odegard, 157–58.

92 Thirteen million gallons: Sexton, 114. Invested capital: U.S. Census Report, 1914, cited in Asbury, 111. Fifth largest: World’s Work, 7/17, 295–96. Bolsheviki: New Republic, 1/25/19, 359.

93 Sinned away: Pickett et al., 98. Garrett speech: CR, 12/22/14, 526.

93 Not a moral issue: quoted in Murray, Harding, 16. Scotch and soda: Anthony, Florence, 291–93. Owned stock: Mellon, 104. No mistaking: Downes, 280.

93 Harding-Wheeler negotiation: Russell, 299; Odegard, 172. Insult to private: Carter, Another, 102.

94 Alcoholic/intoxicating: B. E. Prugh to R. P. Hobson, 1/21/15, in RPHP, B35, F7; Wayne Wheeler to Louis Cramton, 3/23/27, Louis C. Cramton Papers, B1.

94 We are not willing: Wheeler to Baker, 2/28/18, in Steuart, 118–19.

Chapter Seven: From Magna Carta to Volstead

96 Sunday, generally: ANB. Wages: ANB. American Association, Sportsman’s: Nemec, 16, 22, 25. Recreation Park: Flamm, 61–63.

96 Across the street: Lindsay Denison, “Billy Sunday and His War on the Devil,” American Magazine, 9/07. Sentences, Gospel gun: Henry F. May, 126. Dibbly-dibbly: Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism, 116.

97 Flings: Francis Hackett, “Billy Sunday,” New Republic, 3/20/15. Worst enemy: Kobler, 12. I will fight: Philip P. Mason, 15.

97 Liquor interests hate: American Issue, quoted in SEAP. Tied with Carnegie, does not smite: Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism, 115, 119.

98 Officially denounced: Jimerson et al., 69. Passion for dollars: Levine, 118–20. Steadiness of nerve: Kerr, 201.

98 Fisher group: “The Memorial for National Prohibition,” in Ernest Gordon, Wrecking, 265–67. Eleven million loaves: Kerr, 199–200. Wildly inflated: Fisher, in “The Case for War-Time Prohibition,” pamphlet, in Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania. Five million: NYT, 11/3/18, 28. How can we: Levine, 118–20. Flap-jacks: Allsop, 29.

99 Grain production: Scott, 6697. Heatless days: Wheeler to Wilson, 4/1/18, quoted in Steuart, 106–7. Full-page ad: NYT, 11/3/18, 28.

99 At this point: Burner, Hoover, 218. Extremists: Morison and Blum, vol. 6, 1131. Particularly annoying: Morison and Blum, vol. 5, 699. When we must: Morison and Blum, vol. 8, 1259.

100 Seize railways: Merz, 25.

100 German enemies: Milwaukee Journal, 2/13/18, quoted in Cochran, 320.

100 Recruited, bankrolled: Wheeler to Purley A. Baker, 2/28/18, quoted in Steuart, 119. Mostly by slogans: Zeitz, 198. Important element: Barry, The Great, 127.

101 Ground glass: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 43–44. There are men: NYT, 8/16/17, 1. Speaking German: Kennedy, Over, 67–68. Beethoven: Drowne, 17. Execute the Huns: Michie and Ryhlick, 149.

101 Robert Prager: Kennedy, Over, 68.

102 Our German women: Alan P. Grimes, Puritan, 116. Membership two million: Plavchan, 139. Leaders urge: NYT, 11/9/17, 9.

102 Prophets: Ohlinger, “The Germans,” in Davis and Schwartz, 125. 250 years: Senate Judiciary 1919, 8. Before he had: Wheeler to Baker, 2/28/18, quoted in Steuart, 119. Gluttons: Sinclair, 117.

102 United States Brewers’ Association had funded: Senate Judicary 1919, 932. Implicitly supported: NYT, 12/4/18. Cabled cash, not mitigated: Hernon and Ganey, 91. Blacklist leaked: NYT, 11/21/18.

103 Removing German names: Plavchan, 135. Australia, Canada, flag: Hernon and Ganey, 91. Portraits removed: Wittke, 184–86. More substantively: Baron, 305.

103 Hypnotized: Senate Judiciary 1919, 63.

103 Does anyone: Rose, American, 165.

104 Fifteen minutes: NYT, 1/9/18.

104 Hobson had asserted: “Brief on the Proposed Changes in the Wording of the National Prohibition Amendment Prepared for the Special Committee of Nineteen,” 8/20/15, in RPHP, B33, F8.

104 Sailing-ship: F. L. Allen, Only, 18. Most important: Powe, 200.

104 New York statistics: Merz, 43. New Jersey statistics: U.S. census. Maryland statistics: Hacker, 23–24; U.S. census.

105 Missouri vote: Krebs, 139; Odegard, 175. Ohio: Odegard, 175; Kyvig, Repealing, 14.

105 Once ratified: “Brief . . . ,” 8/20/15, in RPHP, B33, F8. Catholic percentages: Odegard, 31. More than 80 percent: Dabney, 132.

106 Studebaker, invested: Johns, 9. Bryan passed: WJBP, B32. Truman: Truman to Wallace, 1/21/19, http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/volstead-act/images/truman-letter-1.gif.

106 Spokane: Clark, Dry, 130.

107 Avenue de Booze: Engelmann, Intemperance, 34. Detroit details: DN, 2/20/19–2/22/19. Billingsleys (fn): Blumenthal, 77–78. Boesky arrested (fn): DN, 2/21/19.

108 Resolution legalizing: CR, 12/22/14, 499. Quasi criminal: Taft to Allen B. Lincoln, 9/2/18, quoted in Post, 85.

108 Volstead, generally: ANB.

108 Few inferiors: Henry F. Pringle, “Obscure Mr. Volstead,” World’s Work, 7/29. Tobacco, chokecherry, tie: Carol L. James, 16, 30, 1. I have gazed: Senate speech, 8/18/21, quoted in United States Brewers’ Association, Year Book 1920–21, 48–50.

109 Never delivered, joined, vast movement: CR, 7/1/19, 2296. Twice put up: ANB.

110 Wheeler did, too loosely: Volstead to William F. Shea, 2/10/34, in AJVP, B3. Nearly as much: House Appropriations, 1922, 482. Only in part: DN, 7/3/26.

110 No user would: George Norris, cited by Hamm, 243. Hoover: Burner, Hoover, 218.

111 Amendment would have died: Wheeler to George Norris, 3/17/27, in George Norris Papers, B2, F7. No one who: House of Representatives Report 91, 66th Congress, 1st Session, 5. Sponge: CR, 7/19/19, 2869.

111 Surprising willingness: Wheeler in Current History, 2/24, 848. Much to the dismay: Rabbi Samuel M. Gup to Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, 12/13/21, in LFA; Central Conference, 116–18. Many hard-line: Dobyns, 289.

112 Jury to determine: NYT, 10/19/19, XX1. Corn juice: Sinclair, 169.

112 Conserve fruits: Senate Judiciary 1926, 855.

112 Filled with Wets: Volstead to Mrs. Joseph M. Gazzam, 2/2/22, AJVP, B2, F1. Muskrat pelts: NYT, 5/25/20.

113 As much deliberation: Frankfurter, “A National Policy for Enforcement of Prohibition,” in Walnut, 193. Pressure groups: Seeking to identify the origin of the term, William Safire, in the revised edition of Safire’s Political Dictionary (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), cites the Oxford English Dictionary, which traces it to the Nebraska State Journal, 1/16/24. However, Wheeler delivered a speech entitled “Pressure Groups” at Columbia University on 10/16/23, quoted in Steuart, 209. Lineal descendants: Wheeler Columbia speech, quoted in Steuart, 209.

113 Dumb stupor: LD, 3/8/19. Did not employ: Kyvig, Repealing, 10. Twenty cases: Cannadine, 275. Stepped up, cut sales: Plavchan, 230. Wet list: Ward, 420n.

113 Bronfman activity: Gray, Booze, 131–32; Prince, 24–26.

114 All laws: Kerr, 222–23.

Chapter Eight: Starting Line

117 First Congregational Church rally, generally: Commoner, 2/20. Luminaries: Union Signal, 1/22/20, 3; Coletta, 78. Equal Pay: Union Signal, 1/22/20, 7.

117 No man living: Kobler, 14. Obliterated: Bagby, 111. Delivering speeches: Commoner, 2/20, 12.

118 Broad vowels: Recordings of Bryan speeches in Vincent Voice Library at Michigan State University. Doxology, They are dead: Coletta, 78.

118 Stolen: CT, 1/18/20, 5.

118 Deaths, drunkenness: Slosson, 119. Muncie: Lynd and Lynd, 227. Holland House: Asbury, 191; William Grimes, 80–81.

119 Welch’s: Lender and Martin, 146. Grand Rapids: Survey, 11/6/20, 193. Chicago jail: Cherrington, ASL Year Book, 21. Elated: Addams, Forty, 220. I Never Knew: author’s collection.

119 All Liquor Stains: American Issue, 1/17/20, 1. Consumption: Miron and Zwiebel, 242.

119 We learned: Sann, 92.

119 Morrow: Leon Adams, OrH, CWH.

120 Goldwater: Barry Goldwater, in film Barry Goldwater: American Life (1991), cited in New Times (Phoenix, AZ), 10/19/2006. Kennedy sold: Amanda Smith, 8. Cellared: Goodwin, 441–42.

120 Union Club: NYT, 1/14/20, 17. Walter Parker: Parker to Pierre S. du Pont, 12/21/33, in PSdPP, F1023–48, B1537. Hennessy: Beauchamp, 95.

121 Chief pleasure: Jessup, 477–78. Financed Root’s: Kyvig, Repealing, 17.

121 Butler’s description: Jessup, 479–80.

121 Half to his house: NYT, 9/26/20.

122 Portable stills: Asbury, 157. Enough smuggled: quoted in Grant, 17–18. Infinitesimal: George W. Ashworth, quoted in Merz, 57.

122 Iron River episode, generally, including all quotations not otherwise identified: CT, 2/23/20–2/26/20; NYT, 2/23/20–2/27/20. Armed Invasion: St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 2/25/20.

122 Dago red, open revolt: Engelmann, Intemperance, 178–79.

123 Necktie, high school kids: eyewitness account in The Rum Rebellion, published by Iron County Museum, 2/20/70, 4, 18.

124 Father-in-law: Ashlee, 194.

124 900,000 cases: Engelmann, Intemperance, 72. Consumption math based on 1921 Canadian census figures. Ten bottles a day: Philip P. Mason, 38.

124 Honest inspector: NYT, 6/27/20, 27; CT, 6/7/20.

125 Suspicious gurgles: Boston Evening Transcript, 6/7/20, 2.

125 He was pleased: Steuart, 161. Fearing that: Ibid., 157.

126 Unanimously repealed: Elizabeth Anne Brown, 34. Necessary as coffee: SFC, 1/1/20, 13.

126 In communion: NYT, 7/5/20. Bourbon, small committees: Mencken, Heathen, 179. Samaritans: NYT, 6/9/20.

127 Plank modifying: Tumulty, 421. Private reasoning: Cannon, 297. Shrank from: NYT, 7/3/20.

127 Beerless: Kazin, 270. Several hundred: NYT, 6/9/20, 5. I put an old coat: NYT, 3/26/26, 1.

127 Overwhelmed: NYT, 7/3/20. My heart: Cannon, 298. How Dry: Coletta, 124.

Chapter Nine: A Fabulous Sweepstakes

128 Better than no: In a ten-minute Internet search, one can find this aphorism attributed variously to Will Rogers, Ring Lardner, or the Indiana newspaper humorist Kin Hubbard (although his name is usually rendered, erroneously, as “Ken”). Less well-known candidates include “a farmer in Wisconsin,” “a man down in Florida,” “a dry Mississippian,” and “an economist.” Gennas: Nelli, 159–61.

128 Rotting flesh: Roy Haynes in NYT, 7/20/23, 15. Various stills: Carr, 182–99. Absolutely impossible: Bingay, 323.

129 Chevy Chase Club: Anthony, Florence, 293. Seized liquor: Russell, 521. Slightest intention, gin, Balfour: Longworth, 314.

129 Harding never: William Stayton, in Walnut, 33. Brass rail: Quoted in Dean, 24.

129 Liquor transferred, Ochs: Julius Ochs Adler memorandum, 11/17/21, Adolph S. Ochs Papers, New York Times Archives, courtesy of Susan Tifft. Other direction: Andrew J. Volstead to W. A. Goslen, 6/15/21, AJVP. Refilling: Anthony, Florence, xix. Guests: Samuel Hopkins Adams, in Leighton, 90; for Mellon, David Cannadine, author interview. No rumor: Longworth, 324.

130 Timely death: Leighton, 89. Open gates: F. L. Allen, Only, 108. Harding and blacks: Murray, 103rd, 28–29. Birmingham: Dean, 125. Debs: Sann, 63; Dean, 128.

130 I listen: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 89. Stuff contents: Starling, 170. Moral qualities: quoted in Dean, 67.

131 Wheeler and Harding: For instance, Wheeler to Harding, 9/17/21, and Harding to Wheeler, 9/17/21, in WGHP, F35. Shields: Isaac, 259. I need not: Harding to Wheeler, 9/17/21. Somehow: Murray, Harding, 404.

131 Lacked influence: Steuart, 13. Unacceptable: Senate Lobby 1930, 4359.

131 Upshaw: Dabney, 68–69; unidentified clipping, 7/17/32, in TPP/ASL, R14. Very dry: Odegard, 205. Ranting: Press release, New York chapter of ASL, 5/3/28, in TPP/ASL, R14. KKK and suffrage: McLean, 116. Move about (fn): unidentified clipping of 7/17/32, as above. Scottish Chiefs: Merz, 165.

132 Editor in Hillsboro: NYT, 10/21/40. Special pet: OrH, COHP, William Anderson, 126–28.

132 Church membership: NYT, 8/10/23, 13.

132 Sworn off, vaudeville: Murray, Harding, 404. Drinks with death: NYT, 7/26/23, 17. Mellon, generally: ANB. Expected to talk: Cannadine, 297. Pass a law: NYT, 6/4/11; Cannadine, 205 et seq.

133 Ice-water smile: Quoted in Beebe, 287–88. Mellon drank: Gunther, 139.

134 Old Overholt: Cannadine, 275; Downard, Dictionary, 137. Alarmed notice: Anderson to Purley A. Baker, 2/17/21, in TPP/Cherrington, R76. A thief: Koskoff, Mellons, 241.

