Modern history

NOTES

Sources are given for direct quotations, which are identified by their closing words, for most numbers and statistics, and for many other points of information. I have not identified sources when the facts involved are not in dispute and can easily be found in one—or usually several—of the key books acknowledged at the beginning of the Bibliography.

Some works cited only once or twice are referred to in the source notes but are not listed in the Bibliography.

For abbreviated references to one of several books by the same author—as in Morel 5, Stengers 2, Marchal 3—consult the Bibliography.

INTRODUCTION

[>] Morel in Antwerp: Morel 5, chapters 4 and 5.

[>] nearly three hundred a year: in 1907, for example. Official Organ... April 1908, p. 24.

[>] letter of protest to the Times: 23 Dec. 1908, Morel 5, p. 208.

[>] "so strongly and so vehemently": Morel 5, p. xiv.

[>] "history of human conscience": "Geography and Some Explorers," Last Essays, ed. Richard Curle (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1926), p. 17, excerpted in Conrad, p. 187.

PROLOGUE: "THE TRADERS ARE KIDNAPPING OUR PEOPLE"

[>] early European maps and images of Africa: See Klemp.

[>] "edge of the world": Forbath, p. 41.

[>] "without resistance": Forbath, p. 73.

[>] "in his household": Forbath, p. 73.

[>] Mbanza Kongo: Balandier, p. 30 ff.

[>] ManiKongo: Vansina 1, pp. 41–45.

[>] sophisticated and well-developed state: see Balandier; Cuvelier; Hilton, chapters 1–3; and Vansina 1, chapter 2.

[>] "of their faith": Relations sur le Congo du père Laurent de Lucques (1700–1717), ed. Jean Cuvelier (Brussels: Institut Royal Colonial Belge, 1953), p. 338, quoted in Balandier, p. 81.

[>] fifteen thousand slaves a year: Vansina 1, p. 149.

[>] "she is dying": Miller, p. xiii. This list of slaves is from 1736.

[>] Atlantic slave trade and the Kongo kingdom: Miller is the best source, although he concentrates on a later period.

[>] "that of Affonso": quoted in Davidson 1, p. 138.

[>] "speaking of our Savior": Rui de Aguiar to King Manuel I, 25 May 1516, quoted in Affonso, p. 117.

[>] selective modernizer: Vansina 1, pp. 45–58.

[>] first known documents: Albert'S. Gérard, African Language Literature: An Introduction to the Literary History of Sub-Saharan Africa (Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1981), p. 287.

[>] "transport of slaves": Affonso to João III, 6 July 1526, Affonso, p. 156.

[>] "red-hot iron": Affonso I to João III, 18 Oct. 1526, Affonso, p. 167.

[>] "selling them as captives": Affonso I to João III, 25 Aug. 1526, Affonso, p. 159.

[>] "obedient to us and content": Affonso I to João III, 6 July 1526, Affonso, pp. 155–156.

[>] "no slave has ever left": João III to Affonso, 1529 (n. d.), Affonso, p. 175.

[>] "He is again crucified": Affonso to Manuel I, 31 May 1515, Affonso, p. 103.

[>] "their fathers and mothers": Affonso I to João III, 25 Mar. 1539, Affonso, p. 210.

[>] ancestral ghosts: see, for instance, Harms 2, p. 210.

[>] "wars and miseries": Haveaux, p. 47.

[>] deadly transformations began: Miller, pp. 4–5.

[>] "sold them to the white men": Weeks, pp. 294–295.

[>] "of this animal": Instructions to Mr. Tudor, 7 Feb. 1816, quoted in Anstey 1, p. 5.

[>] "masses of quartz": Forbath, p. 177.

[>] "of the Thames": Narrative of the Expedition to explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo... (London: 1818), p. 342, quoted in Anstey 1, p. 9.

1. "I SHALL NOT GIVE UP THE CHASE"

[>] John Rowlands/Henry Morton Stanley: I have relied largely on the biographies by John Bierman and Frank McLynn. Far too late for me to use has appeared Tim Jeal's 2007 Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa's Greatest Explorer, which uses previously closed archives to mount a vigorous but not entirely convincing defense of Stanley against earlier debunkers.

[>] "sound whipping": Stanley 5, p. 8.

[>] "utter desolateness": Stanley 5, p. 10.

[>] "things they should not": Bierman, p. 8.

[>] "as with a snap": Stanley 5, p. 29.

[>] "to sail in this ship?": Stanley 5, p. 67.

[>] "want a boy, sir?": Stanley 5, p. 87.

[>] "big talk and telling stories": New Orleans Daily States, 16 Apr. 1891, quoted in Bierman, p. 29.

[>] "almost broke my spine": Stanley 5, p. 33.

[>] "God bless you!": Stanley 5, p. 113.

[>] "you are to bear my name": Stanley 5, p. 121.

[>] "esteemed him as he deserved?": Draft for Stanley's unfinished autobiography, quoted in McLynn 1, pp. 37-38.

[>] "through excess of sentiment, into folly": Stanley 5, pp. 107–111.

[>] "debauchery ... whirlpool of sin": Bierman, p. 48.

[>] "on the warpath": Newspaper dispatch of 25 May 1867, quoted in Bierman, p. 47.

[>] "we were here all the time": reportedly said by Dr. Hastings Banda of Malawi, quoted in McLynn 3, p. ix.

[>] too vile to be spoken of: West, pp. 22–23.

[>] "in the emancipation of slaves": Honour, p. 264.

[>] "BUT FIND LIVINGSTONE!": Stanley 1, pp. xvi–xvii.

[>] "all the subsequent professional travel writers": George Martelli, Leopold to Lumumba: A History of the Belgian Congo 1877–1960 (London: Chapman & Hall, 1962), p. 10.

[>] "bring his bones to you": Stanley's Despatches to the New York Herald 1871–72, 1874–77, ed. Norman R. Bennett (Boston: Boston University Press, 1970), p. 23, quoted in Bierman, p. 101.

[>] "the Arab ... the Banyan ... the half-castes": Stanley 1, p. 6.

[>] "too ungrateful to suit my fancy": Slade 2, p. 23.

[>] "sometimes to an extravagant—activity": Bierman, p. 97.

[>] "well flogged and chained": Stanley 1, p. 318.

[>] "thorn clumps and gum trees!": Stanley's Despatches to the New York Herald, p. 76, quoted in Bierman, p. 109.

[>] "their next resting place?": Stanley 1, pp. 112–113.

[>] march to the sea: McLynn 1, p. 204.

[>] "fellow Missourian": Hall, p. 99.

2. THE FOX CROSSES THE STREAM

[>] Leopold II: Emerson is the standard scholarly biography of Leopold. Ascherson does a better job of capturing the spirit of the man but is scantily footnoted.

[>] "by this last report": Queen Marie-Louise to Leopold, 28 June 1849, reprinted in Freddy, p. 27.

[>] "That is Leopold's way!": Emerson, p. 23.

[>] "saying disagreeable things to people": Aronson, p. 35.

[>] "by nun I mean the Duke of Brabant": Madame de Metternich, quoted in Ascherson, p. 34.

[>] "I shall not go on living much longer": Joanna Richardson, My Dearest Uncle. Leopold I of the Belgians (London: Jonathan Cape, 1961), p. 188, quoted in Ascherson, p. 36.

[>] "has now borne fruit": Leopold to Albert, 19 Nov. 1857, quoted in Emerson, p. 56.

[>] "richest countries in the world": Emerson, p. 19.

[>] "makes now out of her colonies": Leopold to Brialmont, quoted in Ascherson, p. 46.

[>] "corrupt peoples of the Far East": L. Le Febve de Vivy, Documents d'histoire précoloniale belge (Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences Coloniales, 1955), p. 20, quoted in Stengers 7, p. 19. On Money, also see Money, Stengers 1, p. 145 fn., and Marchal 1, pp. 40–41.

[>] "times as big as Belgium": Leopold to Lambermont, 11 June 1861, quoted in Roeykens, pp. 413–414 fn.

[>] "let such a fine prey escape": Leopold to Brialmont, 16 May 1861, quoted in Stengers 7, p. 21.

[>] "got to make her learn": L. le Febve de Vivy, Documents d'histoire précoloniale belge (Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences Coloniales, 1955), p. 23, quoted in Ascherson, p. 58.

[>] "'a great veterinarian'?": Daye, pp. 438–439.

[>] "without knowing how to wear it": Marshal Canrobert, quoted in Daye, p. 92.

[>] "banned by a malignant fairy": Aronson, pp. 34–35.

[>] "his admirable wife": Louise, p. 34.

[>] "to me or my sisters": Louise, p. 29.

[>] Laeken and its greenhouses: Goedleven, pp. 69–75.

[>] "Little?": Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 256.

[>] "Muchachos, aim well": Hyde, p. 291.

[>] "I am starving, literally starving!": Hyde, p. 226. See also O'Connor, pp. 271–273.

[>] "anything to be done in Africa": Leopold to Lambermont, 22 Aug. 1875, quoted in Roeykens, pp. 95–96.

[>] 100,000 francs: Roeykens, p. 73.

[>] "letters must be written after the names": Vandewoude, p. 434.

[>] "even the Ink and the Ammunition": Rawlinson to Lady Rawlinson, 11 Sept. 1876, quoted in Pakenham, p. 21.

[>] Leopold's speech to the Geographical Conference: reprinted in P. A. Roeykens, Leopold II et la Conférence géographique de Bruxelles (1876) (Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences Coloniales, 1956), pp. 197–199. See Bederman for a short treatment of the conference.

[>] "greatest humanitarian work of this time": Pakenham, p. 22.

3. THE MAGNIFICENT CAKE

[>] wielding the whip and the gun: And much worse; see Marchal 1, pp. 28–32.

[>] "Exploration of Africa": Stanley 2, vol. 2, pp. 346–347.

[>] "'we shall call Stanley Pool!'": Stanley 5, p. 329.

[>] "three or four score villages": Stanley 7, p. 199.

[>] "quiet the mocking": Stanley 7, p. 125.

[>] "as if they were monkeys": Bierman, p. 182.

[>] "safe in London": McLynn 2, p. 11.

[>] "species of human vermin": New York Herald, 17 Sept. 1877, quoted in McLynn, vol. 2, p. 11.

[>] "for they are the envoys of God": McLynn 1, p. 257.

[>] "in chains for 6 months": Stanley 7, p. 87.

[>] "such miserable slaves": Stanley 7, p. 195.

[>] "until death relieves them": Stanley to Alice Pike, 25 Dec. 1874, quoted in Bierman, p. 163.

[>] "angry with Central Africa": Alice Pike to Stanley, 13 Oct. 1874, quoted in McLynn 1, p. 248.

[>] "attend you in your sleep!": Stanley 2, vol. 2, pp. 148–152.

[>] "the poor young man was dead": Stanley 2, vol. 1, p. 190.

[>] "take his last gasp": Stanley 2, vol. 1, p. 91.

[>] "and not disturb him": Stanley 7, p. 130.

[>] "the strong Basoko with jeers": Ward, p. 110.

[>] part of white anatomy: Hulstaert, p. 52.

[>] "commerce to West Central Africa": Daily Telegraph, 12 Nov. 1877, quoted in Stanley 3, vol. 1, p. vi.

[>] "through a rock tunnel": Stanley 2, vol. 2, p. 261–262.

