Modern history

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The researcher who wants the most comprehensive bibliography of modern scholarship on the colonial Congo should turn to Bibliographie historique du Zaire à l'époque coloniale (1880–1960): travaux publiés en 1960–1996 (Louvain, Belgium: Enquêtes et Documents d'Histoire Africaine, 1996), edited by Jean-Luc Vellut. What follows is a list of the works I used.

The tyranny of alphabetical order cannot do justice to the help that other people's books gave me in writing this one. So let me first make a particularly low bow to those volumes on which I drew the most.

Primary sources penned by some of the central characters in this story include the works listed here by King Affonso I, Roger Casement, Joseph Conrad, William Sheppard, Henry Morton Stanley, George Washington Williams, and E. D. Morel. There is no comprehensive edition of King Leopold II's voluminous, revealing output of letters and memoranda, but hundreds of them do appear in Édouard Van der Smissen's Léopold II et Beernaert: d'après leur correspondance inédite de 1884 à 1894. Some are also reprinted in François Bontinck's Aux Origines de l'État Indépendant du Congo, an important collection of letters and documents on the early days. Robert Benedetto's new anthology has made a large collection of source material on the Presbyterian missionaries' work for human rights easily available for the first time.

Most of the major European and American figures—but none of the African ones—have had biographies written of them. I have drawn particularly on those of Stanley by John Bierman and Frank McLynn, of Casement by Brian Inglis and B. L. Reid, and of the studies (although none of them is the full-scale biography the man deserves) of E. D. Morel by Catherine Cline, A.J.P. Taylor, F Seymour Cocks, and W'S. Adams. John Hope Franklin's biography of George Washington Williams rescued Williams from obscurity and provided most of my source material for Chapter 8. Of the various biographies of Leopold, those by Barbara Emerson and Neal Ascherson were essential; most of the material about life in the king's household comes from the memoirs of his aides, Gustave Stinglhamber and Baron Carton de Wiart.

Thomas Pakenham's The Scramble for Africa is a comprehensive diplomatic overview of that period whose novelist's-eye array of detail I have gratefully stolen from. In the Prologue, I was also inspired by The River Congo by Peter Forbath, one of the few writers to recognize the drama and tragedy of the life of King Affonso I. A number of scholarly books written in recent decades form a mine of information. Among them, I have found especially helpful the studies by Ruth Slade, Robert Harms, Stanley Shaloff, S.J.S. Cookey, David Lagergren, and the many works by Jean Stengers. Jacques Willequet's Le Congo Belge et la Weltpolitik (1894–1914) has all the delicious material about Leopold's press bribery operation.

Finally, several Belgians have recently provided a refreshing change to the decades of sugar-coated Congo history that has usually been their country's norm. Du Sang sur les Lianes, by Daniel Vangroenweghe, is passionate and highly useful. Guy De Boeck's study of the Force Publique mutinies points out how these are the precursors of anticolonial guerrilla wars of more than half a century later. And the French-language edition of Jules Marchal's four-volume history of the Congo, from 1876 to 1910, is, for this crucial period, the best scholarly overview by far, encyclopedic in scope. In countless places in this volume, I am in his debt, as will be anyone who writes about this era for years to come.

PUBLISHED SOURCES

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1. How I Found Livingstone: Travels, Adventures and Discoveries in Central Africa, Including Four Months' Residence with Dr. Livingstone. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle, 1872.

2. Through the Dark Continent; or, The Sources of the Nile Around the Great Lakes of Equatorial Africa and Down the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean. 2 vols. (First published 1878). 1899 edition reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 1988.

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4. In Darkest Africa; or, The Quest, Rescue and Retreat of Emin, Governor of Equatoria. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1890.

5. The Autobiography of Sir Henry Morton Stanley. Ed. Dorothy Stanley. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909.

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7. The Exploration Diaries of H. M. Stanley. Eds. Richard Stanley and Alan Neame. New York: Vanguard Press, 1961.

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1. Combien le Congo a-t-il coûté à la Belgique? Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences Coloniales, 1957.

2. "The Congo Free State and the Belgian Congo before 1914." In Gann and Duignan 1, above, vol. 1.

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Vansina, Jan.

1. Kingdoms of the Savanna. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.

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3. Paths in the Rainforest. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Van Zandijcke, A. Pages d'Histoire du Kasayi. Namur, Belgium: Collection Lavigerie, 1953.

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Vinson, Rev. T. C. William McCutchan Morrison: Twenty Years in Central Africa. Richmond, VA: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1921.

Ward, Herbert. A Voice from the Congo: Comprising Stories, Anecdotes, and Descriptive Notes. London: William Heinemann, 1910.

Weeks, John H. Among the Primitive Bakongo. London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1914.

West, Richard. Congo. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972.

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Williams, George Washington.

1. An Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of the Belgians and Sovereign of the Independent State of Congo. Reprinted in Franklin, above.

2. A Report on the Proposed Congo Railway. Reprinted in Franklin, above.

3. A Report on the Congo-State and Country to the President of the Republic of the United States of America. Reprinted in Franklin, above.

Williams, Walter L. "William Henry Sheppard, Afro-American Missionary in the Congo, 1890–1910." In Black Americans and the Missionary Movement in Africa, ed. Sylvia M. Jacobs. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Winternitz, Helen. East along the Equator: A Journey up the Congo and into Zaire. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987.

Wuliger, Robert. "Mark Twain on King Leopold's Soliloquy." American Literature (May 1953): pp. 234–237.

Young, Crawford. "The Northern Republics 1960–1980." In Birmingham and Martin, above.

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS

La Belgique Coloniale (Brussels)
Le Congo Illustré (Brussels)
The Congo News Letter (Boston)
Missionförbundet (Stockholm)
Le Mouvement Géographique (Brussels)
Official Organ of the Congo Reform Association (Liverpool, London)
Regions Beyond (London)
Southern Workman (Hampton, VA)
West African Mail, later African Mail (Liverpool)

UNPUBLISHED AND ARCHIVAL SOURCES

Carroll, Murray Lee. Open Door Imperialism in Africa: The United States and the Congo, 1876 to 1892. Ph.D. thesis. University of Connecticut. 1971.

De Ryck, Maurice Martin. Zaire Colonial Documents Collection. University of Wisconsin.

Martens, Daisy'S. A History of European Penetration and African Reaction in the Kasai Region of Zaire, 1880–1908. Ph.D. thesis. Simon Fraser University. 1980.

McStallworth, Paul. The United States and the Congo Question, 1884–1914. Ph.D. thesis. Ohio State University. 1954.

Normandy, Elizabeth L. Black Americans and U. S. Policy Toward Africa: Two Case Studies from the pre—World War II Period. Ph.D. thesis. University of South Carolina. 1987.

Procès-Verbaux de la Commission d'Enquête instituée par décret du 23 juillet 1904. Archives Africaines, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Brussels. (IRCB 717–718).

Rom, Léon. Notes. Mes services au Congo de 1886 à 1908. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. (Document MRAC-Hist-56.28).

Roth, Donald Franklin. "Grace Not Race": Southern Negro Church Leaders, Black Identity, and Missions to West Africa, 1865–1919. Ph.D. thesis. University of Texas at Austin. 1975.

Sheppard, William H. Papers. Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia.

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