134 Civil service: Wayne Wheeler, in Current History, 2/24, 848.

135 Norris position: Norris to Mrs. H. R. H. Williams, 6/21/30, in George Norris Papers, B2, F7. Volstead himself: Volstead to J. H. Hoffman, 1/6/22, in AJVP, B2. Hindrance: Van Riper, 287. Chaos: Van Riper, 290.

135 Harreld: Lowitt, 322. Pie counter: Lowitt, 325. Drys charged: WP, 9/18/30, 1. New Jersey, Maryland: DN, 7/30/26. Plain fact: Asbury, 174.

136 George Eliot: Heimel, 20. Semidrunk: Bergreen, 613; Tucker, 20–21.

136 Thespian: NYT, 2/26/22. Sewer: NYT, 3/15/22. Faints: NYT, 7/17/22.

136 Gonzaulles, Hervey: Mobile Register, 11/14/23, 1. Kurtzman: Lerner dissertation, 227. Wolff: Heimel, 12. Simpson: CGG, 4/1/26, 13; NYT, 3/22/26.

136 McMullin: NYT, 10/14/20; Lerner, Dry, 66–71. Young: Angle, 157. Norfolk: interoffice memoranda from agents Layton Blood, 3/9/26, 3/17/26, and D. D. Mayne, 7/5/26, reprinted in Senate Doc. 198, 69th Congress, 2nd Session, “Prohibition Enforcement: Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury,” 1/25/27.

137 Men clamor: Senate Judiciary 1926, 196. Never extortionate: Stanley Walker, 76.

137 Nation-wide scandal: Harding message to Congress, 12/8/22.

137 Bath: Frances Parkinson Keyes, “Homes of Outstanding American Women,” Better Homes and Gardens, 3/28, 101. Bodily contact: Willebrandt letter to her parents, quoted in Dorothy M. Brown, 33. Reindeer: Dorothy M. Brown, 211, 221. Tent, darlings: Dorothy M. Brown, 128.

138 Keenest: NYT, 6/12/28, 4. Studied, courses: Dorothy M. Brown, 28.

138 I have asked: Keyes, Better Homes and Gardens, 3/28, 12.

139 Neither paints: AC, 6/23/25.

139 Girly: LD, 3/31/23, 42. Wide, earnest: NYT, 6/12/28, 4. Invariable: Keyes, Better Homes and Gardens, 3/28, 100.

139 Laura, Cochran, Mayer: Dorothy M. Brown, 211, 219, 229. Brandeis parties: Willebrandt, “Smart Washington After Six O’Clock,” Ladies’ Home Journal, 7/29, 10. Sirica: Dorothy M. Brown, 219. Hoover: Alpheus Mason, Stone, 150.

140 Social drinker: Willebrandt, 78. Prostitutes: Dorothy M. Brown, 36. Told Stone (fn): Willebrandt to Stone, 1/31/51, quoted in Alpheus Mason, Stone, 150. Johnson sponsored: Dorothy M. Brown, 47.

140 Sheep’s clothing, regime: Ibid., 53. Can’t catch: NYT, 1/25/25.

141 I refuse: Willebrandt, 121.

141 Insobriety in Vermont, flasks in Indiana: Dabney, 174. Indiana vested: Leonard Moore, 150. Mississippi: Wickersham, vol. 4, 636. Sterno: Merz, 202.

141 Dear Jerry: Leonard Moore, 148. 60 percent: Clark, Deliver, 165.

141 Sleeping sickness: Dorothy M. Brown, 56. Only eighteen: Rose, American, 47. Any state: Cherrington, ASL Yearbook 1920, 5514.

142 Rather dictate: ANB.

142 Pinchot pledged: Lender, Dictionary, 398. Honest-to-God: NYT, 3/9/23. Gave credence: Burton Hersh, 228.

143 McConnell scandal: NYT, 10/19/21, 40; 3/25/22, 18; 5/1/23, 12; Asbury, 178. Politics first, expected: NYT, 10/15/23.

143 Features so fine: O’Toole, 81–82. Raids in eighteen, reminding: NYT, 3/4/23. Unbought: NYT, 3/28/23.

143 Five million dollars sufficient: Wheeler to Sheppard, 4/3/20, reprinted in CR, 4/14/20, 5655. Columbia payroll: NYT, 5/9/20. Haynes boasting: Merz, 123–24.

143 Initial staff: Lerner, dissertation, 139–40. Entire fleet: Canney.

144 Pep talks: See Willebrandt to Tuttle, 6/20/22, in AJTP, B24, Topical Office Files, 1921–1925, Prohibition Department. Threatened: NYT, 10/23/24, 1. Tax, tariff: NYT, 8/14/24, 1. Puny, toothless: Dorothy M. Brown, 56.

144 Pinchot turned: Time, 7/4/26; Frazier, 16. Thanked Mrs. George: McGeary, 304–5.

Chapter Ten: leaks in the Dotted line

146 Sam paid: OrH, Saidye Bronfman: SMC, Series 1A, Box 10. Venison: Marrus, 66–67.

147 Hoped to find: Ibid. Purchased in Montreal: Peter C. Newman, 81. I could: Marrus, 66–67.

147 Coarseness: Faith, 15. A horse: Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 7/6/66, notes in SMC, B1.

147 Bronfman family history, generally: Faith, Marrus, Robertson. Terence Robertson’s book, commissioned by the Bronfman family, was based largely on lengthy interviews the Canadian journalist conducted with Sam Bronfman in the late 1960s. Displeased with the resulting work, the family decided not to publish it. Robertson, who later committed suicide, accused the Bronfman family of suppressing the book because, he told friends, “I found out things they don’t want me to write about.” (See Toronto Star, 11/22/77, B2.) The absence of particularly shocking material suggests that Robertson’s charges were unfounded, but the accuracy of what he wrote, based on Sam Bronfman’s own recollections, has never been successfully challenged. Copies of the manuscript in the Hagley Museum and at the University of Western Ontario remain the primary source material for most biographical work on Bronfman’s early career.

147 Prescriptions: Robertson, 48. Shifts: Gray, Booze, 132.

148 Skirts: Robertson, 25.

148 Jews in Canadian business: Gray, Roar, 234–42.

148 Manitoba police, Manitoba cleric: Gray, Roar, 248. Rights enjoyed: Peter C. Newman, 133.

149 Sipping near beer: Ontario, 26.

149 Bronfmans imported: Gray, Booze, 164. Mixed it: Winnipeg Tribune, 10/27/22. Caramel: Peter C. Newman, 90. Prune, creosote: NYT, 7/26/23. Before the end: Saskatchewan Liquor Commission, R. J. Keyes to R. E. A. Leach, 11/30/20, Saskatchewan Archives, R1064, FA41.

149 Labels: RCCE, Bronfman testimony, 23,040–58. Glen Levitt: Gray, Booze, 136. Well, children (fn): Bellow, 160.

150 Sam and Harry agreed: RCCE, Bronfman testimony, 23,061–23,182. Controlled by me: Winnipeg Tribune, Harry Bronfman interview conducted 10/15/22, quoted in Gray, Booze, 141. Family’s profits: Winnipeg Tribune, 10/27/22.

150 Boozoriums adorned: Peter C. Newman, 95–96. Vehicles: Ibid., 94; Robertson, 70. Thick chains: Gray, Booze, 157. Used receipts: Fahey, 49.

150 Only in Dominion: Edgar Bronfman, “Name Your Brand—Anywhere in the World,” Columbia Journal of World Business, 11–12/69. Never clear: Edgar Bronfman, Good, 25.

151 Matoff killed: Marrus, 103. North Dakota police: Prince, 33. Representatives: Robertson, 77–80. Advertising: Peter C. Newman, 92–93. Lansky: Lacey, 461.

151 Tuttle, generally: Veselenak; AJTP. Jumped threefold: Fine, 59. Second August: Hiram A. Walker & Sons v. Richard I. Lawson and John A. Grogan, AJTP, B18, Opinions, 1921–1923. Grand gesture: James C. Young in NYT, 5/22/27, XX, 5. Cuba: Marrus, 134.

152 Gundy: New York Herald, 8/15/21, 1.

152 Heavily laden: New York Herald, 8/15/21, 15. Not a single boat: DN, 8/12/21, 1.

153 Carnduff: Winnipeg Tribune, 10/11/22. A tidy bit: Peter C. Newman, 93.

153 Dotted line: NYT, 7/29/23, XX, 1. In the West: NYT, 8/3/23, 17. Me work?: OrH, Federal Writers’ Project, Library of Congress: subject identified only as “Callano.”

154 Chauffeur: Saidye Bronfman, 3. Cadillac: Robertson, 124. You were somebody: quoted in Marrus, 165. Interest: Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 7/25/66, notes in SMC, B10.

154 Later acknowledge: Marrus, 132. Vats: Gray, Booze, 134.

154 Saidye on Sam: Saidye Bronfman, 1–31.

155 Greenbrier: Marrus, 749. Marrus and other sources spell it “Greenbriar.” There were distilleries in Kentucky with both spellings, but the one spelled with an e was connected to the Wathen family, with whom Bronfman had a lengthy professional relationship beginning in the 1920s.

155 Hour of devotion: Robertson, 214–33. Since 1920: Peter C. Newman, 117–18. Highland: Edgar Bronfman, 25.

155 DCL: Daiches, 114–115; Weir, “Alcohol,” 1294. Schedule: Weir, History, 274.

156 Savoy: Robertson, 313–28. No special: Allan Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 8/4/66, notes in SMC, B10.

156 El Greco, No man: Lockhart, 135–37.

156 Report: Ross/Herd memorandum of 11/10/26, Distillers Corporation Papers.

157 Market dropped: Weir, “Alcohol,” 1295. Dividend: Fortune, 11/33, 45.

157 Goyim (fn): Edgar Bronfman, 25–26. Prime minister, queen: Saidye Bronfman, 114–15. One man: Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 7/27/66, notes in SMC, B10.

158 Abe: Robertson, 224–31. Agent in Havana: RCCE, Barney Aaron testimony, 22,036–72. Prevent their name: quoted in Dubro and Rowland, 211–12.

158 Burnt them: RCCE, Abe Bronfman testimony, 23,101–5. Lima: RCCE, Barney Aaron testimony, 22,03 6–72.

158 No proof: Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 7/27/66, notes in SMC, B10.

Chapter Eleven: The Great Whiskey Way

159 Ellerslie: SFC, 1/17/20, 6; http://www.shipbuildinghistory.com.

159 Parade: Asbury, 248. Waterfront: Times (London), 3/3/20; New York Herald, 8/22/21, 1, 5; photographs in Lythgoe (Flat Hammock edition).

160 Hill & Hill, trade: Van de Water, 37, 2. Soared: Ross Wilson, 298–99. Peak: Canney, 4. Spreading: NYT, 8/26/21.

160 Loaded after: New York Herald, 8/22/21, 1, 5. Supervening: Lythgoe, Flat Hammock edition, 37. Generator, wharf, harbor, statues: Craton and Saunders, 240, 237.

160 Lucerne: Lythgoe, 52, 62, 86; Andrews, 123; WP, 8/24/21.

161 Never sailed: Hugh Bell, quoted in Craton and Saunders, 238. Bankers ready: Bell, 189; NYT, 7/23/23, 15; New York Herald, 8/22/21, 1, 5. Symonette earned: Craton and Saunders, 240.

161 Chief smuggler: Latham to Secretary of State, 8/26/22, State Department Archives, F811.114. Real McCoy: According to the Dictionary of American Regional English, the term goes back as far as 1890; lexicographer Eric Partridge traces it to Scotland in the 1880s. Estimates: Kobler, 256–57.

162 Slit-eyed: Van de Water, 89–91. Orgy: Craton and Saunders, 241. Bootleggers’ Ball: WP, 8/24/21, 9.

162 Gertrude Lythgoe: Most sources from the 1920s, including the WSJ, referred to her as Grace Lythgoe; her own book, however, bears the name Gertrude. Not responsible: WSJ, 9/18/23.

162 Obtain British: NYT, 7/23/23, 15; Spinelli, 3.

162 Arethusa, Tomoka: Willoughby, 18; Southern Boating, 2/98, 81–82, 99. Each time: Van de Water, 91.

163 Dispensing refreshment: quoted in Everett S. Allen, 30. Near Miami: Andrews, 122.

163 Rendezvous: Moray, 25. Timber trade, comparison shopping: Moray, 1, 214. Supermarket: Everett S. Allen, 43. Johnson: Keller, 208–9.

164 $1 tariff, all partook: Moray, 95, 242.

164 Taken for a ride: Stanley Walker, 261. Free State: Maryland state archives website, http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/. Scofflaw: Oxford English Dictionary; Boston Herald, 10/27/2002; American Issue, 2/30.

165 Rum variants: Dictionary of American Regional English.

165 Anything with: Van de Water, 193–94.

165 Get bearings: Willoughby, 105–6. Distress call: Canney, 10.

165 Dark patch, you knew: Everett S. Allen, 72, 137. Repair vessels: Dorothy M. Brown, 63. Sardines: St. John Telegraph-Journal, 6/25/25, 3, quoted in Grant, 12.

166 Halfway, Gun: Laster, 12/80. Shuttered houses, salt dissolved: Everett S. Allen, 151. Hams: Southern Boating, 2/98, 99.

166 Hundreds of such: NYT, 12/14/24, XX, I. Unprecedented: Canney, 6. Loaded deep: NYT, 12/14/24, XX, i. Gulf Coast: Asbury, 241. A city: Everett S. Allen, 43.

167 McCoy claim: Kobler, 256–57. Runyon: “The Lily of st. Pierre,” 49–67.

167 St. Pierre history: Andrieux, Prohibition, 16–17. Wildlife: Hansen, 1–10.

167 Bahamian government raised: Spinelli, 62–63. July 8: Andrieux, Prohibition, 21–25. Pungent smell: Peter C. Newman, 126. Vessels, stockrooms, customs income: Andrieux, Prohibition, 21–25, 109. Six million: Marrus, 139–40.