[>] "until I meet you": Stanley to Alice Pike, 14 Aug. 1876, quoted in Bierman, p. 189.

[>] footnote: quoted in Bierman, p. 214.

[>] "indecency of their nakedness": Stanley 2, vol. 2, p. 59.

[>] "western half of the Dark Continent": Stanley 2, vol. 2, p. 99.

[>] "commerce with Central Africa": Stanley 7, p. 40.

[>] "reached the Lualaba": Leopold to Greindl, 30 May 1877, quoted in Roeykens, p. 235.

[>] "this magnificent African cake": Leopold to Solvyns, 17 Nov. 1877, quoted in part in Pakenham, p. 38, and in part in Ascherson, p. 104.

[>] Sanford's business troubles: Fry 1, esp. pp. 78–89.

[>] "loves and appreciates you": Greindl to Sanford, 28 Nov. 1877, quoted in Fry 1, p. 133.

[>] "called a pirate": Hall, p. 245.

4. "THE TREATIES MUST GRANT US EVERYTHING"

[>] time spent in Africa: Marchal 1, p. 49.

[>] "has been a nose-bleed?": Stanley 5, p. 351.

[>] the real purpose of their work: Marchal 1, p. 49.

[>] "explorations are intended": "The Whitehall Review and the King of the Belgians," in The Whitehall Review, 2 Aug. 1879, p. 269. Quoted in Stengers 3, p. 122.

[>] "doesn't grasp that": Leopold to Strauch, 8 Jan. 1884, quoted in Stanley 6, pp. 20–21.

[>] the elephants: Anstey 1, p. 75.

[>] "traffic in slaves": speech of 6 Mar. 1879, reprinted in Bontinck, p. 74.

[>] "to the cause of progress": Stengers 3, p. 144.

[>] "believe in Kings forever": William T. Hornaday, Free Rum on the Congo (Chicago: Women's Temperance Publication Association, 1887), pp. 44–45, quoted in Stengers 4, p. 260.

[>] "free negro republics": Col. Maximilien Strauch, quoted in Bierman, p. 225.

[>] "Some in the Congo?": Eugène Beyens to Léon Lambert, 3 Nov. 1882, quoted in Stengers 3, p. 142.

[>] "retain all the powers": Strauch to Stanley, undated, Stanley 6, pp. 22–23.

[>] "shame and discomfort": Stanley to Strauch, 12 June 1881, Stanley 6, p. 49.

[>] "able to use it as before": Stanley 6, p. 44.

[>] "the ranks of soldier-laborers": Stanley 3, vol. 2, pp. 93–94.

[>] "Breaker of Rocks": Stanley 3, vol. 1, pp. 147–148, p. 237. See also Marchal 1, p. 52, for a corrective.

[>] "weak-minded ... so many idle hands": Stanley 3, vol. 2, pp. 376–377.

[>] "clothesless ... unabashed nudity": Stanley 3, vol. 2, p. 100.

[>] "chieftainship to wear them": Stanley 3, vol. 1, pp. 130–131.

[>] "entrusted to me": Pakenham, p. 150.

[>] "underbred ... white children": Stanley 3, vol. 1, p. 459.

[>] "when I most need you?": Frank Hird, H. M. Stanley: The Authorized Life (London: S. Paul & Co., 1935), p. 186, quoted in Bierman, p. 235.

[>] "perhaps Chinese coolies": Leopold to Stanley, 31 Dec. 1881, quoted in Emerson, p. 96.

[>] "carry on trade": FO 84/1802, 15 Nov. 1882, quoted in Stengers 3, p. 133.

[>] "custom of every country": Leopold to Stanley, 31 Dec. 1881, quoted in Emerson, p. 96.

[>] "claim to manhood": Stanley 3, vol. 1, p. 466.

[>] "mustgrant us everything": Leopold to Strauch, 16 Oct. 1882, reprinted in Stanley 6, p. 161.

[>] "bottles of gin": Stanley 3, vol. 1, p. 185.

[>] "property of the said Association": Stanley 3, vol. 2, pp. 196–197. Stanley biographer Tim Jeal staunchly maintains that Stanley's treaties with the chiefs were far less onerous, and that Leopold substituted doctored versions them in diplomatic files and in his editing of Stanley's book (Stanley 3). The full story will never be known, since, probably on the king's orders, the originals of almost all of Stanley's treaties have vanished.

[>] harsh as warfare elsewhere: Vellut, p. 701; Vansina 2, p. 144, p. 343.

[>] spot in the rain forest: Vansina 1, p. 100.

[>] "take in a herring": Stanley to Sanford, 4 Mar. 1885, reprinted in Bontinck, p. 300.

5. FROM FLORIDA TO BERLIN

[>] "a gentleman ... evidently a good feeder": New York Times, 6 Apr. 1883, 13 Apr. 1883.

[>] President Arthur's trip to Florida: New York Times, 5–15 Apr. 1883. On Arthur generally, see Reeves.

[>] Sanford's Florida business troubles: Fry 1, pp. 100–106.

[>] a special code: Bontinck, pp. 139–140.

[>] "population of several millions": Leopold to Arthur, 3(?) Nov. 1883, quoted in Bontinck, pp. 135–136.

[>] The copy, however, had been altered: Stengers 3, p. 128 fn. and p. 130 fn.

[>] "discovered by an American": Sanford to Frelinghuysen, 30 Dec. 1882, quoted in Carroll, p. 115.

[>] "the neutrality of the valley": President Arthur's message to Congress, 4 Dec. 1883, quoted in Bontinck, p. 144.

[>] "ENCHANTED WITH éMILE": Strauch to Sanford, 6 Dec. 1883, quoted in Bontinck, p. 146.

[>] "gastronomic campaign": Anonymous letter-writer in the Times of Philadelphia, 31 Jan. 1885, quoted in Bontinck, p. 160.

[>] "queenly presence too": Latrobe to Sanford, 18 Mar. 1884, quoted in Bontinck, p. 189.

[>] "enforced negro rule ... innocent woman": Fry 2, pp. 56–57.

[>] "general exodus": Fry 2, p. 56.

[>] "home of the negro": Fry 2, p. 185.

[>] "field for his efforts": Congressional Record, 7 Jan. 1890, quoted in Carroll, pp. 332–333.

[>] footnote: Carroll, p. 337.

[>] "more congenial fields than politics": Sanford to Evarts, 21 Jan. 1878, quoted in Bontinck, p. 29.

[>] "modern Israelites": "American Interests in Africa," The Forum 9 (1890), p. 428, quoted in Roark 1, p. 169.

[>] "over the Southern states": ibid., p. 428, quoted in Meyer, p. 28 fn.

[>] "adjacent rivers": Bontinck, p. 171.

[>] "secure their welfare": U.S. Senate, Occupation of Congo in Africa, S. Rept. 393, 48th Congress, 1st sess., 1884, p. 9, quoted in Normandy, p. 171.

[>] "both the King and Queen": Gertrude Sanford to Henry Sanford, April 1884, quoted in Fry 1, p. 148.

[>] "flag of a friendly Government": Bontinck, p. 201.

[>] statement was reprinted: Stanley 3, vol. 2, p. 420.

[>] "new life of the Association": Stanley 3, vol. 2, p. 383.

[>] large monthly stipend: of 1000 francs. Stengers 7, p. 48.

[>] "be established in the Congo": Leopold to Strauch, 26 Sept. 1883, quoted in Pakenham, p. 245.

[>] "its work was completed": Emerson, p. 108.

[>] "and eradicate it": Emerson, p. 108.

[>] "get away with anything": Emerson, p. 109.

[>] the role of Bleichröder: Stern, p. 403–409.

[>] "slaughtered game during our travels": Hall, p. 265.

[>] "end be their improvement": J. S. Mill, "On Liberty" In Focus, eds. John Gray and G. W Smith (London: Routledge, 1991), p. 31.

[>] owed a large sum of money: Anstey 1, p. 68; Pakenham, p. 247.

[>] "of that continent very well": Stanley's journal, 24 Nov. 1884, quoted in McLynn 2, pp. 86–87.

[>] "the utmost freedom of communication": John A. Kasson, an American delegate, in U.S. Senate, Report of the Secretary of State Relative to Affairs of the Independent State of the Congo, p. 42., quoted in Clarence Clendenen, Robert Collins, and Peter Duignan, Americans in Africa 1865–1900 (Stanford: The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, 1966), p. 57.

[>] "its illustrious creator": H. L. Wesseling, Divide and Rule: The Partition of Africa, 1880–1914 (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996).

[>] "as the Congo's 'proprietor'": Stengers 2, p. 262. See also Jean Stengers in La Nouvelle Clio IX (1950), p. 515.

6. UNDER THE YACHT CLUB FLAG

[>] the king was named: Pall Mall Gazette, 10 Apr. 1885, p. 9; and 11 Apr. 1885, p. 3.

[>] umbrellas and parasols: New York Times, 5 June 1917 and 15 June 1917.

[>] "topic of conversation around me": Louise, p. 32.

[>] "and they have not": Hilaire Belloc, The Modern Traveller (1898).

[>] 430 whites working in the Congo: census taken 31 Dec. 1889, reported in Le Mouvement Géographique, 23 Mar. 1890.

[>] "offer my services": Henry Sanford to Gertrude Sanford, 30 Aug. 1884, quoted in Fry 1, p. 150.

[>] the Sanford Exploring Expedition: Fry, pp. 157–163; White.

[>] this was not true: Van der Smissen, vol. 1, p. 127.

[>] "with your Congo!": Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 142.

[>] honorary president: Lagergren, p. 198 fn.

[>] "receptions and balls": Kirk to Wylde, 24 Apr. 1890, quoted in Miers, p. 102.

[>] "a new pretty woman": Liebrechts, pp. 29–30.

[>] the king had betrayed him: Meyer, p. 37; Fry 1, p. 168.

[>] "greatest sovereign is your own": Emerson, p. 149.

[>] "over l'État Indépendant du Congo": Mutamba-Makombo, p. 32.

[>] "throws away the peel": August Beernaert in Jean Stengers, Belgique et Congo: L'élabora-tion de la charte coloniale (Brussels: La Renaissance du Livre, 1963), p. 98, quoted in Emerson, p. 64.

[>] "in ample time to prepare": Stanley to Mackinnon, 23 Sept. 1886, quoted in Bierman, p. 256.

[>] "I can't talk to women": Hall, p. 274.

[>] "her sweet scented notes": Stanley to Mackinnon, 23 Sept. 1886, quoted in Bierman, p. 256.

[>] "I will never give it up!": Stengers 2, p. 287.

[>] "resources of civilisation": the Times, 14 Jan. 1887, quoted in Emerson, p. 157.

[>] "to overcome barbarism": Globe, 19 Jan. 1887, quoted in McLynn 2, p. 146.

[>] "frenzy of rage": The Diary of A. J. Mounteney Jephson, ed. Dorothy Middleton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), p. 228 (26 Feb. 1888), quoted in Bierman, p. 289.

[>] "catch some more of their women": James'S. Jameson, The Story of the Rear Column of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, ed. Mrs. J. A. Jameson (London: R. H. Porter, 1890), p. 92 (21 July 1887), quoted in Bierman, p. 297.

[>] "burn all the villages round": The Diary of A. J. Mounteney Jephson, ed. Dorothy Middleton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), p. 203 (10 Dec. 1887), quoted in Bierman, p. 286.

[>] "poured into the village": Stairs's journal, 28 Sept. 1887, quoted in Bierman, p. 281.

[>] by his Piccadilly taxidermist: Bierman, p. 298.

[>] "peace of mind": Stanley 4, vol. 1, p. 396.

[>] "leave without me!": Die Tagebüchen von Dr Emin Pascha, ed. Franz Stuhlmann (Hamburg: G. Westerman, 1916-1927), vol. 4, p. 202, 14 Jan. 1889, quoted in McLynn 2, pp. 262-263.

[>] "well-selected and iced": Stanley 4, vol. 2, p. 458.

[>] "was most exhilarating!": Funny Folks, quoted in Bierman, p. 340.

7. THE FIRST HERETIC

[>] several different lives: unless otherwise noted, biographical facts about Williams are taken from Franklin.

[>] he had never earned: Marchal 1, p. 176.

[>] "That day will come!": Franklin, pp. 10–11.

[>] "so much native ability": New York Times, 22 Jan. 1883, quoted in Franklin, p. 116.

[>] "greatest historian of the race": W.E.B. Du Bois, "The Negro in Literature and Art," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 49 (Sept. 1913), p. 235, quoted in Franklin, p. 133.

[>] Williams, Arthur, and Sanford: Bontinck, pp. 221, 442.

[>] when he visited London: Marchal 1, p. 178.

[>] "with complete success": L'Indépendance Belge, 1 Nov. 1889, quoted in Marchal 1, p. 180.

[>] "a pleasant and entertaining ... mercy, and justice ... good listener": Boston Herald, 17 Nov. 1889, quoted in Franklin, pp. 181-182.

[>] "within a few days": Williams 3, p. 265.

[>] "loaded on to the steamer": J. Rose Troup, With Stanley's Rear Column (London: Chapman & Hall, 1890), p. 124, quoted in Sherry, p. 59. See De Premorel pp. 42-44 for another description of steamer travel.

[>] "Siberia of the African Continent": Williams to Huntington, 14 Apr. 1890, quoted in Franklin, p. 191.

[>] Open Letter quotations: Williams 1, pp. 243–254.

[>] "introduced this ... just, not cruel": Williams 3, pp. 277–279.

[>] "crimes against humanity": Williams to Blaine, 15 Sept. 1890, quoted in Bontinck, p. 449.

[>] "attempt at blackmail": New York Herald, 14 Apr. 1891.

[>] "natives of that country": Huntington to Mackinnon, 20 Sept. 1890, quoted in Franklin, p. 208.

[>] "truth in his pamphlets": Vivian to Salisbury, 4 Apr. 1891, quoted in Franklin, p. 210.

[>] "un vrai scandale": Emile Banning, Mémoires politiques et diplomatiques: comment fut fondé le Congo belge (Paris: La Renaissance du Livre, 1927), p. 295, quoted in Bontinck, p. 448.

[>] "First of all ... not a colonel": Journal de Bruxelles 12, 13, 14 June 1891, quoted in Franklin, pp. 211–212.

[>] "the American traveler": La Réforme, 15 June 1891, quoted in Marchal 1, p 195.

[>] "in its own defense": Franklin, p. 213.

[>] "Colonel Williams and others": Gosselin to Salisbury, 19 July 1891, quoted in Franklin, p. 215.

[>] "an embarrassingly formidable opponent": Cookey, p. 36.

[>] "action of the State": Grenfell to Baynes, 23 June 1890; quoted in Franklin, p. 194.

8. WHERE THERE AREN'T NO TEN COMMANDMENTS

[>] Boma in the 1890s: see numerous articles in La Belgique Coloniale, esp. 18 Dec. 1897, p. 607, and 28 Aug. 1898, p. 411.

[>] "learn to stoop": Aronson pp. 141–142.

[>] Fischer's of Strasbourg: Gann and Duignan 2, p. 106.

[>] brides from Europe: Leclercq, pp. 284–285.

[>] "ivory had disappeared": Obdeijn, p. 202.

[>] "lessen its deficit": Leopold to Beernaert, 19 June 1891, reprinted in Van der Smissen, vol. 2, p. 212.

[>] "the sanctity of work": Interview by Publishers' Press, in the New York American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] four francs per kilo: Marchal 1, p. 212.

[>] twenty-two pounds: Constant De Deken, Deux Ans au Congo (Antwerp: Clément Thibaut, 1902), p. 72 fn., cited in Samarin, p. 118.

[>] "A file of poor devils ... up to the job": Courouble, pp. 77, 83.

[>] three thousand porter loads: Samarin, p. 120.

[>] "overwork in their villages": Picard, pp. 96–97.

[>] not one returned: Marchal I, p. 202.

[>] "each of the children": Marchal 4, p. 317.

[>] "give the military salute": Marchal 4, pp. 325–326. Lefranc's account, which he wrote for the Belgian newspaper L'Express de Liège on 1 June 1908, was also reprinted as a pamphlet by the Congo Reform Association.

[>] "A mediocre agent": Marchal 4, p. 318.

[>] "without asking questions": quoted as epigraph in Katz.

[>] "become used to it": Sereny, p. 200.

[>] "never made any lethal injections": KL Auschwitz Seen by the SS:Hoess, Broad, Kremer, ed. Jadwiga Bezwinska and Danuta Czech (Oswiecimiu, Poland: Panstwowe Museum, 1978), quoted in Katz, pp. 54–55.

[>] "punishment for his own gang": De Premorel, p. 63.

[>] footnote: Jules Marchal unearthed this remarkable photo, which was first used by Morel before he became editor of the West African Mail. Marchal 2, p. 116; Marchal 3, p. 39.

[>] "walk into fire as if to a wedding": Bricusse, p. 85.

[>] more than nineteen thousand officers and men: Gann and Duignan 2, p. 79.

[>] more than half the state's budget: Marchal i, p. 354.

[>] different ethnic groups staged major rebellions: Isaacman and Vansina is the best short summary.

[>] Mulume Niama: Marchal 4, pp. 27–28; Flamant, pp. 182–183.

[>] fifty thousand men a year by the mid-1890s: Marchal 1, p. 323.

[>] "cannot feel surprised": Karl Teodor Andersson, 28 Dec. 1893, Missionsforbundet 1894, p. 83.

[>] "the rebels have not fled ... leaders in those times": C. N. Borrisson, 2 Feb. 1894, Missionsförbundet 1894, pp. 132–134.

[>] Rommel and Nzansu: Axelson, pp. 259–260; Marchal 1, pp. 320–321.

[>] "rather than with the hunted": Casement 3, p. 166.

[>] ordered her killed: Marchal 1, p. 373.

[>] Kandolo: One thing that can mislead the unwary researcher is that three different men named Kandolo figure in Congo history of this period, one of whom was a leader of another mutiny, that of 1897 in the northeast.

[>] snatched the whip out of his hands: Van Zandijcke, p. 182.

[>] thirteen years after the uprising began: De Boeck, pp. 104, 125. See the other extensive treatments of the uprising in Flament and Van Zandijcke, and a summary in Marchal 1, pp. 372–376.

[>] "worthy of a better cause": Flament, p. 417. The best treatment of this uprising is in De Boeck.

[>] quotations from Father Achte: De Boeck, pp. 224–228. De Boeck has rescued this valuable piece of testimony, earlier accessible only in truncated versions.

[>] starting in the 1960s: De Boeck's entire book is premised on this point.

[>] Bongata in 1892: Vangroenweghe, p. 43.

[>] instead of paying chiefs for them: Marchal 1, p. 216.

[>] "drowned trying to escape": Marchal 1, p. 224.

[>] instead of heavy iron ones: Marchal 1, p. 227.

[>] "pulls the whole file off and it disappears": Marchal 1, p. 231.

[>] the campaign against the "Arabs": See Marchal 1, chapter 14.

[>] "to the white men's town at Nyangwe": Canisius, pp. 250–256.

[>] the rigors of Leopold's regime: see Marchal 2, part V, for the best treatment of the role of Catholic missionaries.

[>] "1500 children and administrative personnel": Leopold to Van Eetvelde, 27 Apr. 1890, quoted in Marchal 2, p. 209.

[>] "the most male children possible": Governor general's circular, 4 June 1890, quoted in Marchal 2, p. 177.

[>] "was sounded by bugles": Het H. Misoffer. Tijdschrift van de Norbertijner Missiën 1899, p. 226, quoted in Marchal 2, p. 298.

[>] often over 50 percent: Marchal 2, pp. 181–182.

[>] within the following few weeks: Marchal 2, p. 179.

[>] "praying for our great king": Marchal 2, p. 221.

[>] "Once more, I thank you": Bauer, p. 216.

[>] "that shepherd": Daye, p. 399.

[>] "That is forbidden!": O'Connor, p. 346.

[>] "in the face of the enemy": Gann and Duignan 2, pp. 62–63.

[>] only fined five hundred francs: Lagergren, p. 195.

[>] "trader!! Why not!": Slade 2, p. 116.

[>] Léon Rom's career: The principal sources (ali more or less hagiographic) are Biographie coloniale belge, vol. 2, cols. 822–826; Janssens and Cateaux, vol. 1, pp. 125–132 and voi. 2, pp. 197–200; Lejeune-Choquet, pp. 114–126; Bulletin de l'Association des Vétérans coloniaux, June 1946, pp. 3–5; Sidney Langford Hinde, The Fall of the Congo Arabs (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969; reprint of 1897 edition), pp. 232, 235, 244–245; and Rom's own unpublished Notes. Mes Services au Congo de 1886 à 1908. The first three, as well as Arnold, are useful guides for career details, sanitized, of many other Congo state European personnel of this time.

[>] "as proof of surrender": Janssens and Cateaux, voi. 2, pp. 199–200.

[>] "Master, they're going to kill you!": Lejeune-Choquet, pp. 123–124.

[>] many butterfly specimens: Albert Chapaux, Le Congo (Brussels: Charles Rozez, 1894), p. 470.

[>] "can raise a thirst": from "Mandalay" in Barrack Room Ballads (London: Methuen, 1892).

[>] a third of white Congo state agents died there: Marchal 1, p. 210. See Gann and Duignan 2, p. 68, for a similar figure, almost as high, for military men only, prior to 1906.

[>] "plein de tristesse/Pour le Congo": Picard, pp. 145–146.

[>] "the river will kill the white man": L. Dieu, Dans la brousse congolaise (Liège: Maréchai, 1946), pp. 59-60, quoted in Slade 2, p. 72.

9. MEETING MR. KURTZ

[>] "I shall go there": Joseph Conrad, A Personal Record (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1912), p. 13, excerpted in Conrad, p. 148.

[>] Conrad in the Congo: Unless otherwise noted, biographical facts about Conrad in the Congo are taken from Nadjer, the most careful biographer when it comes to this period of the novelist's life.

[>] "realities of a boy's daydreams!": Joseph Conrad, "Geography and Some Explorers," in Last Essays, ed. Richard Curie (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1926), p. 17, excerpted in Conrad, pp. 186–187.

[>] missionary doctor: Lapsley, p. 83. Conrad's various biographers have not noticed this.

[>] "not a thought in his head": Edward Garnett's introduction to Letters from Conrad 1895–1924, p. xii. (London: Nonesuch Press, 1928), excerpted in Conrad, p. 195.