168 Le temps de: Marrus, 139–40. Hotel Robert, Villa Cutty: LeFrancois, 42 et seq.

168 Norwegian: LeFrancois, 37. Isle of: Sann, 94.

169 Get legal stamps: Andrieux, Prohibition, 38–39. Northern Export: LeFrancois, 42 et seq. Bronfman inventory: Marrus, 141. Mazel Tov: Robinson, iii.

169 Steam straight, verbal codes, lead-covered: Andrieux, Prohibition, 33–39. Numerical code: LeFrancois, 42 et seq. Bronfman radio: Marrus, 141.

169 His duties: Andrieux, Prohibition, 55.

170 Doomed: NYT, 7/24/23, 23. Parade of ships: Spinelli, 63–64.

170 Conflated brands: Ross Wilson, 302. Lansky: Lacey, 54. Squeezing: Eisenberg et al., 107–8.

170 Pinching domestic: Lockhart, 131–32. Doubling taxes: Spinelli, xiv.

170 Dewarisms: confirmed to author by Jacqui Seargeant, Global Archive Manager, John Dewar & Son Ltd. Virus: Weir, “Alcohol.” Cleverly contrived: Spinelli, 4.

171 Force of arms: Evening Standard, 12/29/19, 4.

171 Inflicted hardship: British National Archives, FO 371/A4379/4588. Bryan threatened: NYT, 4/25/21; Spinelli, 4. Widely reported: Spinelli, 4; for instance, The Times (London), 4/26/21.

172 Doing our best: Nassau Tribune, 11/4/22, enclosed in Lorin A. Lathrop to Secretary of State, 11/9/22, in State Department Archives, F811. BWI/117.

172 Accusing State: Willebrandt to Harry Daugherty, 10/3/22, quoted in Spinelli, 19.

172 Puritanism: Spinelli, 46.

172 Flatly refused: R. Sperling to governor of Bahamas, 6/28/21, British National Archives, FO 371/A5728; H. J. Read to Under Secretary of State, 8/10/21, British National Archives, FO 371/A5891; Spinelli, 5. Affront: Churchill in Collier’s, 8/13/32, 21.

173 We would not: Weir, History, 274.

Chapter Twelve: Blessed Be the Fruit of the Vine

174 Stoll: Introduction by F. T. Bioletti, in Stoll; Pinney, 328; Wines & Vines, 11/47, 13.

174 Vineyard gone: Charles L. Sullivan, Companion, 349. How Prohibition: Although the brochure is unsigned, it would have been Stoll’s responsibility to produce it, and the prose is unmistakably his. Bo Simons, director of the Sonoma County Wine Library, concurs in this judgment.

175 Ninety thousand: Heintz, Alicante, 45. Seventy-five million dollars: St. Helena Star, 8/29/19.

175 Sebastiani: Sonoma Index-Tribune, 2/2/18.

175 No preparations: CGG, 12/1/19.

176 Large sums: E. Clemens Horst, in Outlook, 3/12/30, 407–8. Unexpected demand: CGG, 12/1/19.

176 Price $105: St. Helena Star, 9/23/21. Shocking $375: Heintz, Alicante, 18–19. Grape imports: Hugh F. Fox, “The Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages,” in Walnut, 140.

176 On pleasant days: Alfred J. Hill, “Kansas and Its Prohibition Enforcement,” in Walnut, 138.

177 Grapes so valuable: quoted in Heintz, California’s, 249. More than $500: Carl Wente, “A Look Backward at the Dark Days,” in Wines & Vines, 12/1/62, 17–18. Pledge next year’s: OrH, CWH: Carl Wente, “Economics of Grape Growing in California, 1918–1942.” Viano: Richard Paul Hinkle, “Shed No Tears for Prohibition,” Wine Country, 2/82, 10.

177 Gallo rooster: Hawkes, 51. Uprooted grapes: OrH, CWH: Wente, “Economics.” Vineyardists grafted: OrH, CWH: Maynard A. Amerine. Gooseberry: quoted in Heintz, Alicante, 45.

177 Alicante characteristics: Heintz, Alicante, 14–15. Italian is willing: CGG, 9/1/21, 12. Color scale: The California Grower, 11/29, 26.

178 Parsnips: Senate Judiciary 1926, testimony of William J. McSorley, 222. Add sugar: OrH, CWH: Maynard A. Amerine. Bearcreek: OrH, Montana Historical Society: Vera Naglich.

178 Sour fumes: Sunset, 4/28. Trucks: Wines & Vines, 4/1/74. While You Wait: Angelo Papagni, “The Long Memory,” Wine West, 3–4/83, 22. Iron miners (fn): Mondavi, 35–39. What happens: Sunset, 4/28. One would select: OrH, CWH: Leon Adams.

179 Sold and resold: Carl Wente, “A Look Backward,” Wines & Vines, 12/1/62, 17–18. Carloads to New York: California Grower, 1/32. Another 40,000: Sunset, 4/28. Would have taken: St. Helena Star, 4/6/23. Vivid way: Fresno Republican, 11/22/25, quoted in CGG, 1/1/26, 15. Stand aside: “Jolly Grapes Roll Eastward to Market,” Business Week, 9/7/29.

179 Jersey City: Business Week, 9/7/21. Army of pushcart: CGG, 12/1/26, 1. Block buyers: John Parducci, quoted in Wines & Vines, 5/1/89, 54. Twilight zone: Walton Green, “The Twilight Zone of Prohibition,” Saturday Evening Post, 5/8/26, 42. Pomace or waste: CGG, 4/1/29, 6.

180 150 million: Wickersham, vol. 1, 136.

180 Half grapes die: OrH, CWH: Carl Wente. Fix prices: St. Helena Star, 6/3/27. Argued against: CGG, 5/1/26, 10; 4/1/27, 11. Silk shirts: OrH, CWH: Carl Wente.

180 Canning: Richard Paul Hinkle, “Shed No Tears for Prohibition,” Wine Country, 2/82, 10. Fleet of wineries: San Francisco Examiner, 1/10/19, 1. Grape butter: CGG, 3/1/26, 10.

181 Wente clone: Vintners’ Hall of Fame, http://www.ciaprochef.com. Sell entire: OrH, CWH: Ernest A. Wente, 21. I will tell: Ernest A. Wente, quoted in Heintz, Beaulieu, 78.

181 de Latour generally: ANB; Rod Smith, Private. Best known families: San Francisco Examiner, 11/16/24, quoted in Heintz, Beaulieu. Dressed for dinner: OrH, CWH: Andre Tchelistcheff.

182 Pyle: Rod Smith, 37–40. Elegant, patrician: OrH, CWH: Louis M. Martini.

182 This letter will: Riordan, 3/8/12, archives of Archdiocese of Northern California.

183 First board: Rod Smith, 40–43. Crowley: Archbishop Edward J. Hanna to de Latour, 3/25/20, BATF Papers, Collection D-140, B47.

183 Beringers, Concannons: OrH, CWH: Tchelistcheff. Martinis: Wines & Vines, 1/94, 21–22.

183 Full fourteen years: OrH, CWH: Ernest A. Wente, 21. Fay: Lapsley, 77; Hennings, 267. Congratulated: Archbishop Edward J. Hanna to de Latour, 3/25/20, BATF Papers, Collection D-140, B47. Distributors: various, DFP. Storing: Beaulieu Vineyards application for renewal of A-1 permit, 12/14/25, BATF Papers, Collection D-140, B47. Acre, rail spur: St. Helena Star, 9/17/26, 9.

184 Go missing: Agents Louis F. Cole and James E. Verrall to H. L. [Duncan?], divisional chief, 2/19/32, BATF Papers, Collection D-140, Box 47. Illegal channels: quoted in Heintz, Beaulieu, 74. Not uncommon: “Applications to Procure Wine for Sacramental Purposes,” from Fathers Prim, O’Donnell, and Rodriguez, DFP. Mundelein: Unsigned to Messrs. D. Recher & Co., 12/12/32, DFP. I advise: de Latour to Yellowley, 8/15/22, BATF Papers, Collection D-140, Box 47. Close friend: Yellowley to de Latour, 11/22/32, DFP. When friars (fn): Napa Valley, interview with Brother Basil of the Christian Brothers.

184 Move a lot: Rod Smith, 66–71. Many favorable, sheltered, offering: Brochure, 2/15/22, archives of Archdiocese of Northern California. Had added: See order forms in DFP; e.g., “Permit to Purchase,” 10/16/31. Medicinal exception (fn): Contract between Beaulieu and Joseph Callan and I. Domnitz, 2/20/27, DFP.

185 Celebrities: Heintz, Beaulieu, 104. de Latour home: “California Rural: Mrs. Georges de Latour’s “Beaulieu,” Vogue, 11/47, 172–73. Pool: Charles L. Sullivan, Napa, 196. Invited to join: de Latour guestbook, passim, DFP.

185 We started out: Randolph Churchill, 84–85. Comic: Daily Telegraph (London), 12/2/29. Ganymede: Churchill to Clementine Churchill, 9/18/29, Baroness Spencer-Churchill Papers.

186 Moment’s halt: de Latour guestbook, 9/9/29, DFP. Goodly sight: Martin S. Gilbert, 93. Christ has come: Randolph Churchill, 84–85.

186 Jewish rabbis: Memorandum of agreement between Beaulieu and A. Z. Halperin and Harry Schutz, 3/22/23 (top sheet of agreement is marked in pencil “1925”). Imprimatur: de Latour to Rabbi B. Robinson, 2/25/27, DFP. Palatable: Louis P. Martini, quoted in Napa Valley Register, 12/5/93.

186 Ecclesiastic tyrants: Quoted in Drescher, 326–27.

187 Beneath dignity: NYT, 7/7/14, 5. Lobbied Volstead: Rabbi Samuel Gup to Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, 12/13/21, LFA.

187 The temptation: Sprecher, 153. More wine: LAT, 3/13/21; Kobler, 250–51. Trustee charged: LAT, 3/13/21.

188 Third appearance: LAT, 2/17/23, 1. Into jeans: LAT, 8/31/22, II 7. Disposed: LAT, 6/14/21, II 1.

188 San Leandro: Coffee, 366–67. Alameda: Rabbi Rudolph I. Coffee, “Stamping Out the Wine Congregations,” Survey, 12/15/22, 366–67. Promiscuously: LAT, 6/30/24, A2.

188 Free-for-all: Sprecher, 153. Tiny rooms: Einstein, 134–35. Sell to anyone: Gup to Franklin, 12/13/21, LFA. Public scandal: Krauskopf to Franklin, 12/12/21, LFA.

189 Took commissions: Providence Journal, 12/23/21, 2. Wine stores: Collier’s, 10/21/27, 9. Signing up: Underwood & Underwood photograph; NYT, 7/30/23, 15. Schapiro’s: Marni Davis, 210. Champagne: Einstein, 134–135. Not the content: WP, 4/6/22, 3. 100-proof: New York Herald, 4/5/22, quoted in CGG, 5/1/22, 13.

189 Any man: Asbury, 239. Houlihan and Maguire: NYT, 1/14/22, 4. Harlem Negroes: Collier’s, 10/1/27, 8.

190 Hillul: Central, 116–18.

190 Jewish luck: “The Jewish Element in Bootlegging Evil,” Dearborn Independent, 12/31/21.

190 Direct quotation: Franklin address to Central Conference of American Rabbis, 4/21, quoted in “The Jewish Element in Bootlegging Evil,” Dearborn Independent, 12/31/21.

191 Maintained cordial: Neil Baldwin, 127. Petition Congress: Franklin to Rabbi Edward N. Calisch, 12/15/21, LFA.

191 Case of necessity: Central, 108–18. Insinuate: Behr, 46. Dr. Welch’s: Barr, 362.

191 Sentiments: Joselit, 91. Threatening letters: Sprecher, 157. Ask Jews: NYT, 1/25/23, 10.

191 Rabbis Reap: quoted in Central, vol. 32, 107. Revoking: Sprecher, 165. Slicing, plummeted: Collier’s, 10/1/27, 9, 37.

192 Deutsch: LAT, 7/7/14, 15. Wolsey: Joselit, 86.

Chapter Thirteen: The Alcohol That Got Away

193 Drug-stores, grain alcohol: Fitzgerald, Gatsby, 87, 106.

193 Frankfort brochure: author’s collection.

193 Fifteen thousand: Asbury, 218–19. Purchase, have it filled: Sexton, 115–116. Veterinarians: NYT, 7/28/23, 4.

194 Pinkham, generally: ANB. Sewing kits, text-book: eBay.com. 20.6: The label on the package said Pinkham’s contained 15 percent alcohol, but testing by the Massachusetts Board of Health indicated the correct proportion was 20.6 percent. Edward Bok, Ladies’ Home Journal, 5/04.

194 Temperance worker: Murdock, 53.

194 Mrs. Jones: Wikipedia.com.

195 Testing: Edward Bok, Ladies’ Home Journal, 5/04.

195 No scientific value: Timberlake, 47. Referendum: “The Referendum on Alcohol,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 1/21/22, 194. Serious interference: “The St. Louis Session,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 6/3/1922, 1709.

196 Taylor, Gutierrez: certificates in author’s collection. Take three: Engelmann, Intemperance, 33.

196 Too jealous: NYT, 1/11/20. Unexcelled: author’s collection. Bought in bulk: Senate Judiciary 1926, 119–21. Burned their tongues: Leonard Grossman to Francis X. Busch, William E. Dever Papers, B3, F24.

196 Iceman: Sheaffer, 490. Continued to operate: Sheaffer, 44; Wetzsteon, 147.

197 Seriously injure: Senate Campaign Expenditures 1926, 70. Billingsley opened: Blumenthal, 91.

197 Hoping to block: Ambrose Hunsberger, “The Practice of Pharmacy Under the Volstead Act,” Walnut, 185.

197 Doubtful that milk: John U. Bacon, author of authorized history of Walgreen’s. Fire department: Bacon, 63.

198 Saw a chance: quoted in Kobler, 316–17. Pharmacist: Ibid., 316. Teetotaler: SLP-D, 1/3/26. Remus deposited: Furnas, 220.

198 Within three hundred: Kobler, 316–17. Buy counterfeits: Sexton, 118.

198 Jack Daniel’s: Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, online at http://www.tennesseeencyclopedia.net. Purchased pharmacy, began withdrawing, hijacked: Sexton, 120.

199 Business so large, draining the contents: Kobler, 315–17. Hundreds of: Mee, 146–47. Booze-scented, Millionaires’ Row (fn): Willebrandt, 98–99. Tried to corner: SLP-D, 1/3/26. Peaceful hush (fn): Werner, Privileged, 273–77. No prison (fn): Kobler, 320.