[>] "Soundings in fathoms: 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2": Joseph Conrad, Congo Diary and Other Uncollected Pieces, ed. Zdzislaw Najder (New York: Doubleday, 1978), reprinted in Conrad, p. 182.

[>] "everything you had known": Conrad, p. 35.

[>] "lost in the depths of the land": Conrad, p. 12.

[>] "narrow white line of the teeth": Conrad, p. 57.

[>] "beyond the actual facts of the case": Joseph Conrad, "Author's Note" to Youth: A Narrative; and Two Other Stories (London: William Heinemann, 1921), reprinted in Conrad, p. 4.

[>] "bights swung between them, rhythmically clinking": Conrad, p. 19.

[>] "now and then ... bullet-hole in the forehead": Conrad, p. 23.

[>] "met an off[ic]er ... Saw another dead body ... tied up to a post": Joseph Conrad, Congo Diary and Other Uncollected Pieces, ed. Zdzislaw Najder (New York: Doubleday, 1978), reprinted in Conrad, pp. 160, 161, 165.

[>] "several abandoned villages": Conrad, p. 23.

[>] "precious trickle of ivory": Conrad, p. 21.

[>] "The word 'ivory'...could earn percentages": Conrad, pp. 26–27.

[>] famed for his harem: Marchal i, p. 284.

[>] captured and beheaded him: Times of London, 8 Dec. 1892, quoted in Sherry, pp. 110—iii.

[>] December 17, 1898: Lindqvist (p. 29) seems the first to notice this.

[>] "a flower-bed in front of his house!": E. J. Glave, "Cruelty in the Congo Free State," in The Century Magazine, Sept. 1897, p. 706.

[>] Rom: see biographical references on p. 329.

[>] a young officer he had met: Any meeting between Conrad and Rom would have taken place at the beginning of August, when Conrad passed through Leopoldville, or in the next day or two, before his boat left neighboring Kinshasa. Conrad was again at Leopoldville/Kinshasa from late September to late October and would have had ample opportunity to hear stories of Rom then. Rom himself had left for his next post while Conrad was upriver. For other boastful white collectors of Congolese heads Conrad may have heard about, see p. 99 and pp. 196–197. For one he probably met, see p. 166 (at the time of Conrad's trip, Léon Fiévez had just taken command of the strategic, heavily fortified post of Basoko, a likely overnight stop for the Roi des Belges going both up and downriver). For a later head collector, see p. 228.

[>] "The horror! The horror!": Conrad, p. 68.

[>] "when you look into it too much": Conrad, p. 10.

[>] "real work is done in there": Conrad, p. 13.

[>] "spark from the sacred fire": Conrad, p. 8.

[>] "under the English flag all over the world": Frances B. Singh, "The Colonialistic Bias of Heart of Darkness," in Conradiana 10 (1978), reprinted in Conrad, p. 278.

[>] "less savage than the other savages": Mark Twain, More Tramps Abroad (London: Chatto & Windus, 1897) pp. 137–138, quoted in C. P Sarvan, "Racism and the Heart of Darkness," International Fiction Review 7 (1980), reprinted in Conrad, p. 284.

[>] "weird incantations": Conrad, p. 65.

[>] "passionate uproar": Conrad, p. 38.

[>] "some satanic litany": Conrad, p. 66.

[>] "lo! the darkness found him out": Chinua Achebe, "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness," reprinted in Conrad, p. 261.

[>] "the Company was run for profit": Conrad, p. 16.

[>] footnote: Conrad and Hueffer, p. 165.

[>] "the noble cause": Conrad, p. 12.

[>] "science and progress": Conrad, p. 28.

[>] "sketch in oils": Conrad, p. 27.

[>] "vibrating with eloquence ... Exterminate all the brutes!": Conrad, pp. 50–51.

[>] in a Belgian museum: the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale at Tervuren.

[>] "he generally responds with something stupid": Rom, Le Nègre du Congo, pp. 5–6.

[>] "they will have at the next stop": Rom, Le Nègre du Congo, p. 84.

[>] "getting himself adored": Conrad, p. 56.

[>] "He makes his agents ... the role of a second Rom": Leclercq, p. 264.

[>] "in front of the station!": Wahis to Van Eetvelde, 2 Nov. 1896, quoted in Marchal 1, p. 298.

10. THE WOOD THAT WEEPS

[>] "burns like the altar flame": Tennant to Stanley, 6 May 1890 and 9 May 1890, quoted in McLynn 2, pp. 328–329.

[>] "like a monkey in a cage": Stanley's journal, 9 Sept. 1890, quoted in McLynn 2, p. 334.

[>] "he considered sex for the beasts": McLynn 2, p. 334.

[>] "general mediocrity": McLynn 2, p. 376.

[>] "untrained, undisciplined, loutish and ill-bred": Stanley to Mackinnon, 25 Dec. 1890, quoted in McLynn 2, p. 337.

[>] William Sheppard: The most thorough study of Sheppard is Phipps. See also Schall, Shaloff, Roth, Walter Williams, Sheppard, and numerous articles by and about Sheppard in the Southern Workman.

[>] "to the homes of their ancestors": Shaloff, p. 15.

[>] in the process: The Missionary, vol. xxvi, no. 6, pp. 219–220.

[>] as much as he did other visitors: Lapsley, p. 44.

[>] "furnishes a handle I hope to use on him": Lapsley to his "Aunt Elsie," in Lapsley, p. 83. A misprint in Lapsley erroneously dates this letter 1891.

[>] "black white man, as they call Sheppard": Lapsley to "Aunt Elsie," Lapsley, p. 83.

[>] "thankful to God for Sheppard": Lapsley to his mother, 22 Dec. 1890, Lapsley, p. 94.

[>] "I let him do most of the buying": Lapsley, p. 108.

[>] "the dense darkness ... filled with superstition and sin": William Sheppard in the Southern Workman 44 (1915), pp. 166, 169, quoted in Schall, pp. 114–115.

[>] "I would be happy, and so I am": Sheppard to Dr. S. H. Henkel, 5 Jan. 1892, quoted in Shaloff, p. 29.

[>] "the names they gave us": Sheppard, "Yesterday, To-day and Tomorrow in Africa," in Southern Workman, Aug. 1910, p. 445.

[>] "my people": Walter Williams, p. 138.

[>] "the country of my forefathers": letter from Sheppard to The Missionary, Sept. 1890, quoted in Walter Williams, p. 138.

[>] "and on the 26th of March died": S. C. Gordon to Sheppard, quoted in Shaloff, p. 30.

[>] "he alone speaks of all the Europeans": Ernest Stache to the Board of World Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 7 Aug. 1892, quoted in Shaloff, p. 32.

[>] strayed from his marriage: Phipps, p. 118; Benedetto, pp. 30, 423–425.

[>] "got theirs from the Bakuba!": Sheppard in the Southern Workman, Dec. 1893, pp. 184–187, quoted in Walter Williams, p. 143.

[>] "came from a far-away land": Sheppard, "African Handicrafts and Superstitions," Southern Workman, Sept. 1921, pp. 403–404.

[>] the first foreigner: Vansina 2, p. 3.

[>] a former king: This is the way Sheppard usually told the story, as, for example, when he spoke at Hampton on 14 Nov. 1893 (reprinted in the Southern Workman, April 1895, "Into the Heart of Africa," p. 65): "You are Bo-pe Mekabé, who reigned before my father and who died." Although on several occasions (Southern Workman, April 1905, p. 218, and Sept. 1921, p. 403), he said he was taken for a dead son of the present king.

[>] footnote: Shaloff, p. 45.

[>] information for later scholars: Vansina 2 is the definitive scholarly treatment of the Kuba. To avoid confusion, however, in quotations from Sheppard and elsewhere, I have generally used Sheppard's spelling of African names.

[>] "the highest in equatorial Africa": Sheppard, p. 137.

[>] Presbyterian Pioneers in Congo: A later edition is called Pioneers in Congo.

[>] "and the rope was drawn up": Sheppard, p. 119.

[>] to aides for action: Liebrechts, pp. 37–38.

[>] eight times his annual salary: Harms 3, p. 132.

[>] nearly thirty times what it had been six years earlier: Harms 3, pp. 130–131.

[>] increased ninety-six times over: Nelson, p. 82.

[>] "tapping some vines": Official Organ, Sept. 1907, p. 10.

[>] "must be compelled to do it": Louis Chaltin, journal, 16 July 1892, quoted in Northrup, p. 51.

[>] "the requisite amount of rubber had been collected": Pulteney to FO, 15 Sept. 1899, FO 10/731, no. 5, quoted in Cookey, pp. 50–51 fn.

[>] "unchain the prettiest ones and rape them": Bricusse, p. 81.

[>] "will usually decide to send representatives": Donny, vol. 1, pp. 139–140.

[>] three to four kilos of dried rubber per adult male per fortnight: Harms 3, p. 132.

[>] against leopards: Daniel Vangroenweghe "Le Red Rubber de l'Anversoise, 1899–1900, Documents inédits" in Annales Aequatoria 6 (1985), p. 57.

[>] and squeeze the rubber out: Harms 1, p. 81.

[>] forty-seven thousand rubber gatherers: Harms 1, p. 79.

[>] four hundred men with baskets: Harms 3, p. 134.

[>] "use them as slaves—as I liked": Canisius, p. 267.

[>] some of the strongest resistance to Leopold's rule: Marchal 4, pp. 106–107.

[>] "I counted them, 81 in all": Sheppard diary, 14 Sept. 1899, Sheppard Papers.

[>] "to show the State how many we have killed": Sheppard in The Missionary, Feb. 1900, p. 61.

[>] "cut off hands, noses and ears": Charles Lemaire, Belgique et Congo (Gand: A. Vandeweghe, 1908), p. 64, quoted in Vangroenweghe, p. 46.

[>] "cut off a hand from a living man": Ellsworth E. Faris, journal, 23 Aug. 1899, quoted in Morel 5, p. 248.

[>] "keeper of the hands": Vangroenweghe, p. 234.

[>] "Arches of the Severed Hands": Pariiamentary debate of 28 Feb. 1905, quoted in Vangroenweghe, p. 288.

[>] "rape their own mothers and sisters": Boeiaert, pp. 58–59.

[>] "allowed five hundred others to live": Bricusse, p. 56. (11 June 1894).

[>] shoot holes in Africans' ear lobes: Guy Burrows, The Curse of Central Africa (London: R. A. Everett & Co., 1903), pp. xviii—xix.

[>] large doses of castor oil: de Premorel, p. 64.

[>] he made them eat it: Marchal 4, p. 85.

[>] rubbed with excrement: Marchal 1, p. 391.

[>] contained chopped-up hands: Bremen 1, pp. 119–120.

11. A SECRET SOCIETY OF MURDERERS

[>] "except money!"Bauer, p. 169.

[>] "one day or another come on to the market": conversation of 30 Aug. 1892 in Auguste Roeykens, Le baron Léon de Béthune au service de Léopold II (Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer, 1964), p. 56, quoted in Stengers 2, p. 286.

[>] "moving Europe so deeply": Emerson, pp. 193–194.

[>] understated the state's real profits: Marchal 1, p. 353.

[>] more than a hundred million francs: Vangroenweghe, p. 87.

[>] Leopold's daily routine: For eyewitness accounts, see Stinglhamber and Dresse, especially pp. 38–50, and Carton de Wiart, especially pp. 44 and 123–130.

[>] "I'll also take some cutlets": Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 88.

[>] "thinking that Africans are black?": Emerson, p. 221.

[>] "by the hands of giants": C. Vauthier, "Le chemin de fer du Congo de Matadi à Léopoidviiie. Les environs de Matadi et le massif de Palabala," in Bulletin de la Société Géographique d'Anvers 13 [1887?], pp. 377–378, quoted in Kivilu, p. 324.

[>] twelve miles in length: Cornet, p. 376.

[>] "what would it cost?": Leopold to Thys, 31 May 1888, quoted in Cornet, p. 236.

[>] east coast and then home: Cornet, p. 236.

[>] each telegraph pole one European life: Axeison, p. 204.

[>] close to 1800 a year: Marchal 3, p. 143, p. 153.

[>] forced them back: Cornet, p. 209.

[>] eleven million pounds: Gann and Duignan 2, p. 123.

[>] footnote: Emile Wangermée, journal, 31 Jan. 1899, quoted in Lagergren, p. 294 fn.

[>] "to save us from the rubber trouble?": Regions Beyond, April 1897, quoted in Slade 1, p. 251.

[>] "We want to die": Axeison, pp. 259–260.

[>] "(toujours désagréabie)": J. De Witte, Monseigneur Augouard (Paris: Émile-Paui Frères, 1924), p. 71, quoted in Slade 1, p. 255.

[>] "time of service will soon be finished": Morei 3, pp. 43–44.

[>] reportedly paid a visit: Fox Bourne to Morel, 21 Nov. 1903, quoted in Louis 1, p. 99 fn.

[>] "dared to kill an Englishman": Lionel Decle in the Pall Mall Gazette, 11 June 1896, quoted in Louis 3, p. 575.

[>] "faced the facts of the situation": 21 Sept. 1896, quoted in Lagergren, p. 197 fn.

[>] "En domptant l'Arabe inhumain": Louis Graide, "Les Belges au Congo," in F. Alexis-M. Soldats et Missionnaires au Congo de 1891 à 1894 (Lille: Desclée, de Brouwer & Cie., 1896).

[>] the Congolese at Tervuren: See Marchal 2, pp. 78–80, Gérard, p. 181, Debrunner, pp. 340–342, Le Mouvement Géographique, 27 June 1897 and 18 July 1897, and La Belgique Coloniale, 4 July 1897 and 5 Sept. 1897.

[>] footnote: The poem by M. E. Buhler appeared in the New York Times of Sept. 19, 1906. This and other press clippings are reprinted in Ota Benga: The Pygmy in the Zoo, by Phillips Verner Bradford and Harvey Blume (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992).

[>] "first sign of civilization": La Belgique Coloniale, 4 July 1897, p. 314.

[>] "the great warrior": La Belgique Coloniale, 4 July 1897.

[>] "an example of humanity!": Bruxelles-Exposition, n.d., quoted in La Belgique Coloniale, 5 Sept. 1897, p. 423.

[>] "a magnificent field for [Belgian] enterprise": "The Belgians in Africa," 22 Feb. 1894. (Name of periodical is missing in the Morel Papers microfilm.)

[>] "involuntary shudder of repulsion": Morel 5, p. 27.

[>] "greatly troubled at the 'indiscretion'": Morel 5, pp. 28–29.

[>] "to what usage was this armament put?": Morel 5, p. 36.

[>] "into whose pocket did the unavowed surplus go?" Morel 5, pp. 39–40.

[>] "to pay for what was coming out." Morel 5, p. 36.

[>] were destined for Africans: Gann and Duignan, p. 149.

[>] "with a King for a croniman": Morel 5, pp. 41–42.

12. DAVID AND GOLIATH

[>] "set their African house in order": Morel 5, pp. 47–48.

[>] "presence was unwelcome": Morel 5, p. 48.

[>] "a vast destruction of human life": Morel 5, p. 5.

[>] "no turning back": Morel 5, p. 49.

[>] "temperamentally impossible": Morel 5, p. 30.

[>] "these deeds must of necessity take place": Morel 3, p. 8 fn.

[>] "'Ending date ... Observations'": West African Mail, 13 Jan. 1905, p. 996.

[>] "feeding of hostages": Special Congo Supplement to the West African Mail, Jan. 1905.

[>] from a post in Brussels: A. and J. Stengers, "Rapport sur une mission dans les archives anglaises," in Bulletin de la Commission Royale d'Histoire, vol. CXXIV (1959), pp. ciii—civ.

[>] the company's agents in the Congo: Morel i, p. 31.

[>] in the original French: Official Organ, Sept.—Nov. 1908.

[>] "of the various districts": Morel 3, p. 24.

[>] "in connection with this circular, verbally": Morel 3, p. 25.

[>] "What can I do?": Morel 3, p. 56.

[>] "at a distance of fully four feet": Morel 3, p. 47.

[>] "tongues were hanging out": Morel 3, p. 57.

[>] list of the dead: Official Organ, Jan. 1906, p. 15.

[>] "the peoples of the Congo may ever have ... the advantages of your enlightened rule": Morel 5, p. 115.

[>] "choice and copious": Morel 5, p. 128.

[>] "I enjoyed myself most thoroughly": Morel 5, p. 129.

[>] "other service than rubber-gathering": Canisius, pp. 75–80.

[>] "that civilization was dawning": Canisius, p. 99.

[>] "literally shrieked with pain": Canisius, pp. 92–93.

[>] "to starvation and smallpox": Canisius, p. 113.

[>] "men, women and children": Canisius, p. 142.

[>] "to the monthly crop": Ibid.

[>] "governed with humanity": Resolution of 20 May 1903, quoted in Cline, p. 37.

[>] "the Armenians or the Bulgarians": Georges Lorand, in La Réforme, 14 Sept. 1896, quoted in Lagergren, p. 199 fn.

13. BREAKING INTO THE THIEVES' KITCHEN

[>] "to send reports soon": PRO HO 161, quoted in Reid, p. 42. See also PRO FO 629/10, 11, 12.

[>] Roger Casement: Reid and Inglis are the best of the many biographers of Casement. Inglis gives much more space to his African experiences, but lacks source notes.

[>] "Knight errant he was": Stephen Gwynn, Experiences of a Literary Man (London: T. Butterworth, 1926), p. 258, quoted in Reid, p. 63.

[>] "would never make money": W Holman Bentley, quoted in Vangroenweghe, p. 276.

[>] "specimen of the capable Englishman": Stanley's journal, 15 Apr. 1887, quoted in McLynn 2, p. 171.

[>] to the dog to eat: McLynn 2, pp. 174-175.

[>] "nothing but devastation behind it": Camille Janssen, in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Études Coloniales (1912), p. 717.

[>] "stimulate their prowess in the face of the enemy": Casement to Foreign Office, 14 Jan. 1904, PRO FO 10/807, quoted in Casement 5, p. i.

[>] "most intelligent and very sympathetic": Joseph Conrad, Congo Diary and Other Uncollected Pieces, ed. Zdzislaw Najder (New York: Doubleday, 1978), reprinted in Conrad, p. 159.

[>] "His greatest charm ... He purrs at you": Ernest Hambloch, British Consul: Memories of Thirty Years' Service in Europe and Brazil (London: G. G. Harrap, 1938), p. 71, quoted in Reid, p. 5 fn.

[>] saw Casement once more: the clear implication of Conrad's letter to Cunninghame Graham of 26 Dec. 1903 ("I have seen him start off into an unspeakable wilderness ... A few months afterwards it so happened that I saw him come out again"), quoted in Reid, p. 14.

[>] "talked there till 3 in the morning": Conrad to John Quinn, 24 May 1916, quoted in Frederick Karl, Joseph Conrad: The Three Lives (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979), p. 286. Sometimes foggy about dates, Conrad, echoed by one or two of his more careless biographers, placed this meeting in 1896. But that could not have been; Casement was in Africa that year. Jane Ford (in "An African Encounter, A British Traitor and Heart of Darkness," Conradiana, vol. 27, no. 2, 1995, p. 125) believes the encounter probably occurred in 1898—which would have made it just before Conrad started writing Heart of Darkness.

[>] "things I never did know": Conrad to Cunninghame Graham, 26 Dec. 1903, quoted in Reid, p. 14.

[>] "in any shape or form": Casement to Fox-Bourne, 2 July 1894, quoted in Reid, p. 20.

[>] "in the character": Singleton-Gates, p. 91.

[>] "advise him of": Louis 1, p. 103.

[>] "listen to a drunken sailor's complaint": Inglis, p. 41.

[>] "big bulldog with large jaws": Marchal 3, p. 187.

[>] "And leave this love God made, not I": Inglis, pp. 382–383.

[>] diary entries on Macdonald: Casement 2, pp. 121, 123, 125 (17, 19 and 30 Apr. 1903).

[>] "Agostinho ... How much money?": Casement 2, pp. 111, 115, 119, 129 (13, 20 Mar.; 6 Apr.; 12 May 1903).

[>] brutal conditions in Leopold's Congo: Marchal 3, pp. 189–190.

[>] Casement was under way: Marchal 3, p. 192; Inglis, p. 69.

[>] "please God I'll scotch it": Casement to Poultney Bigelow, 13 Dec. 1903, quoted in Reid, p. 53.

[>] "in full flight over us": Casement 2, p. 145 (2 July 1903).

[>] "poor old Hairy Bill.... beats me hollow": Casement 2, pp. 147, 149 (8, 9, 10, 13 July 1903).

[>] "curse me at F.O.": Casement 2, p. 137 (11 June 1903).

[>] "condemnation of civilized mankind": Casement to Fuchs, 15 Sept. 1903, quoted in Casement 5, p. v.

[>] "into the thieves' kitchen": Casement to Lansdowne, no. 34 Africa, 15–16 Sept. 1903, FO 10/805, quoted in Louis 1, p. 107.

[>] letters to the governor general: Lagergren, pp. 323–329.

[>] diary entries, 5 June—9 Sept.: Casement 2, pp. 135, 153, 155, 157, 159, 163, 165.

[>] "'you have killed men'": Casement 3, p. 114.

[>] "acts of refined cruelty": Phipps to Lansdowne, 27 Feb. 1904, quoted in Louis 1, pp. 112–113.

[>] "awkward position at court": Phipps to Barrington, 5 Feb. 1904, quoted in Louis 1, p. 111 fn.

[>] "I am N.N.... his name was A.B.": Casement 3, p. 112.

[>] "as a simple surgical operation": Special Congo Supplement to the West African Mail, June 1904.

[>] "gang of stupidities": Casement 2, p. 183 (1 Dec. 1903).

[>] "an abject piffler": Casement 2, p. 185 (16 Dec. 1903).

[>] "incompetent noodles": Casement to Nightingale, 8 Sept. 1904, quoted in Reid, p. 65.

[>] "M. sleeping in study": Casement 2, p. 183 (10 Dec. 1903).

[>] "sought his bedroom above": Morel 5, pp. 160–162.

[>] "wife a good woman": Casement 2, p. 189 (5 Jan. 1904).

[>] "drew up a rough plan of campaign": Morel 5, pp. 163–164.

[>] "in that great heart of hers?": Morel 5, pp. 164–165.

[>] "he wrote out a cheque for £100": Morel 5, p. 165.

[>] "one overwhelming Nay!": Inglis, p. 92.

[>] "as near to being a saint as a man can be": Morel to Holt, 12 July 1910, quoted in Porter, p. 267.