199 Twenty-nine million: Sexton, 115. Fifty-eight additional: Downard, Dictionary, 128. Old Forester: 115–16.

200 Heavy demand: Louisville Herald-Post, 11/24/26. Purchasing Early Times: Brown-Forman website.

200 Strawberries: interview, Patricia Levinson (Schulte’s granddaughter). Clerk, cigar, grocery: Time, 10/21/49. Bought Overholt, sold: Fortune, 11/33, 35, 113. Hard-earned: Time, 10/21/29.

200 Pierce price list: author’s collection. Should have permitted: Time, 6/6/27.

201 Hundreds of uses: NYT, 7/27/23, 15. Tripled: Merz, 116. Doubled: Nelli, 153. 60 million, exported to Canada: Senate Judiciary 1926, Emory Buckner testimony, 112. How to keep: Quoted in LD, 9/24/27, 13.

201 Denaturants: NYT, 7/26/23, 17. Sreben, other firms: CT, 2/4/31; NYT, 2/11/30.

201 Beyond jurisdiction: Asbury, 225.

202 Perfect carnival: Mayer, 196.

202 Almost a million: Collier’s, 10/15/27, 8. Sewer lining: Washington Times, 2/20/24. Quaker, etc.: Temple University Library website, http://www.exhibitions.library.temple.edu/prohibition/booboo.jsp. Hoff produced: Haller, “Philadelphia,” 218. Forty loaded: Frazier, 84.

203 Butler, generally: ANB, DAB. Day has passed: Merz, 141. Torn apart: NYT, 12/17/23.

203 Buy off: Frazier, 171, 88. Estimated: Haller, “Philadelphia,” 223. Privilege of assignment: Time, 9/17/28. Golder: Haller, “Philadelphia,” 219.

203 Shipping agreement, Union National: Frazier, 90–92. Spider: Time, 9/17/28.

204 Complicity: Weigley, 581. Wall Street: Frazier, 89. Butler returned: DAB. Trying to enforce: Asbury, 186. Sherman: Haller, “Philadelphia,” 215.

204 Refused to allow: NYT, 12/28/25, 1.

Chapter Fourteen: The Way We Drank

205 The Hero: Drowne, 1, citing WSJ, 4/15/19.

205 Prigs: Time, 9/28/31. Gloria: quoted in Drowne, 82. Gowan Stevens: Faulkner, 33. Half the pages: Burnham, Bad, 36. Does not exist: quoted in Jeffrey A. Schwarz.

205 Devastating: quoted in Johns, 11. Waiting: quoted in Engelmann, Intemperance, 9. Well, folks: Lewis, 127. Hemingway’s expatriate (fn): Hemingway, 128.

206 Fierce protracted: Edmund Wilson, 89–91.

206 Hazlitt: This is maxim number 40 from Characteristics.

207 Glittering tray: Cather, Lost, 43–44. Powell: Wetzsteon, 509–10. World broke: Cather, Not, unnumbered prefatory page. Nobody stays: NYT Book Review, 12/21/24.

207 The party: Cowley, 65. Social hook: Vanity Fair, 1/21.

207 Mencken traced: Drowne, 96. Ulysses (fn): Google Books edition, 745. Gus: New York Evening Sun, 3/12/30, 28.

208 Hooch, buffet, all-white: Drowne, 156. Beer flats: NYT, 5/3/28. Southern Italian: Baughman; Flamm, 50. Bucket: “My Friend,” in Josephine F. Gomon Papers, B10. Curley: Beatty, 272–73. Sheboygan: CT, 3/30/29, 2.

208 Thirty-two thousand: Kobler, 224. Kriendler and Berns: interview, Susan Berns Rothchild. Confuse tax, only arrests: Kobler, 229–30. Stop paying: New Yorker, 4/7/34. Tumbling down: Kobler, 231; New Yorker, 4/7/34. Not admissible: Louis Sobol, “Speakeasy,” Cosmopolitan, 4/34, 54.

209 Bath Club, O’Leary’s: Hirschfeld and Kahn, 20–22.

209 Brothers convicted: Rosenthal, 327–28. Hartwell: Time, 3/24/24; NYT, 12/31/25. Chianti market: New Yorker, 1/16/26, 7.

210 Created Cutty: Spinelli, 2. Haig: Weir, “Alcohol,” 1289. Squirrel: Dundee (Scotland) Evening Telegraph, 10/16/13, courtesy of Jacqui Seargeant, John Dewar & Sons.

210 Soaked in sea: New Yorker, 3/6/26, 25. Perfectly: Kennedy to Matthew Brush, 6/26/22, in Amanda Smith, 33. Dollar-a-drink: Collier’s, 10/15/27, 8. Brand X: Mercer Ellington, cited in Batterberry, 213.

211 Blind pig (fn): Drowne, 96. Pretty girl: Terkel, 177. More than close: Murdock, 69.

211 Peculiarly attractive: Scott, 123.

211 Arrests spiked: Lerner, dissertation, 258. Portals: Louis Sobol, “Speakeasy,” Cosmopolitan, 4/34. Sex barriers, light laughter: Vanity Fair, 10/28. Schoolgirls: O’Connor, 72.

212 Harlem clubs: Wintz and Finkleman, 910, 1121. Detroit: Sunnie Wilson. Most democratic: Drowne, 128. More to improve: Lerner, Dry, 215.

212 Many had welcomed: Lynd, 265; Lerner (book), 36. Frenzied filming: Jowitt, 238–39.

213 Clean films: Rose, American, 64. Devil and Jews: Couvares, 589. Scholarly survey: Dale, 168. Hundred million: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 195.

213 Clarence Brown: Burnham, Bad, 37.

213 Chic and charming: DN, 1/3/24, 4. Shut down: DN, 1/2/24, 1.

213 Kresge: DN, 1/4/24, 1–2. Hepburn: Columbus Dispatch, 7/25/27. Heflin: AC, 4/9/29, 13. Bounder: DN, 1/3/24, 4.

214 Children’s: Fitzgerald, Crack-Up, 15. Faunce: LD, 7/10/26, 45. Babylonian: DN, 1/2/24, 1. Almost a Yale: Mellon, 107–14. Casey: Murphy, 188. Idiotic: Coulter to J. A. Bursley, 12/13/23, Vice President of Student Affairs Papers, University of Michigan, B1.

214 Bowdoin labs: Laster. Gin is aged: quoted in William Grimes, 93.

214 Consolation: Cather, Lost, 43. Went into: Fortune, 11/33, 29. Cassatt: Time, 10/8/28. Varnish: Haller, “Philadelphia,” 222.

215 Beverage known: Asbury, 229. Garbo: William Grimes, 92.

215 Trust: CGG, 8/21, 3. Caffo, Buschtee, Kicko: Hernon and Ganey, 108. Sales triple: Kyvig, Daily, 24. Drink That Cheers: Tchudi, 77.

216 So good under: NYT, 1/21/27, 1.

216 Considerable part: Montreal Gazette, 1/29/25, quoted in testimony of Hudson Maxim, Senate Judiciary 1926. Taxi ride: Brault, 85,105. Never touched: Scott Wheeler, 33–36.

216 Their appearance: Daily Colonist, 6/30/25, 14, quoted in Stephen T. Moore. A great many: Willebrandt to C. C. Boynton, 8/6/28, in MWWP, B4. Windsor warehouse: NYT, 3/21/27, 7.

217 Bimini Rod: New York Tribune, 5/16/20, magazine section, 3. Human stomach: Collier’s, 7/16/21, 22. Learned about: NYT, 2/23/27, 3.

217 Uppercu, Aeromarine: William M. Leary, 180–193. Limousines: www.timetableimages.com/ttimages/aeromwet.htm. Donovan: Curtis, 165. Bathe in Bacardi: Gjelten, 111. Inviting, never so good: New Yorker, 2/9/29, 14.

218 Bible classes: Kazin, 262. Lecture: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 183.

218 View from lawn: Coletta, 161. Conspiring: Bryan to Oldfield, 4/3/22, WJBP, B35.

218 Dear little: French Line brochure, quoted in Maxtone-Graham, 170. Where the Wet: Curtis, 165.

218 Mauretania: Daily Express (London), 2/16/20. Sounded their horns: White to Scott Elledge, 6/16/82, in E. B. White, 654. Stereotype: Maxtone-Graham, 170.

219 It hurt: New York Tribune, 11/26/22, VI, 1.

219 Relaxed: Spinelli, 38–39. Excellent Cuisine, menus: Current History, 6/22, 377–85.

219 Incomparably the biggest: Plavchan, 202. Busch sent his letter to his son, Adolphus Busch III, and asked him to forward it to Harding.

220 Waving a series: Wheeler to A. J. Volstead, 6/22/22, AJVP, B3. Simultaneously announced: NYT, 10/7/22, 1.

220 If the measure: NYT, 10/10/22, 1. Parliament considered, pause to dump: Spinelli, 46–47. Renders ridiculous: Royden to Ashley Sparks, 7/4 [or 5?]/23, Cunard Archive, D42/S3/17. Such asses: Wadsworth to James R. Sheffield, 5/9/23, JWWP, B19.

220 Driving ranges, movies, caviar: Gunther, 131.

220 Foil: F. L. Allen, Secret, 172–73.

221 Sterno: Kobler, 314. Rust improved: Asbury, 281. Like a milkman: Inquest testimony, 8/10/26, in Archives of Ontario, RG 4–32, F 1926 #1828 (1). Jake, neurotoxin: kobler, 301–2; “Jake Leg Blues,” liner notes, by John P. Morgan, M.D. Lyrics: Dan Baum, “Jake Leg,” New Yorker, 50.

222 Opera star: Room, 11–18. Arrests soared: Joseph R. Gusfield, “Prohibition: The Impact of Political Utopianism,” in Braeman, 274. Cirrhosis, psychosis: Adam Gifford Jr., “Whiskey, Margarine, and Newspapers: A Tale of Three Taxes,” in Shughart, 66. Rate of consumption: Jellinek, 10.

222 Over-indulgence: LD, 7/10/26, 47. Men swallow: Igglesden, 164. People expect, advice: Cannadine, 310. Anodyne: Vanity Fair, 3/31, 60. The piece was published under a pseudonym Brokaw often used, “Julian Jerome.”

222 Girls simply won’t, almost everybody: Lusk, 46. For a girl: Jean Hamilton to parents of Pauline Izor, 4/8/26, Clarence Cook Little Papers, B2, F20.

223 Izor, generally: Hamilton correspondence; Michiganensian 1964 (University of Michigan yearbook), 296; interview with Izor’s son LaMott F. Bates.

223 Meads: NYT, 6/17/20, 1; CT, 9/16/20. Vomitings: O’Hara, Appointment, 86.

224 A world without: Sabin, “I Change My Mind About Prohibition,” in Outlook, 6/13/28.

224 Girls did not drink, Why American: Fulton, 35.

224 Attempt to enthrone: NYT, 4/4/29, 1.

Chapter Fifteen: Open Wounds

227 Strong appeal: NYT, 6/26/23. Stop drinking: Anthony, Florence, 427; Murray, Harding, 407. Same suite, simple way: Diary, 8/10/23, PSDP, F1. Slob, front parlor: Longworth, 324–25.

227 Should go out of: Kennedy, Freedom, 30. Indolent: Lippmann, 12–13.

228 Whacked: CGG, 1/26, 13. Not a stranger: Miller, 132. I must remember: McCoy, 397. Toasted: NYT, 1/17/28, 2. The rest would: Merz, 285.

228 Brother-in-law: Willard obituary, Springfield Republican, 12/23/31. All details of investigation from Harlan Fiske Stone Papers, B24, F. Amherst College bootlegging, particularly: Stone to Willard, 6/20/24 (telegram), 6/26/24; Willard to Stone, 6/21/24; Stone to Waddell (student), 6/28/24; J. Edgar Hoover to Stone, 8/11/24, 8/25/24.

229 Pinchot flirted: Sobel, 255.

229 Enemy of, shot: Steuart, 303–4. Anarchist: Nethers, 178. Sackett: Sexton, 94–95. Although some sources spell Sackett’s first name with a concluding k, his official congressional biography spells it without.

230 Dispatched: Steuart, 226. Was not voted: NYT, 6/26/27, XX6. Frowning Nero: New Yorker, 1/30/26. Generalissimo: CR, 4/5/22, 5073.

230 Pleased to support: Thomas to Wheeler, 3/4/24, in TPP/ASL Legis and Legal, R1. Ruin field hand, pap sucker, etc.: Simon, 1252.

231 Jones: ANB. Felder: NYT, 4/21/22, 12, and 5/9/22, 4. Representing McCoy: William Hayward to Attorney General, 10/9/22, F 23–3962–5, Department of Justice archives. Clarence Wilson: DAB. McGee: Time, 2/23/25; http://www.mnd.uscourts.gov. Baruch: Baruch, 180. Ford:Ladies’ Home Journal, 4/30, 25. Willebrandt: Gentry, 125–26.

231 Thrown acid: Pepper, 146. Half-drunk, furies: Reed, “The Pestilence of Fanaticism,” American Mercury, 5/25. Black men: Meriwether, 85. Supreme artist: Reed, Rape, dust jacket copy.

232 In business to protect: New York World, 4/6/22. Lives by headlines: Time, 11/24/24. Get arrested, hundred-million: Kessner, 112. 150,000: McLaughlin, 184. 250,000: Senate Judiciary 1926, 651.

232 Frivolity: ANB. Dark and sombre: Beck to H. L. Mencken, 12/15/24, James M. Beck Papers, B5, F24. Cascading quotations: Keller, 154–55.

233 Resigned as solicitor: ANB. Handed him: keller, 196.

233 Cornelia Pinchot found out: Lender, Dictionary, 398. Movement as a whole: Murdock, 31.

233 Announced birth: November 12, 1918, per Kyvig, Repealing, 43. Solicitation letter: Life (original), 7/24/31, 15. Fish et al.: Names from early AAPA letterhead, circa 1922, author’s collection. Yacht Club: Kyvig, Repealing, 46–47.

234 Freighted with warning: Heckman, 280. Ran the other way: Ibid., 281; Kyvig, Repealing, 48.

234 Refuse to contribute: du Pont to Arthur W. Little, 1/7/27, PSdPP, Series A, F765. Futile for people, must learn: du Pont to Charles N. Fowler, 1/28/27, PSdPP, Series A, F765.

234 Thirteen dry, vacation on Mars: Kobler, 341.

234 Naturally made: Carol L. James [page unclear]. Unyielding: CR, 1/18/22, 1338. Convicted of murder: Unsigned to Mrs. Andrew J. Volstead, 4/29/20, AJVP, B1. Made a Bolshevik: unsigned to Volstead, 10/29/19, AJVP, B1. Cootie’s: “Democritus” to Volstead, 10/20/21, AJVP, B2.

235 Dryer than Volstead: St. Paul Pioneer-Press, 11/9/22, 1. Sunday morning: Carol L. James, 10–11. Wets eager: St. Paul Pioneer-Press, 11/9/22, 10.

236 Streams of undersized, lowest layer: Kenneth Roberts, “Ports of Embarkation,” Saturday Evening Post, 5/7/21, 12. Most backward: Kenneth Roberts, “The Goal of Central Europeans,” Saturday Evening Post, 11/6/20, 12. Nordics, the cross (fn): Madison Grant, Passing, 228, 18. Half the bootleggers (fn): Haller, “Philadelphia,” 217.

236 80 percent to aliens: NYT, 1/12/23, 3. Ought to know: Imogen Oakley, “The Prohibition Law and the Political Machine,” in Walnut, 171. General information: House Immigration 1922, 544.

237 Dazzling opportunities: Higham, 267–68.

237 Scum: Rose, American, 26. Because, they declare: NYT, 12/21/20. In many places: Merz, 89–91.

237 Gives aliens: Rosenbaum, 422. Semicivilized: Eagles, Democracy, 38. Gnawing: CR, 5/28/29, 2054–2056. Not fair: NYT, 1/15/31, 48.

238 Wets argued: Anderson, 152–53. This eliminated: Kennedy, Freedom, 14. Pug dog: Kenneth Roberts, “The Goal of Central Europeans,” Saturday Evening Post, 11/6/20, 61.

239 Preserve racial: NYT, 4/27/24, XX, 3. Klan more concerned: Jackson, 26. Inferior, riff-raff: MacLean, 91. SYMWA: Jackson, 133. Motivated by anti-Semitism: Link, 847.

240 Communications private: Cherrington to Hobson, 3/30/15, in RPHP, B35, F7. Win it now: “Proceedings of the 1917 Convention of the Anti-Saloon League of America,” 75.

240 Less than nine: Eagles, Democracy, 51. On guard: Current Opinion, 1/21, 35–38. Forty-two separate: Schmeckebier, 120–21.

240 Men from the farms, many do not speak, silent consent: Eagles, Democracy, 39, 61, 45–46. Silly: WP, 3/13/27, 1.

241 497,000 each: WP, 8/11/26, 9. Ten separate in Missouri, city versus: Eagles, Democracy, 72, 66.

241 Not be violated: WP, 2/6/29, 6.

241 Al Smith, generally: ANB, Handlin. In a bank: Handlin, 28.

242 Brown derby: New York Sun, 12/28/32.

242 Jack up: Handlin, 109.

242 Jurymen would have: Collier’s, 7/16/21, 23. Rightfully belongs: Lerner, Dry, 94. Leon and Eddie’s: Louis Sobol, “Speakeasy, Cosmopolitan, 4/34, 54.

242 Massachusetts: Walnut, 54. Maryland: Clark, Deliver, 167–68. Very stupid: Stanley Walker, 17.

243 Bier, grave: Murray, 103rd, 144.

243 Hopeful idiots: Roosevelt to Bryan, 6/20/23, quoted in Friedel, Ordeal, 162.

243 Einstein and Wheeler: Einstein, 41. Appetitive, humidity: Palmer Canfield in NYT, 6/21/24, 3.

243 Reception committees, my best men: OrH, COHP: Claude Bowers, 52. Five thousand speakeasies: Lerner, dissertation, 203. Good rye: Variety, 3/6/24.

244 Neither willing to risk: Murray, 103rd, 143–144. Avert disaster, old wounds: Stanley Frost, Outlook, 6/18/24, 265–68.

244 Expelled: “Monteval,” 13. Bourbon, Birth: McGill,132. Klan of the 1920s: Coben, 136. Over half a million: Jackson, 90. Oregon: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 209. Colorado, Kansas: McVeigh, 2–3. Avalanche: Jackson, 138.

245 Wheeler and Catholics: Timberlake, 31–32. Jews: Marni Davis, 235. Cherrington: Cherrington to Justin Steuart, telegram, 7/12/28, in TPP/Cherrington, R66.

245 Denison: Angle, 140–41. Grip of bootleggers: Higham, 295; Angle, 284; NYT, 9/14/24. Glaring disgrace: Angle, 157. Hauling: NYT, 9/14/24. Stickney: Angle, 140–41. Submachine gun: Angle, 141. Twenty dead: Higham, 295.

245 Wets supporting Underwood: Murray, 103rd, 155. Drys backing McAdoo: McVeigh, 7. Heavily guarded: Murray, 103rd, 108. They were afraid: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 133.

246 Worst-hated: NYT, 6/23/24, 8. Fixed fact: Davis to Wheeler, 2/14/23, John W. Davis Papers, B22, F136.

246 A mob: Beck to Harlan Fiske Stone, 7/11/24, Harlan Fiske Stone Papers, B6. The kind of man: William H. Anderson to “members of the 68th Congress,” 3/15/23, in TPP/Cherrington, R76.

Chapter Sixteen: “Escaped on Payment of Money”

247 Vogt: Fisher, Prohibition, 126. Odyssey: Gordon, Anti-Alcohol, 123. Two to four, will add: Eugene B. Benge, “Effects of Prohibition from the Viewpoint of an Employment Manager,” in Walnut, 111.

248 Bananas (fn): I. N. Fisher, My Father, xi. Abolition: quoted in Justin Fox, 21. Dropped 20: Fisher, Prohibition, 99. Billion of GNP, Feldman: Thornton, 16.

248 Pronouncements: NYT, 8/10/23, 13. Bowling, gambling spike: Survey, 11/16/20, 198.

248 Savings lower, virility: Monahan, 222. Chastity: NYT, 8/10/23, 13.

249 Bellevue: Kellogg to Barron, 5/7/23, in John H. Kellogg Papers, B1, Correspondence.

249 Gibbs: New Yorker, 4/4/31, 26. Fell sharply: Miron and Zwiebel, 242–47.

249 Tastes like: Dabney, 174. Just for Bevo: Hernon and Ganey, 105.

250 Pre-war taste, Pablo, etc.: author’s collection.

250 Almost negligible: Plavchan, 161–62. Hobart, Feigenspan’s: George S. Hobart, “The Volstead Act,” in Walnut, 96.

250 Twenty gallons: Warburton, in Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, 9/32, 91–92.

251 Product that will: Plavchan, 179.

251 Apple butter, etc.: Brochure, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry, File 470.2 (464), to A. Lonnquest, 7/10/18, Frankenmuth (MI) Historical Society; Hernon and Ganey, 134. Pabst: Cochran, 334. Anheuser: Hernon and Ganey, 132. Trade associations: Kobler, 238. Magazine: NYT, 4/4/26. Time is ripe: Wheeler to Louis C. Cramton, 10/12/25, in Louis C. Cramton Papers, B1. Smack (fn): Hernon and Ganey, 134.

251 Final gasp: Merz, 123–24. Six million: Plavchan, 179. Biggest bootlegging: Hernon and Ganey, 132.

252 Simms: William Hayward to Attorney General, 10/9/22, F 23–3962–5, Department of Justice archives. Small pint, as honest as: MacLean, 100–101. Public demand: Boorstin, 84.

252 Not by next: Jimerson et al., 241–42.

253 First four thousand: Collier’s, 7/6/21, 23. Does not fit: Willebrandt, 251. 15 percent: NYT, 12/28/25, 3.

253 Buckner, generally: ANB, DAB, Mayer.

254 Licked: Stein Family Papers, Buckner to Elihu Root Jr. et al., 3/17/25.

254 Swore off: Stanley Walker, 60. Brandy: Stein Family Papers, Buckner to “Dear Four,” 1/20/32. Subcellar, six judges: Mayer, 186–87. Fifty thousand: Senate Judiciary 1926, 96–97. Easy to amend: NYT, 1/3/26, VIII, 9.

254 Seething: Senate Judiciary 1926, 96–97. Perjury, ten thousand, grotesque, escaped: Mayer, 186–87. Pay $100 fine (fn): Nation, 4/28/26, 472.

255 Staff consisted: Dorothy M. Brown, 50.

255 Staggering 90: Asbury, 170. Please the Drys: Quoted in A. Mason, Stone, 156.

255 Rewarded with bounty: NYT, 3/2/20. Bannick: Clark, Dry, 157–58. Liquor courts: See Dugan v. Ohio, 277 U.S. 63 (1928); Tumey v. Ohio, 273 U.S. 521–522 (1927); and Journal-News (Hamilton, Ohio), 2/12/2003.

256 Less than 15: Merz, 277. Old local-option: Collier’s, 7/16/21, 23–24.

256 Connecticut: Everett Allen, 105. Detroit Board: NYT, 5/3/28. Graft trust: Asbury, 184.

257 Reopen places: Lindberg, 184–85. Cleanest, soberest: Sayler to Collins, 10/8/23, William E. Dever Papers, B3, F24.

257 Reduced the quality: Reeves, vii.

257 Semiofficial: NYT, 12/6/33. Fund for disabled: Ernest Gordon, Wrecking, 169. Knee-deep: quoted in Johns, 35. Be introduced: Baltimore Evening Sun, 10/12/31.

258 Indicted for diversion: Willebrandt, 118. Mistaken idea: Overton, 53. Double duty: Elizabeth Anne Brown, 29. Demijohns: OrH, CWH: Antonio Pirelli-Minetti, 16–17. Orgy: Hans Schmidt, 169.

258 General disregard: Bruere, 90. 35 seconds: Kobler, 295–98. Lucrative Louisiana: Order forms from Louisiana (Father Prim, etc.) in DFP. Mereaux: Barry, Rising, 236. From appearances: Crane to Tuttle, 3/1/27, in AJTP, B65, Correspondence.

259 On a Still: Lender and Martin, 142. Half a million cases: NYT, 6/23/29, XX, 4. Sealed: RCCE, Barney Aaron testimony, 22,036–72; Harry Low testimony, 16,522. Three boats: NYT, 5/22/27, XX, 5. Pipeline, cable: DN, 1/24/31. In less than: Bingay, 325.

259 On to Chicago: Nelli, 158. 7,000, three times: DN, 1/11/14; NYT, 5/3/28. Single block: Engelmann, “Separate,” 51–73. Carnival: DN, 1/1/24. Union efforts: Engelmann, Intemperance, 136.

260 Poor place: DN, 7/12/23. Darrow: Diary entry, 11/26/25, Josephine F. Gomon Papers, B6.

260 Left alone, tragic joke, Lodge practical: Engelmann, “Separate.” Notables: advertisement, Detroit Saturday Night, 11/15/27, reprinted in Engelmann, “Separate.”

261 Wracked: Tuttle to Harry M. Daugherty, 4/21/22, AJTP, B24, Topical Office Files, Prohibition Dept. (1). Expecting Uncle Sam: Tuttle to Mrs. F. P. Anderson, 11/9/23, AJTP, B24, Topical Office Files, Prohibition (2). Crowding: Tuttle to Merlin Wiley, 7/5/22, B24, Topical Office Files, Prohibition (1).

261 McGee: NYT, 2/6/25, 1.

261 Leaving to the states: New Republic, 1/15/22, 305–6.

262 Spectacular but ineffectual: McClure’s, 9/09, 539. Wrong cannot: Suitts, 457.

262 Maximum sentences, first few: Suitts, 133–34, 452–53.

262 Izzy believes, Einstein told: Mobile Register, 11/14/23, 1. Sad news: Kobler, 295–98.

263 Bank president et al.: Mobile Register, 12/20/23, 1; also “Teflon Tycoon,” in Register, 12/19/2001. O’Shaughnessy: Mobile Register, 12/19/23, 1. Wanted a drink: Webb.

263 Broyles arrested: Mobile Register, 12/19/23, 1. Stone’s effort: Webb. I ate it: Roger K. Newman, 64. Klansmen: Klan leader James Esdale, quoted in Roger K. Newman, 65.

264 I really should: Mayer, 204–5. $150 a week: New Yorker, 10/16/26, 36. Common pool: Kobler, 229. It is clear: Willebrandt, 171–72.

264 Could process: Mayer, 192–93; Mazzone to author, 7/3/2009.

264 Harlan, collect evidence, Buckner obligingly: Mayer, 187–188. Necklace: Stanley Walker, 94–96.

265 Conjunction: Quoted in Lerner, dissertation, 228.

265 Seems an impossible: Buckner to Elihu Root Jr., et al., 3/17/25, Stein Family Papers.

265 Man who buys: New Yorker, 11/14/25, 7.

265 Two days after, could not countenance, gloated: NYT, 11/17/25, 2; 11/21/25, 1. Regard slight: Buckner to Ruth Buckner, 3/7/26, Stein Family Papers. Stampede, Liquor Market: New Yorker, 11/25/27, 7.

Chapter Seventeen: Crime Pays

267 Very presence: CR, 6/22/22, 9186. Wet list: House Appropriations 1922, 491.

268 Censure: WP, 8/24/21, 2. Spinsters: New Republic, 12/15/6, 102. Better hater: Villard, 89.

268 Truculent: New Republic, 6/8/26, 86. War of words: NYT, 4/18/26, XX, 1. Bellowing: Philadelphia Inquirer, 6/27/26.

268 Dry reception: Time, 6/27/26. Blight: Asbury, 147. Pockets: Senate Campaign Expenditures 1926, 19.

269 Forced to admit: Senate Judiciary 1926, 843. Asbestos: Senate Judiciary 1926, 1108.

269 Colored people: Senate Judiciary 1926, 689. Fanatics and fools: NYT, 4/23/26, 1.

269 All-absorbing: NYT, 4/18/26, XX, 1. Long years: Wheeler to McBride, 5/22/26, TPP/McBride, R15. Corpse: Steuart, 269.

270 Spectacular war: NYT, 4/22/26, 1. The very fact, Reed had not: NYT, 4/25/26, 1.

270 Smiling exterior, three-week: Steuart, 21, 274. Enemas: Kellogg to Wheeler, 6/13/26, Robin Wheeler Papers. Overdraw: Wheeler to McBride, 5/22/26, TPP/McBride, R15.