[>] "to end that den of devils": Casement to Morel, 4 July 1906, quoted in Louis 1, p. 119.

[>] "he will do nothing": Morel to Guthrie, 25 Feb. 1910, quoted in Morel 5, p. 195 fn.

[>] "that I have been able to do it all": Morel to Brabner, 14 Sept. 1908, quoted in Morel 5, p. 211.

[>] "the Morel of Congo reform": Holt to Morel, quoted in Adams, p. 179.

[>] "'God-speed' on his journey": West African Mail, 23 Sept. 1904, p. 601.

[>] "And they have the right to live": Morel to Mark Twain, quoted in Hawkins 1, p. 167.

[>] the hands of one's dead enemies: Vansina 2, pp. 144, 343; Vellut, p. 701.

[>] "in the hollow of my hand": Morel to Holt, 1910, quoted in Morel 5, p. 217.

[>] "a burden upon the State": Furley, pp. 141–142.

[>] "chemistry of evangelical imperialism": James Morris, Heaven's Command: An Imperial Progress (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973), p. 39.

[>] "accepted his leadership": Taylor, p. 133.

[>] "the reptile Congophile Press of Brussels and Antwerp": Morel 1, p. 261.

[>] "terrible wrongs upon the native races": Morel 1, p. x.

[>] "inland slave-trade on the Congo": Morel 1, p. xvii.

[>] "goodgovernment of the Congo territories": Cookey, p. 149.

[>] "and flood his deeds with day": William Watson, "Leopold of Belgium," in the Congo Reform Association's slide show. The poem also appeared in the West African Mail, 21 Sept. 1906, p. 608, and, in a slightly different version identified as being from Watson's New Poems (Lane), in the African Mail, 26 Nov. 1909, p. 80.

[>] "the downfall": note to himself, 14 June 1907, quoted by Cline, p. 58.

[>] 4,194 clippings: The sum of various subtotals given in Inventaire des microfilms des Papiers Morel, series A, B, E, F, G, H, I, se rapportant à l'histoire du Congo et conservés à la British Library of Political and Economic Science, London School of Economics (Brussels: Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1961).

[>] Samba: A Story of the Rubber Slaves of the Congo, by Herbert Strang (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1906), p. vi.

[>] "literature, information, etc": Morel to Cadbury, Oct. 1906, quoted in Cline, p. 54.

[>] for the benefit of the movement: West African Mail, 24 Aug. 1906, p. 520.

[>] "more than 5 years": John Harris, unpublished autobiographical ms., quoted in Louis 6, p. 833.

[>] "with the greatest discretion": Wahis to Charles Smets, 26 Jan. 1906, De Ryck Collection.

[>] "send me of inaccuracies": Weber to Naur, 16 Aug. 1906, De Ryck Collection.

[>] Hezekiah Andrew Shanu: Unless otherwise noted, all information on Shanu comes from Marchal 3, pp. 142, 167–168, 191, 231, 296–302, 330–332, plus a few details from Lemaire 1, pp. 42–44, and Biographie Coloniale Belge, vol. 4, cols. 838–839.

[>] "with the greatest correctness": Le Mouvement Géographique, 30 Sept. 1894, p. 85.

[>] "of the negro race": La Chronique Coloniale et Financière, 11 Dec. 1904, p. 1.

[>] "loyalty to the State": Memorandum by Albrecht Gohr, director of justice, 27 July 1900, quoted in Marchal 3, p. 297.

[>] "from time to time": Morel to Shanu, 4 Sept. 1903, quoted in Morel 5, p. 157.

[>] "means of persuasion than terror": Marchal 3, p. 231.

[>] "ever received by the Congo State": Morel 1, p. 135.

[>] the Caudron case: Morel 1, pp. 135–153.

[>] "unblemished reputation and of great courage": Morel 5, p. 156.

[>] "to withhold his name": De Vaughan, p. 48.

[>] "to the mute personage": De Vaughan, p. 51.

[>] footnote: Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 306.

[>] left an hour later: De Vaughan, p. 123.

[>] "telling him that they had colds!": De Vaughan, p. 67.

[>] "be soiled with blood or mud": Leopold to Liebrechts, 31 Jan. 1899, quoted in Marchal 2, p. 96.

[>] "the one thing I need in the Congo!": Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 136.

[>] not dare take precedence over His Majesty: Ascherson, p. 142.

15. A RECKONING

[>] without being challenged by the Congo state: Marchal 1, p. 339.

[>] even higher totals for the number of hands: Marchal 1, p. 339.

[>] hands cut off living people: Lagergren, p. 297.

[>] "with the butt of their guns": this statement was quoted in Casement's report, repeated by Morel, and is quoted in Lagergren, p. 288, and Marchal 3, pp. 197–198.

[>] 40,355 rounds of ammunition: West African Mail, 17 Feb. 1905, p. 111.

[>] "'they were thrown into the river'": Speech by Sjöblom in London, 12 May 1897, quoted in Morel 3, p. 43.

[>] rubber regime in 1894–1895: Lagergren, p. 121.

[>] simply open fire: Vangroenweghe, p. 59.

[>] "13 women and children taken prisoner": Lemaire 2, pp. 18, 20, 23, 30, 36, 48.

[>] "We burned the village": Leclercq, pp. 244–445.

[>] footnote: Marchal 1, p. 362.

[>] "exterminate them to the last man": West African Mail, 16 Mar. 1906, p. 1219.

[>] "Exterminate all the brutes!": Conrad, p. 51.

[>] "better place for our noon rest": P. Möller, Tre Ar i Kongo (Stockholm: P A. Norstedt, 1887), pp. 234-235, quoted in Kivilu, p. 338.

[>] French territory by 1900: Morel 3, p. 63.

[>] "roots, and ants and other insects": Canisius, p. 170.

[>] "sleeping in the forests without shelter": William Morrison, letter from Luebo, 15 Oct. 1899, in The Missionary, Feb. 1900, p. 67.

[>] "depopulated and devastated.... what tales of horror they told!": From Cape to Cairo: the First Traverse of Africa from South to North (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1900), quoted in Morel 3, p. 58.

[>] five pigs or fifty chickens: Nelson, p. 100.

[>] three to ten a day: Harms 3, p. 134.

[>] too heavy to fly: McLynn 3, p. 245.

[>] in 1901 alone: McLynn 3, p. 238.

[>] blame sleeping sickness: For a modern example of this, see Jean Stengers in Morel 5, p. 255.

[>] "above all there's no food": Marchal 4, p. 49.

[>] noticed this pattern: Vangroenweghe, p. 233.

[>] "hide from the soldiers": Casement 3, p. 140.

[>] show the same pattern: Vangroenweghe, pp. 233, 237.

[>] "been reduced by half": L. Guebels, Relation complète des travaux de la Commission Permanente pour la Protection des Indigènes (Elisabethville: 1954), pp. 196–197.

[>] "and much more": interview, Sept. 1995.

[>] "by at least a half": Jan Vansina, introduction to Vangroenweghe, p. 10.

[>] reckoned at ten million: La Question sociale au Congo: Rapport au comité du congrès colonial national (Brussels: Goemaere, 1924), p. 7.

[>] "confronted with a kind of desert": La Question sociale au Congo: Rapport au comité du congrès colonial national (Brussels: Goemaere, 1924), p. 101.

[>] killed in the nearest village: Vangroenweghe, p. 60.

[>] cooked to death: Marchal 4, p. 26.

[>] then set on fire: Vangroenweghe, p. 115.

[>] "are we doing here?": Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977), p. 29.

16. "JOURNALISTS WON'T GIVE YOU RECEIPTS"

[>] "for his country and for Africa": McLynn 2, p. 405.

[>] "So that is time! Strange!": Stanley 5, p. 515.

[>] wrote one witness: Daniel Bersot in the foreword to Sous la Chicotte (Geneva:A. Jullien, 1909).

[>] on the arm: Liane Ranieri, Les Relations entre l'État Indépendant du Congo et l'Italie (Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer, 1959), p. 195.

[>] those Casement had found in the Congo: Marchal 4, p. 12.

[>] "Opium in British India": in La Vérité sur le Congo, Jan. 1905, p. 8.

[>] "It is astounding ... humanely-governed": Mountmorres, pp. 99–100, 159.

[>] "on any one day": Mountmorres, pp. 105–106.

[>] "because she was coming": John Weeks to Morel, 7 Nov. 1904, in the West African Mail, 10 Mar. 1905, p. 1186.

[>] worst cases of disease he could find: Marchal 3, p. 304.

[>] "than I have ever seen in the Congo": Times, 3 Feb. 1905, quoted in Bontinck, p. 456.

[>] for which Leopold paid the bill: Marchal 3, p. 316.

[>] "extraordinarily impudent": Morel to Fox, 18 Oct. 1905, quoted in Cookey, p. 143.

[>] "in memory of their visit to Laeken": Stinglhamber and Dresse, pp. 334–335.

[>] operated in many countries: Willequet, pp. 109–113.

[>] footnote: Demetrius C. Boulger, The Congo State isNOT a Slave State: A Reply to Mr. E. D. Morel's Pamphlet Entitled "The Congo Slave State" (London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1903), p. 3.

[>] "cheerful and satisfied": interview with Harrison in the Journal of Commerce, 23 June 1904.

[>] at least one legislator: Marchal 4, pp. 12–21.

[>] launched an investigation instead: Official Organ, #1, 1909, p. 64.

[>] "Satan and Mammon in one person": Willequet, letter reproduced following p. 36.

[>] "the unscrupulous businessman who lives in the palace in Brussels": National-Zeitung, 22 May 1903, quoted in Wllequet, p. 150.

[>] "the British rubber merchants": National-Zeitung, 4 Mar. 1905, quoted in Willequet, pp. 150–151.

[>] "old wives' tales ... hateful peddlar's stories": National-Zeitung, 30 May 1905, quoted in Willequet, p. 152.

[>] "the following commentary": Münchener Allgemeine Zeitung, 1 Mar. 1906, quoted in Willequet, pp. 159 160.

[>] "due mainly to my activity": Von Steub to Davignon, 21 May 1909, quoted in Willequet, p. 114 fn.

[>] "have my expenses covered": Von Steub to Davignon, 21 May 1909, quoted in Willequet, p. 128.

[>] "to organs of the press": Von Steub to Davignon, 14 Sept. 1909, quoted in Willequet, p. 130.

[>] "'don't ask for any'": Von Steub to Denyn, 8 Oct. 1909, quoted in Willequet, p. 130.

[>] Mark Twain and Congo reform: see Hawkins 1.

[>] "no small enemy to overcome": Kowalsky to Leopold, undated, in New York American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] Booker T. Washington and Congo reform: Harlan 1, pp. 270–271; Harlan 2, pp. 75–77.

[>] "talking on the subject": Booker T. Washington in "Tributes to Mark Twain," North American Review 191, no. 655 (June 1910), p. 829, quoted in Shelley Fisher Fishkin, Was Huck Black?: Mark Twain and African-American Voices (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 106.

[>] "needs an organization like U.S. Steel": Twain to Morel, c. 12 Jan. 1906, reprinted in Wuliger, p. 236.

[>] royalties that the author donated: Maxwell Geismar, Mark Twain: An American Prophet (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970), p. 222.

[>] "these leaks keep occurring": Twain, p. 1.

[>] "that I couldn't bribe": Twain, p. 66.