271 Not settled: Ernest Gordon, Wrecking, 120.

271 Agents spending: NYT, 6/28/26.

271 Shoots from ambush: NYT, 9/9/23, XX, 3.

272 Like modern business: Bergreen, 86.

272 Lansky launched: Lacey, 51. Forwarding services: Engelmann, Intemperance, 143. Using planes: Nelli, 172. Jewish lake: Meyer Lansky, quoted in Eisenberg et al., 79. Overland corridor: American Mercury, 4/28, 393–99.

273 Control entire, fixed prices, rewarded: Nelli, 174.

273 Eventually sell: Mark H. Haller, “Bootleggers as Businessmen: From City Slums to City Builders,” in Kyvig, Law, 145. Birth certificates: No two sources—including FBI records and Zwillman’s own biographer—seem to agree on a date of birth.

273 Anti-KKK: David Goldberg, 136. Sweet but, while serving: “Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture,” http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net, entry for Madden.

274 Rotary Club: Bergreen, 269. Give the public: CT, 12/6/27. Customers, not victims: Haller, “Urban,” 619.

274 Buckner believed: Senate Lobby 1930, 4166. What honest: Senate Judiciary 1926, 649–52. Automobiles: Joseph Epstein, “Browsing in Gangland,” Commentary, 1/72, 46–55.

275 Now engaged: Memorial Records, 275–76. Diverting: Cincinnati Enquirer, 2/28/25.

275 Promissory: Langley, 237. Pork barrel, managed to deposit, release of a million: Sexton, 110; Dorothy M. Brown, 68.

275 Seattle bootleggers: Clark, Deliver, 162; Marrus, 98. Racketville: Philadelphia Record, 10/21/28, 1. Rendering: NYT, 9/3/28, 10.

276 Business pays: Bergreen, 128.

276 It did increase: Gary M. Anderson, “Bureaucratic Incentives and the Transition from Taxes to Prohibition,” in Shughart, 154. Newspapers began: Flexner, 73. Sewage: Sinclair, 313. Yale funeral: NYT, 7/6/28.

277 Pull it out double: Stanley Walker, 106–9. Few dry papers (fn): Heckman, 87, 95–96.

277 One hundred dollars each: Everett Allen, 176. Gar Wood: Fostle, 154.

277 Thanks, Charlie: Everett Allen, x–xi. Knew the officers: OrH, Federal Writers’ Project, Library of Congress: subject identified only as “Callano.”

277 John Dwight episode: Boston Globe, 4/7, 4/9, 4/17, 4/24, and 5/23/23, all p. 1; also David Arnold, “Bodies Told Tale of Torture at Sea,” Boston Globe, 7/31/96.

278 Go-through, match halves: Willoughby, 35–36, 58–59. Altered unbelievably: NYT, 12/14/24, XX, 1.

278 Fleet of fifty-five, show of force: Canney, 3. Practical attack: Wheeler, “Liquor in International Trade,” Walnut, 151. Four thousand new: Wheeler to Louis C. Cramton, 10/12/25, Louis C. Cramton Papers, B1. According to Canney, there were four thousand Guardsmen when Prohibition began; Wheeler mentions eight thousand, following the expansion of the force. Incorruptible: Wayne B. Wheeler, “The Romance of Rum Row,” The Forum, 1/25. Seized three: Spinelli, 96. Great Offensive: Canney, 8.

279 Through Ontario: RCCE, Harry Low testimony, 16,522; Marrus, 132. Windsor market: Sam Bronfman to Harry Hatch, 11/16/32, SMC. Only bidders: Moray, 243. Underwriter: Willoughby: 57.

279 Thirty-six dollars, I would not have shot: Calder, 107–12. Elks Lodge: Time, 5/21/28.

280 Dutch Schultz: Newsletter, Unqua Corinthian Yacht Club, 8/93, noted as “reprinted from Antique Wooden Boat magazine,” collection of Fred Scopinich Jr. Larger scale: Van de Water, 300.

280 Levees breached: Barry, Rising, 276.

280 Machine guns: NYT, 6/2/25, 3. Seizing from hijackers, cigarette: Aronow, 85–86. CG-911: Southern Boating, 2/98, 99–100.

281 ASL opposed: NYT, 5/17/16, 12. Stone’s wines: wine labels in Harlan Fiske Stone Papers, B87. Inflicted: Alpheus Mason, Stone, 733. Holmes’s prayer: Holmes to Lady Leslie Scott, 12/24/27, in Oliver Wendell Holmes Papers, cited by Post. McReynolds (fn): Harriet Ford Griswold, “Justices of the Supreme Court I Have Known,” Quarterly Newsletter of the Supreme Court Historical Society, 1987, Issue 4.

282: Beer-swilled: American Issue, 4/24/04. Busch friend, offered: Hernon and Ganey, 81. Unenforceable: Henry B. Joy quoting Taft speech circa 1919, House Judiciary 1930, 151.

282 Willing to govern: Ladies’ Home Journal, 5/19, 78. Brushed aside: Kyvig, Explicit, 275–76. Manly S. Sullivan (fn): NYT, 5/17/27, 31.

283 Twenty separate, Cyclopedia: Murchison, 48, 83–84. Kirby cartoon: New York World, 8/31/21, reprinted in United States Brewers’ Association, Year Book, 1921. Training classes: Clyde McElmore to Harry M. Dengler, Clyde McElmore Papers, 1/23/31.

283 When a drunk: Coletta, 62. In Chicago: Miller, 302. Writing to Horace: William Howard Taft to Horace Taft, 3/1/25, quoted in Post, 120.

284 Most active centers: Carroll v. United States, 267 U.S. 160 (1925).

284 Good bootlegger: Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 5/16/31.

284 Quick, avoided sordid: Clark, Dry, 161, 166. Social purpose: Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 5/16/31.

285 Constituted code: Willlebrandt, 232, 234. Arctic Club, personal property: Clark, Dry, 207, 184.

285 Catch cold, seen Doc: Metcalfe, 48, 45.

285 Considered unethical: Post, 134–35. Thoroughly disapproved, outside counsel: Willebrandt, 232.

285 Can it be: Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 at 474 (1928).

286 Only dissenting: Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967). Let alone: Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, concurring opinion by Justice Potter Stewart.

286 Feared by the dry, we do not: NYT, 6/4/28, N3.

287 Greatest obstacle: Robert Toms, quoted in Engelmann, Intemperance, 130. No obligation, legalized murder: NYT, 12/30/26, 1. Inexcusable: NYT, 12/31/26, 1. Why put poison: NYT, 1/4/27, 1.

287 Any man who takes: NYT, 4/24/27, 1. $11 apiece: ticket stub, Robin Wheeler Papers.

288 Caterwauling, spunky: New York World, 4/24/27, 1. Pie or cake, might be a good thing, stop complaining: NYT, 4/24/27, 1.

Chapter Eighteen: The Phony Referendum

289 Fifty-five-square-mile: Burk, 42.

289 Key platform: NYT, 10/17/26, 4. Easier, more dignified: Sabin to Wadsworth, 8/26/26, JWWP, B19.

290 First active: ANB. One of the largest: Southampton Press, 7/22/20. Description of Bayberry Land: Mary Cummings, “Southampton Village: The Premier Resort,” http://www.hamptonsview.com; also “Bayberry Land: Rest and Refuge in Southampton,” “special gallery” on Town of Southampton website. Fellow Republicans: While other sources place this event in 1916, the generally reliable Southampton Press dates it to 1919.

290 Sixteen boards: Wolfskill, 37–39. Sabin home life: Interviews with Sabin’s granddaughters, Pauline Sabin Willis and Sheila Cochran.

291 Fashionable rich: Ladies’ Home Journal, 3/23, quoted in Carter, Another, 88. Luxury-loving: Taft to Charles H. Strong, quoted in Post, 90–91. Best and most, punishment is asked, no conception: Durant, title page, 34.

291 Cheney: Irénée du Pont to William H. Stayton, 3/20/29, in Irénée du Pont Papers, Series J, F122. Shiftless workman, mighty good: Lewis, 115–16. If only: Samuel Crowther, “Where Prohibition Is a Success,” Ladies’ Home Journal, 2/30, 9. Although this article appeared under Crowther’s own name, he had early ghosted Ford’s autobiography and worked with him on several other occasions.

292 Boeing: Clark, Dry, 172.

292 In sympathy: Wheeler to ASL state superintendents, 3/15/27, reprinted in New York American, 7/15/27, 1. Persuaded Mellon: NYT, 1/1/27, 1. Fearing: NYT, 7/25/27; also Wheeler to Louis C. Cramton, 6/4/27, in Louis C. Cramton Papers. Certain prospective: NYT, 6/26/27, XX, 6.

292 On a Pullman: Columbus Dispatch, date unclear, report on Wheeler funeral. Wheedling: San Francisco Examiner, 2/1/27. Majority who: CGG, 11/1/26, 13. Rather strenuous: Wheeler to Viscount Astor, 5/23/27, Robin Wheeler Papers.

293 Leaders of the party, well-recognized, unwarranted: NYT, 6/25/27, 15. Somewhat milder, trouble him (fn): NYT, 2/13/27, 21.

293 Homes for Christian:http://www.littlepointsable.org/id66.htm. Salary: Odegard, 207; Steuart, 292. Kept the family: interview, Christopher W. Wheeler. Steady stream: Steuart, 292.

294 Large drum: NYT, 8/15/27, 19.

294 Calmness: Steuart, 293.

294 Enlarged heart: Lloyd D. Verity, MD, to Henry Hyde Russell, 9/6/27, TPP/Russell.

294 Greatest loss: American Issue, 10/30/26. Reporters raced, spent 1927: OrH, COHP: Wadsworth, 345, 358–59. Is hypocrisy: NYT, 1/25/27, 1. Vital: William H. Stayton to Pierre S. du Pont et al., 11/1/27, PSdPP, F1023, B1417.

295 Fanatical: Heckman, 7. Eschewing, recruiting, names private: Stayton to John J. Raskob, 10/2/19 and 12/5/19, JJRP, F2168. Suits, ties: Kyvig, Repealing, 42.

295 Some of the best: NYT, 4/7/22, 1. Fumbling effort: Heckman, 281.

295 Men invited: William H. Stayton to Pierre S. du Pont et al., 11/1/27, PSdPP, F1023, B1417. Leadership had passed: Merz, 215.

296 Largest single, ranking: Dobyns, 9. Greater than it is: Senate Lobby 1930, William H. Stayton testimony, 4245.

296 Exceptionally wealthy: IRS Form 1040 for 1922, in PSdPP, File 670, B1115, F1925. Du Pont generally: ANB, DAB.

297 Dad: Chandler and Salsbury, 16. Daddy: Irénée du Pont to Pierre S. du Pont, 2/25/20, Irénée du Pont Papers, F240, B63.

297 Annual production: ANB. Increase sixteen-fold: Kennedy, over, 139.

297 Increased donations: Craig, 252–53. Detested: See correspondence between du Pont and Fred S. Smith, 1/19/24, quoted in Dighe. Unfair competition: Burk, 79.

297 Into his own pocket: Burk, 27. Eighty-six new: Time, 1/31/27, 22.

298 Some chance, somewhat positive: du Pont to Arthur Little, 1/7/27, quoted in Craig, 258; Craig, 252–53. Reports from managers: Burk, 26. Same request: Stayton made this assertion in an interview in Life [original version], 7/24/31, 15. Opening wedge: letter of 10/16/26, quoted in Craig, 250.

298 This cancer: Curran, 320. Special fund: Burk, 45. Getting back: du Pont to Julian Codman, 1/3/28, PSdPP, B1023, F1417.

299 Half the state’s: AAPA Minutes, meeting of 8/2/28, in PSdPP, B1486, F1023–1031. To Those Living: du Pont to staff, 2/10/28, in Irénée du Pont Papers, Series J, F122.

299 Men who direct: William H. Stayton to Noel B. Martin, 2/10/30, quoted in Senate Lobby 1930, 4241.

299 Letter to Smith: du Pont to Smith, 3/19/28, in PSdPP, B1417. F1023.

300 His puppets, Brown’s soul: quoted in Columbus Dispatch, 9/11/27. Leonidas: reprinted in American Issue, 9/27/27, 8.

300 Financial tap shut: Raymond Fosdick to Howard Hyde Russell, 11/18/25, RAC, B43, F473. Offended: Fosdick to Rockefeller, 3/19/25, RAC, B43, F473. Kresge: Jimerson et al., 254–56. Called for legislation: Dabney, 296. Family problems: NYT, 7/5/27, 5.

301 Kresge scandal: NYT, 8/25/27, 3; 12/17/27. Matrimonial difficulties: Sen. John J. Blaine, Senate Lobby 1930, 4375. Home wrecker: NYT, 12/24/28, 36.

301 Uncomplimentary light: Steuart to Cherrington, 5/11/28, in TPP/Cherrington, R66.

301 Signs of weakness: Codman to du Pont, 12/27/27, PSdPP, F1023, B1417. Peewees: American Mercury, 12/32, 385.

302 Wadsworth: Wadsworth to G. C. Hinckley, 3/2/27, JWWP, B19. Einstein: Einstein, 258. World: 12/3/26. Norris: Lowitt, 324. Doubtless: Addams, Second Twenty, 255. Olmstead’s: Clark, Dry, 214–15. Wetter than: Allsop, 129. Smith: Douglas Bukowski, “Big Bill Thompson: The ‘Model’ Politician,” in Green and Holl, 71. Michaelson: Bukowski, Big Bill, 231.

303 Portrait, left behind, salary: Allsop, 360–61, 374–75; Bukowski, Big Bill, 254. Collected from Capone: Frank J. Loesch of Chicago Crime Commission, cited in Lindberg, 143.

303 Nearly every rabbi: Marni Davis, 240–41.

304 Hoover: Burner, Hoover, 218–19.

304 Honest effort: Democratic platform, 1928.

304 Four to eight daily: Nation, 11/30/27. Insane: Burner, Hoover, 218.

305 I would rather see: Murray, 103rd, 278. Nigger president: Myers, 270.

305 Voted for Coolidge: NYT, 7/15/28, XX, 5. Papist plot: See Williams, generally, 242 et seq.

305 Raskob, generally; investment advice; chamberlain: Biographical Note, Hagley Library, http://www.hagleyorg/raskob/. Donated one million: NYT, 7/15/28, XX, 5.