[>] "meddlesome missionary spying": Twain, p. 36.

[>] he told Morel: Morgan to Morel, 6 Oct. 1904, quoted in Baylen, p. 129.

[>] in forty-nine cities: Congo News Letter, April 1906 and April 1907.

[>] would accept only one dollar: Official Organ, April 1906, p. 10.

[>] "will take some action": Harris to Morel, 14 Feb. 1906, quoted in Cookey, p. 174.

[>] "demanding action": Philip C. Jessup, Elihu Root, 1905–1937, vol. 2 (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1938), pp. 61-62, quoted in Shaloff, p. 90.

[>] "everybody & about everybody": Lodge to Roosevelt, 6 July 1905, quoted in Sternstein, p. 192.

[>] "seen lots of presidents": The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1931), p. 506, quoted in Sternstein, p. 193.

[>] "the English agitators and the Belgian Socialists futile": Wack to Leopold, n.d., quoted in the New York American, 13 Dec. 1906.

[>] footnote: Cardinal Gotti to Gibbons, 24 Nov. 1904, quoted in Slade 1, p. 31 on.

[>] "hearsay evidence of natives": Gibbons to Morel, 21 Oct. 1904, quoted in Morel 5, p. 183.

[>] footnote: Starr, p. 91.

[>] "an impartial publicist": New York American, 12 Dec. 1906.

[>] "in a team of acrobats": San Francisco Call, 15 Jan. 1911.

[>] "a box at a theater": San Francisco Examiner, 29 Nov. 1914.

[>] "draws up a firm one": San Francisco Call, 15 Jan. 1911.

[>] "just when you're going to kill him!": San Francisco Bulletin, 18 Nov. 1914.

[>] "too large a subject": Mayor E. E. Schmits, Speeches Made, p. 10.

[>] "so choice a morsel": A. Reuf, Speeches Made, p. 26.

[>] "humanity and civilization": Speeches Made, p. 40.

[>] "mission in Africa or China?": de Cuvelier to Moncheur, 4 Feb. 1905, quoted in Marchal 4, p. 270.

[>] "wouldn't come back": Nerincx to de Cuvelier, 11 Feb. 1905, quoted in Marchal 4, p. 270.

[>] "a scandal in the press": Moncheur to de Cuvelier, 19 Feb. 1905, quoted in Marchal 4, p. 271.

[>] "taking the Belgian Minister's advice": New York American, 10 Dec. 1906.

[>] "a characterless ... lamented father": Kowalsky to Leopold, n.d., reprinted in NewYork American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] a hefty 125,000 francs: Marchal 4, p. 272.

[>] INFAMOUS CRUELTIES ... WOMEN AND CHILDREN: New York American, 10 Dec. 1906.

[>] "crimes of Congo": New York American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] "the end of the next session": New York American, 10 Dec. 1906.

[>] "the President's personal friend ... Your Majesty's interest instead": Kowalsky to Leopold, n.d., in New York American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] "did I breathe safely": Kowalsky to Leopold, n.d., in New York American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] Commission of Inquiry: see Congo Reform Association; Vangroenweghe; Marchal 4, pp. 111–122; Cookey, pp. 132-151.

[>] broken down and wept: Conan Doyle, p. 75; Morel in Penny Pictorial, Oct. 1907, article 4 in series.

[>] "complete and authentic résumé of the report": Daily Chronicle, 7 Nov. 1905.

[>] "We have ourselves ... should be utilized": Daily Chronicle, 7 Nov. 1905.

[>] West African Missionary Association: Daily Chronicle, 7, 11, 14, and 15 Nov. 1905; Daily News, 15 Nov. 1905.

17. NO MAN IS A STRANGER

[>] "till we fainted": Regions Beyond, Jan.-Feb. 1906, p. 46; also Official Organ, Jan. 1906, p. 5.

[>] "gave one cry and was dead": Procès-Verbaux, 2 Nov. 1904.

[>] "had their hands cut off": Procès-Verbaux, 21 Nov. 1904.

[>] "but he had been healthy": Procès-Verbaux, 5 Jan. 1905.

[>] "throw you in the river": Procès-Verbaux, 2 Jan. 1905.

[>] "if it had secret staircases": De Vaughan, pp. 99–100.

[>] "with attractive uniform façades": Leopold to Goffinet, 23 Jan. 1906, quoted in Ranieri, p. 247.

[>] "and the Heysel road": Carton de Wiart, p. 177.

[>] "led up the garden path": Ascherson, p. 219.

[>] "cost a province": Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 59.

[>] "toasts to his health": Conrad and Hueffer, p. 120.

[>] "Give Him his cane!": Bauer, p. 163, de Lichtervelde, p. 323.

[>] "international, not national": Williams 3, p. 279.

[>] said much like this again: Even as late as 1919, when the Second Pan-African Congress of black American, Caribbean, and African leaders met in Paris under the leadership of W.E.B. Du Bois, it did not advocate full independence for African colonies. Pan-Africanism, eds. Robert Chrisman and Nathan Hare (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974), p. 302.

[>] turning point: Stengers 7, p. 176.

[>] press for Belgian annexation: Cookey, p. 210.

[>] "to ask for its accounts": Baron Léon Van der Elst, "Souvenirs sur Léopold II," in Revue Générale, 1923, quoted in Emerson, p. 259.

[>] to take away his Congo: Carton de Wiart, p. 188.

[>] "any salary as Congo executive": interview with Publishers' Press, in the New York American, 11 Dec. 1906.

[>] "made for the Congo": Marchal 4, p. 349.

[>] "almost every American reformer, black or white": Normandy, p. 300.

[>] William Morrison: see Marchal 3, pp. 75–91; Shaloff, pp. 84–94; and Vinson. Dozens of Morrison's letters are reprinted in Benedetto.

[>] left the country: Slade i, p. 317.

[>] home leaves: Phipps, pp. 95–96.

[>] some 180 of them were killed: Marchal 4, p. 225.

[>] "concerning their soul's salvation": from "From the Bakuba Country," by W H. Sheppard, The Kassai Herald, 1 Jan. 1908, pp. 12–13. Sheppard Papers.

[>] "asked any questions Sheppard suggested": Kocher to the State Prosecutor, 31 July 1908, quoted in Martens, p. 398.

[>] eighty thousand francs in damages: American Consul General Handley to the Assistant Secretary of State, 2 Sept. 1909. Sheppard Papers.

[>] "pay the fine": Morrison to Chester, 9 Aug. 1909, reprinted in Benedetto, p. 383.

[>] "in New York harbour": Conan Doyle, p. iv.

[>] "no little concern": State Dept. to H. L. Wilson, 2 July 1909, quoted in Shaloff, p. 119.

[>] "young Belgian lawyer": Morel to Vandervelde, July 1909, quoted in Slade 1, p. 371 fn.

[>] "in a court of justice": Vinson, p. 99.

[>] prayed for a favorable verdict: Vandervelde, pp. 90–91.

[>] "amongst whom he lives is humanitarian": Official Organ, No. 5, Jan. 1910, p. 465.

[>] "for over two hours": Morrison to Conan Doyle, n.d., reprinted in Official Organ, no. 5, Jan. 1910.

[>] "were so affected ... made in Congo": William Sheppard, "The Days Preceding the Trial," in the Christian Observer, 10 Nov. 1909.

[>] "all the power of Leopold": Phipps, p. 106.

[>] "could not refer to the Compagnie du Kasai": Shaloff, p. 125.

[>] "a time for thanksgiving": Phipps, p. 106.

[>] "in Belgium after my death": De Vaughan, p. 201.

[>] "Cutting his hands off, down in Hell": Vachel Lindsay, "The Congo," in The Congo and Other Poems (New York: Macmillan, 1916).

[>] "remained in the house for a week": Casement in 1913 [?], Singleton-Gates and Girodias, p. 317.

[>] "lovely, glorious language": Casement to Gertrude Bannister, March 1904, quoted in Inglis, p. 113.

[>] "the incorrigible Irishman": Casement to Alice Green, Spring 1907, quoted in Inglis, p. 152.

[>] "wrongdoing at work on the Congo": Casement to Cadbury, 7 July 1905, quoted in Porter, p. 267.

[>] "people once hunted themselves": Casement to Alice Green, quoted in Inglis, p. 125.

[>] "not British Consulate!!": Casement to Alice Green, 21 Sept. 1906, quoted in Reid, p. 78.

[>] "nothing else counts": Casement to Parry, 9 Oct. 1906, quoted in Reid, pp. 80–81.

[>] "still going strong on Ireland": interview with Sir Gerald Campbell in MacColl, p. 73 fn.

[>] "humanitarian only a century after": quoted in Adams, p. 203.

[>] "with your exact wishes": Morel to Casement, 12 June 1913, quoted in Reid, p. 173.

[>] "a fearless soul as his is needed": Casement to Cadbury, 4 July 1910, quoted in Reid, p. 97.

[>] "white Indians ... Irish Putumayo": from a comment by Casement written on a letter from Charles Roberts, 6 June 1913, quoted in Reid, p. 172.

[>] "pre-Inca precept": Casement, "The Putumayo Indians" in the Contemporary Review, September 1912, quoted in Inglis, p. 206.

[>] "any right to be accepting honours": Casement to Alice Green, 21 June 1911, quoted in Reid, p. 137.

[>] "boy of 19, broad face": Casement 4, p. 289 (20 Nov. 1910).

[>] "blushed to roots of hair with joy": Casement 4, p. 221 (9 Aug. 1910).

[>] "laughed...$10.": Casement's diary for 16 Aug. 1911, quoted in Inglis, p. 194.

[>] "in the history of the world": Conan Doyle to the Times, 18 Aug. 1909, reprinted in Conan Doyle 2, p. 138.

[>] "partial victory": Morel to Weeks, 9 Nov. 1908, quoted in Cline, p. 64.

[>] "no true reform whatever": Conan Doyle to the Daily Express, 13 Apr. 1910, re- printed in Conan Doyle 2, p. 152.

[>] "not got very much staying-power": Morel to Claparède, 23 Mar. 1910, quoted in Morel 5, p. 202.

[>] "the produce which it yields": Morel in the Morning Post, 4 June 1907, quoted in Louis 4, p. 280.

[>] "produce of the soil belongs to the Natives": Grey to Cromer, 13 Mar. 1908, quoted in Morel 5, p. 199 fn.

[>] "but of all Negro Africa": African Mail, 27 Aug. 1909, p. 463.

[>] "immense improvement": Official Organ, no. 10, August 1912, p. 799.

[>] "nearly accomplished": Casement to Morel, 13 June 1912, quoted in Louis 1, p. 119.

[>] "replaced an irresponsible despotism": Morel's speech to the executive committee of the C. R. A., 25 Apr. 1913, in Official Organ, July 1913, pp. 986-987.

[>] "A man of great heart ... Roger Casement": Supplement to the African Mail, 27 June 1913, p. 12.

[>] "will not pass away": Supplement to the African Mail, 27 June 1913, p. 6.

18. VICTORY?

[>] "to disinherit his daughters": Robert E. Park, "A King in Business: Leopold II of Belgium, Autocrat of the Congo and International Broker," reprinted in Stanford M. Lyman, Militarism, Imperialism, and Racial Accomodation: An Analysis and Interpretation of the Early Writings of Robert E. Park (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1992), p. 214.

[>] huge health resort: Stinglhamber and Dresse, p. 131.

[>] twenty-five million francs' worth of Leopold's Congo bonds: Marchal 4, p. 432.

[>] some of his Congo state bonds: Stengers 1, pp. 172, 275.

[>] to the very end: Hyde, pp. 321–324; Ridley, p. 290; Gene Smith, p. 290; Foussemagne, p. 378. However, most reports of the last six decades of Carlota's life are second or third hand, because the Belgian royal family kept her secluded from public view.

[>] out of which hidden pockets: Stengers 1 is the most exhaustive study of Leopold's finances, but even it finds some questions unanswerable.

[>] $1.1 billion in today's dollars: A condensed version of Marchal's calculations (in a letter to the author, answering a question on this point, 30 July 1997) are as follows:
• Loans to the Congo state not invested in the Congo but spent by Leopold in Europe: 110 million francs (Jean Stengers "La dette publique de l'État Indépendant du Congo (1879–1908)," in La dette publique aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles: son développement sur le plan local, régional et national (Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique, 1980), p. 309).
• Estimated off-the-books rubber profits for the peak boom years, 1898–1908, mainly from rubber gathered on state land, and also including profits from the state's share of the major concession companies (A.B.I.R., the Compagnie du Kasai, and the Société Anversoise du Commerce au Congo): 110 million francs.
Not included in the calculations are profits from earlier rubber harvests or from the state share in more than half a dozen smaller companies.

[>] "or perhaps a single native": Alexandre Delcommune, L'Avenir du Congo Belge Menacé (1919), quoted in Michel Massoz, Le Congo de Leopold II (1878-1908), (Liège: Soledi, 1989), p. 576.

[>] died of disease: Northrup, p. 109.

[>] "carrying the foodstuffs!": quoted in Northrup, p. 107.

[>] in the first half of 1920 alone: Northrup, p. 161.

[>] "paid ten francs for each recruit": Northrup, p. 99.

[>] Katanga mines, Matadi-Leopoldville railroad: Jules Marchal, work in progress.

[>] 80 percent of the uranium: Cornevin 2, pp. 286–288.

[>] search for wild vines once again: Anstey 2, pp. 144–152.

[>] "admiration in stockbroking circles": Suret-Canale, p. 21.

[>] just as brutal: Suret-Canale, pp. 20–28; West, pp. 165–181; Coquéry-Vidrovitch 1, pp. 171-197.

[>] at roughly 50 percent: Vansina 3, p. 239.

[>] fierce rebellions against the rubber regime: Vansina 3, p. 242.

[>] nearly four hundred in a busy month: Coquéry-Vidrovitch 1, p. 181.

[>] "which are the glory of France": Étienne Clémentel, quoted in Pakenham, p. 639.

[>] the lives of an estimated twenty thousand forced laborers: Coquéry-Vidrovitch 1, p. 195.

[>] discovered to be a major shareholder: Stengers 1, pp. 278–279, Marchal 3, p. 45.

[>] extermination order (Vernichtungsbefehl): Swan, p. 51; Pakenham, p. 611.

[>] "never heard of this before": Holt to Morel, 5 Oct. 1909, quoted in Louis 5, p. 34.

[>] "contributed to the making of Kurtz": Conrad, p. 50.

[>] never made public: Benedetto, pp. 30, 423–425.

[>] and Sheppard obliged: Roth, p. 283.

[>] "and always came to the back door": Phipps, preface.

[>] "and left himself thus in need": Darrell Figgis, Recollections of the Irish War (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1927) p. 11, quoted in Reid, p. 190.

[>] "is that of the rifle": Casement to Morten, 1 May 1914, quoted in Sawyer, p. 114.

[>] "Irish nationality can spring to life": Roger Casement in the Irish Independent, 5 Oct. 1914, quoted in Singleton-Gates and Girodias, pp. 357–358.

[>] "drive the allies into the sea": Casement on 28 Sept. 1915, quoted in Reid, p. 309.

[>] "Only my shroud": Basil Thompson [Casement's Scotland Yard interrogator], Queer People (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1922), p. 87.

[>] "I was back in Ireland again": Casement to his sister Nina, 15 July 1916, quoted in Reid, p. 351.

[>] "left Wicklow in Willie's yacht": Inglis, p. 313.

[>] "know of the barbarous cruelties": Inglis, p. 364.

[>] "the natural lot of men": reprinted in Singleton-Gates and Girodias, p. 498.

[>] "how a subject nation should feel": Inglis, p. 346.

[>] "not a trace of anxiety or fear in his features": A. Fenner Brockway, quoted in Inglis, p. 368.

[>] "towered straight over all of us": Father Thomas Carey, writing on 5 Aug. 1916, quoted in Reid, p. 448.

[>] "lot to execute": Ellis [the executioner] in The Catholic Bulletin, Aug. 1928, quoted in Reid, p. 448.

[>] "the best thing was the Congo": Casement to Morten, 28 July 1916, quoted in Reid, pp. 436.

[>] "anyone would speak to me now": Adams, p. 212.

[>] "at his heart": Swanwick, p. 187.

[>] and the Morel family's home: Swartz, p. 105; Swanwick p. 98.

[>] "a change of outlook": Taylor, p. 120.

[>] "get hold of the arch-conspirator": Daily Sketch, 1 Dec. 1915, quoted in Cline, p. 103, and Swartz, p. 111.

[>] HIS PRO-GERMAN UNION?: Daily Express, 4 Apr. 1915, quoted in Cline, p. 110.

[>] "Germany's agent in this country": Evening Standard, 7 July 1917, quoted in Adams, p. 210.

[>] "there was no question about it": Alice Green to Morel, quoted in McColl, pp. 273— 274.

[>] "his courage never failed": The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, vol. 2 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1968), pp. 36–37.

[>] "proclaiming political truth": Bertrand Russell, Freedom versus Organization, 1814–1914 (New York, 1962), p. 402, quoted in Swartz, p. 50.

[>] "safely lodged in gaol": Minute by M. N. Kearney, 10 Oct. 1916, FO 371/2828/ 202398, PRO, quoted by Cline, p. 111.

[>] "my mission to the United States": The Persecution of E. D. Morel: The Story of his Trial and Imprisonment. With an introduction by Sir D. M. Stevenson and a prefatory note by Thomas Johnston (Glasgow: Reformers' Bookstall, 1918), p. 11.

[>] "to each other daily when absent": Adams, p. 180.

[>] "especially in cold weather": Morel 4, p. 60.

[>] "proof against it": Morel 4, p. 62.

[>] "lived to play both parts": Morel 4, p. 66.

[>] "the result of insufficient food": Russell to Murray, 27 Mar. 1918, in The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, vol. 2 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1968), p. 108.

[>] as he left for London: "E. D. Morel" by E Seymour Cocks, in Foreign Affairs: A Journal of International Understanding, vol. VI no. 6, Dec. 1924, p. 118.

[>] "as the years pass": Morel Papers E 1, 7, quoted in Marchal 3, p. 10.

19. THE GREAT FORGETTING

[>] "the sepulchral city": Conrad, p. 27.

[>] "no right to know what I did there": Stinglhamber and Dresse, pp. 52–53.

[>] "for considerations of a higher order": Strauch to Wauters, 1911, quoted in Stanley 6, p. xi.

[>] "in the years that have passed since that night": De Premorel, p. 97.

[>] footnote: Émile Verhaeren. "La Belgique sanglante," quoted in Read, p. 35.

[>] to be false: Read, pp. 78-96.

[>] Jules Marchal: interviewed September 1995.

[>] idealistic young colonial officers: such as Lefranc (pp. 120–121) or Gréban de Saint-Germain (p. 231).

[>] "exploited peoples of this part of Africa": État Major de la Force Publique, L'Afrique et le Congo jusqu'à la création de l'État Indépendant du Congo (Leopoldville: 1 June 1959), pp. 10–11, quoted in Stengers 5, p. 165.

[>] "to amount to nothing": État Major de la Force Publique, L'État Indépendant du Congo (1885-1908) (Leopoldville: 1 Oct. 1959), p. 145, quoted in Stengers 5, p. 165.

[>] dedicated anthropologists: The pioneering work of two Belgian priests, Fathers Edmond Boelaert and Gustaaf Hulstaert, deserves special mention. See also Vangroenweghe and Anstey 3.

[>] "the overwhelming": Nelson, p. 104.

[>] an idiom meaning "to tyrannize": Vangroenweghe, p. 234.

[>] "to commit this to official memory": Vansina 2, p. 230.

[>] a curious legend: Fabian, pp. 27–28, 55, 60, 261.

[>] only three were filled by Africans: Stengers 7, p. 271.

[>] "worthy of our confidence": Bremen 2, p. 145.

[>] authorized his assassination: Kelly, pp. 57–60. Kelly's careful account is based on both interviews and documents, particularly the landmark report of November 20, 1975, from the U.S. Senate investigation headed by Senator Frank Church:Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders: An Interim Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities.

[>] "the problem dealt with": John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), p. 342, quoted in Kelly, p. 59.

[>] "should be eliminated": Robert H. Johnson, quoted in the Washington Post, 8 August 2000.

[>] Belgian involvement in Lumumba's death: see Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba (New York:Verso, 2001).

[>] was being planned: Young, p. 325; Kelly, pp. 52, 170.

[>] several attempts to overthrow him: Kelly, p. 178.

[>] "voice of good sense and good will": Winternitz, p. 270.

[>] "during my presidency": George Bush, on 29 June 1989, quoted in Kelly, p. 1.

[>] estimated at $4 billion: The Guardian, 13 May 1997.

[>] sheep to his ranch at Gbadolite: Blaine Harden, Africa: Dispatches from a Fragile Continent (New York: Norton, 1990), p. 38.

[>] "his distinctive traits and customs": Pascal Bruckner, The Tears of the White Man: Compassion as Contempt (New York: The Free Press, 1986), p. 84.

AFTERWORD

[>] coalition of these groups: Union Royale Belge pour les Pays d'Outre-Mer.

[>] "you were mistaken": Congorudi, Oct. 2001.

[>] "the great king": Bulletin du Cercle Royal Naumurois des Anciens d'Afrique, no. 4, 1998.

[>] the Guardian: 13 May 1999.

[>] a journalist noted: Colette Braeckman, Les Nouveaux Prédateurs: Politique des puissances en Afrique centrale (Paris: Fayard, 2003), p. 35.

[>] "book by an American": Guardian, 13 May 1999.

[>] the Royal Museum in the future: For more detail on the evasions and denial of the 2005 exhibit, see my article, "In the Heart of Darkness," in the New York Review of Books, 6 Oct. 2005.

[>] mentioned many more: For example, R. P Van Wing, Études Bakongo: Histoire et Sociologie (Brussels: Goemaere, 1920), p. 115; or Léon de St. Moulin, "What is Known of the Demographic History of Zaire Since 1885?" in Bruce Fetter, ed.,Demography from Scanty Evidence: Central Africa in the Colonial Era (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990), p. 303.

[>] roughly thirteen million: Isidore Ndaywel è Nziem, Histoire générale du Congo: De l'héritage ancien à la République Démocratique (Paris: Duculot, 1998), p. 344. Professor Ndaywel è Nziem informs me that further research for the next edition of his book has made him lower his estimate to ten million. But that would still imply a 50 percent loss of population.

[>] pocketed the money: See Michela Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo (New York: HarperCollins, 2001) for this and much more.

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