306 Annex Mexico: NYT, 1/24/28, 1. Headquarters, RCA stock: Burk, 51–53. Vassal state: Lichtman, 58–59.

306 $690,000: Burk, 53. Spectacular raids: Though Willebrandt downplayed her role in these raids, the testimony of Maurice Campbell, the federal Prohibition administrator for New York, persuasively suggests otherwise. See especially WP, 9/24/30, 1.

307 Willebrandt Ohio speech: LD, 9/29/18, 14.

307 Cleared by Burke: Willebrandt, 11–12. Burning crosses: Dorothy M. Brown, 161. Vote against Jesus: Burner, Politics, 203–4. Treasonable: NYT, 9/21/28.

308 Afraid to come out: Brown, 163.

308 Great experiment: NYT, 8/12/28. Hoover’s statement was immediately truncated by commentators into the straight declaration that Prohibition was “a noble experiment”; it has been similarly abbreviated ever since. Exultant McBride: LD, 11/24/28, 14–15. Driest Congress, forty-three governors: Dobyns, 39.

308 Phony referendum: Lichtman, 92. Montana, Massachusetts, other results: Kyvig, Repealing, 116–17; Burk, 56.

309 Ten largest: Slosson, 121–22.

309 Political machine, party: Boorstin, 255.

Chapter Nineteen: Outrageous Excess

313 Simpler acquisition: Invoice, 12?/12/28, JJRP, F1917.

313 I am not, simple pleasures: Collier’s, 3/5/32. Mostly Halls: Philadelphia Bulletin, 9/24/28, 40. Entire floor: OrH, COHP, Eddie Dowling, p. 104.

314 Dry martinis: Order form aboard SS Europa, 5/3/31, JJRP, F2795. Sold openly: Raskob to Walter Butler, 2/27/24, JJRP, F2295. Forget between: Raskob to Butler, 2/27/25, F317. Sharing: Raskob correspondence with Herbert Witherspoon, autumn 1926, in JJRP, F2501. Floating speakeasies: Richard James, archivist, Hagley Library.

314 Stored in lockers: Raskob to Chrysler, 9/27/28, JJRP. Gleaming foot rail: Advertisement reproduced in Lerner, dissertation, 213. Ship their goods: Charles Berns, in Kobler, 229. Pendennis raid: Louisville Courier-Journal, 8/10/30, 1; 8/11/30, 1; 8/12/30, 2.

314 Wadsworth complained: Wadsworth to Lincoln Andrews, 7/24/25, JWWP, B19. Monthly cost: e-mail from Richard James, Hagley Library. Under three presidents: Leuchtenberg, Perils, 98. Neighbors might: Beebe, 288.

315 I Change: Outlook, 6/13/28, 254. Some histories, apparently drawing on an article that appeared in Time in 1932, say that Sabin was motivated to come out as a public dry in response to a statement made by Ella Boole, head of the WCTU, at a congressional hearing. According to this version, Boole declared, “I represent the women of America!” which led Sabin to say to herself, “Well, lady, here’s one woman you don’t represent.” But Boole never said those words at a congressional hearing, and there’s no evidence that Sabin ever attended a hearing at which Boole testified. Sabin did once tell a congressional panel, “I am here to refute the contention made by dry organizations, that all the women of America favor national prohibition,” but that was in 1930, two years after she went public with her opposition to Prohibition. See House Judiciary 1930, 41. Other vital matters: NYT, 6/8/28, 35. Wives of financiers: Press release, 9/12/28, in Herbert Hoover Papers, F: Campaign and Transition/Campaign Literature/Subject—Mrs. Charles H. Sabin. Humanitarian: NYT, 9/6/28, 5.

316 No name, platform: Sabin letter to the editor, NYT, 1/12/44.

316 Ignominiously: Clark, Deliver, 192. Wet sidewalks: Dabney, 187–88.

316 Even if it: Cannon, “Spend Whatever Is Needed,” in Durant, 111.

317 Legislation Cannon devised: Clark, Deliver, 194–95.

317 Casual, commercial: NYT, 3/3/29, 1.

317 Most menacing: Clark, Deliver, 196. Follow the breath: New York Journal, 4/3/29.

318 Terroristic, Fish: CT, 4/3/29, 3. Greenville: CT, 3/30/29, 2. Dozens of papers: Ernest Gordon, Wrecking, 124. DeKing case: CT, 3/29/29, 1; 3/30/29, 2; 10/27/29, B1.

319 Etta Mae Miller, bellboy, Wilson: Time, 1/14/29. If law is wrong: Calder, 106.

320 Some jurisdictions: Willebrandt, 170. In attempting: Clark, Deliver, 195.

320 Professional managers, remove: Calder, 2–3; 225–26. Breakdown, army: Hoover to Attorney General William D. Mitchell, 6/5/29, quoted in Calder, 86.

320 Indiscriminate: Detroit Yachting Association, quoted in Philip Mason, 147. Fifteen hundred boats: Nation, 9/4/29, 242. 365 stolen, Jewish Navy: Engelmann, Intemperance, 114, 144.

321 War: Outlook, 7/4/29, 507. Forces amass: NYT, 6/23/29, XX, 4. Best advertised: Internal Revenue Service memorandum, agent W. C. Hodgins et al. to agent-in-charge of Chicago office, 7/8/31, http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/file-1-letter-dated-07081931-in-re-alphonse-capone.pdf.

321 Public service: CT, 12/6/27. When I sell: Boorstin, 84. My offense: Heimel, 57.

321 Snorky: Miller, 303. Sulka: Kobler, 14. Shavetail: Alva Johnston, “The Future of Racketeering,” Vanity Fair, 4/31, 50.

322 Tuesday and Saturday: Wickersham, vol. 4, 327. Lousy: Gus Schaffer to Ron Martinelli, 9/10/75, Gus Schaffer [also Schaefer] Papers, Chicago Historical Society.

322 Capon: Joseph Driscoll, “Men of Action,” in Moquin and Van Doren, 123.

322 Capone the immune: IRS memo of 7/8/31, as above.

322 Close factories: Pictorial Review, 9/29. Great pity: Quoted in Sinclair, 316. War on Coca-Cola: Hays, 86. Unmoved: Pendergrast, 162.

323 Scrambling assignments: NYT, 9/9/28. Bank accounts: Tydings, 73. Craps, dogs, bequests: Report of the Special August Grand Jury, quoted in Haller, “Philadelphia,” 225. Ledger book: NYT, 9/9/28.

323 Squishes: Collier’s, 2/16/29, 8. Equivalent of twenty: Pearson, More, 306–7. Bottom fell: George Cassiday, in WP, 10/24/30, 1.

324 Morgan: NYT, 3/30/29, 1; 4/4/29, 1; 4/5/29, 1.

324 Michaelson: CT, 3/30/29, 2. Many a Congressman, trunks contained: Time, 4/8/29; WP, 3/30/29, 1. No desire: CT, 10/23/29, 16. Vindicated: CT, 5/9/29, 1.

325 Denison: NYT, 11/20/29, 1. Fairy story (fn): CT, 3/14/31.

325 Cassiday arrested: 12/18/29, 2. Most early stories about him spelled his name “Cassidy,” but when the Washington Post ran an as-told-to series under his byline in 1930, this was persuasively established that “Cassiday” was correct. Cannon flour hoarding: Dabney, 201.

326 Stock speculator: Golden, 137–45.

326 Union Square: Dabney, 296. Less likely: Golden, 124–25.

326 Cannon’s fall: Dabney, 190, 269, 272. Non-entity: Patterson, 493.

327 Twenty-three electoral: Sweeting, 442–44. Vandenberg: WP, 1/26/29, 6.

327 Refuse, unjust: Eagles, Democracy, 77, 75. Kimball letter: WP, 1/9/29, 6.

327 Generalissimo: NYT, 6/3/29, 12.

328 Dinner Belgian: Cannadine, 391.

Chapter Twenty: The Hummingbird That Went to Mars

329 Devastating argument, block repeal: Merz, 297, ix.

329 Beck: NYT, 1/18/31, 125. Darrow: Vanity Fair, 11/31, 62.

330 New organization: Engelmann, Intemperance, 215. African American: Root, 147; Amsterdam News, 9/7/32, 1. Hummingbird: WP, 9/25/30, 5.

330 Union League: NYT, 2/24/31, 1.

330 High plateau: NYT, 10/16/29, 8.

331 Slashed: Calder, 120. Per diem, training: Prohibition Dept. order no. 2219, 9/21/31; Harry M. Dengler to McElmore, 5/6/32, both in Clyde McElmore Papers. Doran: Sinclair, 356–57; Kobler, 338. Profit: Asbury, 319. Unnaturally cheerful (fn):Associated Press dispatch, 10/3/28, in TPP/ASL, R8.

331 Revenue based: Boudreaux and Pritchard. Piled up: Seltzer et al., 203. Soup kitchen: CT, 12/5/30.

332 A mistake: Raskob to Pierre du Pont, 8/31/48, quoted in Lopata, 257.

332 Subsidiary: Senate Lobby 1930, 3858–59.

332 Barron: WSJ, 2/14/23.

332 You will save: G. C. Hinckley to John J. Raskob, 7/2/25, JJRP, B1, F102. Irénée told: Irénée du Pont to H. L. Blanchard, 10/27/30, citing earlier conversation with Stayton, Irénée du Pont Papers, Ser J, F122. Stayton determined: Heckman, 186.

333 Dear Mr.: Senate Lobby 1930, 3999. The danger: Wadsworth to Henry H. Curran, 10/7/29, quoted in Fulton, 5762. Shirt sleeves: Senate Lobby 1930, 4170.

333 Necessity of levying: “What Price Prohibition,” 1927. Most widely: Craig, 356. The Need: Kyvig, Repealing, 13. Liquor alone: Burnham, Bad, 46.

333 Two billion: Pierre du Pont to Lammot du Pont, 4/28/32, PsdPP, F1023, b1423.

333 White: New Yorker, 12/29/28, 9. Although unsigned, the piece is credited to White in the New Yorker archives. Where on Manhattan: Asbury, 211. Fish store: Ware, 57.

334 Virtual local: Senate Judiciary 1932, 27. Kansas: Commonweal, 2/25/30. It was dying: Cowley, 65.

334 Flavors: Murdock, 92. Soared: Merz, 260. Fleischmann’s in Virginia: Carr, 114–15. Ninety-nine out of a hundred, Rockford: Wickersham, vol. IV, 1075, 261. Stills and mash: Merz, 258–60.

335 Printed wrapper: Time, 8/17/31; NYT, 8/6/31, 1. Ads: Sheboygan (WI) Press, 9/25/31, 9. Diamond: NYT, 8/17/31, 19.

335 Fruit Industries agent: Heintz, California’s, 272–73; OrH, CWH: Philo Biane, 7–8.

335 Charred kegs: California Vineyards Co., advertising card, author’s collection. Trade ad: California Grower, 1/31, 2. Brisbane: General Fruit Packaging Distributors handout, in Sonoma Wine Library, Healdsburg, CA.

336 Run away: quoted in Barr, 105. Tips: Engelmann, Intemperance, 131–32. Door, furniture, corkscrew: Lusk, 46–52.

336 Leviathan: Baltimore Sun, 7/29/31. George Washington: unidentified clip, 1/8/30, in TPP/ASL, R13. Delegation: Herbert Hoover, statement on the London Naval Conference, 1/7/30. Intercoastal: de la Pedraja, 110, 227.

336 Mounds Club: SLP-D, 4/7/29, 3/18/30.

337 City dweller: Washington Star, 3/11/31. Cigarette ad: reprinted in Burnham, Bad, photo section. Pumpkin gin: Sinclair, 439. Bridge Table: Judge Jr., 29.

337 Dignified: NYT, 7/2/27, 19. Raids: NYT, 4/26/30, 1; 10/17/42, 15.

337 Nonfeasance: NYT, 7/1/30, 1.

338 Jewish vote: WP, 9/16/30, 1. Lowman also: WP, 9/9/30, 1. Sheep dip, Curtis: NYT, 11/13/30, 2; Time, 9/22/30; WP, 11/10/28, 1. Memos: WP, 9/13/30, 1. Cesspool: WP, 9/8/30, 1. Magazine: NYT, 10/17/42, 15.

338 Majority, capacity: WP, 10/24/30, 1; 10/28/30, 1. Wet roster: Burk, 74.

338 Endorsed Repeal: Kyvig, Repealing, 142. Just six days: NYT, 10/31/30, 48. I do think: Lerner, Dry, 287.

339 Women’s names: Root, appendix.

339 Pierrepont: Minutes, organizing meeting of WONPR, 6/1/29, PSdPP, B1568. Inner circle: NYT, 8/1/29, 12. McCall’s profile: Dorothy Ducas, “In Miniature: Mrs. Charles H. Sabin,” McCall’s, 9/30. Plays golf: AC, 3/3/32, 15. Anti: Vogue, 9/1/30, 80.

340 Vehement words: CT, 3/9/30, 1.

340 Scandalous: CT, 4/25/30, 2. Gaylord: Dorothy M. Brown, 247.

340 Thirty-one states: New Yorker, 10/22/32, 20. Earlier trip: diary entries, 2/4, 2/12, w 3/27/23, in PSDP, F1. Sabine women: Vanity Fair, 8/31, 42. Bacchantian: NYT, 5/24/32, 8. Other contemporary sources rendered “parching” as “parched.” Scum:quoted in Murdock, 150.

341 Women whose names: WP, 4/26/30, 1.

341 Evanston: Neumann, 4. As long as: Union Signal, 5/17/30, cover. Real strength: Time, 7/18/32.

341 Rather resign: Gibbons to Hoover, 4/22/31, Herbert Hoover Papers, Presidential Secretary’s File, LymanR-Lynb.

342 Prince of Belvedere: Saidye Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 8/12/66, notes in SMC, B10. Staff: Edgar Bronfman, 23–24. Saidye encountered: Marrus, 167–68. Burns, ludicrous: Faith, 77.

342 Annual meeting: Transcript of speech, 10/30/30, in SMC.

342 Ballooned: Kobler, 254. 20 percent: Engelmann, Intemperance, 78. Twice as much: Robertson, 409.

343 Port Colborne: Port Colborne Citizen, 10/28/26, in Archives of Ontario, RG 4–32, F1926, #1560. Show itself: Kottman, 112. Charity: Marrus, 133. Assist the government: Thornton to Minister of Railways and Canals, 1/7/29, quoted in Stephen T. Moore. Quadruple: Dispatch, 11/9/32, State Department Archives, 811.114 Canada 4642.

343 Actual volume: Transcript of annual meeting speech, 11/30/31, in SMC. Launder: Dubro and Rowland, 208.

343 Smuggle back: Dispatch, 1/9/31, State Department Archives, 811.114 Canada 4400. Cutting racket (fn): DN, cited in Asbury, 269. Buffalo batch (fn): James Dubro and Robin Rowland, “Prohibition: Saint John’s Connection,” Atlantic Insight, 3/88, 32.

344 Replacing air: Dispatch, 10/30/30, State Department Archives, 811.114 Canada 4362. Periodic announcements: Engelmann, Intemperance, 119–21. Halifax: Dispatch, 12/12/30, State Department Archives, 811.114 Canada 4380.

344 Hands of gangsters: Hoover, 276–77. Whatever necessary: Calder, 17–19. Personal matter: Willebrandt to Hoover, 3/22/29, quoted in Bergreen, 323.

345 Football helmet: Heimel, 98. More than double: “75 Years of Criminal Investigation,” IRS document 7233, 1999. Six hundred barrels: Gus Schaffer to Ron Martinelli, 8/27/75, Gus Schaffer [also Schaefer] Papers, Chicago Historical Society.

345 The Commission: Raab, 32–36.

346 Not been attempted: Willebrandt, 170.

346 Use this statement: Willebrandt to McCoy, 1/14/30, reproduced in Van de Water, 263.

346 String: Attorney General Harwell Davis, quoted in Roger K. Newman, 63. Secure loan, beautiful fee: Dabney, 304. Guardian: Coughlin sermon, CBS Radio, 3/8/31, transcript in MWWP, B4, F: Fruit Industries. Fruit Punch: Judge Jr., 48.

347 Stylish: Willebrandt, 277. Because she did it: Strawbridge to Willebrandt, enclosed in Willebrandt to Donald Conn, 11/29/30, MWWP, B4, F: Fruit Industries. Meetings: “Grape Juice Hubbub,” WP, 11/21/30; Dorothy M. Brown, 184. Upon my arrival:press release, 11/13/30, MWWP, B4, F: Fruit Industries.

347 Bodyguards: OrH, CWH: Leon Adams, 32. Compete with Capone’s: “Grape Juice Hubbub,” WP, 11/21/30. Effect of this: Willebrandt to Conn, 11/19/30, MWWP, B4, F: Fruit Industries.

347 Mabel’s Bricks: United Press dispatch, 11/19/31, in Oshkosh (WI) Daily Northwestern, 11. Attempted to bar, Landrith: NYT, 12/9/32, 19; 12/10/32.

348 Ripe: NYT, 2/13/30. Drys opposed Norris: Norris to Mabel Willebrandt, George Norris Papers, 7/17/30. Kresge withdrew: Kerr, 265.

348 Cancel subscriptions: Justin Steuart to E. H. Cherrington, 7/8/31, in TPP/Cherrington, R68. Salary, rent: Scott McBride to Cherrington, 11/30/31, in TPP/Cherrington, R90. Embarrassed: McBride to Cherrington, 7/14/31, R90. Bank: Kerr, 272–73.

348 1920, 1933: Rose, American, 60.

349 Convince markets: F. L. Allen, Secret, 202. We want: NYT, 9/25/31, 1. Tax on syrup, twenty-eight million: Engelmann, Intemperance, 200, 138. Warrantless: Taylor v. U.S., 1932. Widely publicized: Root, 33–34. Wooden horse: Davis to Frank R. Lubbock, 7/20/1887, PSdPP, F1023, B1417.

349 Whiskey dividend, twenty-five brands: Fortune, 11/33, 35–36. Daughter of alcoholic, disapproved (fn): Clark, Deliver, 203–4; Beasley, 421–24. Raid (fn): Cook, 554. Fade away: Sinclair, 396. Barkley: Scott, 37. Black: Roger K. Newman, 125.

350 Increase Federal: NYT, 10/22/32, 1. Has been said: Rose, American, 120.

350 Mrs. Simons: Charleston News and Courier, 3/2/32, 5. Fine, packed: AC, 3/3/32, 15; 3/4/32, 1.

350 Post: Fulton, 50–51. Pearls: Time, 7/18/32. No comfort: Root, 90 et seq.

350 Smoke screen: Burk, 97. Colossal scale: NYT, 6/7/32, 1. Mother’s prayers: Telegram, Upshaw to Rockefeller, 6/8/32, RAC, B41, F442. Sloan, Firestone: Ernest Gordon, Wrecking, 194. Jones: Baltimore Sun, 10/30/32, 1.

351 Century Association: Minutes, Board of Management, 10/31/32, Century Association Archives. Whistle: Louis P. Martini (son of Louis M.), quoted in Napa Valley Register, 12/5/93, 1. Clydesdales: Plavchan, 217.

352 Filibuster: NYT, 2/15/33; Union Signal, 2/25/33. Of the twenty-two: Alan P. Grimes, Democracy, 112.

352 Rented out: Justin Steuart to E. H. Cherrington, 2/8/33, in TPP/Cherrington, R68.

352 Coca-Cola Beer: F. L. Allen, Secret, 204–5. Blanket license: Time, 4/17/33. Pretty good: Fecher, 213.

353 Satan’s Seat: NYT, 6/9/32. Proprietors: Stanley Walker, 71–72.

353 McDonough: The Rum Rebellion, published by Iron County Museum, 2/20/70. Would have remained: NYT, 7/27/38, 17. Weren’t up: Hoover to Homer Cummings, FBI File 66–11–38–88, cited in John F. Fox.

353 Devoted army, distinguished: Everett S. Brown, 298. Nobody seemed: Jessup, 476.

353 Many a white: Hines, 25.

353 Grain prices: CT, 7/12/33, 25. Bronfmans told: LeFrancois, 59. 973,000: Andrieux, Prohibition, 71. Not a single: St. Helena Star, 10/13/33.

354 Marc Antony: Salt Lake Tribune, 12/6/33, 1. Bootlegger dismissed: NYT, 12/6/33, 1. Cocktail material: du Pont to Jouett Shouse, 11/29/33, PSdPP, F1023–1048, B1557.

354 No alcohol: Rose, American, 132. Curly-headed: Burnham, Bad, photo section.

Chapter Twenty-one: Afterlives, and the Missing Man

355 No other: SEAP, 2835. Tactics: NYT, 11/24/35.

355 Doran leapt: Christian Science Monitor, 12/5/33. Dedicated: Einstein, frontmatter. If you want: NYT, 6/17/35, 20. Failed: Willebrandt to Franklin D. Roosevelt, 3/21/39, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY; also see Dorothy M. Brown, 249. Clients, meaningful, converted: Dorothy M. Brown, 231, 233, 253.

356 Mr. Volstead said, anything: NYT, 11/8/33, 17. Rather be: Carol L. James, 12.

356 Traveled more: Sheppard, xvii. Last week: Time, 9/4/33. Repeal of Repeal: Liberty magazine, 12/15/34, 21–25. Abiding sorrow: Sen. Theodore G. Bilbo, CR, 4/25/41.

356 Caused many: NYT, 12/7/33, 19. Ford trucks: Pierre S. du Pont to William H. Stayton, 2/28/34, PSdPP, F1023–48, B1556.

357 Diminished: 1932 WCTU convention proceedings, in TPP/WCTU, R10, 52. Turned WCTU’s: DAB, ANB. Continued our work: WCTU of Maryland website, http://www.wctumd.org. Six hours:http://www.wctu.org.

357 Receivership: Engelmann, Intemperance, 223–24. Riots: Liberty, 12/15/34, 12–15. Continued to write: Michael R. McCoy in DAB. Criticized: Introductory note to James Cannon Papers, Duke University. Prince Valiant: Dabney, 333–34.

358 American Council:http://www.alcoholproblemswi.org; American Issue, April–June 2008.

358 Number of brewers: Martin Stack, “A Concise History of America’s Brewing Industry,” 7/5/03, in Whaples; Baron, 322–23. A-B logo, eagle, bonds: McGahan, 261–62. Deferments: Burnham, Bad, 71.

359 Sooner eliminated: Heintz, Alicante, 45. UC–Davis: OrH, CWH: Harold Olmo, 125.

359 Driver’s seat: OrH, CWH: Ernest A. Wente, 21. Million gallons: SFC, 12/6/33, 4W. Expended: St. Helena Star, 11/24/33. Prizes: OrH, CWH: André Tchelistcheff. Archbishops: Leon Adams, 309–10.

359 Four gentlemen, better or worse: Fortune, 11/33, 38; 10/34, 104.

359 Cortege: Andrieux, Prohibition, 125. Rossville, slogan, sales: Marrus, 180, 190, 192.

360 Conspiracy suit: Dubro and Rowland, 215. Sensible argument: Wesley Frost to Secretary of State, 4/23/35, State Department Archives, 811.114 Canada/4923. Inbound smuggling: Montreal Star, 110/35; Andrieux, Prohibition, 139; Marrus, 206–11.

360 Fertile brain: Memorandum, enclosed in “Liability of Bronfman Brothers for United States Income Taxes and Customs Duties,” Wesley Frost to Secretary of State, 3/21/35, State Department Archives, 811.114 Canada.

360 Settlement: Hull, 206–7; Marrus, 231.

361 Grateful, nation of Scotch: Wesley Frost memorandum, as above.

361 Gun license: copy of pardon in possession of Berns’s daughter, Susan B. Rothchild.

361 O’Connor: Leff, 31–32.

361 9 percent: Hu, 160–61.

361 Levy dropped: Boudreaux, “Thoughts.” Small group, du Pont family: Wolfskill, 25, 63. Hobson (fn): Wolfskill, 58–59.

362 Members: Wolfskill, 60, 25. Stalins: Beck to H. L. Mencken, 8/7/33, James Montgomery Beck Papers, B5, F24. Entrenched: Wolfskill, 146.

362 Jammed: WP, 1/26/36, M1.

363 Personal tax bill: Burk, 67. Little brother: Burk, 214; du Pont to L. E. Staplin, 1/16/36, Ser A, F765.

363 One capital: NYT, 1/26/36. Noise, evening jacket: WP, 1/26/36, 1.

363 What have you: Root, 123. Canasta: interview, Pauline Sabin Willis.

364 Organizing: Hoopes and Brinkley, 219.

364 Red Cross: ANB. Most admired: Alsop, 267. Sickness of fear: WP, 5/29/53, 12. Urged Truman: WP, 6/10/47, 10.

365 Style icon:http://www.straight.com. Straw hat: NYT, 7/15/2003. Moose Jaw: NYT, 11/16/2004. What street: Donaldson and Lampert, 52–57.

366 Culmination: Haller, Bootleggers, 135.

366 Bought Somerset: Beauchamp, 338.

366 Europa: Amanda Smith, 108.

366 Prince: Saturday Evening Post, 7/2/38, 60. Foster father: Kennedy to James Roosevelt, 1/8/37, JPKP, B71, F: James Roosevelt. Met prime ministers, Distillers Company: NYT, 10/12/33, 27; Koskoff, Kennedy, 52.

367 Audience: NYT, 10/24/33, 23. Agreements: Amanda Smith, 108. Permits: Beauchamp, 332; NYT, 6/30/38, 18. November: Peter Dewar to Kennedy, 8/7/36, JPKP, B1938, F: Correspondence 1934–1936. In indicating his wish to end his contract with Kennedy, Dewar noted when the shipments had begun. Haig medicine: Saturday Evening Post, 7/2/38, 60. $118,000: NYT, 11/19/69, 50.

367 Trohan article: CT, 1/31/54.

368 No reason: My quest for mentions of any Kennedy connections to the bootlegging industry included online searches of digital databases containing the complete text of the following papers: Atlanta Constitution, Chicago Defender, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Washington Post; Elizabeth Tuite, of the Boston Globe, conducted a detailed search of that paper’s files. I also examined the official records relating to Kennedy’s three Senate confirmations, as well as coverage of the appointments in a varied group of other newspapers.

368 FBI file: interview and correspondence, David Nasaw.

369 Lansky: Eisenberg, Dan, and Landau, 107–8. Costello: John H. Davis, 48–49. Bonanno: WP, 4/29/83; 60 Minutes, CBS, 5/1/83. Drama critic: David Richards, “ ‘Nick and Nora’ By Way of ‘Rashomon,’ ” NYT, 12/15/91, H2. Juror: NYT, 11/1/91, A14.

369 Gloucester docks: Goodwin, 442–43. Goodwin does not endorse the veracity of this anecdote; she offers it as an example of unsubstantiated reports about Kennedy’s activities. Spaghetti: Leamer, 38–40.

370 Hull letter: Kessler, 38. Royal Commission: Leamer, 38–40. Eponym: NYT, 5/22/27, XX, 5. Reifel: Douglas L. Hamilton, passim. Waiter: Robertson, 303.

370 Remarkable lack, no mention: Seymour M. Hersh, 47. Noted scholar: Ronald B. Weir, correspondence with author; also Weir, History, 280.

371 Sheer magnitude: Leamer, 41.

Epilogue

373 2.6 gallons: Clark Warburton, “Prohibition,” in Sills, vol. 12, 507. 1973: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, http://www.niaaa.nih.gov. Ambassador Hotel: New Yorker, 12/23/33, 41.

374 Remember the old: Judge Jr., 27.

374 Mississippi tax: WP, 1/26/53, B1. Happy marriage: Drowne, 48, quoting letter in Oxford Eagle, 9/14/50. Vote dry: Willie Morris, 54–55.

375 Booze cruises: de la Pedraja, 227. NASCAR: Hemphill, 84–86. Bring the Americans: Craton and Saunders, 263–64. Montreal to Belize: Bell, 189.

376 Bronfman in Tarrytown: Bronfman interview, Philip Siekman and Ann Tyler, 7/6/66, notes in SMC, B10.

* When no page number accompanies these citations, reference is to the entry on the named individual.

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